WorldWideScience

Sample records for range extension hybrids

  1. Hybridization during altitudinal range shifts: nuclear introgression leads to extensive cyto-nuclear discordance in the fire salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Buckley, David

    2016-04-01

    Ecological models predict that, in the face of climate change, taxa occupying steep altitudinal gradients will shift their distributions, leading to the contraction or extinction of the high-elevation (cold-adapted) taxa. However, hybridization between ecomorphologically divergent taxa commonly occurs in nature and may lead to alternative evolutionary outcomes, such as genetic merger or gene flow at specific genes. We evaluate this hypothesis by studying patterns of divergence and gene flow across three replicate contact zones between high- and low-elevation ecomorphs of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) that have experienced altitudinal range shifts over the current postglacial period. Strong population structure with high genetic divergence in mitochondrial DNA suggests that vicariant evolution has occurred over several glacial-interglacial cycles and that it has led to cryptic differentiation within ecomorphs. In current parapatric boundaries, we do not find evidence for local extinction and replacement upon postglacial expansion. Instead, parapatric taxa recurrently show discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, suggesting nuclear-mediated gene flow across contact zones. Isolation with migration models support this hypothesis by showing significant gene flow across all five parapatric boundaries. Together, our results suggest that, while some genomic regions, such as the mitochondria, may follow morphologic species traits and retreat to isolated mountain tops, other genomic regions, such as nuclear markers, may flow across parapatric boundaries, sometimes leading to a complete genetic merger. We show that despite high ecologic and morphologic divergence over prolonged periods of time, hybridization allows for evolutionary outcomes alternative to extinction and replacement of taxa in response to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Geographically extensive hybridization between the forest trees American butternut and Japanese walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, Sean M.; McCleary, Tim S.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the question of naturally occurring interspecific hybrids between two forest trees: the native North American butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) and the introduced Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carrière). Using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers, we provide evidence for 29 F1 and 22 advanced generation hybrids in seven locations across the eastern and southern range of the native species. Two locations show extensive admixture (95% J. ailantifolia and hybrids) while other ...

  3. Extensive hybridization and introgression between Melastoma candidum and M. sanguineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization can lead to various evolutionary outcomes in plants, including hybrid speciation and interspecific gene transfer. It can also cause taxonomic problems, especially in plant genera containing multiple species. In this study, the hybrid status of Melastoma affine, the most widespread taxon in this genus, and introgression between its putative parental species, M. candidum and M. sanguineum, were assessed on two sites, Hainan and Guangdong, using 13 SSR markers and sequences of a chloroplast intergenic spacer. Bayesian-based STRUCTURE analysis detected two most likely distinct clusters for the three taxa, and 76.0% and 73.9% of the morphologically identified individuals of M. candidum and M. sanguineum were correctly assigned, respectively. 74.5% of the M. affine individuals had a membership coefficient to either parental species between 0.1 and 0.9, suggesting admixture between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Furthermore, NewHybrids analysis suggested that most individuals of M. affine were F2 hybrids or backcross hybrids to M. candidum, and that there was extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. These SSR data thus provides convincing evidence for hybrid origin of M. affine and extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Chloroplast DNA results were consistent with this conclusion. Much higher hybrid frequency on the more disturbed Guangdong site suggests that human disturbance might offer suitable habitats for the survival of hybrids, a hypothesis that is in need of further testing.

  4. Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage Thomas Shake MIT Lincoln Laboratory shake@ll.mit.edu Abstract...associated electronics into small aircraft to perform such range extension. In particular, the paper examines trade-offs in network topology design...aircraft, and the topology characteristics of the aerial relay network. The analysis suggests that low-degree air topologies such as rings and strings

  5. Interspecific hybridization impacts host range and pathogenicity of filamentous microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depotter, Jasper Rl; Seidl, Michael F; Wood, Thomas A; Thomma, Bart Phj

    2016-08-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widely observed within diverse eukaryotic taxa, and is considered an important driver for genome evolution. As hybridization fuels genomic and transcriptional alterations, hybrids are adept to respond to environmental changes or to invade novel niches. This may be particularly relevant for organisms that establish symbiotic relationships with host organisms, such as mutualistic symbionts, endophytes and pathogens. The latter group is especially well-known for engaging in everlasting arms races with their hosts. Illustrated by the increased identification of hybrid pathogens with altered virulence or host ranges when compared with their parental lineages, it appears that hybridization is a strong driver for pathogen evolution, and may thus significantly impact agriculture and natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. SWCNT/graphite nanoplatelet hybrid thin films for self-temperature-compensated, highly sensitive, and extensible piezoresistive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sida; Liu, Tao

    2013-10-18

    Highly sensitive single-wall carbon nanotube/graphite nanoplatelet (SWCNT/GNP) hybrid thin-film sensors are developed, which possess the unique capability for self-temperature compensation. This unique property in combination with their high gauge sensitivity and large reversible extensibility promises the SWCNT/GNP hybrid thin film piezoresistive sensors for a wide range applications, such as in man-machine interaction and body monitoring. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

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    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  8. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  9. Interspecific hybridization impacts host range and pathogenicity of filamentous microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depotter, Jasper R.L.; Seidl, Michael F.; Wood, Thomas A.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widely observed within diverse eukaryotic taxa, and is considered an important driver for genome evolution. As hybridization fuels genomic and transcriptional alterations, hybrids are adept to respond to environmental changes or to invade novel niches. This may be

  10. Hybrid gesture recognition system for short-range use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Akihiro; Fan, Wei; Katsuyama, Yutaka; Takebe, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Noriaki; Hotta, Yoshinobu; Sun, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, various gesture recognition systems have been studied for use in television and video games[1]. In such systems, motion areas ranging from 1 to 3 meters deep have been evaluated[2]. However, with the burgeoning popularity of small mobile displays, gesture recognition systems capable of operating at much shorter ranges have become necessary. The problems related to such systems are exacerbated by the fact that the camera's field of view is unknown to the user during operation, which imposes several restrictions on his/her actions. To overcome the restrictions generated from such mobile camera devices, and to create a more flexible gesture recognition interface, we propose a hybrid hand gesture system, in which two types of gesture recognition modules are prepared and with which the most appropriate recognition module is selected by a dedicated switching module. The two recognition modules of this system are shape analysis using a boosting approach (detection-based approach)[3] and motion analysis using image frame differences (motion-based approach)(for example, see[4]). We evaluated this system using sample users and classified the resulting errors into three categories: errors that depend on the recognition module, errors caused by incorrect module identification, and errors resulting from user actions. In this paper, we show the results of our investigations and explain the problems related to short-range gesture recognition systems.

  11. Hybrid Projectile Body Angle Estimation for Selectable Range Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J.

    A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. A simple launch timer was first envisioned to control the transformation point in order to achieve maximum distance. However, this timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It was also necessary to filter out noise from a simulated inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS receiver, and magnetometer. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was chosen to estimate the Euler angles, position and velocity of the HP while an algorithm determined when to deploy the wings. A parametric study was done to verify the optimum deployment condition using a Simulink aerodynamic model. Because range is directly related to launch angle, various launch angles were simulated in the model. By fixing the glide slope angle to -10° as a deployment condition for all launch angles, the range differed only by a maximum of 6.1% from the maximum possible range. Based on these findings, the body angle deployment condition provides the most flexible option to maintain maximum distance without the need of reprogramming. Position and velocity estimates were also determined from the EKF using the GPS measurements. Simulations showed that the EKF estimates exhibited low root mean squared error values, corresponding to less than 3% of the total position values. Because the HP was in flight for less than a minute in this experiment, the drift encountered was acceptable.

  12. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  13. Outcomes of extensive hybridization and introgression in Epidendrum (Orchidaceae): can we rely on species boundaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Yesenia; Marques, Isabel; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has the potential to contribute to phenotypic and genetic variation and can be a major evolutionary mechanism. However, when hybridization is extensive it can also lead to the blurring of species boundaries and the emergence of cryptic species (i.e., two or more species not distinguishable morphologically). In this study, we address this hypothesis in Epidendrum, the largest Neotropical genus of orchids where hybridization is apparently so common that it may explain the high levels of morphological diversity found. Nonetheless, this hypothesis is mostly based on the intermediacy of morphological characters and intermediacy by itself is not a proof of hybridization. Therefore, in this study, we first assessed the existence of hybrids using cpDNA and AFLP data gathered from a large-scale sampling comprising 1038 plants of three species of Epidendrum (E. calanthum, E. cochlidium and E. schistochilum). Subsequently, a Bayesian assignment of individuals into different genetic classes (pure species, F1, F2 or backcross generations) revealed that hybrid genotypes were prevalent in all sympatric populations. In most cases, parental species were not assigned as pure individuals, rather consisting in backcrossed genotypes or F1 hybrids. We also found that reproductive barriers are apparently very weak in Epidendrum because the three species largely overlapped in their flowering periods and interspecific crosses always produced viable seeds. Further, hybridization contributed to enhance floral variability, genome size and reproductive success since we found that these traits were always higher in hybrid classes (F1, F2 and backcrosses) than in pure parental species, and offer an explanation for the blurring of species boundaries in this genus of orchids. We hypothesize that these natural hybrids possess an evolutionary advantage, which may explain the high rates of cryptic species observed in this genus.

  14. Outcomes of extensive hybridization and introgression in Epidendrum (Orchidaceae: can we rely on species boundaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesenia Vega

    Full Text Available Hybridization has the potential to contribute to phenotypic and genetic variation and can be a major evolutionary mechanism. However, when hybridization is extensive it can also lead to the blurring of species boundaries and the emergence of cryptic species (i.e., two or more species not distinguishable morphologically. In this study, we address this hypothesis in Epidendrum, the largest Neotropical genus of orchids where hybridization is apparently so common that it may explain the high levels of morphological diversity found. Nonetheless, this hypothesis is mostly based on the intermediacy of morphological characters and intermediacy by itself is not a proof of hybridization. Therefore, in this study, we first assessed the existence of hybrids using cpDNA and AFLP data gathered from a large-scale sampling comprising 1038 plants of three species of Epidendrum (E. calanthum, E. cochlidium and E. schistochilum. Subsequently, a Bayesian assignment of individuals into different genetic classes (pure species, F1, F2 or backcross generations revealed that hybrid genotypes were prevalent in all sympatric populations. In most cases, parental species were not assigned as pure individuals, rather consisting in backcrossed genotypes or F1 hybrids. We also found that reproductive barriers are apparently very weak in Epidendrum because the three species largely overlapped in their flowering periods and interspecific crosses always produced viable seeds. Further, hybridization contributed to enhance floral variability, genome size and reproductive success since we found that these traits were always higher in hybrid classes (F1, F2 and backcrosses than in pure parental species, and offer an explanation for the blurring of species boundaries in this genus of orchids. We hypothesize that these natural hybrids possess an evolutionary advantage, which may explain the high rates of cryptic species observed in this genus.

  15. Non-covalent interactions and thermochemistry using XDM-corrected hybrid and range-separated hybrid density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Johnson, Erin R

    2013-05-28

    The exchange-hole dipole-moment model (XDM) for dispersion is combined with a collection of semilocal, hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals. The resulting XDM-corrected functionals are tested against standard benchmarks for non-covalent interactions at and away from equilibrium, conformer ranking in water clusters, thermochemistry, and kinetics. We show that functionals with the correct -1∕r tail of the exchange potential yield superior accuracy for weak interactions. Thus, balancing long-range exchange with dispersion interactions in XDM is essential in the correct description of dimers with significant non-dispersion contributions to binding. With the exception of the noble gases, the performance of PW86PBE-XDM is improved upon at the semilocal (BLYP), hybrid (B3LYP), and range-separated hybrid (LC-ωPBE) levels. Based on its excellent performance, we propose LC-ωPBE-XDM as an accurate functional for hard and soft matter.

  16. Multiple ITS copies reveal extensive hybridization within Rheum (Polygonaceae, a genus that has undergone rapid radiation.

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    Dongshi Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During adaptive radiation events, characters can arise multiple times due to parallel evolution, but transfer of traits through hybridization provides an alternative explanation for the same character appearing in apparently non-sister lineages. The signature of hybridization can be detected in incongruence between phylogenies derived from different markers, or from the presence of two divergent versions of a nuclear marker such as ITS within one individual. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we cloned and sequenced ITS regions for 30 species of the genus Rheum, and compared them with a cpDNA phylogeny. Seven species contained two divergent copies of ITS that resolved in different clades from one another in each case, indicating hybridization events too recent for concerted evolution to have homogenised the ITS sequences. Hybridization was also indicated in at least two further species via incongruence in their position between ITS and cpDNA phylogenies. None of the ITS sequences present in these nine species matched those detected in any other species, which provides tentative evidence against recent introgression as an explanation. Rheum globulosum, previously indicated by cpDNA to represent an independent origin of decumbent habit, is indicated by ITS to be part of clade of decumbent species, which acquired cpDNA of another clade via hybridization. However decumbent and glasshouse morphology are confirmed to have arisen three and two times, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that hybridization among QTP species of Rheum has been extensive, and that a role of hybridization in diversification of Rheum requires investigation.

  17. Maximizing Interconnectedness and Availability in Directional Airborne RangeExtension Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    surveyed advances in directional networking , noting much work in topology management , medium access control algorithms, aircraft-based directional... networks . Other issues, such as topology management and spectrum management , also require further research and development to enable high-quality...Maximizing Interconnectedness and Availability in Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks Thomas Shake, Rahul Amin MIT Lincoln Laboratory

  18. South-western extension of the known range of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilgendorf), were collected in the Gamtoos River in the eastern Cape, representing a southwestern range extension for both. This is the first known record of these species west of Port Elizabeth, and also the first record of an overlap of their ...

  19. The Yellowstone ‘hot spot’ track results from migrating Basin Range extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Anderson, Don L.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Lustrino, Michele; King, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Whether the volcanism of the Columbia River Plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone (western U.S.) is related to a mantle plume or to plate tectonic processes is a long-standing controversy. There are many geological mismatches with the basic plume model as well as logical flaws, such as citing data postulated to require a deep-mantle origin in support of an “upper-mantle plume” model. USArray has recently yielded abundant new seismological results, but despite this, seismic analyses have still not resolved the disparity of opinion. This suggests that seismology may be unable to resolve the plume question for Yellowstone, and perhaps elsewhere. USArray data have inspired many new models that relate western U.S. volcanism to shallow mantle convection associated with subduction zone processes. Many of these models assume that the principal requirement for surface volcanism is melt in the mantle and that the lithosphere is essentially passive. In this paper we propose a pure plate model in which melt is commonplace in the mantle, and its inherent buoyancy is not what causes surface eruptions. Instead, it is extension of the lithosphere that permits melt to escape to the surface and eruptions to occur—the mere presence of underlying melt is not a sufficient condition. The time-progressive chain of rhyolitic calderas in the eastern Snake River Plain–Yellowstone zone that has formed since basin-range extension began at ca. 17 Ma results from laterally migrating lithospheric extension and thinning that has permitted basaltic magma to rise from the upper mantle and melt the lower crust. We propose that this migration formed part of the systematic eastward migration of the axis of most intense basin-range extension. The bimodal rhyolite-basalt volcanism followed migration of the locus of most rapid extension, not vice versa. This model does not depend on seismology to test it but instead on surface geological observations.

  20. Improved Semiconductor Lattice Parameters and Band Gaps from a Middle-Range Screened Hybrid Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Melissa J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that the middle-range exchange-correlation hybrid of Henderson, Izmaylov, Scuseria and Savin (HISS) performs extremely well for elemental and binary semiconductors with narrow or visible spectrum band gaps, as well as some wider gap or more ionic systems used commercially. The lattice parameters are superior to those predicted by the screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE), and provide a significant improvement over geometries predicted by semilocal functional...

  1. Edging along a Warming Coast: A Range Extension for a Common Sandy Beach Crab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Schoeman

    Full Text Available Determining the position of range edges is the first step in developing an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics in play as species' ranges shift in response to climate change. Here, we study the leading (poleward range edge of Ocypode cordimanus, a ghost crab that is common along the central to northern east coast of Australia. Our study establishes the poleward range edge of adults of this species to be at Merimbula (36.90°S, 149.93°E, 270 km (along the coast south of the previous southernmost museum record. We also establish that dispersal of pelagic larvae results in recruitment to beaches 248 km (along the coast; 0.9° of latitude beyond the adult range edge we have documented here. Although we cannot conclusively demonstrate that the leading range edge for this species has moved polewards in response to climate change, this range edge does fall within a "hotspot" of ocean warming, where surface isotherms are moving southwards along the coast at 20-50 km.decade-1; coastal air temperatures in the region are also warming. If these patterns persist, future range extensions could be anticipated. On the basis of their ecology, allied with their occupancy of ocean beaches, which are home to taxa that are particularly amenable to climate-change studies, we propose that ghost crabs like O. cordimanus represent ideal model organisms with which to study ecological and evolutionary processes associated with climate change. The fact that "hotspots" of ocean warming on four other continents correspond with poleward range edges of ghost crab species suggests that results of hypothesis tests could be generalized, yielding excellent opportunities to rapidly progress knowledge in this field.

  2. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Tina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  3. Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Tina; Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin

    2013-02-07

    Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F(1) hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii), both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively). We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.

  4. Short range DFT combined with long-range local RPA within a range-separated hybrid DFT framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chermak, E; Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Selecting excitations in localized orbitals to calculate long-range correlation contributions to range-separated density-functional theory can reduce the overall computational effort significantly. Beyond simple selection schemes of excited determinants, the dispersion-only approximation, which avoids counterpoise-corrected monomer calculations, is shown to be particularly interesting in this context, which we apply to the random-phase approximation. The approach has been tested on dimers of formamide, water, methane and benzene.

  5. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  6. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  7. Screening methods for linear-scaling short-range hybrid calculations on CPU and GPU architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Matthias; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-04-14

    We present screening schemes that allow for efficient, linear-scaling short-range exchange calculations employing Gaussian basis sets for both CPU and GPU architectures. They are based on the LinK [C. Ochsenfeld et al., J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1663 (1998)] and PreLinK [J. Kussmann and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134114 (2013)] methods, but account for the decay introduced by the attenuated Coulomb operator in short-range hybrid density functionals. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of short-range electron repulsion integrals on GPUs. The introduction of our screening methods allows for speedups of up to a factor 7.8 as compared to the underlying linear-scaling algorithm, while retaining full numerical control over the accuracy. With the increasing number of short-range hybrid functionals, our new schemes will allow for significant computational savings on CPU and GPU architectures.

  8. Reconciling the Isabella Anomaly with Lithosphere Delamination and Basin & Range Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Isabella anomaly is a high-seismic velocity region located below the Sierra Nevada, and its presence has been explained through lithosphere delamination occurring within the past 10-15 Ma and an accreted oceanic micro-plate. Both the lack of consensus on the origin of this high velocity structure and its relation to putative lithospheric delamination and surface uplift requires more careful geodynamic studies. While earlier models of lithosphere delamination neglected the nearby subduction, we attempt to explain this anomaly in the context of delamination related to the subducted slab of the Farallon plate. We design a two-dimensional high-resolution model that extends from the west coast of the United States to the Colorado Plateau, including both the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range regions. The Basin and Range experienced accelerated extension towards the northwest since 15 Ma, resulting in a topographical pattern with alternating subsidence and uplift; the mechanisms for both the deformation and topography of the region are presently debated. Preliminary results from our 2-D slab-lithosphere interaction model indicate that the foundering of an earlier accreted Farallon slab causes the surface to uplift and the overriding plate to extend. The model can potentially reproduce the main tectonic characteristics of the region, offering new insights on the evolution of the lithosphere-mantle system.

  9. Mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates are essentially duplex but contain extensive tracts of RNA/DNA hybrid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjoismaki, J.L.; Holmes, J.B.; Wood, S.R.; Yang, M.Y.; Yasukawa, T.; Reyes, A.; Bailey, L.J.; Cluett, T.J.; Goffart, S.; Willcox, S.; Rigby, R.E.; Jackson, A.P.; Spelbrink, J.N.; Griffith, J.D.; Crouch, R.J.; Jacobs, H.T.; Holt, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate, using transmission electron microscopy and immunopurification with an antibody specific for RNA/DNA hybrid, that intact mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates are essentially duplex throughout their length but contain extensive RNA tracts on one strand. However, the extent of

  10. First record of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae from Osmanabad District and range extension to southeastern Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes sighting of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata, near Tuljapur. This is a first record from Osmanabad District and constitutes a range extension to southeastern India. 

  11. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Intra-rater and Inter-instrument Reliability on Range of Movement of Active Knee Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germanna de Medeiros Barbosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of intra-rater and inter-instrument measures during two flexibility programs. Fifty-three active and healthy males, aged between 18 and 28 years old, were randomly included in three groups: control (Cg, n = 18, static stretching (SSg, n = 17, and dynamic stretching (DSg, n = 18. All participants underwent measurements of their active range of knee extension using manual goniometry and computerized photogrammetry, measured in four separated assessments and analyzed using the SPSS, with ((5%. Both methodologies presented very strongintra-raterreliability (ICC: 0.91(0.99; P<0.001 at all four assessments in all the groups, and the instruments showed weak (r: 0.31-0.6 to strong(r: 0.61-0.9 correlation, in the Cg (P<0.05 and strong (r: 0.61-0.9 in the SSg and DSg (P<0.01, although without differences between groups, indicating that the measures are equally reliable, regardless of interventions.

  13. Long-Range Charge Transport in Adenine-Stacked RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhui; Artés, Juan M; Hihath, Joshua

    2016-01-27

    An extremely important biological component, RNA:DNA can also be used to design nanoscale structures such as molecular wires. The conductance of single adenine-stacked RNA:DNA hybrids is rapidly and reproducibly measured using the break junction approach. The conductance decreases slightly over a large range of molecular lengths, suggesting that RNA:DNA can be used as an oligonucleotide wire. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of gas models of Lennard-Jones type interactions: Extensivity associated with interaction range and external noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadijani, M. Nouri; Abbasi, H.; Nezamipour, S.

    2017-06-01

    Statistics of a two-dimensional gas model interacting through a Lennard-Jones type potential, is considered. The goal is to examine the extensivity of internal energy in respect to the potential range and external white noise through molecular dynamics simulation. Accordingly a molecular dynamics simulation model is designed that provides reasonable evidence, in this respect. It is shown that for the long range potential the internal energy scales according to non-extensive thermodynamics expectation and the criteria is specified. Besides, for the short range case we demonstrate that the external noise drastically modifies the statistics of gas and makes the internal energy non-extensive. The relation between the non-extensive parameter, q, and the relaxation time and the noise intensity is obtained.

  15. Silicon spectral response extension through single wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and n-silicon multiple heterojunctions have been fabricated by a SWCNT film transferring process. We report on the ability of the carbon nanotubes to extend the Si spectral range towards the near ultraviolet (UV) and the near infrared regions. Semiconducting and about metallic SWCNT networks have been studied as a function of the film sheet resistance, Rsh. Optical absorbance and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assign nanotube chirality and electronic character. This gave us hints of evidence of the participation of the metal nanotubes in the photocurrent generation. Moreover, we provide evidence that the external quantum efficiency spectral range can be modulated as a function of the SWCNT network sheet resistance in a hybrid SWCNT/Si solar cell. This result will be very useful to further design/optimize devices with improved performance in spectral regions generally not covered by conventional Si p-n devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Multiple ITS copies reveal extensive hybridization within Rheum (Polygonaceae), a genus that has undergone rapid radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wan, Dongshi; Sun, Yongshuai; Zhang, Xu; Bai, Xiaotao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ailan; Milne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    During adaptive radiation events, characters can arise multiple times due to parallel evolution, but transfer of traits through hybridization provides an alternative explanation for the same character...

  17. Improved semiconductor lattice parameters and band gaps from a middle-range screened hybrid exchange functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, M J; Henderson, T M; Scuseria, G E

    2012-04-11

    We show that the middle-range exchange-correlation hybrid of Henderson, Izmaylov, Scuseria and Savin (HISS) performs extremely well for elemental and binary semiconductors with narrow or visible spectrum band gaps, as well as some wider gap or more ionic systems used in devices. The lattice parameters are superior to those predicted by the screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof (HSE), and provide a significant improvement over the geometries predicted by typical semilocal functionals, yielding results competitive with PBEsol, which was specially tuned for solids. HISS also yields band gaps superior to those produced by functionals developed specifically for the solid state. Timings indicate that HISS is more computationally efficient than HSE, implying that the high quality lattice constants coupled with improved optical band gap predictions render HISS a useful adjunct to HSE in the modeling of geometry-sensitive semiconductors.

  18. Valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine from an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia; Prokopiou, Georgia; Kronik, Leeor; Brena, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    We analyse the valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by means of optimally tuning a range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning is performed by modifying both the amount of short-range exact exchange (α ) included in the hybrid functional and the range-separation parameter (γ ), with two strategies employed for finding the optimal γ for each α . The influence of these two parameters on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoPc is thoroughly investigated. The electronic structure is found to be very sensitive to the amount and range in which the exact exchange is included. The electronic structure obtained using the optimal parameters is compared to gas-phase photo-electron data and GW calculations, with the unoccupied states additionally compared with inverse photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The calculated spectrum with tuned γ , determined for the optimal value of α = 0.1 , yields a very good agreement with both experimental results and with GW calculations that well-reproduce the experimental data.

  19. Heavy metal removal from shooting range soil by hybrid electrokinetics with bacteria and enhancing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2010-12-15

    This study presents a method for heavy metal removal from a shooting range soil by a newly suggested hybrid technology. Active bioaugmentation was performed using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in the bioleaching step, and each test was sequentially combined with acid-enhanced and EDTA-enhanced electrokinetics. The results of the bioleaching processes indicated that S-oxidizing bacteria enhanced the mobility of heavy metals in the soil, based on their chemical forms. This process improved the final removal efficiencies of Cu and Zn in the hybrid electrokinetics. In the case of Pb, however, anglesite (PbSO(4)) has been easily formed in the bioleaching step from sulfate, a byproduct of S oxidation. Despite the potential negative effect on combining acid-enhanced electrokinetics, this problem was overcome by the application of an electrokinetic EDTA injection. Moreover, this method showed enhanced removal efficiency for Pb (92.7%) that was superior to that of an abiotic process. This hybrid method of EDTA-enhanced bioelectrokinetics demonstrated an adequate removal efficiency of heavy metals, especially Pb, with lower power consumption and eco-friendly soil conditions.

  20. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  1. Lightning-induced extensive charge sheets provide long range electrostatic thunderstorm detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A J; Harrison, R G

    2013-07-26

    By combining electrostatic measurements of lightning-induced electrostatic field changes with radio frequency lightning location, some field changes from exceptionally distant lightning events are apparent which are inconsistent with the usual inverse cube of distance. Furthermore, by using two measurement sites, a transition zone can be identified beyond which the electric field response reverses polarity. For these severe lightning events, we infer a horizontally extensive charge sheet above a thunderstorm, consistent with a mesospheric halo of several hundred kilometers' extent.

  2. A hybrid version of the SCAN functional including long-range dispersion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hsin-Yu; Calegari Andrade, Marcos F.; Santra, Biswajit; Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto

    The recently developed meta-GGA density functional, called SCAN (strongly constrained and appropriately normed), provides an accurate description of the electronic structure in a broad class of systems characterized by different bonding interactions, including intermediate range van-der-Waals (vdW) bonding. Here we consider a hybrid version of the SCAN functional with inclusion of long-range vdW interactions via a re-parameterized Tkatchenko-Scheffler scheme. Calculations for the S22 molecular database, ice hexamer clusters, and bulk ice Ih indicate that this functional further improves the description of vdW and hydrogen bonding interactions. This work has been supported by the Department of Energy under Grants No. DE-SC0008626.

  3. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  4. Yellowstone plume trigger for Basin and Range extension and emplacement of the Nevada-Columbia Basin magmatic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Widespread extension began across the northern and central Basin and Range Province at 17–16 Ma, contemporaneous with magmatism along the Nevada–Columbia Basin magmatic belt, a linear zone of dikes and volcanic centers that extends for >1000 km, from southern Nevada to the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. This belt was generated above an elongated sublithospheric melt zone associated with arrival of the Yellowstone mantle plume, with a north-south tabular shape attributed to plume ascent through a propagating fracture in the Juan de Fuca slab. Dike orientation along the magmatic belt suggests an extension direction of 245°–250°, but this trend lies oblique to the regional extension direction of 280°–300° during coeval and younger Basin and Range faulting, an ∼45° difference. Field relationships suggest that this magmatic trend was not controlled by regional stress in the upper crust, but rather by magma overpressure from below and forceful dike injection with an orientation inherited from a deeper process in the sublithospheric mantle. The southern half of the elongated zone of mantle upwelling was emplaced beneath a cratonic lithosphere with an elevated surface derived from Late Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary crustal thickening. This high Nevadaplano was primed for collapse with high gravitational potential energy under the influence of regional stress, partly derived from boundary forces due to Pacific–North American plate interaction. Plume arrival at 17–16 Ma resulted in advective thermal weakening of the lithosphere, mantle traction, delamination, and added buoyancy to the northern and central Basin and Range. It was not the sole cause of Basin and Range extension, but rather the catalyst for extension of the Nevadaplano, which was already on the verge of regional collapse.

  5. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  6. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  7. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail: 50578230@student.cityu.edu.h, E-mail: meplwong@cityu.edu.h, E-mail: mekpliu@cityu.edu.h [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-01

    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  8. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in ...

  9. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in the ...

  10. Combined Hybrid DFE and CCK Remodulator for Medium-Range Single-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced modulation and channel equalization techniques are essential for improving the performance of medium-range single-carrier underwater acoustic communications. In this paper, an enhanced detection scheme, hybrid time-frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (DFE combined with complementary code keying (CCK remodulator, is presented. CCK modulation technique provides strong tolerance to intersymbol interference caused by multipath propagation in underwater acoustic channels. The conventional hybrid DFE, using a frequency domain feedforward filter and a time domain feedback filter, provides good performance along with low computational complexity. The error propagation in the feedback filter, caused by feedbacking wrong decisions prior to CCK demodulation, may lead to great performance degradation. In our proposed scheme, with the help of CCK coding gain, more accurate remodulated CCK chips can be used as feedback. The proposed detection scheme is tested by the practical ocean experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme ensures robust communications over 10-kilometre underwater acoustic channels with the data rate at 5 Kbits/s in 3 kHz of channel bandwidth.

  11. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Baba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro and in vivo. Blonanserin showed the most potent binding affinity for human D3 receptors among the tested atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole. Our GTPγS-binding assay demonstrated that blonanserin acts as a potent full antagonist for human D3 receptors. All test-drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like efficacy in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Treatment with blonanserin at its effective dose blocked the binding of [3H]-(+-PHNO, a D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, both in the D2 receptor-rich region (striatum and the D3 receptor-rich region (cerebellum lobes 9 and 10. On the other hand, the occupancies of other test-drugs for D3 receptors were relatively low. In conclusion, we have shown that blonanserin, but not other tested antipsychotics, extensively occupies D3 receptors in vivo in rats.

  12. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-03-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro and in vivo. Blonanserin showed the most potent binding affinity for human D3 receptors among the tested atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole). Our GTPγS-binding assay demonstrated that blonanserin acts as a potent full antagonist for human D3 receptors. All test-drugs exhibited antipsychotic-like efficacy in methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Treatment with blonanserin at its effective dose blocked the binding of [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, a D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, both in the D2 receptor-rich region (striatum) and the D3 receptor-rich region (cerebellum lobes 9 and 10). On the other hand, the occupancies of other test-drugs for D3 receptors were relatively low. In conclusion, we have shown that blonanserin, but not other tested antipsychotics, extensively occupies D3 receptors in vivo in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Redescription and range extension of the endangered Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai (Perciformes: Blenniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F S; Carvalho-Filho, A; Giarrizzo, T

    2017-06-01

    The Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai is redescribed and its range redefined along the Brazilian coast. It differs from its congeners by the presence of three cephalic pores between the dorsal-fin base and lateral line, dorsal-fin elements XII, 12, anal-fin elements II, 16, pectoral-fin rays 14 and 10 + 20 vertebrae. It is here reported from Amazon estuaries (Marajó and Mosqueiro islands, Pará State), increasing its range by c. 3000 km. Lupinoblennius paivai is one of the few blenniid species able to tolerate low salinities. New data about its meristics and morphometrics are presented, as well as a new habitat type. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Extension of the focusable mass range in distance-of-flight mass spectrometry with multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Carado, Anthony J; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M

    2012-11-15

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass separation technique in which ions are spread across a spatially selective detector according to m/z. In this work, we investigate the practical mass range available for DOFMS with a finite-length detector. A glow-discharge DOFMS instrument has been constructed for the analysis of atomic ions. This instrument was modified to accommodate two spatially selective ion detectors, arranged co-linearly, along the mass-separation axis of the analyzer. With this geometry, each detector covers a different portion of the distance-of-flight spectrum and ions are detected simultaneously at the two detectors. The total flight distance covered by the two detectors is 106 mm and simulates DOF detection across a broad mass range. DOFMS theory predicts that ions of all m/z values are focused at a single flight time, but at m/z-dependent flight distances. Therefore, ions that are detected across a wide portion of the DOF axis should all yield the same peak widths. With a focal-plane camera detector and a micro-channel plate/phosphor-screen detection assembly, we found simultaneous, uniform focus of (40)Ar(2)(+) and of (65)Cu(+) and (63)Cu(+) with the ions spread 82 mm across the DOF axis. This detection length, combined with the current instrument geometry, allows for a simultaneously detectable m/z value of 4:3 (high mass-to-low mass). These results are the first experimental verification that constant-momentum acceleration (CMA)-DOFMS provides energy focus across an extended detection length. Evidence presented demonstrates that DOFMS is amenable to detection with (at least) a 100-mm detector surface. These results indicate that DOFMS is well suited for detection of broader mass ranges. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  16. Extension of range of the Marine Puffer Fish Chelonodon patoca (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae to freshwater habitat of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arunachalam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chelonodon patoca is a marine puffer fish common along the Coromandal Coast of India. It has also been reported in the Aghnashini River in Karnataka state, a freshwater habitat. During a recent ichthyological survey five specimens of Chelonodon patoca were collected in another freshwater habitat, the Payaswani River in Kerala state. These specimens document an extension in the distributional range from Karnataka to Kerala state in peninsular India.

  17. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R.; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Europe’s obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander’s exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna.

  18. Two-phase 1D+1D model of a DMFC: development and validation on extensive operating conditions range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.; Parenti, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A two-phase 1D+1D model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is developed, considering overall mass balance, methanol transport in gas phase through anode diffusion layer, methanol and water crossover. The model is quantitatively validated on an extensive range of operating conditions, 24 polarisation curves. The model accurately reproduces DMFC performance in the validation range and, outside this, it is able to predict values under feasible operating conditions. Finally, the estimations of methanol crossover flux are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to experimental measures and the main local quantities' trends are coherent with results obtained with more complex models. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Range Extension and Behavioural Observations of the Recently Described Sheth's Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus shethi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hending, Daniel; Andrianiaina, Angelo; Rakotomalala, Zafimahery; Cotton, Sam

    2017-11-23

    Sheth's dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi, is a small, recently discovered nocturnal primate endemic to northern Madagascar. Unlike many other nocturnal lemurs, C. shethi lives sympatrically with morphologically similar species of its cryptic genus, making it difficult for biologists to determine its population density and distribution. Here, we present new data and observations of this species. During a series of rapid biodiversity assessments in the SAVA region of north-eastern Madagascar, we observed C. shethi in 10 different sites, 9 of which were not previously known to harbour C. shethi populations. More significantly, 2 of these sites, in Analamanara, were situated approximately 20 km south of the previously known southern extremity of this species' distribution. This represents a large increase in the previously limited geographic range of this species. Moreover, our relatively high encounter rates at these sites suggest that C. shethi population densities may be high. We also observed C. shethi in human-altered (e.g., vanilla plantations) and non-forest, savannah environments, suggesting that this species can tolerate disturbed habitats. Our findings therefore provide important additional information on the distribution of C. shethi populations and highlight the necessity of further study for the conservation of this species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus' molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild.

  1. A protein-dye hybrid system as a narrow range tunable intracellular pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Palapuravan; Sudheesh, Karivachery V; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Chandrika, Arunkumar R; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2016-11-18

    Accurate monitoring of pH variations inside cells is important for the early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. Even though a variety of different pH sensors are available, construction of a custom-made sensor array for measuring minute variations in a narrow biological pH window, using easily available constituents, is a challenge. Here we report two-component hybrid sensors derived from a protein and organic dye nanoparticles whose sensitivity range can be tuned by choosing different ratios of the components, to monitor the minute pH variations in a given system. The dye interacts noncovalently with the protein at lower pH and covalently at higher pH, triggering two distinguishable fluorescent signals at 700 and 480 nm, respectively. The pH sensitivity region of the probe can be tuned for every unit of the pH window resulting in custom-made pH sensors. These narrow range tunable pH sensors have been used to monitor pH variations in HeLa cells using the fluorescence imaging technique.

  2. Extensive Rangewide Mitochondrial Introgression Indicates Substantial Cryptic Hybridization in the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vallender

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines of the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera are thought to be due in part to hybridization with the expanding Blue-winged Warbler (V. pinus, which predictably replaces Golden-winged Warblers at breeding sites in which the two species come into contact. However, the mechanism by which this replacement occurs remains unresolved. Recent genetic work has indicated that, even in areas where the two species have been in contact for a short period, introgression of Blue-winged mitochondrial (mtDNA and nuclear genes into Golden-winged individuals is common. To explore this process on a broader scale, we screened more than 750 individuals from nine U.S. states and three provinces to examine geographic patterns of mtDNA introgression. The only population in which all phenotypic Golden-winged Warblers had Golden-winged mtDNA haplotypes, and in which there are no breeding Blue-winged or hybrid individuals, was in the province of Manitoba, near the northwestern edge of the species' breeding distribution. The near ubiquity of mitochondrial introgression suggests that there are far fewer genetically pure populations of Golden-winged Warblers than previously believed, a finding with important implications for this threatened species.

  3. The impact of compressive force magnitude on the in vitro neutral zone range and passive stiffness during a flexion–extension range of motion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Noguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the influence of compressive force magnitude on a functional spinal unit’s (FSU flexion–extension neutral zone measured during pure moment (PM tests. Each porcine cervical FSU received four repeats of a PM test with 10, 300, 900 and 1,800 N of compressive force, in a randomized order. Increasing the magnitude of compression significantly decreased the neutral zone range (p < 0.001, while increasing passive stiffness (p < 0.001. The flexion limit at 10 N was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than the other loading conditions. Reporting the compressive force magnitude is important when posture is a standardized experimental factor considered in the design of in vitro spine biomechanics studies.

  4. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  5. Ranges of Cervical Intervertebral Disc Deformation During an In Vivo Dynamic Flexion-Extension of the Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Mao, Haiqing; Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Cheng, Liming; Wood, Kirkham B; Li, Guoan; Cha, Thomas D

    2017-06-01

    While abnormal loading is widely believed to cause cervical spine disc diseases, in vivo cervical disc deformation during dynamic neck motion has not been well delineated. This study investigated the range of cervical disc deformation during an in vivo functional flexion-extension of the neck. Ten asymptomatic human subjects were tested using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based three-dimensional (3D) modeling technique. Overall disc deformation was determined using the changes of the space geometry between upper and lower endplates of each intervertebral segment (C3/4, C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7). Five points (anterior, center, posterior, left, and right) of each disc were analyzed to examine the disc deformation distributions. The data indicated that between the functional maximum flexion and extension of the neck, the anterior points of the discs experienced large changes of distraction/compression deformation and shear deformation. The higher level discs experienced higher ranges of disc deformation. No significant difference was found in deformation ranges at posterior points of all the discs. The data indicated that the range of disc deformation is disc level dependent and the anterior region experienced larger changes of deformation than the center and posterior regions, except for the C6/7 disc. The data obtained from this study could serve as baseline knowledge for the understanding of the cervical spine disc biomechanics and for investigation of the biomechanical etiology of disc diseases. These data could also provide insights for development of motion preservation surgeries for cervical spine.

  6. The ascomycete Verticillium longisporum is a hybrid and a plant pathogen with an expanded host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Inderbitzin

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages.

  7. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  8. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  9. Constraints on the Timing and Style of Paleogene Extension in the Basin and Range from Apatite and Zircon Double Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, A.; Cassel, E. J.; Stockli, D. F.; Smith, M. E.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Paleogene hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, from eastern Nevada to western Utah, high-elevation intermontane basins record widespread accommodation and early-onset extension within the Basin and Range. Detrital zircon U-Pb-He double dating of siliciclastic sediments deposited across the width of the Cordilleran hinterland shows that early and middle Eocene sediments are predominantly multi-cycle and consistent with gradual erosional exhumation of the hinterland. During the middle Eocene and into the early Oligocene, volcanic glass hydration waters indicate that Copper Basin formed at an elevation of 3 km in northeastern Nevada. The basin contains a 1.5 km-thick sequence of fluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic rocks that accumulated on the footwall of the Copper Creek normal fault and conformably above Paleozoic sediments. Detrital zircon and apatite double dating of Paleogene sediments from Copper Basin enables comparison of sedimentary lag times at various phases of basin evolution. We interpret sedimentary lag times within a chronostratigraphic framework developed from 6 new single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for Copper Basin tuff beds. Fluvial sedimentology and detrital zircon U-Pb age populations indicate that proximal volcanic sources were the dominate source of detritus to Copper Basin until a Cretaceous back-arc pluton, the Coffeepot Stock, unroofed along the Copper Creek normal fault during the middle Eocene. Laser Ablation Split Stream-ICPMS U-Pb dating of detrital apatite from Copper Basin sediments corroborates derivation from the 109 Ma Coffeepot Stock. Double dating of zircon grains derived from the Coffeepot Stock shows moderate lag times of 25-50 Myr whereas apatite grains imply lag times of cooling along the Copper Creek normal fault, which continued through the early Oligocene, was likely triggered by the onset of proximal 45 Ma volcanism in the Northern Bull Run Caldera of northeastern Nevada. Rapid early-onset extension in this

  10. Extension of Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model to the case of field propagation in the ionosphere with highly anisotropic irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherm, Vadim E.; Zernov, Nikolay N.

    2017-07-01

    The detailed effects of the high-frequency radio wave propagation in a stochastic transionospheric propagation channel are discussed. This is a special case of propagation along or almost along the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the ionospheric random irregularities of the electron density of the ionosphere may have very high values of the aspect ratio, which stands beyond the range of validity of the traditional analytical approaches utilized to treat the appropriate transionospheric propagation problems. In the consideration presented here, new analytical results are obtained for treating the problem under consideration. Based on the analytical results obtained, the previously developed Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model is further extended, which also includes the software simulator of the signals propagating on the transionospheric paths with the random electron density irregularities highly elongated in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field.

  11. Transform extension for block-based hybrid video codec with decoupling transform sizes from prediction sizes and coding sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Li, Ge; Fan, Kui; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2017-09-01

    In the block-based hybrid video coding framework, transform is applied to the residual signal resulting from intra/inter prediction. Thus in the most of video codecs, transform block (TB) size is equal to the prediction block (PB) size. To further improve coding efficiency, recent video coding techniques have supported decoupling transform and prediction sizes. By splitting one prediction block into small transform blocks, the Residual Quad-tree (RQT) structure attempts to search the best transform size. However, in the current RQT, the transform size cannot be larger than the size of prediction block. In this paper, we introduce a transform extension method by decoupling transform sizes from prediction sizes and coding sizes. In addition to getting the transform block within the current PB partition, we combine multiple adjacent PBs to form a larger TB and select best block size accordingly. According to our experiment on top of the newest reference software (ITM17.0) of MPEG Internet Video Coding (IVC) standard, consistent coding performance gains are obtained.

  12. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  13. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephanie; Thomas, Julie Jepsen; Rice, Martin S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion while wearing a wrist extension orthosis compared to the free hand at initial testing and after a week's wear...

  14. Combining Density Functional Theory and Green's Function Theory: Range-Separated, Nonlocal, Dynamic, and Orbital-Dependent Hybrid Functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Zgid, Dominika

    2017-11-14

    We present a rigorous framework which combines single-particle Green's function theory with density functional theory based on a separation of electron-electron interactions into short- and long-range components. Short-range contribution to the total energy and exchange-correlation potential is provided by a density functional approximation, while the long-range contribution is calculated using an explicit many-body Green's function method. Such a hybrid results in a nonlocal, dynamic, and orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functional of a single-particle Green's function. In particular, we present a range-separated hybrid functional called srSVWN5-lrGF2 which combines the local-density approximation and the second-order Green's function theory. We illustrate that similarly to density functional approximations, the new functional is weakly basis-set dependent. Furthermore, it offers an improved description of the short-range dynamic correlation. The many-body contribution to the functional mitigates the many-electron self-interaction error present in many density functional approximations and provides a better description of molecular properties. Additionally, we illustrate that the new functional can be used to scale down the self-energy and, therefore, introduce an additional sparsity to the self-energy matrix that in the future can be exploited in calculations for large molecules or periodic systems.

  15. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

     Genetic analysis of samples from Greenland and Canada was carried out using a combination of nuclear and chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results Analysis of nuclear SNPs confirmed hybridization in populations of morphologically intermediate individuals, as well as revealing the existence....... This could compromise the ability of species to respond to climate change via habitat tracking, although the final outcome of these processes may ultimately depend on the rate of global climate change and its effect on the species' distributions....

  16. Long-Range Interfacial Electrochemical Electron Transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared a "hybrid" of the blue copper protein azurin (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a 3 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP). The AuNP/azurin hybrid was assembled on a Au(111)-electrode surface in a two-step process. The AuNP was first attached to the Au(111) electrode via Au-S chemisorption of a 4......,4'-biphenyidithiol (4,4'-BPDT) monolayer. This was followed by 1-decanethiol modification of the bound AuNP and hydrophobic binding of azurin to the AuNP. The Au(111)/AuNP/azurin system was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling...... microscopy (in situ STM). AFM and STM point to the feasibility of preparing both dense and sparsely populated AuNP monolayers. CV shows two pairs of voltammetric peaks at high scan rates, both around the azurin equilibrium potential. One pair of redox peaks follows closely that of azurin hydrophobically...

  17. Ab initio electronic transport and thermoelectric properties of solids from full and range-separated hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Giuseppe; Ferretti, Andrea; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Within the semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory in the constant relaxation-time approximation, we perform an ab initio study of the transport properties of selected systems, including crystalline solids and nanostructures. A local (Gaussian) basis set is adopted and exploited to analytically evaluate band velocities as well as to access full and range-separated hybrid functionals (such as B3LYP, PBE0, or HSE06) at a moderate computational cost. As a consequence of the analytical derivative, our approach is computationally efficient and does not suffer from problems related to band crossings. We investigate and compare the performance of a variety of hybrid functionals in evaluating Boltzmann conductivity. Demonstrative examples include silicon and aluminum bulk crystals as well as two thermoelectric materials (CoSb3, Bi2Te3). We observe that hybrid functionals other than providing more realistic bandgaps—as expected—lead to larger bandwidths and hence allow for a better estimate of transport properties, also in metallic systems. As a nanostructure prototype, we also investigate conductivity in boron-nitride (BN) substituted graphene, in which nanoribbons (nanoroads) alternate with BN ones.

  18. A Hybrid Finite Element/Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Integral Model for Shooting Range Sound Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    National legislation enforces a limit on the Sound Levels of outdoor military shooting ranges observed in nearby residential areas. These restrictions directly influence the number of shots that may be fired at a specific shooting range, which may conflict with the required/ scheduled training

  19. Extensive hybridization and associated geographic trends between two rockfishes Sebastes vulpes and S. zonatus (Teleostei: Scorpaeniformes: Sebastidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, N; Kai, Y; Noda, T; Nakabo, T

    2013-08-01

    Interspecific hybridization is an important evolutionary process, which has significant influence on the diversity within and between participating taxa. Although interspecific hybridization in terrestrial and freshwater organisms has been subjected to many detailed studies, studies in marine realm have been limited in terms of both numbers and detail. In this study, the potential for interspecific hybridization between two rockfishes, Sebastes vulpes and S. zonatus, occurring in the western North Pacific, was assessed on the basis of 177 specimens collected from three sampling localities within the main geographic distribution of both species, and analysed using a combination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and morphometric characters. Bayesian-based individual genetic assignment based on 364 AFLP loci detected a total of 63 (35.6%) hybrid specimens in the data set, the presence of interspecific hybrids also being rigorously supported by mtDNA analysis using partial sequences from the control region and morphological analysis based on 31 morphometric characters. Hybrids from all three localities were found, showing a common pattern of biased introgression across the localities whereby hybrids were more closely related to S. zonatus than to S. vulpes. Apart from this common pattern, rates of hybridization varied considerably among the localities, being greater in the northern localities. Variations in the local rates of hybridization were associated with variations in habitat segregation and thermal regime, implying that vertical water temperature regimes determined the extent of habitat segregation of the two species and, accordingly, the opportunity for hybridization. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of Frequencies Actuators in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Chen, Jin; Poli, F.; Kessel, C. E.; Jardin, S. C.

    2012-10-01

    Recent upgrades to the ion cyclotron RF (ICRF) and lower hybrid RF (LHRF) components of the Integrated Plasma Simulator [1] have made it possible to simulate LH current drive in the presence of ICRF minority heating and mode conversion electron heating. The background plasma is evolved in these simulations using the TSC transport code [2]. The driven LH current density profiles are computed using advanced ray tracing (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck (CQL3D) [3] components and predictions from GENRAY/CQL3D are compared with a ``reduced'' model for LHCD (the LSC [4] code). The ICRF TORIC solver is used for minority heating with a simplified (bi-Maxwellian) model for the non-thermal ion tail. Simulation results will be presented for LHCD in the presence of ICRF heating in Alcator C-Mod. [4pt] [1] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008).[0pt] [2] S. C. Jardin et al, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).[0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992).[0pt] [4] D. Ignat et al, Nucl. Fus. 34, 837 (1994).[0pt] [5] M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. and Cont. Fusion 41,1 (1999).

  1. Analysis for the application of hybrid laminar flow control to a long-range subsonic transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcara, P.C. Jr.; Bartlett, D.W.; Mccullers, L.A. (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Vigyan, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The FLOPS aircraft conceptual design/analysis code has been used to evaluate the effects of incorporating hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) in a 300-passenger, 6500 n. mi. range, twin-engine subsonic transport aircraft. The baseline configuration was sized to account for 50 percent chord laminar flow on the wing upper surface as well as both surfaces of the empennage airfoils. Attention is given to the additional benefits of achieving various degrees of laminar flow on the engine nacelles, and the horsepower extraction and initial weight and cost increments entailed by the HLFC system. The sensitivity of the results obtained to fuel-price and off-design range are also noted. 6 refs.

  2. Extension of hybrid micro-depletion model for decay heat calculation in the DYN3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilodid, Yurii; Fridman, Emil [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety; Kotlyar, D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shwageraus, E. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    This work extends the hybrid micro-depletion methodology, recently implemented in DYN3D, to the decay heat calculation by accounting explicitly for the heat contribution from the decay of each nuclide in the fuel.

  3. The use of a new hybrid stentgraft for the repair of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms with the frozen elephant trunk method - first Polish experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Michał; Krasoń, Marcin; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Przybylski, Roman; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Borowicz, Marcin; Niklewski, Tomasz; Głowacki, Jan; Wolny, Tomasz; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Walas, Ryszard; Zembala, Marian

    2014-09-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique is a modification of the traditional elephant trunk method, which was introduced by Borst in 1983 in order to treat extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. The crux of the new method is the different type of aortic prosthesis, consisting of a Dacron part (with or without branches leading to the arterial vessels which exit the aortic arch) and a port for extracorporeal circulation with a self-expanding nitinol stentgraft. This combination enables a complete one-stage treatment of the pathologies within the arch and the proximal segment of the descending aorta; moreover, it facilitates the performance of a two-stage hybrid treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms involving a significant part of the descending aorta. This article presents the cases of four patients with extensive aortic disease, who were implanted with Thoraflex prostheses (Vascutek, Scotland).

  4. The use of a new hybrid stentgraft for the repair of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms with the frozen elephant trunk method – first Polish experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasoń, Marcin; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Przybylski, Roman; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Borowicz, Marcin; Niklewski, Tomasz; Głowacki, Jan; Wolny, Tomasz; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Walas, Ryszard; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique is a modification of the traditional elephant trunk method, which was introduced by Borst in 1983 in order to treat extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. The crux of the new method is the different type of aortic prosthesis, consisting of a Dacron part (with or without branches leading to the arterial vessels which exit the aortic arch) and a port for extracorporeal circulation with a self-expanding nitinol stentgraft. This combination enables a complete one-stage treatment of the pathologies within the arch and the proximal segment of the descending aorta; moreover, it facilitates the performance of a two-stage hybrid treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms involving a significant part of the descending aorta. This article presents the cases of four patients with extensive aortic disease, who were implanted with Thoraflex prostheses (Vascutek, Scotland). PMID:26335241

  5. Trichomonosis in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean and description of ITS-1 region genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R; Stefani, L M; Thrall, M A; Landers, K; Revan, F; Miller, A; Beckstead, R; Gerhold, R

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the exception of one bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of the affected birds had multiple extensive lesions. Lesions located on the roof of the oral cavity extended in 33% (6/18) into the orbit and in 11% (2/18) into the braincase. Using wet-mount microscopy, we were able to confirm Trichomonas gallinae in 22% (4/18) of the sampled animals. Fifteen samples submitted for PCR analysis tested positive. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed two distinct genotypes of Trichomonas. One sequence had 100% identity to the prototype T. gallinae isolate, whereas the other sequences had 98-100% identity to recently described Trichomonas-like parabasalid. On the basis of gross and histologic findings, along with the sequence results from the columbids in this report, it is likely that this Trichomonas-like parabasalid is pathogenic.

  6. A current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two timeslower hybrid resonance frequency on tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.

  7. Evidence for Introduction Bottleneck and Extensive Inter-Gene Pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) Hybridization in the European Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from “pure” accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with “pure” accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed. PMID:24098412

  8. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  9. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  10. Multiterawatt femtosecond hybrid system based on a photodissociation XeF(C-A) amplifier in the visible range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Ivanov, N G; Kovalchuk, B N; Losev, V F; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Ratakhin, N A

    2012-05-31

    This paper describes a multiterawatt hybrid laser system based on a Ti : sapphire front end and 25-cm-aperture photodissociation XeF(C - A) amplifier. The front end generates 50-fs pulses with second-harmonic ({lambda} = 475 nm) energies of up to 5 mJ. The gainmedium of the amplifier is produced in a XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} mixture by VUV radiation excited in xenon by a high-power electron beam. Through amplification of a negatively chirped 1-ps pulse, followed by pulse compression in bulk fused silica, a peak power of 14 TW, record-high for the visible range, has been achieved.

  11. Effect of task specific training and wrist-fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Mohamed E; Ameer, Mariam A; Fayed, Eman E

    2017-01-01

    Most stroke patients experience hand impairments that can result in persistent limitations in daily activities. This study aimed at estimating the immediate and retention effects of task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke. Twenty-four right handed patients with first ever stroke represented the sample of the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The study group received task specific exercises five times a week for an hour concurrently with wrist/fingers extension splint which was used two hours for each three hours (day and night) excluding exercises and sleeping hours for 16 weeks. The control group received traditional passive stretch and range of motion exercises. Manual dexterity and upper limb function were assessed by nine holes peg test and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand. Goniometry was used for measuring wrist, metacarpophalangeal, thumb carpometacarpal joints active range of motion. Significant improvements were observed in nine holes peg test, Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand scores and ranges of motion at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention at P≤0.05. The results of this study provide an evidence that task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint are effective in improving fingers dexterity, upper extremity function and wrist/hand range of motion.

  12. A plasmid-transposon hybrid mutagenesis system effective in a broad range of Enterobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eMonson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways.

  13. What do fault patterns reveal about the latest phase of extension within the Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Riley, Paul; Lerback, Jory

    2016-08-01

    The Northern Snake Range is a classic example of a metamorphic core complex, Basin-and-Range province, United States. It is composed of a plastically deformed footwall and a brittlely deformed hanging wall, separated by the Northern Snake Range low-angle detachment (NSRD). Brittle deformation, however, is not confined to the hanging wall. This paper focuses on exposures in Cove Canyon, located on the SE flank of the Northern Snake Range, where penetrative, homogeneous faults are well exposed throughout the hanging wall, footwall and NSRD, and overprint early plastic deformation. These late-stage fault sets assisted Eocene-Miocene extension. Detailed analysis of the faults reveals the following: (1) The shortening direction defined by faults is similar to the shortening direction defined by the stretching lineation in the footwall mylonites, indicating that the extensional kinematic history remained unchanged as the rocks were uplifted into the elastico-frictional regime. (2) After ∼17 Ma, extension may have continued entirely within elastic-frictional regime via cataclastic flow. (3) This latest deformation phase may have been accommodated by a single, continuous event. (3) Faults within NSRD boudins indicate that deformation within the detachment zone was non-coaxial during the latest phase of extension.

  14. A Novel Hybrid Evaluation Model for the Performance of ERP Project Based on ANP and Improved Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui-ru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable resources are needed when implementing the ERP project, so it is necessary to evaluate its performance. Firstly, the evaluation index system of implementation performance of the ERP project was built, and an Analytic Network Process (ANP which can fully take the relationship between evaluation indexes into account was employed to determine the index weight. Secondly, an improved matter-element extension model, which can overcome the limitations and inadequacies of traditional matter-element extension model when performing the comprehensive evaluation, was proposed to evaluate the implementation performance of the ERP project. Finally, taking an enterprise's ERP project as an example, a comprehensive evaluation was done, and the empirical analysis result shows that this proposed hybrid evaluation model is feasible and practical.

  15. A wide area Bipolar Cascade Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode for a Hybrid Range-Intensity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Reginald J.

    Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) will require high-speed, real-time three dimensional (3-D) image processing to navigate treacherous terrain in order to complete their assigned mission without a human in the loop. LIDAR scanners of the 3-D variety, provide the necessary area coverage for 3-D image processing, but lack the speed to deliver the collected data for real-time processing. A novel Hybrid Range-Intensity System (HRIS) has been proposed for imaging large swaths of area very rapidly. This system is comprised of two infrared cameras, an illumination source, a control and coordination system to position the cameras, and signal processing algorithms to extract the contour image of the scene. This dissertation focused on the development of an illuminator for the HRIS. This illuminator enables faster image rendering and reduces the potential of errors in return signal data, that could be generated from extremely rough terrain. Four major achievements resulted from this work, which advance the field of 3-D image acquisition. The first is that the TJ is an effective current spreading layer for LEDs with mesa width up to 140 mum and current densities of ˜ 1 x 106A/cm2. The TJ allows fabrication of an efficient illuminator, with required geometry for the HRIS to operate as a real-time 3-D imaging system. Secondly, a design for a Bipolar Cascade-Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (BC-RCLED) has been accomplished, that will illuminate the FOV of the hybrid-ranged intensity system with a single sweep of the beam. This device is capable of producing ˜ 330 mW of output power. Additionally, from this work, key parameters for HRIS design were identified. Using a collection optic with a 15 cm diameter, an HRIS mounting height of 1.5 m, and a detector integration time of 330 msec, a SNR of 20 dB was achieved. Lastly, we demonstrated that the BC-RCLED designed for the HRIS can deliver sufficient energy to produce the required SNR. Also, through parametric analysis, we

  16. Extension and Validation of a Hybrid Particle-Finite Element Method for Hypervelocity Impact Simulation. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar

    2004-01-01

    The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.

  17. Range extension in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using femtosecond-nanosecond dual-beam laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Li, Ziting; Yao, Jinping; Xie, Hongqiang; Li, Guihua; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Ya

    2017-06-01

    We extend the detection range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by combining high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with high-energy nanosecond CO2 laser pulses. The femtosecond laser pulses ionize the molecules and generate filament in air. The free electrons generated in the self-confined plasma channel by the femtosecond laser serve as the seed electrons which cause efficient avalanche ionization in the nanosecond CO2 laser field. We show that the detection distance has been extended by three times with the assistance of femtosecond laser filamentation.

  18. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  19. Extension of the geographic range of Ateles chamek (Primates, Atelidae): evidence of river-barrier crossing by an amazonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Rafael Magalhães; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Vieira, Tatiana; Ferreira-Ferreira, Jefferson; Paim, Fernanda Pozzan; Dutra, Wallace; de Souza e Silva Júnior, José; Valsecchi, João

    2014-04-01

    The black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) is endangered because of hunting and habitat loss. There are many gaps in our understanding of its geographic distribution. The Ucayali-Solimões-Amazon fluvial complex is currently recognized as the northern boundary of the species' range, although published reports have indicated that it occurs north of the Rio Solimões. In this study we investigate published records, generate new field records, and assess the current information concerning the northern boundary of this species' range. We conducted the study at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve in the central Brazilian Amazon, an area of 1,124,000 ha that consists entirely of Amazonian flooded forest (várzea). We collected data on the occurrence of the species from museum specimens and through field surveys, including interviews with local residents, direct observations, and the collection of new museum specimens. We confirmed the presence of A. chamek at 17 locations in the reserve, one of which was an island formed by a river bend cut-off that would have effectively taken any resident spider to the (new) north bank of the Solimões. We therefore conclude that fluvial dynamics were involved in creating the conditions for the dispersal and colonization of the species on the northern bank of the Rio Solimões. The data we present extends the known distribution of the species and increases its representation in protected areas.

  20. Hybrid mesh generation for the new generation of oil reservoir simulators: 3D extension; Generation de maillage hybride pour les simulateurs de reservoir petrolier de nouvelle generation: extension 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrin, N.

    2005-09-15

    During the exploitation of an oil reservoir, it is important to predict the recovery of hydrocarbons and to optimize its production. A better comprehension of the physical phenomena requires to simulate 3D multiphase flows in increasingly complex geological structures. In this thesis, we are interested in this spatial discretization and we propose to extend in 3D the 2D hybrid model proposed by IFP in 1998 that allows to take directly into account in the geometry the radial characteristics of the flows. In these hybrid meshes, the wells and their drainage areas are described by structured radial circular meshes and the reservoirs are represented by structured meshes that can be a non uniform Cartesian grid or a Corner Point Geometry grids. In order to generate a global conforming mesh, unstructured transition meshes based on power diagrams and satisfying finite volume properties are used to connect the structured meshes together. Two methods have been implemented to generate these transition meshes: the first one is based on a Delaunay triangulation, the other one uses a frontal approach. Finally, some criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the transition meshes and optimization procedures are proposed to increase this quality under finite volume properties constraints. (author)

  1. A Hybrid Prediction Method of Thermal Extension Error for Boring Machine Based on PCA and LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal extension error of boring bar in z-axis is one of the key factors that have a bad influence on the machining accuracy of boring machine, so how to exactly establish the relationship between the thermal extension length and temperature and predict the changing rule of thermal error are the premise of thermal extension error compensation. In this paper, a prediction method of thermal extension length of boring bar in boring machine is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM model. In order to avoid the multiple correlation and coupling among the great amount temperature input variables, firstly, PCA is introduced to extract the principal components of temperature data samples. Then, LS-SVM is used to predict the changing tendency of the thermally induced thermal extension error of boring bar. Finally, experiments are conducted on a boring machine, the application results show that Boring bar axial thermal elongation error residual value dropped below 5 μm and minimum residual error is only 0.5 μm. This method not only effectively improve the efficiency of the temperature data acquisition and analysis, and improve the modeling accuracy and robustness.

  2. Detecting hybridization between Iranian wild wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) and free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) by analysis of microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Rasoul; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The genetic threat due to hybridization with free-ranging dogs is one major concern in wolf conservation. The identification of hybrids and extent of hybridization is important in the conservation and management of wolf populations. Genetic variation was analyzed at 15 unlinked loci in 28 dogs, 28 wolves, four known hybrids, two black wolves, and one dog with abnormal traits in Iran. Pritchard's model, multivariate ordination by principal component analysis and neighbor joining clustering were used for population clustering and individual assignment. Analysis of genetic variation showed that genetic variability is high in both wolf and dog populations in Iran. Values of H(E) in dog and wolf samples ranged from 0.75-0.92 and 0.77-0.92, respectively. The results of AMOVA showed that the two groups of dog and wolf were significantly different (F(ST) = 0.05 and R(ST) = 0.36; P wolf and dog samples were separated into two distinct clusters. Two dark wolves were assigned to the wolf cluster. Also these models detected D32 (dog with abnormal traits) and some other samples, which were assigned to more than one cluster and could be a hybrid. This study is the beginning of a genetic study in wolf populations in Iran, and our results reveal that as in other countries, hybridization between wolves and dogs is sporadic in Iran and can be a threat to wolf populations if human perturbations increase.

  3. Orders of Magnitude Extension of the Effective Dynamic Range of TDC-Based TOFMS Data Through Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Andreas; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent article, we derived a probability distribution that was shown to closely approximate that of the data produced by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) instruments employing time-to-digital converters (TDCs) as part of their detection system. The approach of formulating detailed and highly accurate mathematical models of LC/MS data via probability distributions that are parameterized by quantities of analytical interest does not appear to have been fully explored before. However, we believe it could lead to a statistically rigorous framework for addressing many of the data analytical problems that arise in LC/MS studies. In this article, we present new procedures for correcting for TDC saturation using such an approach and demonstrate that there is potential for significant improvements in the effective dynamic range of TDC-based mass spectrometers, which could make them much more competitive with the alternative analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The degree of improvement depends on our ability to generate mass and chromatographic peaks that conform to known mathematical functions and our ability to accurately describe the state of the detector dead time—tasks that may be best addressed through engineering efforts.

  4. Distortion of symmetrical introgression in a hybrid zone: evidence for locus-specific selection and uni-directional range expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannesen, J.; Johannesen, B.; Baran, I.; Rizvan-Tunc, M.; Kiefer, A.; Veith, M.K.H.

    2006-01-01

    The fate of species integrity upon natural hybridization depends on the interaction between selection and dispersal. The relative significance of these processes may be studied in the initial phase of contact before selection and gene flow reach equilibrium. Here we study a hybrid zone of two

  5. Trophic overlap between wolves and free-ranging wolf × dog hybrids in the Apennine Mountains, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bassi

    2017-01-01

    Trophic niche and similarity/dissimilarity analyses did not detect significant difference in the diet between the two areas: in both of them, wild boar was the main prey, followed by roe deer. Furthermore, the same age/body mass classes of the two ungulates were selected by wolves and hybrids. Our findings confirmed wolf–dog hybrids as potential competitors for wolves. Further studies on other aspects of their biology and ecology are recommended in order to better estimate the impact of hybridization on natural wolf populations.

  6. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie; Thomas, Julie Jepsen; Rice, Martin S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion while wearing a wrist extension orthosis compared to the free hand at initial testing and after a week's wear. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 20-50 years, performed a stacking task and a pouring task, freehanded and splinted, at two times, 1 week apart in this counterbalanced, repeated measures design. A Motion Analysis 3-D system measured quality of movement and range of motion variables. A 2 by 2 analysis of variance (splinted vs. freehanded by time of testing) was used to analyze each variable. In both tasks, participants tended to move more slowly (p = 0.005) with less direct movements (p splinted movements were also less smooth than when free-handed (p splinted both tasks required more shoulder abduction (p wrist extension orthosis interfered with the quality of upper-extremity movement and required more range of shoulder movement compared to the free hand. Future research is needed to determine whether persons with upper-extremity conditions (i.e., arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome) respond similarly to wrist orthoses. Therapists should consider discussing with patients how their wrist splint could affect their hand performance and help patients learn techniques to reduce stress on their proximal joints.

  7. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanczyk Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF and Lower Hybrid (LH Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field – influencing ICRF waves coupling – and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  8. Characterization of the mutual influence of Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Range of frequencies systems on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Guillaume; Zhang, Xinjun; Qin, Chengming; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Jiahui; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Xiuda; Qian, Jinping

    2017-10-01

    Waves in the Ion Cyclotron (ICRF) and Lower Hybrid (LH) Range of Frequencies are efficient techniques respectively to heat the plasma and drive current. Main difficulties come from a trade-off between good RF coupling and acceptable level of impurities release. The mutual influence of both systems makes such equilibrium often hard to reach [1]. In order to investigate those interactions based on Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) plasma parameters, a new reciprocating probe was designed allying a three tips Langmuir probe with an emissive wire. The emissive filament provides a precise measure of plasma potential [2], which can be used to calibrate Langmuir probe's results. This paper reports on experimental results obtained on EAST, where there are two ICRF antennas and two LH launchers. Among others diagnostics, the new reciprocating probe enabled to evidence the deleterious influence of ICRF power on LHWs coupling in L-mode plasmas. In areas connected with an active ICRF antenna, SOL potentials increase while densities tend to decrease, respectively enhancing impurities release and deteriorating LHWs coupling. This phenomenon has mostly been attributed to RF sheath; the one that forms on top of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) and causes ExB density convections [3]. From those experiments it seems ICRF has a strong influence on magnetically connected areas, both in the near field - influencing ICRF waves coupling - and in farther locations such as in front of LH grills. Moreover, influence of ICRF on LH system was observed both in L and H modes. Those results are consistent with RF sheath rectification process. Concerning the influence of LHWs on ICRF coupling, nothing was observed in L-mode. Besides during H-mode experiments, LHWs have been identified as having a mitigating effect on ELMs [4], which on average lowers the pedestal, increasing edge densities to the profit of ICRF waves coupling.

  9. Simulation-based model checking approach to cell fate specification during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development by hybrid functional Petri net with extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Nagasaki, Masao; Ueno, Kazuko; Miyano, Satoru

    2009-04-27

    Model checking approaches were applied to biological pathway validations around 2003. Recently, Fisher et al. have proved the importance of model checking approach by inferring new regulation of signaling crosstalk in C. elegans and confirming the regulation with biological experiments. They took a discrete and state-based approach to explore all possible states of the system underlying vulval precursor cell (VPC) fate specification for desired properties. However, since both discrete and continuous features appear to be an indispensable part of biological processes, it is more appropriate to use quantitative models to capture the dynamics of biological systems. Our key motivation of this paper is to establish a quantitative methodology to model and analyze in silico models incorporating the use of model checking approach. A novel method of modeling and simulating biological systems with the use of model checking approach is proposed based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe) as the framework dealing with both discrete and continuous events. Firstly, we construct a quantitative VPC fate model with 1761 components by using HFPNe. Secondly, we employ two major biological fate determination rules - Rule I and Rule II - to VPC fate model. We then conduct 10,000 simulations for each of 48 sets of different genotypes, investigate variations of cell fate patterns under each genotype, and validate the two rules by comparing three simulation targets consisting of fate patterns obtained from in silico and in vivo experiments. In particular, an evaluation was successfully done by using our VPC fate model to investigate one target derived from biological experiments involving hybrid lineage observations. However, the understandings of hybrid lineages are hard to make on a discrete model because the hybrid lineage occurs when the system comes close to certain thresholds as discussed by Sternberg and Horvitz in 1986. Our simulation results suggest that: Rule I

  10. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  11. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  12. Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Trematoda: Transversotrematidae) from inshore fishes of Australia: description of a new species and significant range extensions for three congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Diggles, Ben K; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Four transversotrematid trematodes are reported from commercial teleost species in Australian waters. Transversotrema hunterae n. sp. is described from three species of Sillago Cuvier (Sillaginidae) from Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland. Molecular characterisation using ITS2 rDNA confirmed this stenoxenic specificity of Transversotrema hunterae n. sp., with identical sequence data from Sillago maculata Quoy & Gaimard, S. analis Whitley and S. ciliata Cuvier. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 28S rDNA data, demonstrates that T. hunterae n. sp. belongs to the 'Transversotrema licinum clade' and is most closely related to Transversotrema licinum Manter, 1970 and T. polynesiae Cribb, Adlard, Bray, Sasal & Cutmore, 2014, with the three species forming a well-supported clade in all analyses. We extend the known host and geographical ranges of three previously described Transversotrema species, T. licinum, T. elegans Hunter, Ingram, Adlard, Bray & Cribb, 2010 and T. espanola Hunter & Cribb, 2012. The new records represent significant range extensions for the three species and permit further examination of the patterns of biogeographical distribution in Australian waters. Host-specificity of Transversotrema species is examined, and the degree to which morphological analysis can inform taxonomic studies of this group is discussed.

  13. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L., in the Baltic sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Appelqvist

    Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.

  14. The effect of deviated center of rotation on flexion-extension range of motion after single-level cervical arthroplasty: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Gong, Quan; Liu, Hao; Hong, Ying; Lou, Jigang; Wu, Wenjie; Meng, Yang; Chen, Hua; Song, Yueming

    2014-12-15

    A retrospective study. To report the clinical outcomes and sagittal kinematics after cervical total disc replacement (TDR). To evaluate the in vivo effect of deviated center of rotation (COR) on flexion-extension range of motion (ROM) at the instrumented level. A few studies showed that the location of COR after cervical TDR deviated from its preoperative location or inherent location in healthy subjects. However, little is known about the effect of deviated COR on ROM at the instrumented level. A total of 24 patients who underwent C5-C6 single-level TDR with Prestige LP (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) were retrospectively included. Japanese Orthopedic Association score and visual analogue scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. ROM and COR were measured for radiographical analysis. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the change of ROM for further evaluation. Group 1, characterized by decreased postoperative ROM, consisted of 16 patients; group 2, characterized by increased postoperative ROM, consisted of 8 patients. Ten males and 14 females comprised the study cohort. The mean age was 45.05 years, and the mean follow-up time was 15.5 months. The Japanese Orthopedic Association score increased significantly and the neck and arm visual analogue scale decreased significantly after cervical TDR. On average, ROM was preserved after cervical TDR. The postoperative COR had a significant cranial shift from its preoperative location. The COR shift in anterior-posterior direction was larger in group 2 than that in group 1. No difference was observed in the COR shift in cranial-caudal direction between the 2 groups. Single-level cervical TDR with Prestige LP obtained satisfactory clinical outcomes and partially restored the natural cervical kinematics. At instrumented level, the deviated COR had a negative correlation with the flexion-extension ROM.

  15. More than one way to stretch: a tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Thompson, George A.; Smith, Richard P.

    1998-04-01

    The eastern Snake River Plain of southern Idaho poses a paradoxical problem because it is nearly aseismic and unfaulted although it appears to be actively extending in a SW-NE direction continuously with the adjacent block-faulted Basin and Range Province. The plain represents the 100-km-wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ˜16-17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows. Outside the plain's distinct topographic boundaries is a transition zone 30-100 km wide that has variable expression of normal faulting and magmatic activity as compared with the surrounding Basin and Range Province. Many models for the evolution of the Snake River Plain have as an integral component the suggestion that the crust of the plain became strong enough through basaltic intrusion to resist extensional deformation. However, both the boundaries of the plain and its transition zone lack any evidence of zones of strike slip or other accommodation that would allow the plain to remain intact while the Basin and Range Province extended around it; instead, the plain is coupled to its surroundings and extending with them. We estimate strain rates for the northern Basin and Range Province from various lines of evidence and show that these strains would far exceed the elastic limit of any rocks coupled to the Basin and Range; thus, if the plain is extending along with its surroundings, as the geologic evidence indicates, it must be doing so by a nearly aseismic process. Evidence of the process is provided by volcanic rift zones, indicators of subsurface dikes, which trend across the plain perpendicular to its axis. We suggest that variable magmatic strain accommodation, by emplacement and inflation of dikes perpendicular to the least principal stress in the elastic crust, allows the crust of the plain to extend nearly aseismically. Dike injection releases accumulated elastic strain but

  16. New species of Geissorhiza (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the southern African winter rainfall zone, range extensions, taxonomic changes, and notes on pollen morphology and floral ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Field work during the past 15 years has resulted in the discovery of 12 new species of the western southern African genus Geissorhiza Ker Gawl. and range extensions for several more. Following a survey of pollen morphology in the genus, we describe new pollen types in one section each of the two subgenera: five species of section  Ciliatae Goldblatt and two of  section Weihea Eckl. ex Baker have more complex apertures than the plesiomorphic single aperture with a 2-banded oper­culum found in other species. In addition, populations currently referred to the typical white (cream-flowered  G. inflexa (D.Delaroche Goldblatt with larger, pink, red or purple flowers, have a third pollen type and are recognized as  G. erosa (Salisb. R.C.Foster. The new species are G. altimontana from the high Langeberg near Grootvadersbos; G. helmei from the Piketberg; G. lupidosa from the Du Toits Kloof Mtns; G. monticola from the Swartberg; G. platystigma from Darling, north of Cape Town; G. sufflava from the Piketberg; G. tricolor from Riversdale (all subgenus Weihea (Eckl. ex Baker Goldblatt; and G. cantharophila from the Klein Roggeveld; G. demissa from the Kamiesberg. Gitberg and Cold Bokkeveld; G. exilis from the Waaihoek Mtns in the Worcester District;  G. reclinata from the Swartberg: and G. saxicola from the northern Cedarberg-Pakhuis Mountain complex (all subgenus Geissorhiza. We also report range extensions and provide morphological notes for several species, including  G. monanthos Eckl.. new collections o f w hich show that the inclusion of G. leuisiae R.C.Foster in that species was incorrect and we resurrect the species. The addition of 12 new species and recognition of G. erosa and G. lewisiae bring to 99 the number of species in the genus. New identification keys for Geissorhiza are provided that include all new species. We have also accumulated observations of floral ecology in the genus and integrate them with what is known about this aspect

  17. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  18. Northernmost record of the pantropical portunid crab Cronius ruber in the eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands: natural range extension or human-mediated introduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The pantropical crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818 (Brachyura: Portunidae is recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands. Previously known from off Cape Verde Islands and Senegal, this is the northernmost record of the species in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Crabs have been caught by means of a collecting small trap for sampling in shallow waters, and then identified by both morphological characters and DNA barcoding (16S. Cytochrome c oxidase I partial sequence has been obtained for this species for the first time. This relatively large and very aggressive crab species seems to be rapidly occupying both hard substrates (sublittoral caves and soft substrates (sand with seagrass meadow adjacent to shallow rocky bottoms, at depths between 2 and 10 m, in the warm southern waters of Gran Canaria Island. The reasons for this species’ occurrence are discussed herein. Among them, natural range extension may be a consequence of tropicalization in the eastern Atlantic. Also, a human-mediated introduction could be based on the heavy traffic of ships (ballast waters or oil platforms arriving at the Canary Islands from African countries and from Brazil in the last decade.

  19. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  20. Online model checking approach based parameter estimation to a neuronal fate decision simulation model in Caenorhabditis elegans with hybrid functional Petri net with extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Nagasaki, Masao; Koh, Chuan Hock; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-05-01

    Mathematical modeling and simulation studies are playing an increasingly important role in helping researchers elucidate how living organisms function in cells. In systems biology, researchers typically tune many parameters manually to achieve simulation results that are consistent with biological knowledge. This severely limits the size and complexity of simulation models built. In order to break this limitation, we propose a computational framework to automatically estimate kinetic parameters for a given network structure. We utilized an online (on-the-fly) model checking technique (which saves resources compared to the offline approach), with a quantitative modeling and simulation architecture named hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe). We demonstrate the applicability of this framework by the analysis of the underlying model for the neuronal cell fate decision model (ASE fate model) in Caenorhabditis elegans. First, we built a quantitative ASE fate model containing 3327 components emulating nine genetic conditions. Then, using our developed efficient online model checker, MIRACH 1.0, together with parameter estimation, we ran 20-million simulation runs, and were able to locate 57 parameter sets for 23 parameters in the model that are consistent with 45 biological rules extracted from published biological articles without much manual intervention. To evaluate the robustness of these 57 parameter sets, we run another 20 million simulation runs using different magnitudes of noise. Our simulation results concluded that among these models, one model is the most reasonable and robust simulation model owing to the high stability against these stochastic noises. Our simulation results provide interesting biological findings which could be used for future wet-lab experiments.

  1. Moraea intermedia and M. vuvuzela (Iridaceae-Iridoideae, two new species from western South Africa, and some nomenclatural changes and range extensions in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species in the largely sub-Saharan genus Moraea Mill. (± 205 spp. from its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall region of southern Africa. Moraea intermedia, from north-central Namaqualand near Springbok, is a member of the small section Tubiflorae (now eight species, remarkable in its growth habit with a long basal intemode. leaves clustered at the first aerial node, and Moraea-type stamens and style branches but subequal tepals with very short claws that clasp only the base of the filament column. Moraea vuvuzela. a member of series Galaxia of the Galaxia group of the genus (now 17 species, has deeply fringed stigma lobes, filaments free in the upper 1 mm, ± prostrate, lanceolate leaves and. remarkable for the series, dark brown to purple markings near the base of the tepal limbs. In the unusually variable M.fugax, currently with two subspecies, new collections of subsp. fugax co-occurring but on different soils with subsp.  filicaulis, cast doubt on their current treatment as members of the same species. We now favour recognition of the diminutive subsp.filicaulis as a separate species, M. filicaulis. In the M iripetala group we recommend recognition of the early blooming M. punctata, described in 1892 and later subsumed in M. iripetala but readily distinguished by the long inner  tepals broader in the midline and short, relatively broad, plane rather than channelled leaves. We also report small but significant range extensions for M. barkerae, M. macrocarpa and M. tricolor.

  2. Three new species of Gladiolus (Iridaceae from South Africa, a major range extension for G. rubellus and taxonomic notes for the genus in southern and tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Gladiolus L. are described from South Africa.  G. dolichosiphon is the second known member of series Blandus from the mountains of the Little Karoo in Western Cape, and is distinguished from other members of the long tubed, pink-flowered G. carneus complex by its 5 or 6 linear leaves, creamy pink to salmon flowers with a tube 30-50 mm long and longer than the dorsal tepal, and its late summer flowering. G. karooicus from the Klein Roggeveld and the northern foothills of the Witteberg, is a spring-flowering species allied to G. permeabilis but has bright, canary-yellow flowers with the lower part of the lower tepals involute and conspicuously auriculate.  G. reginae is an edaphic endemic of the Sekhuk- huneland Centre of Floristic Endemism in Mpumalanga, and flowers in autumn. It is evidently a glabrous member of section Densiflorus series Scabridus, distinguished by its long-tubed flowers, streaked with red on the lower tepals and blotched with red in the throat. Anomalously, however, it has the tubular inner bracts and large capsules diagnostic of section Ophiolyza series Oppositiflorus. A re-examination of the morphology suggests that series Scabridus is better placed in section Ophiolyza and a slightly revised classification of Gladiolus in southern Africa is proposed. We also propose the replacement name G. sulculatus for the Tanzanian species, G. sulcatus Goldblatt, a later homonym of G. sulcatus Lam. Finally, a recent sighting of what appears to be G. rubellus from northern Namibia constitutes the first record of this species in the country and a major range extension from its previous known occurrence in southeastern Botswana.

  3. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  4. Growth performance of loblolly shortleaf, and pitch X loblolly pine hybrid growing along the western margin of commercial pine range

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the commercial pine range is one of the opportunities to improve forest production and counterbalance the loss of forest land to other uses. The potential genotypes for the purpose are fast-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the slower growing, but more drought tolerant shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.), and the more cold tolerant pitch x loblolly...

  5. Plasmonic resonances in hybrid systems of aluminum nanostructured arrays and few layer graphene within the UV–IR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Campuzano, R.; Saniger, J. M.; Mendoza, D.

    2017-11-01

    The size-controllable and ordered Al nanocavities and nanodomes arrays were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of aluminum using phosphoric acid, citric acid and mixture both acids. Few layer graphene (FLG) was transferred directly on top of Al nanostructures and their morphology were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between FLG and the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures arrays were investigated based on specular reflectivity in the ultraviolet–visible–infrared range and Raman spectroscopy. We found that their optical reflectivity was dramatically reduced as compared with unstructured Al. At the same time pronounced reflectivity dips were detectable in the 200–896 nm wavelength range, which were ascribed to plasmonic resonances. The plasmonic properties of these nanostructures do not exhibit evident changes by the presence of FLG in the UV–vis range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By contrast, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of FLG was observed in nanocavities and nanodomes structures that result in an intensity increase of the characteristic G and 2D bands of FLG induced by the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures.

  6. Charging up for the future of plug-in hybrids and range extenders. An exploration of options for increased battery utilisation; Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders. Een verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor vergroten van het elektrische gebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Schroten, A.; Aarnink, S.

    2013-05-15

    If the full potential of plug-in hybrids and electric cars with a range extender is to be usefully exploited, it is important that these vehicles be used in battery mode as much as possible. This means that users' charging and driving behaviour needs to be positively influenced. This can be achieved through suitably designed financial incentives on the part of employers and government, further expansion of battery-charging infrastructure, and transferring knowledge on driving style. Improved driving and charging behaviour will lead to lower effective fuel consumption, reduced CO2 emissions and improved air quality. These are some of the results of this study in which it is examined how the performance of plug-in hybrids and cars with a range extender can be improved. It is the first study to look into the factors governing practical usage of such vehicles and the options available to the various parties to improve that usage. To this end a literature study was carried out and interviews were held with employers, leasing companies, trade associations, government agencies and other parties [Dutch] Om het potentieel van plug-in hybrides en elektrische auto's met een range extender te benutten is het van belang dat deze auto's zoveel mogelijk elektrisch worden gereden. Hiervoor is het nodig om het oplaad- en rijgedrag van de gebruikers positief te beïnvloeden. Dit kan door het geven van slimme financiële prikkels door werkgevers en overheid, het verder uitbreiden van de laadinfrastructuur en kennisoverdracht over rijgedrag. Een verbeterd rij- en laadgedrag zorgt voor een lager brandstofpraktijkverbruik, minder CO2-uitstoot en een betere luchtkwaliteit. Dit staat onder meer in de studie 'Opladen voor de toekomst van plug-in hybrides en range extenders' van CE Delft, waarin op verzoek van de Nederlandse importeurs van Toyota en Opel is onderzocht hoe het elektrisch gebruik kan worden verbeterd. Hierin is voor het eerst gekeken naar de factoren

  7. Visible-range hybrid femtosecond systems based on a XeF(C-A) amplifier: state of the art and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Grudtsyn, Ya V; Ivanov, N G; Koval' chuk, B M; Losev, B F; Mamaev, S B; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Polivin, A V; Stepanov, S G; Ratakhin, N A; Yalovoi, V I; Yastremskii, Arkadii G

    2013-03-31

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the hybrid (solid state/gas) visible-range femtosecond systems THL-100 (IHCE SB RAS) and THL-30 (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute) based on a Ti : sapphire front end and a photochemical XeF(C-A) amplifier are reported. The front end generates 50-fs optical pulses with the second-harmonic (475 nm) energy of up to 5 mJ. The active medium of the amplifier is produced in a mixture XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} subjected to VUV radiation of xenon excited by an electron beam. The computer model is developed for calculating parameters of the XeF(C - A) amplifier, which is in a good agreement with experiments. In the THL-100 system with the 25-cm output aperture of the XeF(C-A) amplifier, a record visible-range femtosecond radiation peak power of 14 GW was obtained in a 50-fs pulse with the time contrast of above 10{sup 8}. The measured power of an amplified spontaneous emission of the XeF(C-A) amplifier in the angle of 0.2 mrad was 32 W. The result obtained testifies that the hybrid approach to the development of ultrahigh-power systems provides a high time contrast of radiation (greater than 10{sup 12} for the projected peak power of 100 TW). In the THL-30 system, prospects for shortening an amplified femtosecond pulse are studied and it is experimentally shown that by compensating a third-order dispersion in a hybrid system one can obtain pulses with duration of at least 27 fs with a recompression of amplified pulses in bulk glass. Also, a new phenomenon was observed of spectrum broadening and self-compression of negatively chirped femtosecond pulses in the visible range under a nonlinear interaction of wide-aperture beams with fused silica. This result opens prospects for development of the new methods of selfcompression for femtosecond pulses that are lacking physical limitations on pulse energy and realisation of self-compression of amplified pulses in the output window of the XeF(C-A) amplifier. (extreme light fields

  8. Direct measurement of the long-range p -d exchange coupling in a ferromagnet-semiconductor Co/CdMgTe/CdTe quantum well hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, I. A.; Salewski, M.; Kalitukha, I. V.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Debus, J.; Kudlacik, D.; Sapega, V. F.; Kopteva, N. E.; Kirstein, E.; Zhukov, E. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Bayer, M.

    2017-11-01

    The exchange interaction between magnetic ions and charge carriers in semiconductors is considered to be a prime tool for spin control. Here, we solve a long-standing problem by uniquely determining the magnitude of the long-range p -d exchange interaction in a ferromagnet-semiconductor (FM-SC) hybrid structure where a 10-nm-thick CdTe quantum well is separated from the FM Co layer by a CdMgTe barrier with a thickness on the order of 10 nm. The exchange interaction is manifested by the spin splitting of acceptor bound holes in the effective magnetic field induced by the FM. The exchange splitting is directly evaluated using spin-flip Raman scattering by analyzing the dependence of the Stokes shift ΔS on the external magnetic field B . We show that in a strong magnetic field, ΔS is a linear function of B with an offset of Δp d=50 -100 μ eV at zero field from the FM induced effective exchange field. On the other hand, the s -d exchange interaction between conduction band electrons and FM, as well as the p -d contribution for free valence band holes, are negligible. The results are well described by the model of indirect exchange interaction between acceptor bound holes in the CdTe quantum well and the FM layer mediated by elliptically polarized phonons in the hybrid structure.

  9. More than one way to stretch: a tectonic model for extension along the plume track of the Yellowstone hotspot and adjacent Basin and Range Province

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsons, Tom; Thompson, George A; Smith, Richard P

    1998-01-01

    .... The plain represents the 100‐km‐wide track of the Yellowstone hotspot during the last ∼16–17 m.y., and its crust has been heavily intruded by mafic magma, some of which has erupted to the surface as extensive basalt flows...

  10. An Attempt at the Northward Extension of the Breeding Range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle by Egg Transplant Progress Report #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The object of this study is to attempt to extend the breeding range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle northward to some of its reported previous range along the...

  11. An Attempt at the Northward Extension of the Breeding Range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle by Egg Transplant Progress Report #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The object of this study is to attempt to extend the breeding range of the Atlantic Loggerhead Turtle northward to some of its reported previous range along the...

  12. Two new subspecies of Dietes (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, Dietes iridioides subsp. angolensis from Angola and Dietes bicolor subsp. armeniaca from eastern South Africa, with notes and range extensions for Dietes butcheriana and Dietes iridioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goldblatt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent collections of Dietes have extended the known geographical range and morphological variation in several species.Objectives: To describe additional taxa in Dietes to reflect the morphological and geographical variation in the species more accurately and to record significant range extensions. Method: Recent collections were compared with existing herbarium material and published literature.Results: Two new subspecies in Dietes are described, viz. Dietes iridioides subsp. angolensis from Angola, constituting the first record of the species from that country, and Dietes bicolor subsp. armeniaca from eastern South Africa, which represents a range extension into southern KwaZulu-Natal. We also document a range extension for the local endemic Dietes butcheriana from KwaZulu-Natal into the Eastern Cape and discuss an anomalous population of D. iridioides, with long-lived flowers, from near Hankey in the Eastern Cape.Conclusions: The range extensions and new infraspecific taxa increase our understanding of the diversity of Dietes in southern and south tropical Africa.

  13. Visual detection of telomerase activity with a tunable dynamic range by using a gold nanoparticle probe-based hybridization protection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiasi; Wu, Li; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel telomere complementary (TC) oligonucleotide modified AuNP probe (TC-AuNPs) for colorimetric analysis of telomerase activity. The mechanism of this method is that the telomerase reaction products (TRP), which can hybridize with the TC-AuNPs, are able to protect the AuNPs from the aggregation induced by salt. It is demonstrated that the colorimetric method enabled the analysis of the telomerase activity in 1000 HeLa cells with the naked eye, and down to 100 HeLa cells with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy. This strategy is not only convenient and sensitive, but also has a tunable dynamic range. The platform is also applicable for the initial screening of a telomerase inhibitor to discover new anticancer drugs.We developed a novel telomere complementary (TC) oligonucleotide modified AuNP probe (TC-AuNPs) for colorimetric analysis of telomerase activity. The mechanism of this method is that the telomerase reaction products (TRP), which can hybridize with the TC-AuNPs, are able to protect the AuNPs from the aggregation induced by salt. It is demonstrated that the colorimetric method enabled the analysis of the telomerase activity in 1000 HeLa cells with the naked eye, and down to 100 HeLa cells with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy. This strategy is not only convenient and sensitive, but also has a tunable dynamic range. The platform is also applicable for the initial screening of a telomerase inhibitor to discover new anticancer drugs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05185d

  14. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  15. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  16. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masello, Juan F; Quillfeldt, Petra; Munimanda, Gopi K; Klauke, Nadine; Segelbacher, Gernot; Schaefer, H Martin; Failla, Mauricio; Cortés, Maritza; Moodley, Yoshan

    2011-06-15

    While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m) may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes) across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  17. Extension of the Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis of Homopolymers to Low Resolution and High Mass Range Mass Spectra Using Fractional Base Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-03-07

    Beyond the high resolution/low mass range data traditionally used, a Kendrick mass defect analysis (KMD) using the new concept of fractional base units has been successfully conducted on low resolution/low mass range and high resolution/high mass range data for the first time. Relying on a mathematical framework to rationalize the effect of the fractional base units, the electrospray ionization single stage and multistage mass spectra of a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) recorded from a low resolution ion trap analyzer were turned into information-rich KMD plots using vinylpyrrolidone/112 and pyrrolidone/86 as base units. The distributions detected in the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization spiralTOF mass spectra of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(caprolactone) were conveniently discriminated in KMD plots using (ethylene oxide)/45 and caprolactone/113 as base units with an unprecedented resolution at such a mass range. The high resolution KMD analysis using fractional base units opens new perspectives for the acquisition, visualization, and presentation of mass spectra of polymers with less restrictions in terms of required resolution and molecular weights.

  18. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Canada lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis x L. rufus) hybrids at the southern periphery of lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Homyack; Jennifer H. Vashon; Cade Libby; Edward L. Lindquist; Steve Loch; Donald F. McAlpine; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization between federally threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcat (L. rufus) was recently documented in the United States, but little is known regarding physical characteristics of hybrids compared to parent species. We report on the morphology and physical characteristics of five of seven Canada lynx-bobcat...

  20. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Farías-Curtidor

    Full Text Available The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp. to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W during two separate efforts: (a a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010, and (b three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014. Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA and Cytochrome b (Cytb. Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.. However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  1. Range extension for the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean, with taxonomic implications from genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías-Curtidor, Nohelia; Barragán-Barrera, Dalia C; Chávez-Carreño, Paula Alejandra; Jiménez-Pinedo, Cristina; Palacios, Daniel M; Caicedo, Dalila; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014). Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ~1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.). However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock.

  2. Extension and applications of switching model: Range theory, multiple scattering model of Goudsmit-Saunderson, and lateral spread treatment of Marwick-Sigmund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Seiji

    2017-09-01

    The switching model (PSM) developed in the previous paper is extended to obtain an ;extended switching model (ESM). In the ESM, the mixt electronic-and-nuclear energy-loss region, in addition to the electronic and nuclear energy-loss regions in PSM, is taken into account analytically and appropriately. This model is combined with a small-angle multiple scattering range theory considering both nuclear and electronic stopping effects developed by Marwick-Sigmund and Valdes-Arista to formulate a improved range theory. The ESM is also combined with the multiple scattering theory with non-small angle approximation by Goudsmit-Saunderson. Furthermore, we applied ESM to lateral spread model of Marwick-Sigmund. Numerical calculations of the entire distribution functions including one of the mixt region are roughly and approximately possible. However, exact numerical calculation may be impossible. Consequently, several preliminary numerical calculations of the electronic, mixt, and nuclear regions are performed to examine their underlying behavior with respect to the incident energy, the scattering angle, the outgoing projectile intensity, and the target thickness. We show the numerical results not only of PSM and but also of ESM. Both numerical results are shown in the present paper for the first time. Since the theoretical relations are constructed using reduced variables, the calculations are made only on the case of C colliding on C.

  3. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  4. Uticaj povećanja dometa na dinamičku stabilnost artiljerijskih raketa sa olučastim krilima / Influence of range extension on dynamic stability for artillery rockets with wrap around fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ćuk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani efekti povećanja dometa artiljerijske rakete sa olučastim krilima na njenu dinamičku stabilnost. Totalni impuls raketnog motora, uvećan za 50% i let rakete kroz slojeve atmosfere sa malom gustinom vazduha povećavaju domet rakete za više od 75% od nominalnog dometa. Međutim, let rakete kroz razređeni vazduh proizvodi teškoće koje se odnose na dinamičku stabilnost. Male promene bočnog momenta indukovanog napadnim uglom i Magnusovog momenta mogu proizvesti nestabilnost kretanja i nedozvoljeni rast napadnog ugla. Određene su tolerancije bočnog momenta za osnovnu i poboljšanu varijantu rakete radi sprečavanja nestabilnog leta. Analiziran je, takođe uticaj povećanja dometa na verovatna odstupanja rakete po dometu i pravcu. / This paper presents the effects of the range extension of an artillery rocket with wrap around fins on its dynamic stability. The increased total impulse of the rocket engine for 50% and flight through the atmosphere layers with low air density extend the range for more than 75% of the nominal range. However, the flight of the unguided rocket through the rarefied air produces difficulties related to the dynamic stability. The small changes in the side moment which is induced by the angle of attack and Magnus moment of the improved rocket can produce instabilities in flight and increasement the angle of attack. The tolerances of the side moment were determined for both basic and improved type of the rocket in order to prevent instable flight. The influence of the range extension on the probable errors in range and cross-range was analyzed as well.

  5. Extension of an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory approach to detect and account for differential item functioning in longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Gibbons, Laura E; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Crane, Paul K

    2013-04-01

    Many constructs are measured using multi-item data collection instruments. Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when construct-irrelevant covariates interfere with the relationship between construct levels and item responses. DIF assessment is an active area of research, and several techniques are available to identify and account for DIF in cross-sectional settings. Many studies include data collected from individuals over time; yet appropriate methods for identifying and accounting for items with DIF in these settings are not widely available. We present an approach to this problem and apply it to longitudinal Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) data from English speakers in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. We analyzed 3MS items for DIF with respect to sex, birth cohort and education. First, we focused on cross-sectional data from a subset of Canadian Study of Health and Aging participants who had complete data at all three data collection periods. We performed cross-sectional DIF analyses at each time point using an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory (OLR/IRT) framework. We found that item-level findings differed at the three time points. We then developed and applied an approach to detecting and accounting for DIF using longitudinal data in which covariation within individuals over time is accounted for by clustering on person. We applied this approach to data for the "entire" dataset of English speaking participants including people who later dropped out or died. Accounting for longitudinal DIF modestly attenuated differences between groups defined by educational attainment. We conclude with a discussion of further directions for this line of research.

  6. An extensive candidate gene approach to speciation: diversity, divergence and linkage disequilibrium in candidate pigmentation genes across the European crow hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelstra, J W; Ellegren, H; Wolf, J B W

    2013-12-01

    Colouration patterns have an important role in adaptation and speciation. The European crow system, in which all-black carrion crows and grey-coated hooded crows meet in a narrow hybrid zone, is a prominent example. The marked phenotypic difference is maintained by assortative mating in the absence of neutral genetic divergence, suggesting the presence of few pigmentation genes of major effect. We made use of the rich phenotypic and genetic resources in mammals and identified a comprehensive panel of 95 candidate pigmentation genes for birds. Based on functional annotation, we chose a subset of the most promising 37 candidates, for which we developed a marker system that demonstrably works across the avian phylogeny. In total, we sequenced 107 amplicons (∼3 loci per gene, totalling 60 kb) in population samples of crows (n=23 for each taxon). Tajima's D, Fu's FS, DHEW and HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade) statistics revealed several amplicons that deviated from neutrality; however, none of these showed significantly elevated differentiation between the two taxa. Hence, colour divergence in this system may be mediated by uncharacterized pigmentation genes or regulatory regions outside genes. Alternatively, the observed high population recombination rate (4Ner∼0.03), with overall linkage disequilibrium dropping rapidly within the order of few 100 bp, may compromise the power to detect causal loci with nearby markers. Our results add to the debate as to the utility of candidate gene approaches in relation to genomic features and the genetic architecture of the phenotypic trait in question.

  7. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2015-10-07

    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  8. The Start-up of Hybrid, Anaerobic up-flow Sludge Blanket (HUASB under a Range of Mesophiclic and Thermophilic Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Habeeb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effect of gradual increase of the temperature on the performance of anaerobic process of palm oil mill effluent (POME, and sludge granules development. Two hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB reactors R1 and R2 were employed to be run at 27±2 and 37±1°C, respectively. R1 was kept at room temperature for the whole experiment, where the temperature of R2 was increased up to 49ºC (3ºC after every steady-state occurrence. Maximum COD removal of 91% was obtained in R2 at optimum temperature of 46°C, while 84% was recorded in R1. Additional parameters were applied to evaluate the performance of the process, i.e. total suspended solids (TSS, Turbidity, and Color. The imaging of sludge aggregate has revealed the effect of temperature on granulation development during the experiment. Throughout the operation period, it can be seen that the microbial growth rate was significantly affected by temperature. Hence, the use of HUASB reactor could be productively implemented for POME treatment as an efficient system under the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures.

  9. Minimization of temperature ranges between the top and bottom of an air flow controlling device through hybrid control in a plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Mi; Kwon, Sook-Youn; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  10. Minimization of Temperature Ranges between the Top and Bottom of an Air Flow Controlling Device through Hybrid Control in a Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Mi Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  11. Comparison of hybrid capture 2 High-Risk HPV results in the low positive range with cobas® HPV Test results from the ATHENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arundhati; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Sideri, Mario; Young, Stephen; Sharma, Abha; Behrens, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The increasing importance of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing in cervical cancer screening warrants evaluation of HPV DNA tests with an equivocal zone requiring retesting of samples in the low positive range. To compare the results of the digene hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test (hc2), which has a manufacturer's recommended retesting zone with the cobas HPV Test, a real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification test without an equivocal range. A retrospective subanalysis of the ATHENA study comparing results for hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test using the LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (LA) and Sanger sequencing as comparators was performed. The ability of each test to detect high-grade cervical disease in the equivocal range was also evaluated. 5.2% of samples fell within the equivocal zone (RLU/CO 1.0-2.5) and required retesting with the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. In this low-positive range the cobas HPV Test showed better positive percent agreement (PPA) than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test for LA and sequencing (84.2% vs.70.9% and 92.1% vs.82.5%, respectively). hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test demonstrated comparable sensitivity for detection of high-grade disease in the equivocal range. In the low cobas HPV Test range (cycle threshold [Ct] 40-35), the cobas HPV test again demonstrated a better PPA than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test with LA and sequencing as comparators and more high-grade disease was detected by the cobas HPV Test than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. The cobas HPV Test demonstrates reliable performance in the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test equivocal zone, thus supporting it as an option for HPV testing that avoids the need for retesting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proposal and verification numerical simulation for a microwave forward scattering technique at upper hybrid resonance for the measurement of electron gyroscale density fluctuations in the electron cyclotron frequency range in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, E.; Igami, H.

    2017-11-01

    A diagnostic technique for detecting the wave numbers of electron density fluctuations at electron gyro-scales in an electron cyclotron frequency range is proposed, and the validity of the idea is checked by means of a particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulation. The technique is a modified version of the scattering technique invented by Novik et al. [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, 357-381 (1994)] and Gusakov et al., [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, 899-912 (1999)]. The novel method adopts forward scattering of injected extraordinary probe waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer instead of the backward-scattering adopted by the original method, enabling the measurement of the wave-numbers of the fine scale density fluctuations in the electron-cyclotron frequency band by means of phase measurement of the scattered waves. The verification numerical simulation with the PIC method shows that the technique has a potential to be applicable to the detection of electron gyro-scale fluctuations in laboratory plasmas if the upper-hybrid resonance layer is accessible to the probe wave. The technique is a suitable means to detect electron Bernstein waves excited via linear mode conversion from electromagnetic waves in torus plasma experiments. Through the numerical simulations, some problems that remain to be resolved are revealed, which include the influence of nonlinear processes such as the parametric decay instability of the probe wave in the scattering process, and so on.

  13. Atomistic simulations of the equation of state and hybridization of liquid carbon at a temperature of 6000 K in the pressure range of 1-25 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozhdikov, V. S.; Basharin, A. Yu.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The equation of state and the structure of liquid carbon are studied by molecular simulation. Both classical and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) are used to calculate the equation of state and the distribution of chemical bonds at 6000 K in the pressure range 1-25 GPa. Our calculations and results of other authors show that liquid carbon has a fairly low density on the order of 1.2-1.35 g/cm3 at pressures about 1 GPa. Owing to the coordination number analysis, this fact can be attributed to the high content of sp1-bonded atoms (more than 50% according to our ab initio computations). Six empirical potentials have been tested in order to describe the density dependence of pressure and structure at 6000 K. As a result, only one potential, ReaxFF/lg, was able to reproduce the QMD simulations for both the equation of state and the fraction of sp1, sp2, sp3-bonded atoms.

  14. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...

  15. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    followed by lack of contact with extension agents (71.7%) and gender ... As women typically confront narrower range of labour markets than men, and lower wage ..... gap in accessibility to productive resources between male and female heads ...

  16. BEGA Starter/Alternator - Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion; Coroban-Schramel, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobile (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range (CPSR), theoretically...... high dynamic performance is secured. Implementation and extensive experiments validate the proposed solutions....

  17. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  18. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  20. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  1. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  2. Hybrid Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics with Interval Length Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the question of how much hybrid machinery can be added to the interval neighbourhood logic PNL and its metric extension MPNL without losing the decidability of their satisfiability problem in N. In particular, we consider the natural hybrid extension of MPNL obtained by adding...... over interval lengths. These results show that MPNL itself is, in this sense, a maximal decidable (weakly) hybrid extension of PNL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Introgressive hybridization in southern African baboons shapes patterns of mtDNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C; Roos, C; Groeneveld, L F; Fischer, J; Zinner, D

    2010-05-01

    Species, as main evolutionary units have long been considered to be morphological entities with limited hybridization potential. The occurrence of taxa which maintain morphological distinctness despite extensive hybridization is an interesting phenomenon. To understand the evolution of these taxa, descriptions of contemporary morphological and genetic variation are essential, also to reconstruct sound phylogenies. Baboons, with their wide geographic range, variant morphotypes, and extensive hybridization offer an intriguing model for those studies. We focus on the complex situation in southern Africa that, in contrast to east Africa, has been neglected in terms of baboon hybridization history. We aim to clarify the distribution and identify possible overlapping zones between different, previously described mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades of baboons that do not match with the ranges of traditionally recognized species. On the basis of the widespread sampling and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequencing, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that separates representatives of the two southern African baboon species, yellow and chacma baboons, into six clades: southern, northern and eastern chacmas, Kinda baboons and southern and Luangwa yellow baboons. The ranges of the chacma clades come into close contact or overlap in two regions in the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. Our phylogenetic reconstruction reveals mitochondrial paraphyly for chacma and yellow baboons, which is probably caused by introgressive hybridization and subsequent nuclear swamping, whereby males of the chacma morphotype population from the south invaded the yellow morphotype population in the north bringing their morphotype into a population that maintained its yellow baboon mtDNA.

  4. A novel electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Jinfa, E-mail: jinfa.ming@gmail.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Zuo, Baoqi, E-mail: bqzuo@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A novel electrospinning of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers with different composition ratios was performed with methanoic acid as a spinning solvent. The silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrids containing up to 30% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be electrospun into the continuous fibrous structure. The electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers showed bigger diameter and wider diameter distribution than pure silk fibroin nanofibers, and the average diameter gradually increased from 95 to 582 nm. At the same time, the secondary structure of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and DSC measurement. Comparing with the pure silk fibroin nanofibers, the crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the hydroxyapatite crystalline nature remained as evidenced from the diffraction planes (002), (211), (300), and (202) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites, which was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The thermal behavior of hybrid nanofibers exhibited the endothermic peak of moisture evaporation ranging from 86 to 113 Degree-Sign C, and the degradation peak at 286 Degree-Sign C appeared. The SF/HAp nanofibers mats containing 30% HAp nanoparticles showed higher breaking tenacity and extension at break for 1.1688 {+-} 0.0398 MPa and 6.55 {+-} 1.95%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers should be provided potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel SF/HAp nanofibers were directly prepared by electrospinning method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofiber diameter had significant related to the content of HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in

  5. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  7. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  8. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... gametogenesis and mating between frogs with incompatible gametes induce a significant hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of R. esculenta, and we discuss compensating advantages and potential evolutionary trajectories to reduce this hybrid load....

  9. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds agricultural extension theory and contributes to the practice of extension worldwide. Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the ...

  10. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  11. Generating series for bilinear hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Petreczky (Mihaly); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we introduce the novel concept of a hybrid generating series and show that continuous state and output trajectories of bilinear hybrid systems can be described in terms of these series. The results represent an extension of the Fliess-series expansion for bilinear systems

  12. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  13. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  14. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretat...

  15. Birds of Somalia: new records, range extensions and observations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange River Francolin Scleroptila levaillantoides lorti. These rare francolins were recorded on two consecutive days (22–23 May) near Daalo. (13a). This taxon is confined to Somaliland and adjacent northeast Ethiopia (Ash &. Atkins 2009). Yellow-necked Spurfowl Pternistis leucoscepus. A few were seen in the Qorulugad ...

  16. Range extension of Pardosa lapidicina emerton (Araneida: Lycosidae) to Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabholz, J.V.; Reynolds, L.J.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Collections of the spider, Pardosa lapidicina, were made at four granite or gneiss rock outcrops in north-central Georgia. The absence of this spider in the adjacent woodland demonstrated a strong preference for the rock outcrop habitat by this species. Measurement of population density was difficult because of the behavior of this species. They can withstand the heat of the sun for a short time only and frequently get under stones for shade. (HLW)

  17. Notes on Angolan birds: new country records, range extensions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mis-identified species, or species for which Angolan records are doubtful, are listed together with reasons why each of the species is unlikely to occur in the country. Several taxonomic issues around some of the Angolan near-endemic bird species are highlighted, together with some discussion on potential species splits.

  18. Maximum Interconnectedness and Availability for Directional Airborne Range Extension Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    affecting the design and management of the network topology [2][3]. In particular, such blockages can cause significant periods of unavailability of the...a standard definition in graph theoretic and networking literature that is related to, but different from, the metric we consider. August 29, 2016...of their flightpaths are assumed to be small compared to the distance between the aircraft. A representative node layout is illustrated in Fig. 5

  19. Range extension of Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Halophila stipulacea (Forsk.) Aschers. is a sea-grass which is widely distributed along the coasts of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. In 1895 Fritsch (Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 45, 1895, p. 104) recorded the species from the Island of Rhodos in the Aegean Sea. This was the first record of

  20. Extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Boyer, J.C.; Corlier, M. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The CLIO FEL has been designed to lase between 2 and 20 {mu}m. The electrons are produced by a 32/50 MeV RF linear accelerator. The injector is a 100 keV thermoionic gun, followed by a subharmonic prebuncher at 0.5 GHz and a buncher at 3 GHz. The electron beam is then accelerated in a 4.5 m long travelling wave accelerating section, to the nominal energy. The undulator consisted of 48 periods of 40 mm and the optical cavity is 4.8 m long which corresponds to a 1.2 m Rayleigh length. The peak power extracted by a ZnSe Brewster plate is 10 MW at 10 {mu}. But, beyond 11{mu}m, the laser power decreases rapidely and no laser oscillation appears above 17 {mu}m. In order to lase at farther wavelengths, few changes have been made: First of all, the power limit is due to the diffraction losses of the undulator vaccuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Numerical calculations have been made and show that cavity losses reach 55 % at 15 {mu}m whereas the measured gain is 60 %. Consequently, the undulator vaccuum chamber have been replaced by a approximately twice bigger one. Then, the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter K is reduced by a factor 2: laser tunability is greatly reduced. This why a new undulator has been built. The main characteristics are summarized.

  1. Range extension of the White-headed Buffalo Weaver Dinemellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40°49'E; elevation 625 m) at a site dominated by dry bush habitats, and fairly heav- ily grazed by livestock. Five birds, all in adult plumage, were seen well and photo- graphed at 16:00 on 20 January 2015. They were feeding on the ground and perching briefly; no breeding-related behaviours were noted, and the birds were ...

  2. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tirely black with few white patches (males) or brownish (females) plumage, the Red- ... searching for food near the visitor centre at Naabi Hill Gate (02°49'56” S, 34°59'54” E,. 1729 m; Plate 1). ... Field guide of the birds of East Africa. Kenya ...

  3. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ern Africa from southern Ethiopia to central Tanzania (race intermedius), and from western Angola to southwest Mozambique ... or vagrant records. This is referred to as the first record for Tanzania, obtained exactly in the same location on. 2 March 2005. At the time it was considered an odd record of a bird well outside its ...

  4. Range extension of Myotis midastactus​ (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462

  5. Range extension of the White-headed Buffalo Weaver Dinemellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    browner (rather than deep black) tones in the mantle feathers and more substantial white margins to the scapulars, tertials and greater coverts (del Hoyo et al. ... eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. (Accessed: 11 March ...

  6. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  7. Hybrid virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana

    2014-01-01

    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  8. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  9. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  10. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  11. Marketing Extension Needs for Sustainable Extension Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the marketing extension needs of cassava farmers in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and five respondents from the list of contact farmers obtained from the state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Interview ...

  12. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follo...... with similar survival compared to extensive surgery, but with advancing age conservative surgery increased the risk of relapse and death....

  13. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-02

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  15. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  16. University Extension Before 1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lowell R.

    1976-01-01

    The author traces university extension from its elite English roots to evolving forces toward democratization of educational opportunities and the simultaneous emergence of similar American programs such as library-related night schools, the Lyceum movement, Chataqua, the Philadelphia Society for Extension of University Teaching, and the…

  17. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of

  18. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  19. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  20. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  1. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of at...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  2. Timed Extensions for SDL

    OpenAIRE

    Bozga, Marius; Graf, Susanne; Mounier, Laurent; Ober, Iulian; Roux, Jean-Luc; Vincent, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose some extensions necessary to enable the specification and description language SDL to become an appropriate formalism for the design of real-time and embedded systems. The extensions we envisage concern both roles of SDL: First, in order to make SDL a real-time specification language, allowing to correctly simulate and verify real-time specifications, we propose a set of annotations to express in a flexible way assumptions and assertions on tim...

  3. Gamut extension for cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Syed Waqas,; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of dis...

  4. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites... natural fibre / biofibre in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fibre provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites...

  5. Confiabilidade intra-avaliador da medida de amplitude de movimento da flexão e extensão do joelho pelo método de fotogrametria Intra-rater reliability of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurement through the photogrammetry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Peixoto César

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de existirem diversos métodos para a determinação da amplitude de movimento (ADM, a baixa confiabilidade, a pouca sensibilidade, a subjetividade ou a ausência de valores do erro típico da medida (ETM de alguns desses métodos comprometem a interpretação adequada dos resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a confiabilidade intra-avaliador da medida e do método de fotogrametria para a ADM de extensão ativa e flexão passiva do joelho (FPJ, realizada no mesmo dia (consistência interna e em dias diferentes (estabilidade. Participaram 18 sujeitos do sexo masculino (24,5±3,7 anos, 79,3±10,1 kg e 174,8±4,2 cm. Após a marcação dos pontos anatômicos de referência, a angulação dos movimentos foi registrada em fotografia, por meio da ferramenta de dimensão angular no software CorelDRAW®. A confiabilidade da medida e do instrumento foi estabelecida pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI e pelo cálculo do ETM. A distribuição dos erros dos dados foi verificada pela representação gráfica de Bland e Altman. O método apresentou confiabilidade perfeita (ETM=0,01 e CCI=1,0 para ambos os movimentos. Para a confiabilidade da medida, foram encontrados os valores 0,97 e 0,93 para consistência interna e 0,96 e 0,83 para estabilidade (ETM=2,9 e 4,0%; pAlthough there are several methods for determining the range of motion (ROM, low reliability, low sensitivity, subjectivity or lack of information related to the typical error of measurement (TEM may compromise interpretation of testing results. The aim of this study was to test the intra-rater reliability of the ROM measurement and the photogrammetry method for same day (internal consistency and between days (stability for knee active extension and passive flexion. Eighteen active male volunteers (24.5±3.7 years, 79.3±10.1 kg and 174.8±4.2 cm were selected to participate in the study. After identification of anatomical landmarks used for reference, knee passive

  6. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  7. Physiological and genetic stability of hybrids of industrial wine yeasts Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Rajkowska, K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physiological and genetic stability of hybrids of industrial wine yeasts Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex subjected to acidic stress during fermentation. Laboratory-constructed yeast hybrids, one intraspecific Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. cerevisiae and three interspecific S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces bayanus, were subcultured in aerobic or anaerobic conditions in media with or without l-malic acid. Changes in the biochemical profiles, karyotypes and mitochondrial DNA profiles of the segregates were assessed after 50-190 generations. All yeast segregates showed a tendency to increase the range of the tested compounds utilized as sole carbon sources. Interspecific hybrids were alloaneuploid and their genomes tended to undergo extensive rearrangement especially during fermentation. The karyotypes of segregates lost up to four and appearance up to five bands were recorded. The changes in their mtDNA patterns were even broader reaching 12 missing and six additional bands. These hybrids acquired the ability to sporulate and significantly changed their biochemical profiles. The alloaneuploid intraspecific S. cerevisiae hybrid was characterized by high genetic stability despite the phenotypic changes. L-malic acid was not found to affect the extent of genomic changes of the hybrids, which suggests that their demalication ability is combined with resistance to acidic stress. The results reveal the plasticity and extent of changes of chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA of interspecific hybrids of industrial wine yeast especially under anaerobiosis. They imply that karyotyping and restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA make it possible to quickly assess the genetic stability of genetically modified industrial wine yeasts but may not be applied as the only method for their identification and discrimination. Laboratory-constructed interspecific hybrids of industrial strains may provide a model for studying the adaptive evolution

  8. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2008-10-08

    Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  9. Hybrid functionals applied to perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Cesare

    2014-06-25

    After being used for years in the chemistry community to describe molecular properties, hybrid functionals have been increasingly and successfully employed for a wide range of solid state problems which are not accurately accessible by standard density functional theory. In particular, the upsurge of interest in transition metal perovskite-based compounds, motivated by their technological relevance and functional ductility, has incentivized the use of hybrid functionals for realistic applications, as hybrid functionals appear to be capable of capturing the complex correlated physics of this class of oxide material, characterized by a subtle coupling between several competing interactions (lattice, orbital, spin). Here we present a map of recent applications of hybrid functionals to perovskites, aiming to cover an ample spectra of cases, including the 'classical' 3d compounds (manganites, titanates, nickelates, ferrites, etc.), less conventional examples from the the 4d (technetiates) and 5d (iridates) series, and the (non-transition metal) sp perovskite BaBiO3. We focus our attention on the technical aspects of the hybrid functional formalism, such as the role of the mixing and (for range-separated hybrids) screening parameters, and on an extended array of physical phenomena: pressure- and doping-induced insulator-to-metal and structural phase transitions, multiferroism, surface and interface effects, charge ordering and localization effects, and spin-orbit coupling.

  10. Carrier diffusion as a measure of carrier/exciton transfer rate in InAs/InGaAsP/InP hybrid quantum dot-quantum well structures emitting at telecom spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Biegańska, D.; Misiewicz, J.; Lelarge, F.; Rousseau, B.; Sek, G.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the diffusion of photo-generated carriers (excitons) in hybrid two dimensional-zero dimensional tunnel injection structures, based on strongly elongated InAs quantum dots (called quantum dashes, QDashes) of various heights, designed for emission at around 1.5 μm, separated by a 3.5 nm wide barrier from an 8 nm wide In0.64Ga0.36As0.78P0.22 quantum well (QW). By measuring the spectrally filtered real space images of the photoluminescence patterns with high resolution, we probe the spatial extent of the emission from QDashes. Deconvolution with the exciting light spot shape allows us to extract the carrier/exciton diffusion lengths. For the non-resonant excitation case, the diffusion length depends strongly on excitation power, pointing at carrier interactions and phonons as its main driving mechanisms. For the case of excitation resonant with absorption in the adjacent QW, the diffusion length does not depend on excitation power for low excitation levels since the generated carriers do not have sufficient excess kinetic energy. It is also found that the diffusion length depends on the quantum-mechanical coupling strength between QW and QDashes, controlled by changing the dash size. It influences the energy difference between the QDash ground state of the system and the quantum well levels, which affects the tunneling rates. When that QW-QDash level separation decreases, the probability of capturing excitons generated in the QW by QDashes increases, which is reflected by the decreased diffusion length from approx. 5 down to 3 μm.

  11. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  12. Spontaneous interspecific hybridization and patterns of pollen dispersal in ex situ populations of a tree species (Sinojackia xylocarpa) that is extinct in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Ye, Qi-Gang; Yao, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Hong-Wen

    2010-02-01

    For endangered plants interspecific hybridization occurring in ex situ collections may lead to failure of reintroduction actions. We used Sinojackia xylocarpa, a well documented Chinese endemic species that is extinct in the wild, as a model case to address this concern. We used paternity analyses to assess the spontaneous hybridization and patterns of pollen flow between S. xylocarpa and its congener species, S. rehderiana, in conserved populations in Wuhan Botanic Garden. Interspecific hybridization events were detected in seven out of eight maternal trees of S. xylocarpa, and an average of 32.7% seeds collected from maternal trees of S. xylocarpa were hybrids. The paternity of 93 out of 249 seedlings from S. xylocarpa assigned to S. rehderiana provided convincing evidence that spontaneous interspecific hybridization occurred extensively in the living garden collection we studied. Different patterns of pollen dispersal (predominantly short-distance vs. long-distance pollination) were observed between intra- and interspecific hybridization events in the garden. Pollen dispersal within the ex situ populations was not restricted by distance, as evidenced by a lack of significant correlations between the average effective pollen dispersal distance (delta) and the geographic distances (d1 and d2) between maternal and paternal trees. The interspecific pollen-dispersal distance ranged from 10 to 620.1 m (mean 294.4 m). Such extensive hybridization in ex situ collections could jeopardize the genetic integrity of endangered species and irrevocably contaminate the gene pool if such hybrids are used for reintroduction and restoration. We recommend strongly that measures be taken to minimize the genetic risks of this kind of hybridization, including establishing buffer zones in ex situ collections, manipulating flowering phenology, testing seed lots before use in reintroduction programs, and controlling pollination for seed purity.

  13. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  14. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  15. Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors in Hybrid Topologies —Assessment and Evaluation of Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PHEVs and BEVs make use of battery cells optimized for high energy rather than for high power. This means that the power abilities of these batteries are limited. In order to enhance their performance, a hybrid Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS architecture can be used combining batteries with electrical-double layer capacitors (EDLCs. Such a hybridized architecture can be accomplished using passive or active systems. In this paper, the characteristics of these topologies have been analyzed and compared based on a newly developed hybridization simulation tool for association of lithium-ion batteries and EDLCs. The analysis shows that the beneficial impact of the EDLCs brings about enhanced battery performances in terms of energy efficiency and voltage drops, rather than extension of vehicle range. These issues have been particularly studied for the passive and active hybrid topologies. The classical passive and active topologies being expensive and less beneficial in term of cost, volume and weight, a new hybrid configuration based on the parallel combination of lithium-ion and EDLCs on cell level has been proposed in this article. This topology allows reducing cost, volume, and weight and system complexity in a significant way. Furthermore, a number of experimental setups have illustrated the power of the novel topology in terms of battery capacity increase and power capabilities during charging and discharging. Finally, a unique cycle life test campaign demonstrated that the lifetime of highly optimized lithium-ion batteries can be extended up to 30%–40%.

  16. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  17. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  18. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jia-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  19. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  20. First-Order Hybrid Logic: Introduction and Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one o...

  1. Hybrid Qualifications Country report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2010-01-01

    The report explores the institutional and functional relations between the higher education (tertiary sector) and vocational education (higher secondary education) and the labour market. In the report are included descriptions of the history, funding, outcomes, institutional realisation and term...... and range of hybrid qualifications in the national system. In addition some recommendations for constructive further developments are given....

  2. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  3. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  4. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education......Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...

  5. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISAAC E. ILEVBAOJE. ABSTRACT. This study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of extension workers to the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is on course in Nigeria. Results obtained indicate that about 10. 8, 65.8 and 23.3% of the extension ...

  6. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel Jc; Peters, Marcell K; Schöning, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied...... hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites....

  7. A multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharkas, Kamal; Savin, Andreas; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory which rigorously combines a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation with a density-functional approximation based on a linear decomposition of the electron-electron interaction. This gives a straightforward extension ...

  8. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  9. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  10. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  11. Open Extension Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Бабич

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results which describe the properties of such general topological construction as open extension topology. In particular, we prove that this topology is not transitive. We find the base of the least cardinality for the topology and local one for the neighborhood system of every point. We calculate the interior, the closure, and the sets of isolated and limit points of any set. Also we prove that this space is path connected and is not metrizable, and investigate its cardinal invariants and separation axioms.

  12. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  13. A multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkas, Kamal; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Toulouse, Julien; 10.1063/1.4733672

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory which rigorously combines a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation with a density-functional approximation based on a linear decomposition of the electron-electron interaction. This gives a straightforward extension of the usual hybrid approximations by essentially adding a fraction \\lambda of exact static correlation in addition to the fraction \\lambda of exact exchange. Test calculations on the cycloaddition reactions of ozone with ethylene or acetylene and the dissociation of diatomic molecules with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals show that a good value of \\lambda is 0.25, as in the usual hybrid approximations. The results suggest that the proposed multiconfigurational hybrid approximations can improve over usual density-functional calculations for situations with strong static correlation effects.

  14. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing systems. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study involves the analysis of the chemical composition of white meat (breast muscles) and dark meat (leg muscles) of broilers in extensive indoor and free range systems.

  15. Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The SU(3)_flavor constituent quark model has been quite successful to explain the properties as well as the observed spectrum of mesons with pseudoscalar and vector quantum numbers. Many radial and orbital excitations of quark-antiquark systems predicted by the model, however, have not yet been observed experimentally or assigned unambiguously. In addition, a much richer spectrum of mesons is expected from QCD, in which quarks interact which each other through the exchange of colored self-interacting gluons. Owing to this particular structure of QCD, configurations are allowed in which an excited gluonic field contributes to the quantum numbers J^{PC} of the meson. States with a valence color-octet qqbar' pair neutralized in color by an excited gluon field are termed hybrids. The observation of such states, however, is difficult because they will mix with ordinary qqbar' states with the same quantum numbers, merely augmenting the observed spectrum for a given J^{PC}. Since the gluonic field may carry quantum ...

  16. Axial Extension (Posture Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this helps: It lengthens your spine, which improves posture, and increases comfort, mobility and range of motion. Many of us have a forward head posture. We get this from the type of recreation ...

  17. A luminescent Lanthanide-free MOF nanohybrid for highly sensitive ratiometric temperature sensing in physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Zhang, Denan; Zeng, Jin; Gan, Ning; Cuan, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Luminescent MOF materials with tunable emissions and energy/charge transfer processes have been extensively explored as ratiometric temperature sensors. However, most of the ratiometric MOF thermometers reported thus far are based on the MOFs containing photoactive lanthanides, which are potentially facing cost issue and serious supply shortage. Here, we present a ratiometric luminescent thermometer based on a dual-emitting lanthanide-free MOF hybrid, which is developed by encapsulation of a fluorescent dye into a robust nanocrystalline zirconium-based MOF through a one-pot synthesis approach. The structure and morphology of the hybrid product was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore confinement effect well isolates the guest dye molecules and therefore suppresses the nonradiative energy transfer process between dye molecules. The incorporated dye emission is mainly sensitized by the organic linkers within MOF through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ratiometric luminescence of the MOF hybrid shows a significant response to temperature due to the thermal-related back energy transfer process from dye molecules and organic linkers, thus can be exploited for self-calibrated temperature sensing. The maximum thermometric sensitivity is 1.19% °C -1 in the physiological temperature range, which is among the highest for the ratiomtric MOF thermometers that operating in 25-45°C. The temperature resolution is better than 0.1°C over the entire operative range (20-60°C). By integrating the advantages of excellent stability, nanoscale nature, and high sensitivity and precision in the physiological temperature range, this dye@MOF hybrid might have potential application in biomedical diagnosis. What' more, this work has expanded the possibility of non-lanthanide luminescent MOF materials for the development of ratiometric temperature sensors. Copyright © 2018

  18. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system.

  19. Vermiculite decorated with copper nanoparticles: Novel antibacterial hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drelich, Jaroslaw; Li, Bowen; Bowen, Patrick; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Mills, Owen; Hoffman, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Vermiculite decorated with copper nanoparticles is a new antibacterial material that was prepared in this study through ion-exchange process and hydrogen reduction. The replacement of magnesium ions in interlayer structure was carried out using concentrated copper sulfate solutions at elevated temperature. Copper ions were reduced to elemental copper at 400-600 °C using hydrogen as the reducing agent. During the reduction process copper diffused primarily to vermiculite surface regions and formed copper nanoparticles with a broad range of sizes, from ˜1 to 400 nm. Strong adhesion of copper nanoparticles to the vermiculite carrier makes this hybrid very stable and durable. The new vermiculite-metallic copper hybrid material shows strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at 37 °C. Vermiculite is an inexpensive mineral that is very stable under a wide range of industrial and environmental conditions, and extensively used as filler in fireproof materials, plastics, paints and lightweight concrete, so the addition of copper as an antibacterial agent opens new avenues for the application of vermiculite in consumer products and other areas.

  20. The biomechanics of a multilevel lumbar spine hybrid using nucleus replacement in conjunction with fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael C; Ellingson, Arin M; Mehta, Hitesh P; Huelman, Justin H; Nuckley, David J

    2013-02-01

    Degenerative disc disease is commonly a multilevel pathology with varying deterioration severity. The use of fusion on multiple levels can significantly affect functionality and has been linked to persistent adjacent disc degeneration. A hybrid approach of fusion and nucleus replacement (NR) has been suggested as a solution for mildly degenerated yet painful levels adjacent to fusion. To compare the biomechanical metrics of different hybrid implant constructs, hypothesizing that an NR+fusion hybrid would be similar to a single-level fusion and perform more naturally compared with a two-level fusion. A cadaveric in vitro repeated-measures study was performed to evaluate a multilevel lumbar NR+fusion hybrid. Eight cadaveric spines (L3-S1) were tested in a Spine Kinetic Simulator (Instron, Norwood, MA, USA). Pure moments of 8 Nm were applied in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation as well as compression loading. Specimens were tested intact; fused (using transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion instrumentation with posterior rods) at L5-S1; with a nuclectomy at L4-L5 including fusion at L5-S1; with NR at L4-L5 including fusion at L5-S1; and finally with a two-level fusion spanning L4-S1. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and corrected t tests were used to statistically compare outcomes. The NR+fusion hybrid and single-level fusion exhibited no statistical differences for range of motion (ROM), stiffness, neutral zone, and intradiscal pressure in all loading directions. Compared with two-level fusion, the hybrid affords the construct 41.9% more ROM on average. Two-level fusion stiffness was statistically higher than all other constructs and resulted in significantly lower ROM in flexion, extension, and lateral bending. The hybrid construct produced approximately half of the L3-L4 adjacent-level pressures as the two-level fusion case while generating similar pressures to the single-level fusion case. These data portend more natural functional

  1. Rural Development And Agricultural Extension Administration In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...

  2. A new hybrid numerical scheme for modelling elastodynamics in unbounded media with near-source heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarolasvadi, Setare; Elbanna, Ahmed E.

    2017-11-01

    The finite difference (FD) and the spectral boundary integral (SBI) methods have been used extensively to model spontaneously-propagating shear cracks in a variety of engineering and geophysical applications. In this paper, we propose a new modelling approach in which these two methods are combined through consistent exchange of boundary tractions and displacements. Benefiting from the flexibility of FD and the efficiency of SBI methods, the proposed hybrid scheme will solve a wide range of problems in a computationally efficient way. We demonstrate the validity of the approach using two examples for dynamic rupture propagation: one in the presence of a low-velocity layer and the other in which off-fault plasticity is permitted. We discuss possible potential uses of the hybrid scheme in earthquake cycle simulations as well as an exact absorbing boundary condition.

  3. Optimal Design for Hybrid Ratio of Carbon/Basalt Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimum hybrid ratio range of carbon/basalt hybrid fiber reinforced resin composites was studied. Hybrid fiber composites with nine different hybrid ratios were prepared before tensile test.According to the structural features of plain weave, the unit cell's performance parameters were calculated. Finite element model was established by using SHELL181 in ANSYS. The simulated values of the sample stiffness in the model were approximately similar to the experimental ones. The stress nephogram shows that there is a critical hybrid ratio which divides the failure mechanism of HFRP into single failure state and multiple failure state. The tensile modulus, strength and limit tensile strain of HFRP with 45% resin are simulated by finite element method. The result shows that the tensile modulus of HFRP with 60% hybrid ratio increases by 93.4% compared with basalt fiber composites (BFRP, and the limit tensile strain increases by 11.3% compared with carbon fiber composites(CFRP.

  4. Attitude Of Extension Personnel To Training And Visit Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...

  5. Hybrid Direct Drive PPU with Extended Operating Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-power electric propulsion with Hall thrusters has been proposed as a strong candidate for Electric Path missions, but conventional power processing units (PPUs)...

  6. Facile Preparation of Hybrid Zinc Porphyrin Dendrimer Using Coordination Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Go-Eun; Shin, Eun Ju [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins have been investigated extensively due to their important role in natural photosynthesis, strong absorption in visible region, good light-harvesting properties, unique photophysical and electrochemical properties, and the development of simple synthetic routes for various derivatives. Dendrimers have globular structure with branches of repeating units and wide diversity of the architecture because their size, shape, and functionalities can be tailored. Numerous dendrimers have been designed and synthesized for various applications ranging from catalyst to drug delivery. Both pyridine dendrons Py-PD and Py-AD were successfully coordinated at axial position on central zinc metal cation in zinc porphyrin dendrimers ZnP-AD, ZnP-AD2, or ZnP-AD4. Therefore, it was proven that the formation of axial coordination complex between metal-centered dendrimer and ligand-containing dendron provides another facile method for the preparation of new hybrid dendrimer.

  7. Fungi of the Fusarium genus in the grains of conventional hybrids and transgenic Bt-hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.) in the Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kmoch, Martin; Šafránková, Ivana; Holková, Ludmila; Polišenská, Ivana; Krédl, Zdeněk; Pokorný, Radovan

    .... This study focuses on determining the species range of Fusarium fungi in naturally infected stands of conventional hybrids and transgenic Bt-hybrids of maize in the Czech Republic during 2008 and 2009...

  8. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  9. Hybrid drive systems. Meeting; Hybridantriebe. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The whole range of hybrid drive systems has been covered with contributions from the USA, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands and Germany. The VDI report 1459 contains the talks of this conference focusing on the following subjects: hybrid systems; simulation and practical results; components of the autarkic hybrid, dynamics, control and measuring technology of the autarkic hybrid; concepts and partial systems; overall system of the autarkic hybrid. The contributions have been made by the automobile industry and scientific universities. The company Toyota reports on experience with the hybrid drive system in the first series vehicle world-wide. Results of research projects as well as experience with customer related series solutions are presented. The VDI report addresses researchers and engineers in the fields of automobile and supporting industry as well as other branches that deal with the use of hybrid drive technologies. (orig.) [German] Mit Beitraegen aus den USA, Japan, Schweden, Schweiz, Niederlande und Deutschland wurde die ganze Bandbreite der Hybridantriebe angesprochen. Dazu enthaelt der VDI-Bericht 1459 die Vortraege dieser Veranstaltung mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: Hybridsysteme; Simulation und Praxisergebnisse; Komponenten des Autarken Hybrid; Dynamik, Regelung und Messtechnik des Autarken Hybrid; Konzepte und Teilsysteme; Gesamtsystem des Autarken Hybrid. Die Beitraege kamen aus der Automobilindustrie und den wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen. Unter anderem berichtet die Firma Toyota ueber die Erfahrungen mit dem Hybridantrieb in dem weltweit ersten Serienfahrzeug. Es werden sowohl die Ergebnisse der Forschungsprojekte als auch Erfahrungen mit kundennahen Serienloesungen praesentiert. Der VDI-Bericht wendet sich an Forscher und Entwickler der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie sowie anderer Branchen, die sich mit dem Einsatz von Hybrid-Antriebstechnologien befassen. (orig.)

  10. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  11. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Joseph D; Whitney, Jonathan; Craig, Matthew T; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rocha, Luiz A; Feldheim, Kevin A; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-08-01

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N=141) and A. nigricans (N=412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N=54) and A. japonicus (N=49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000-2.25million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr≈0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST=0.6533, P<0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mtDNA lineage and

  12. Surgeons and suture zones: Hybridization among four surgeonfish species in the Indo-Pacific with variable evolutionary outcomes

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2016-04-30

    Closely related species can provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes through comparison of their ecology, geographic distribution and the history recorded in their genomes. In the Indo-Pacific, many reef fishes are divided into sister species that come into secondary contact at biogeographic borders, most prominently where Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas meet. It is unclear whether hybridization in this contact zone represents incomplete speciation, secondary contact, an evolutionary dead-end (for hybrids) or some combination of the above. To address these issues, we conducted comprehensive surveys of two widely-distributed surgeonfish species, Acanthurus leucosternon (N = 141) and A. nigricans (N = 412), with mtDNA cytochrome b sequences and ten microsatellite loci. These surgeonfishes are found primarily in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, respectively, but overlap at the Christmas and Cocos-Keeling Islands hybrid zone in the eastern Indian Ocean. We also sampled the two other Pacific members of this species complex, A. achilles (N = 54) and A. japonicus (N = 49), which are known to hybridize with A. nigricans where their ranges overlap. Our results indicate separation between the four species that range from the recent Pleistocene to late Pliocene (235,000 to 2.25 million years ago). The Pacific A. achilles is the most divergent (and possibly ancestral) species with mtDNA dcorr ≈ 0.04, whereas the other two Pacific species (A. japonicus and A. nigricans) are distinguishable only at a population or subspecies level (ΦST = 0.6533, P < 0.001). Little population structure was observed within species, with evidence of recent population expansion across all four geographic ranges. We detected sharing of mtDNA haplotypes between species and extensive hybridization based on microsatellites, consistent with later generation hybrids but also the effects of allele homoplasy. Despite extensive introgression, 98% of specimens had concordance between mt

  13. Robotic device-assisted knee extension training during the early postoperative period after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Kubota, Shigeki; Sugaya, Hisashi; Hyodo, Kojiro; Ogawa, Kaishi; Taniguchi, Yu; Kanamori, Akihiro; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-08-05

    Maintenance or restoration of a good range of motion of the knee is one of the most important outcomes following knee surgery. According to previous studies, opening wedge high tibial osteotomy enables better recovery of range of motion in knee flexion than that achievable after total knee arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. However, few reports provide a detailed description of the postoperative recovery of knee extension range of motion after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. We describe our experience with a knee extension training program using a single-joint hybrid assistive limb device (HAL-SJ; Cyberdyne Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) during the acute recovery phase after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. The HAL-SJ is a wearable robotic device that facilitates voluntary control of knee joint motion. A 67-year-old Japanese woman who underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy for spontaneous osteonecrosis of the left medial femoral condyle received HAL-SJ-based knee extension training postoperatively. Our experience with this patient revealed that knee extension training with the HAL-SJ during the acute phase following opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is feasible. Furthermore, the patient's knee extension range of motion improved to values similar to those seen during the preoperative stage, and her flexion range of motion was improved at 3 months after the surgery. HAL-SJ-based knee extension training could be used as a novel post-opening wedge high tibial osteotomy rehabilitation modality. Further exploration of individualized optimal settings of the HAL-SJ is required to improve its safety and efficacy.

  14. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  15. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  16. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  18. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  19. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  20. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  1. Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Sophie; Grellety, Thomas; Toulmonde, Maud; Auzanneau, Céline; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Laizet, Yec'han; Tran, Kevin; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Floquet, Anne; Garbay, Delphine; Robert, Jacques; Hostein, Isabelle; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-02-08

    Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0-9). The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%), colorectal (14.4%), breast (10.6%), ovarian (10.2%) and sarcoma (10.2%). The median patient age was 63 years (range 19-88). A total of 292 patients (51.4%) presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28%) were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%). The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5%) and general status deterioration (25%). Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment) >1.3.Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

  2. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  3. Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Colin E; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Robertson, Ashley; Filer, Denis L; Harris, Stephen A; Bailey, C Donovan

    2007-09-04

    Backyard gardens, dump heaps, and kitchen middens are thought to have provided important venues for early crop domestication via generation of hybrids between otherwise isolated plant species. However, this process has rarely been demonstrated empirically. For the majority of polyploid crops, it remains uncertain to what extent hybridization and polyploidization preceded domestication or were precipitated by human activities. Using archaeological, ethnobotanical, geographical, and genetic data, we investigate the extent and significance of predomestication cultivation, backyard sympatry, and spontaneous hybridization for the Mimosoid legume tree Leucaena, which is used as a food crop throughout south-central Mexico. We show that predomestication cultivation was widespread, involved numerous independent transitions from the wild to cultivation, and resulted in extensive artificial sympatry of 2-6 species locally and 13 species in total. Using chloroplast and rapidly evolving nuclear-encoded DNA sequences, we demonstrate that hybridization in Leucaena has been extensive and complex, spawning a diverse set of novel hybrids as a result of juxtaposition of species in cultivation. The scale and complexity of hybridization in Leucaena is significantly greater than that documented for any other Mexican plant domesticates so far. However, there are striking parallels between Leucaena and the other major Mexican perennial domesticates Agave and Opuntia, which show very similar domestication via backyard hybridization pathways. Our results suggest that backyard hybridization has played a central role in Mesoamerican crop domestication and demonstrate that the simple step of bringing species together in cultivation can provide a potent trigger for domestication.

  4. Bucking the Trend in Wolf-Dog Hybridization: First Evidence from Europe of Hybridization between Female Dogs and Male Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization. PMID:23056315

  5. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  6. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  7. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting......We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  8. From extensive clone libraries to comprehensive DNA arrays for the efficient and simultaneous detection and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Bart; van Kerckhove, Stefan; Justé, Annelies; Cammue, Bruno P A; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    A DNA array was developed from extensive clone library sequence data sets for the assessment of dominant members of mycorrhizal fungi that associate with terrestrial orchid species. As a-proof-of-concept, the array was developed for the basidiomycetous mycorrhizal partners from three closely related perennial Orchis species, including Orchis anthropophora, O. militaris and O. purpurea. Based on internal transcribed spacer regions, oligonucleotides were developed for seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined as groups of sequences sharing at least 97% sequence similarity), corresponding to members of the Tulasnellaceae family. In order to cover a broader spectrum of tulasnelloid fungi, oligonucleotides were as well developed for two subsets of closely related OTUs. The array was evaluated using multiple primer pairs. In addition, hybridization results were validated by recovery and sequencing of the hybridized amplicons as well as by hybridizing reference DNA samples. Considering the unlimited expansion possibilities of DNA arrays to include specific detector oligonucleotides for other and more microorganisms, the method described here has the major advantage that it provides a powerful, rapid and cost-effective way for the simultaneous detection and identification of a wide range of orchid mycorrhizae. The design, development and advantages of the array are discussed in relation to its potential for future research in mycorrhizal ecology. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1770-99 All-Electric Range Test requirements. (a) ZEVs and Type A and Type B hybrid electric vehicles shall be subject to the All-Electric Range Test specified below for the purpose of determining the energy efficiency and operating range of a ZEV or of a hybrid electric vehicle...

  10. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  11. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    years to hours and days for the application of new modeling and analysis capabilities to emerging threats. The development and deployment framework has been generalized into the Hybrid Framework and incor- porated into several LDRD, WFO, and DOE/CSL projects and proposals. And most importantly, the Hybrid project has provided Sandia security analysts with new, scalable, extensible analytic capabilities that have resulted in alerts not detectable using their previous work ow tool sets.

  12. Hybridization between invasive Spartina Densiflora (Poaceae) and native S. Foliosa in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid evolution in contemporary time can result when related species, brought together through human-aided introduction, hybridize. The evolutionary consequences of post introduction hybridization range from allopolyploid speciation to extinction of species through genetic amalg...

  13. Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

  14. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  15. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  16. SKIRT: Hybrid parallelization of radiative transfer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstocken, S.; Van De Putte, D.; Camps, P.; Baes, M.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the design, implementation and performance of the new hybrid parallelization scheme in our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code SKIRT, which has been used extensively for modelling the continuum radiation of dusty astrophysical systems including late-type galaxies and dusty tori. The hybrid scheme combines distributed memory parallelization, using the standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) to communicate between processes, and shared memory parallelization, providing multiple execution threads within each process to avoid duplication of data structures. The synchronization between multiple threads is accomplished through atomic operations without high-level locking (also called lock-free programming). This improves the scaling behaviour of the code and substantially simplifies the implementation of the hybrid scheme. The result is an extremely flexible solution that adjusts to the number of available nodes, processors and memory, and consequently performs well on a wide variety of computing architectures.

  17. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  18. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is ... at 5 percent level of probability, the mean score for the project headquarters staff (106.25) was highest while ... which offered them the opportunity to use their knowledge and skills. Asiabiaka (1991) studied women ...

  19. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  20. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  1. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  2. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  3. Biodegradable and adjustable sol-gel glass based hybrid scaffolds from multi-armed oligomeric building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Hendrikx, Stephan; Flath, Tobias; Kuzmenka, Dzmitry; Dörfler, Hans-Martin; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    established indirect rapid prototyping method to produce a systematic set of porous sol-gel-derived class II hybrid scaffolds. Mechanical properties in the range of cancellous bone were narrowly controlled by hybrid composition. The oligoester introduction resulted in significantly increased compressive moduli. Cytocompatible hybrids degraded in physiologically relevant time frames and a promising linear and controllable weight loss profile was found. To our knowledge, our degradation study represents the most extensive long-term investigation of sol-gel-derived class II hybrids. Due to the broad adjustability of material properties, our concept offers potential for engineering of biodegradable hybrid materials for versatile applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  5. Fuzzy extended preferences: fuzzified extension

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with decision-making problems where a fuzzy preference relation with no unfuzzy nondominated alternatives has been defined. While in the first part randomized extension was considered in order to get a solution, in this second part an aggregative approach to fuzzified extension will be developed.

  6. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  7. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and extension systems for Uganda. Following the recommendations of these working groups, national agricultural research and extension strategies and plans were adopted ..... meetings at institutes have been taking place regularly since 1994. These take ...

  8. Homomorphisms between C∗ -algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -algebra extensions. CHANGGUO WEI. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, ... into the other in general, so we have to consider properties of extension homomorphisms before studying the ..... Theory (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N.S., 1973) Lecture Notes in Math. (Berlin: Springer).

  9. EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...

  10. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  11. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  12. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  13. Functional conservation of the Drosophila hybrid incompatibility gene Lhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbash Daniel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid incompatibilities such as sterility and lethality are commonly modeled as being caused by interactions between two genes, each of which has diverged separately in one of the hybridizing lineages. The gene Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr encodes a rapidly evolving heterochromatin protein that causes lethality of hybrid males in crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males. Previous genetic analyses showed that hybrid lethality is caused by D. simulans Lhr but not by D. melanogaster Lhr, confirming a critical prediction of asymmetry in the evolution of a hybrid incompatibility gene. Results Here we have examined the functional properties of Lhr orthologs from multiple Drosophila species, including interactions with other heterochromatin proteins, localization to heterochromatin, and ability to complement hybrid rescue in D. melanogaster/D. simulans hybrids. We find that these properties are conserved among most Lhr orthologs, including Lhr from D. melanogaster, D. simulans and the outgroup species D. yakuba. Conclusions We conclude that evolution of the hybrid lethality properties of Lhr between D. melanogaster and D. simulans did not involve extensive loss or gain of functions associated with protein interactions or localization to heterochromatin.

  14. Leading school networks, hybrid leadership in action?

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    A range of different constructs are used to describe and define the way that leadership operates in education settings. This range can be presented as binary categories of leadership, in which either one, or the other form of leadership is preferred, but not both. An example of this is the contrast made between solo and distributed leadership. A more sophisticated alternative has been proposed, which is to consider leadership as a hybrid activity, one which entails a range of approaches inspi...

  15. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  16. Hybridization and genome evolution I: The role of contingency during hybrid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Richard I. BAILEY, Glenn-Peter SæTRE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS involves the recombination of two differentiated genomes into a novel, functional one without a change in chromosome number. Theoretically, there are numerous ways for two parental genomes to recombine. Hence, chance may play a large role in the formation of a hybrid species. If these genome combinations can evolve rapidly following hybridization and sympatric situations are numerous, recurrent homoploid hybrid speciation is a possibility. We argue that three different, but not mutually exclusive, types of contingencies could influence this process. First, many of these “hopeful monsters” of recombinant parent genotypes would likely have low fitness. Only specific combinations of parental genomic contributions may produce viable, intra-fertile hybrid species able to accommodate potential constraints arising from intragenomic conflict. Second, ecological conditions (competition, geography of the contact zones or the initial frequency of both parent species might favor different outcomes ranging from sympatric coexistence to the formation of hybrid swarms and ultimately hybrid speciation. Finally, history may also play an important role in promoting or constraining recurrent HHS if multiple hybridization events occur sequentially and parental divergence or isolation differs along this continuum. We discuss under which conditions HHS may occur multiple times in parallel and to what extent recombination and selection may fuse the parent genomes in the same or different ways. We conclude by examining different approaches that might help to solve this intriguing evolutionary puzzle [Current Zoology 59 (5: 667-674, 2013]. 

  17. HYBRID2: A versatile model of the performance of hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. James; Manwell, James

    1995-04-01

    In 1993, the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) made an assessment of the available tools from the United States and Europe for predicting the long-term performance of hybrid power systems. By hybrid power the authors mean combinations of two or more power sources wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), diesel gensets, or other generators into integrated systems for electric power generation in remote locations. Their conclusion was that there was no single, user-friendly tool capable of modeling the full range of hybrid power technologies being considered for the 1990s and beyond. The existing tools were, in particular, lacking flexibility in system configuration and in dispatch of components. As a result, NREL developed a specification for a model, called HYBRID2, for making comparisons of competing technology options on a level playing field. This specification was prepared with a range of potential users in mind including not only the US Department of Energy (DOE) renewable energy programs, but also the US wind industry, technical consultants, international development institutions/banks, and rural electrification programs in developing countries. During 1994, NREL and subcontractor, the University of Massachusetts (UMass), began development of HYBRID2 with funding from the DOE Wind Energy Program. It builds on the wind/diesel model, HYBRID1, developed previously by UMass, and expands that model to accommodate the wider array of technologies used in hybrid power systems. This paper will provide an overview of the model's features, functions, and status.

  18. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    the exhumation of the mccs, and triggered plutonic emplacement and volcanic eruptions of hybrid magmas. During the late stage, the nature of mantle lithosphere in North China was changed from the ancient SCLM to the juvenile SCLM. Extensional structures in eastern Eurasian continent provide a general architecture of the extensional tectonics of a rifted continent. Progressive extension resulted a sudden collaps of the crust (lithosphere) at ca. 130 to 120 Ma, associated with exhumation of mcc's and giant syn-kinematic magmatism, and post-kinematic magmatism. Parallel extension of both the crust and the mantle resulted in detachment faulting and magmatism, and also contributed to inhomogeneous thinning of the NCC lithosphere. Paleo-Pacific plate subduction and roll-back of the subducting oceanic plate contributed to the PET tectonic processes.

  19. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  2. Hybrid Sterility, Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Forejt, J

    2013-01-01

    The review summarizes hybrid sterility as the best studied example of reproductive isolation between closely related species. On the model of infertile hybrids of two domestic mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, we have demonstrated interaction of hybrid sterility genes with epigenetic control of transcriptional inactivation of the X and Y sex chromosomes. This leads to the activation of pachytene checkpoint and finally results in the arrest of spermatogenesis.

  3. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  4. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  5. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  6. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  7. Extensions of the Poincare group

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Savvidy, George

    2011-01-01

    We construct an extension of the Poincare group which involves a mixture of internal and space-time supersymmetries. The resulting group is an extension of the superPoincare group with infinitely many generators which carry internal and space-time indices. It is a closed algebra since all Jacobi identities are satisfied and it has therefore explicit matrix representations. We investigate the massless case and construct the irreducible representations of the extended symmetry. They are divided into two sets, longitudinal and transversal representations. The transversal representations involve an infinite series of integer and half-integer helicities. Finally we suggest an extension of the conformal group along the same line.

  8. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  9. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  10. Modelling of a Hybrid UAV Using Test Flight Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Chu, Q.P.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Remes, B.; De Wagter, C.; Van der Horst, E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of an aircraft capable of both hover as well as fast forward flight (hybrid) has recently been implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Hybrid UAVs combine hover capability with long range and endurance. As UAVs are often required to operate without human intervention, there is a

  11. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  12. Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai

    2011-01-01

    Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...

  13. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  14. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  15. Frames and extension problems II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....

  16. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Bang, Ole

    2017-10-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.

  17. Hybrid Instrumentation in Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Biomechanical Evaluation of Three Different Instrumentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obid, Peter; Danyali, Reza; Kueny, Rebecca; Huber, Gerd; Reichl, Michael; Richter, Alexander; Niemeyer, Thomas; Morlock, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Übeyli, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Ex vivo human cadaveric study. The development or progression of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after spine stabilization and fusion is a major problem in spine surgery. Apart from optimal balancing of the sagittal profile, dynamic instrumentation is often suggested to prevent or impede ASD. Hybrid instrumentation is used to gain stabilization while allowing motion to avoid hypermobility in the adjacent segment. In this biomechanical study, the effects of two different hybrid instrumentations on human cadaver spines were evaluated and compared with a rigid instrumentation. Eighteen human cadaver spines (T11-L5) were subdivided into three groups: rigid, dynamic, and hook comprising six spines each. Clinical parameters and initial mechanical characteristics were consistent among groups. All specimens received rigid fixation from L3-L5 followed by application of a free bending load of extension and flexion. The range of motion (ROM) for every segment was evaluated. For the rigid group, further rigid fixation from L1-L5 was applied. A dynamic Elaspine system (Spinelab AG, Winterthur, Switzerland) was applied from L1 to L3 for the dynamic group, and the hook group was instrumented with additional laminar hooks at L1-L3. ROM was then evaluated again. There was no significant difference in ROM among the three instrumentation techniques. Based on this data, the intended advantage of a hybrid or dynamic instrumentation might not be achieved.

  18. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  19. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  20. Hybrid Double Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, D.; Yodh, J. S.; Albrecht, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InA...... that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes....

  1. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  2. Predicting DNA hybridization kinetics from sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinny X.; Fang, John Z.; Duan, Wei; Wu, Lucia R.; Zhang, Angela W.; Dalchau, Neil; Yordanov, Boyan; Petersen, Rasmus; Phillips, Andrew; Zhang, David Yu

    2018-01-01

    Hybridization is a key molecular process in biology and biotechnology, but so far there is no predictive model for accurately determining hybridization rate constants based on sequence information. Here, we report a weighted neighbour voting (WNV) prediction algorithm, in which the hybridization rate constant of an unknown sequence is predicted based on similarity reactions with known rate constants. To construct this algorithm we first performed 210 fluorescence kinetics experiments to observe the hybridization kinetics of 100 different DNA target and probe pairs (36 nt sub-sequences of the CYCS and VEGF genes) at temperatures ranging from 28 to 55 °C. Automated feature selection and weighting optimization resulted in a final six-feature WNV model, which can predict hybridization rate constants of new sequences to within a factor of 3 with ∼91% accuracy, based on leave-one-out cross-validation. Accurate prediction of hybridization kinetics allows the design of efficient probe sequences for genomics research.

  3. Load gear shift in the i{sup 2} transmission of the Autarkic Hybrid; Der Lastschaltvorgang am i{sup 2}-Getriebe des Autarken Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, W.J.; Hoehn, B.R.; Pflaum, H.

    1999-07-01

    A central characteristic of the Autarkic Hybrid is the use of infinitely variable contact transmission with a wide spread of gear ratios - the i{sup 2} transmission. A significant extension of the spread in this transmission is realised by the double use of the chain converter operating range. This requires a gear shift that can be carried out as so-called load gear shift without interrupting the tractive force. This type of gear shift has hardly been researched. Therefore basic thoughts for its realisation are explained first. Since the i{sup 2} transmission is of central importance for the total hybrid drive system it is tested on an especially designed test stand. The investigation is going to focus on the general transmission functions before a load gear shift is carried out. A quasi static calculation model that has been calibrated according to the measurements enables the pre-determination of appropriate control parameter for a systematic optimisation of the load gear shift. (orig.) [German] Ein zentrales Merkmal des Autarken Hybrid ist die Verwendung eines stufenlosen Umschlingungsgetriebes mit weiter Spreizung - dem i{sup 2}-Getriebe. An diesem Getriebe wird eine signifikante Spreizungserweiterung durch zweifache Nutzung des Kettenwandler-Stellbereichs erzielt. Hierzu ist ein Umschaltvorgang erforderlich, der ohne Zugkraftunterbrechung als sog. Lastschaltvorgang realisiert werden soll und in dieser Form weitgehend unerforscht ist. Daher werden zunaechst grundlegende Gedanken fuer dessen Realisierung erlaeutert. Wegen der zentralen Bedeutung des i{sup 2}-Getriebes fuer den gesamten Hybrid-Antriebsstrang wird dieses an einem speziell hierfuer konzipierten Pruefstand experimentell untersucht. Dabei stand zunaechst die generelle Getriebefunktion im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchungen, bevor die Durchfuehrung eines Lastschaltvorgangs erfolgte. Ein an den Messungen kalibiriertes, quasistatisches Rechenmodell ermoeglicht sodann Vorausbestimmung geeigneter

  4. Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 17. Documentation of the intrageneric hybrid (Archilochus colubris × Archilochus alexandri)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Cardiff, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Although the breeding ranges of Archilochus alexandri (Black-chinned Hummingbird) and Archilochus colubris (Ruby throated Hummingbird) are narrowly parapatric in central Texas and central and southern Oklahoma, there have been few reports of hybridization in the literature and no well......-documented hybrid specimens. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of two male hybrids collected, respectively, in Grayson County, Texas, and East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. As has been the pattern in other hummingbird hybrids, both specimens exhibit a blended mosaic of plumage characters of the parental...

  5. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  6. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  7. The hybrid BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  8. On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Rosca, B.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid and electric vehicles require accurate knowledge of the battery to make an educated guess about the expected electric driving range. Range prediction is complicated by the fact that batteries are subject to external influences and aging. Also the future driving behavior is often unknown. This

  9. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K; Calvete, Juan J; Carter, Kimberley C; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-06-16

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  10. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  11. Hybrid grating reflectors: Origin of ultrabroad stopband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid grating (HG) reflectors with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG) provide a high reflectance close to 100% over a broader wavelength range than HCGs. The combination of a cap layer and a grating layer brings a strong Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance as well ...

  12. Control of a hybrid helicopter with wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagter, C.; Smeur, E.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the design parameters and their consequences in the control of a helicopter rotor combined with a pair of fixed wings. This hybrid vehicle has a light and aerodynamically efficient rotor with a large range of pitch angles to enable both hover and forward flight. Because of the

  13. Quaternary phylogeography: the roots of hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Godfrey M

    2011-05-01

    The older history of hybrid zones is explored through consideration of recent advances in climatology, paleontology and phylogeography in the Late Cenozoic, particularly the Quaternary Period with its major climatic cycles. The fossil record shows that these ice ages and their nested millennial oscillations caused substantial changes in species distributions and with genetic evidence allows deduction of refugia and colonization routes in arctic, temperate, desert and tropical regions. The age of divergence between hybridizing lineages varies from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Miocene, implying much range change and varying selection on sister lineages. Hybridizing lineages in the Tropical and Temperate regions range in age from young to old, but those studied in the Arctic are no more than a few ice ages old and their refugial roots are not clear. Mid to low latitude regions often show parapatric patchworks of lineages and multiple refugia stable through many climatic oscillations. Particular hybrid zones may have formed more than once; while some expansions were not the same, producing reticulation and introgression in previous glacial cycles. Hybrid-zone roots are complex and deep, and considerations of their complexity can reveal evolutionary pathways of species. They are indeed windows on evolution.

  14. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  15. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  16. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  17. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Toaldo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70 and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  18. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding beta-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, C B; Steindel, M; Sousa, M A; Tavares, C C

    2001-01-01

    The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of beta-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70) and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of beta-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  19. Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone: spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R

    2013-12-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between sympatric wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with sympatric gray wolves and coyotes. We hypothesized that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems. We used global positioning system telemetry and probabilistic measures of spatial overlap to investigate spatial segregation between adjacent Canis packs. Our hypothesis was supported as: (1) the probability of locating wolves, coyotes, and hybrids within home ranges ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) or core areas ([Formula: see text] wolves and coyotes, highlighting the novel relationships between Canis types in the Ontario hybrid zone relative to areas where wolves and coyotes are reproductively isolated. Territoriality among Canis may increase the likelihood of eastern wolves joining coyote and hybrid packs, facilitate hybridization, and could play a role in limiting expansion of the genetically distinct APP eastern wolf population.

  20. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences...... between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously...... the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial...

  1. Long distance linkage disequilibrium and limited hybridization suggest cryptic speciation in atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Ian R; Bowman, Sharen; Borza, Tudor; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Berg, Paul R; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Lighten, Jackie; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Taggart, Christopher; Bentzen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD) and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70%) occurring in or associated with (cod either through strong selection against hybrid individuals, or genetic incompatibility and intrinsic barriers to hybridization. In either case, the presence of strong clinal trends, and little gene flow despite extensive hybridization supports a hypothesis of reproductive isolation and cryptic speciation in Atlantic cod. Further work is required to test the degree and nature of reproductive isolation in this species.

  2. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  3. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  4. Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cousin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0–9. The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%, colorectal (14.4%, breast (10.6%, ovarian (10.2% and sarcoma (10.2%. The median patient age was 63 years (range 19–88. A total of 292 patients (51.4% presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28% were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%. The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5% and general status deterioration (25%. Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment >1.3. Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

  5. Phenotypic variation of Epipactis helleborine x E. atrorubens hybrids in anthropogenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Adamowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid index has revealed the hybrid nature of helleborine populations growing on disturbed habitats in Białowieża Forest and its western foreland. An analysis of eight traits has revealed that hybrids are morphologically more similar to E. helleborine. Hybrids differ from the typical E. helleborine first of all by: a very pubescent inflorescence axis, a considerable length of the subinflorescence internode. Also the range of phenotypical variation in these populations is shown.

  6. What will be eventually true of polymomial hybrid automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid automata have been introduced in both control engineering and computer science as a formal model for the dynamics of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. While computability issues concerning safety properties have been extensively studied, liveness properties have remained largely uninvest......Hybrid automata have been introduced in both control engineering and computer science as a formal model for the dynamics of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. While computability issues concerning safety properties have been extensively studied, liveness properties have remained largely...... uninvestigated. In this article, we investigate decidability of state recurrence and of progress properties. First, we show that state recurrence and progress are in general undecidable for polynomial hybrid automata. Then, we demonstrate that they are closely related for hybrid automata subject to a simple...... model of noise, even though these automata are infinite-state systems. Based on this, we augment a semi-decision procedure for recurrence with a semi-decision method for length-boundedness of paths in such a way that we obtain an automatic verification method for progress properties of linear...

  7. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  8. Efficient energy exchange between plasmon and cavity modes via Rabi-analogue splitting in a hybrid plasmonic nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Lei, Dangyuan; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2013-10-07

    Plasmonic analogues of Rabi-splitting have been extensively studied in various metallic nanosystems hybridized with semiconductor quantum dots, nanocrystals and organic molecules, with a focus on the splitting energy gap where surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) strongly couple with excitons. Similar strong coupling also occurs for individual metallic nanoparticles locating inside a photonic microcavity or nearby a waveguide due to the strong interaction between localized surface plasmons and photonic modes in the near-infrared wavelength range. In this work we study experimentally and theoretically the strong coupling between propagating SPPs and the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity mode in a metallic nanoparticle array-nanocavity hybrid system in the visible spectral range. The strong modal hybridization created giant modal anti-crossing which can be considered as the classical phenomenon of Rabi splitting i.e. a Rabi-analogue. In addition to the observation of a giant Rabi-analogue splitting energy of 148 meV at the strong coupling regime, we also reveal highly-efficient energy exchange between SPP and F-P modes at the low frequency dispersion branch through detailed numerical near-field studies and experimental phase delay analysis. The observed efficient mode conversion in the investigated plasmonic nanocavity is useful for designing novel nanophotonic devices, in which conventional photonic components need to be integrated with miniaturized plasmonic devices or vice versa.

  9. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  10. Hormone-regulated defense and stress response networks contribute to heterosis in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Lyons, Rebecca L; Greaves, Ian K; Kazan, Kemal; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2015-11-17

    Plant hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver increases in yields, yet the molecular basis of their superior performance (heterosis) is not well understood. Our transcriptome analysis of a number of Arabidopsis F1 hybrids identified changes to defense and stress response gene expression consistent with a reduction in basal defense levels. Given the reported antagonism between plant immunity and growth, we suggest that these altered patterns of expression contribute to the greater growth of the hybrids. The altered patterns of expression in the hybrids indicate decreases to the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis pathway and increases in the auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] biosynthesis pathway. SA and IAA are hormones known to control stress and defense responses as well as plant growth. We found that IAA-targeted gene activity is frequently increased in hybrids, correlating with a common heterotic phenotype of greater leaf cell numbers. Reduced SA concentration and target gene responses occur in the larger hybrids and promote increased leaf cell size. We demonstrated the importance of SA action to the hybrid phenotype by manipulating endogenous SA concentrations. Increasing SA diminished heterosis in SA-reduced hybrids, whereas decreasing SA promoted growth in some hybrids and phenocopied aspects of hybrid vigor in parental lines. Pseudomonas syringae infection of hybrids demonstrated that the reductions in basal defense gene activity in these hybrids does not necessarily compromise their ability to mount a defense response comparable to the parents.

  11. The Role of Hybridization in the Evolution and Emergence of New Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-02-01

    Hybridization in fungi has recently been recognized as a major force in the generation of new fungal plant pathogens. These include the grass pathogen Zymoseptoria pseudotritici and the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis triticale of triticale. Hybridization also plays an important role in the transfer of genetic material between species. This process is termed introgressive hybridization and involves extensive backcrossing between hybrid and the parental species. Introgressive hybridization has contributed substantially to the successful spread of plant pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, the causal agents of Dutch elm disease, and other tree pathogens such as the rust pathogen Melampsora. Hybridization occurs more readily between species that have previously not coexisted, so-called allopatric species. Reproductive barriers between allopatric species are likely to be more permissive allowing interspecific mating to occur. The bringing together of allopatric species of plant pathogens by global agricultural trade consequently increases the potential for hybridization between pathogen species. In light of global environmental changes, agricultural development, and the facilitated long-distance spread of fungal plant pathogens, hybridization should be considered an important mechanism whereby new pathogens may emerge. Recent studies have gained insight into the genetics and biology of fungal hybrids. Here I summarize current knowledge about hybrid speciation and introgressive hybridization. I propose that future studies will benefit greatly from the availability of large genome data sets and that genome data provide a powerful resource in combination with experimental approaches for analyses of hybrid species.

  12. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  13. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  14. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid spiking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, Eugene M

    2010-11-13

    I review a class of hybrid models of neurons that combine continuous spike-generation mechanisms and a discontinuous 'after-spike' reset of state variables. Unlike Hodgkin-Huxley-type conductance-based models, the hybrid spiking models have a few parameters derived from the bifurcation theory; instead of matching neuronal electrophysiology, they match neuronal dynamics. I present a method of after-spike resetting suitable for hardware implementation of such models, and a hybrid numerical method for simulations of large-scale biological spiking networks.

  16. Fluorescent hybridization probes for nucleic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ju, Jingyue; Turro, Nicholas J

    2012-04-01

    Due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, minimum interference with living biological systems, and ease of design and synthesis, fluorescent hybridization probes have been widely used to detect nucleic acids both in vivo and in vitro. Molecular beacons (MBs) and binary probes (BPs) are two very important hybridization probes that are designed based on well-established photophysical principles. These probes have shown particular applicability in a variety of studies, such as mRNA tracking, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring, and microorganism identification. Molecular beacons are hairpin oligonucleotide probes that present distinctive fluorescent signatures in the presence and absence of their target. Binary probes consist of two fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide strands that can hybridize to adjacent regions of their target and generate distinctive fluorescence signals. These probes have been extensively studied and modified for different applications by modulating their structures or using various combinations of fluorophores, excimer-forming molecules, and metal complexes. This review describes the applicability and advantages of various hybridization probes that utilize novel and creative design to enhance their target detection sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Experimental interspecific hybridization in Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Bijl, M.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hybridization is a common phenomenon in Daphnia (Cladocera; Anomopoda); interspecific hybrids have been found between several species and hybrids are found in many European lakes. Although much information on the morphology, ecology and genetics of hybrids is available, little is known about the

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  20. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  1. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  2. Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duce poverty include education, credit, durable assets, living in the forest belt and in the south of the country. .... underscores the importance of education and extension services in the technology adoption/diffusion process. Poverty is a ...... Detwerminantes de la Pobreza de los hogares, México. Revista Mexicana de ...

  3. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  4. Symmetrical Extensions of Dirichlet Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Us, A G

    1997-01-01

    There is constructed and considered the extension of classical Diriclet operator corresponding to uniformly log-concave measure in the space of symmetric differential forms. Sufficient conditions for its essential self-adjointness in one-dimensional case as well as for the same of its "sypersymmetric" part in general situations are given.

  5. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  6. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical

  7. Range-Separated meta-GGA Functional Designed for Noncovalent Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewski, Marcin; Chałasiński, Grzegorz; Szczęśniak, Małgorzata M

    2014-10-14

    The accuracy of applying density functional theory to noncovalent interactions is hindered by errors arising from low-density regions of interaction-induced change in the density gradient, error compensation between correlation and exchange functionals, and dispersion double counting. A new exchange-correlation functional designed for noncovalent interactions is proposed to address these problems. The functional consists of the range-separated PBEsol exchange considered in two variants, pure and hybrid, and the semilocal correlation functional of Modrzejewski et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 204121) designed with the constraint satisfaction technique to smoothly connect with a dispersion term. Two variants of dispersion correction are appended to the correlation functional: the atom-atom pairwise additive DFT-D3 model and the density-dependent many-body dispersion with self-consistent screening (MBD-rsSCS). From these building blocks, a set of four functionals is created to systematically examine the role of pure versus hybrid exchange and the underlying models for dispersion. The new functional is extensively tested on benchmark sets with diverse nature and size. Truly outstanding performance is demonstrated for water clusters of varying size, ionic hydrogen bonds, and thermochemistry of isodesmic n-alkane fragmentation reactions. The merits of each component of the new functional are discussed.

  8. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  9. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  10. Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human-modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Tessier, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Hélène; Paquet, Paul C; Hénault, Michel; Villemure, Mario; Patterson, Brent R; Sallows, Tim; Goulet, Gloria; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Contemporary evolution through human-induced hybridization occurs throughout the taxonomic range. Formerly allopatric species appear especially susceptible to hybridization. Consequently, hybridization is expected to be more common in regions with recent sympatry owing to human activity than in areas of historical range overlap. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray wolves (C. lupus) are historically sympatric in western North America. Following European settlement gray wolf range contracted, whereas coyote range expanded to include eastern North America. Furthermore, wolves with New World (NW) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes now extend from Manitoba to Québec in Canada and hybridize with gray wolves and coyotes. Using mtDNA and 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated levels of wolf-coyote hybridization in regions where coyotes were present (the Canadian Prairies, n = 109 samples) and absent historically (Québec, n = 154). Wolves with NW mtDNA extended from central Saskatchewan (51°N, 69°W) to northeastern Québec (54°N, 108°W). On the Prairies, 6.3% of coyotes and 9.2% of wolves had genetic profiles suggesting wolf-coyote hybridization. In contrast, 12.6% of coyotes and 37.4% of wolves in Québec had profiles indicating hybrid origin. Wolves with NW and Old World (C. lupus) mtDNA appear to form integrated populations in both regions. Our results suggest that hybridization is more frequent in historically allopatric populations. Range shifts, now expected across taxa following climate change and other human influence on the environment, might therefore promote contemporary evolution by hybridization.

  11. Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human-modified landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Tessier, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Hélène; Paquet, Paul C; Hénault, Michel; Villemure, Mario; Patterson, Brent R; Sallows, Tim; Goulet, Gloria; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary evolution through human-induced hybridization occurs throughout the taxonomic range. Formerly allopatric species appear especially susceptible to hybridization. Consequently, hybridization is expected to be more common in regions with recent sympatry owing to human activity than in areas of historical range overlap. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray wolves (C. lupus) are historically sympatric in western North America. Following European settlement gray wolf range contracted, whereas coyote range expanded to include eastern North America. Furthermore, wolves with New World (NW) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes now extend from Manitoba to Québec in Canada and hybridize with gray wolves and coyotes. Using mtDNA and 12 microsatellite markers, we evaluated levels of wolf-coyote hybridization in regions where coyotes were present (the Canadian Prairies, n = 109 samples) and absent historically (Québec, n = 154). Wolves with NW mtDNA extended from central Saskatchewan (51°N, 69°W) to northeastern Québec (54°N, 108°W). On the Prairies, 6.3% of coyotes and 9.2% of wolves had genetic profiles suggesting wolf-coyote hybridization. In contrast, 12.6% of coyotes and 37.4% of wolves in Québec had profiles indicating hybrid origin. Wolves with NW and Old World (C. lupus) mtDNA appear to form integrated populations in both regions. Our results suggest that hybridization is more frequent in historically allopatric populations. Range shifts, now expected across taxa following climate change and other human influence on the environment, might therefore promote contemporary evolution by hybridization. PMID:23139873

  12. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  15. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  16. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  17. Hybrid photonic crystal fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arismar Cerqueira S. Jr; F. Luan; C. M. B. Cordeiro; A. K. George; J. C. Knight

    2006-01-01

    We present a hybrid photonic crystal fiber in which a guided mode is confined simultaneously by modified total internal reflection from an array of air holes and antiresonant reflection from a line...

  18. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  19. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  20. Implementing a Hybrid Graduate Program: Lessons Learned One Year Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronda Sturgill

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of any graduate program is an extensive and timely process. Once the development phase is complete the program continues into the implementation phase. The implementation phase of a hybrid delivered program can present with many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and challenges of delivering a hybrid graduate program. This is a follow-up paper to "Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program," [4]. This follow-up will provide information from both a faculty and graduate student perspective. Challenges of implementation, lessons learned, and future program delivery recommendations will also be presented.[4] R. Sturgill, J. Wilson, and J.C. Andersen, "Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program," Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, Vol. 12, No. 7, 2014, pp. 22-24.

  1. Nuclear modification factor using Tsallis non-extensive statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Garg, Prakhar; Kumar, Prateek; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Simrol (India); Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The nuclear modification factor is derived using Tsallis non-extensive statistics in relaxation time approximation. The variation of the nuclear modification factor with transverse momentum for different values of the non-extensive parameter, q, is also observed. The experimental data from RHIC and LHC are analysed in the framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in a relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the proposed approach explains the R{sub AA} of all particles over a wide range of transverse momentum but does not seem to describe the rise in R{sub AA} at very high transverse momenta. (orig.)

  2. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  3. Stable Hybrid Adaptive Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    STABLE HYBRID ADAPTIVE CONTROL(U) YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN i/i CT CENTER FOR SYSTEMS SCIENCE K S NARENDRA ET AL. JUL 82 8286 Ne@04-76-C-8e7 UNCLASSIFIED...teasrallepsaaw1tflbe~ll b ydd Il"t 5 As is the comtanuous Case cistral to the stability analysis of the hybrid ~IVt* COnRol PO* IMare the sur Models

  4. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  5. Hybridization leads to interspecific gene flow in Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furches, M Steven; Small, Randall L; Furches, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The role of hybridization in plant evolution remains a source of intense debate. Potential consequences range from genetic dead-ends to species fusion or hybrid speciation. While much has been learned from model systems such as Populus, Iris, and Helianthus, many questions remain. Consisting of 11 species that are all capable of hybridizing, Sarracenia presents an excellent system in which to study hybridization. • Using microsatellites, we examined a single field site consisting of three species: S. leucophylla, S. alata, and S. rubra subsp. wherryi. We determined the level of genetic admixture and compared it with allopatric sites of the same taxa. • In contrast to the well-defined clusters formed when we examined the allopatric sites, the sympatric field site exhibited a wide range of admixture. Additionally, when the relative genetic makeup of "pure" species at the site was compared with the makeup of hybrids, we found that Sarracenia alata contributed disproportionately to the hybrid genomes. • Our study provides further evidence that hybridization is contributing to interspecific gene flow in the genus and that all species do not contribute equally to hybridization. Implications for conservation are discussed.

  6. Near-infrared hybrid plasmonic multiple quantum well nanowire lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamin; Wei, Wei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-04-17

    The lasing characteristics of hybrid plasmonic AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowire (NW) lasers beyond diffraction limit have been investigated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results show that the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has lower threshold gain over a broad diameter range in comparison with its photonic counterpart. Beyond the diffraction limit, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lowest threshold gain of 788 cm-1 at a diameter of 130 nm, and a cutoff diameter of 80 nm, half that of the photonic lasers. In comparison with the hybrid plasmonic core-shell NWs, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NWs exhibit significantly lower threshold gain, higher Purcell factor, and smaller cutoff diameter, which are attributed to the superior overlap between the hybrid plasmonic modes and gain medium, as well as a stronger optical confinement due to the grating-like effect of MQW structures. Moreover, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lower threshold gain than that of the core-shell NW over a broad wavelength range. The hybrid plasmonic MQW NW structure is promising for ultrasmall and low-consumption near-infrared nanolasers.

  7. Hybrid scintillators for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Clifford; Rairden, Richard L.; Betz, Robert A.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to improve x-ray absorption and light production while maintaining high spatial resolution in x-ray imaging phosphor screens. Our current target is to improve screen absorption efficiency and screen brightness by factors of 2 or greater over existing screens that have 10-1p/mm resolution. In this program, commercial phosphor screens are combined with highly absorbing, high-resolution scintillating fiber-optic (SFO) face plates to provide a hybrid sensor that exhibits superior spatial resolution, x-ray absorption, and brightness values over the phosphor material alone. These characteristics of hybrid scintillators can be adjusted to meet specific x-ray imaging requirements over a wide range of x-ray energy. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a new series of hybrid scintillators.

  8. Hybrid procedures for peripheral obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, A M; Moll, F L; De Vries, J P Pm

    2010-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of high-risk patients suffering from critical limb ischemia due to multilevel arterial obstructive disease is growing rapidly. Invasive surgical procedures to restore inflow to the crural and pedal circulation in case of TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus C and D (TASC) lesions of the iliacofemoral arteries are related with substantial morbidity and mortality. The mid-term and long-term outcomes of sole percutaneous revascularization procedures are disappointing for TASC C and D lesions. Hybrid endovascular and open surgical revascularization procedures might be of benefit because of its less invasive character, no need for extensive venous graft material, and the ability to overcome long-segment arterial obstructions. The common femoral artery (CFA) plays a central role in most of the hybrid procedures. CFA desobstruction, in combination with open iliac angioplasty or open superficial femoral artery (SFA) angioplasty, and CFA desobstruction with remote endarterectomy of the superficial femoral artery, are commonplace. Another valuable hybrid technique is open angioplasty of the SFA and one-staged distal origin bypass grafting. Hybrid techniques can safely be performed in the vascular operating room providing that the inventory is equipped for endovascular interventions. Vascular surgeons with thorough experience in open transluminal angioplasty, whether or not in cooperation with interventional radiologists or angiologists, will have the lead in the preoperative and perioperative planning. No randomized controlled trials have been published comparing hybrid techniques and open surgical reconstructions, or sole endvascular methods for multilevel peripheral arterial disease. During the last decade, multiple prospective and retrospective series have been reported concerning hybrid techniques, all with good initial technical success (up to 95%) and acceptable 30-day morbidity and mortality rates. Mid-term and long-term patency rates are

  9. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  10. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  11. Poincare Algebra Extension with Tensor Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-01-01

    A tensor extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions $D=2,3,4$.

  12. Tensor extension of the Poincare algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, Dmitrij V. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: dsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua; Soroka, Vyacheslav A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: vsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua

    2005-02-10

    A tensor extension of the Poincare algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions D=2,3,4.

  13. Host adaptation and speciation through hybridization and polyploidy in Phytophthora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Bertier

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly evident that interspecific hybridization is a common event in phytophthora evolution. Yet, the fundamental processes underlying interspecific hybridization and the consequences for its ecological fitness and distribution are not well understood. We studied hybridization events in phytophthora clade 8b. This is a cold-tolerant group of plant pathogenic oomycetes in which six host-specific species have been described that mostly attack winter-grown vegetables. Hybrid characterization was done by sequencing and cloning of two nuclear (ITS and Ypt1 and two mitochondrial loci (Cox1 and Nadh1 combined with DNA content estimation using flow cytometry. Three different mtDNA haplotypes were recovered among the presumed hybrid isolates, dividing the hybrids into three types, with different parental species involved. In the nuclear genes, additivity, i.e. the presence of two alleles coming from different parents, was detected. Hybrid isolates showed large variations in DNA content, which was positively correlated with the additivity in nuclear loci, indicating allopolyploid hybridization followed by a process of diploidization. Moreover, indications of homeologous recombination were found in the hybrids by cloning ITS products. The hybrid isolates have been isolated from a range of hosts that have not been reported previously for clade 8b species, indicating that they have novel pathogenic potential. Next to this, DNA content measurements of the non-hybrid clade 8b species suggest that polyploidy is a common feature of this clade. We hypothesize that interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are two linked phenomena in phytophthora, and that these processes might play an important and ongoing role in the evolution of this genus.

  14. Ampliación del ámbito geográfico-altitudinal y uso de hábitats suburbanos por la mascarita pico grueso (Geothlypis poliocephala Geographic-altitudinal range extension and suburban habitat use of the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Geothlypis poliocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian MacGregor-Fors

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el primer registro de la mascarita pico grueso (Geothlypis poliocephala para la región del Eje Neovolcánico Transversal, México. Los sitios donde registramos/capturamos esta especie se encuentran en los suburbios de la ciudad de Morelia, 427 m arriba del ámbito altitudinal descrito para la especie. Esto puede deberse a 2 factores: 1 la urbanización que genera hábitats propicios para la especie en su periferia, y 2 el incremento de la temperatura en la región en la que se encuentra la ciudad de Morelia. Ambos factores facilitan que esta especie de tierras bajas pueda habitar en áreas de mayor altitud. Así, nuestros registros sugieren que la mascarita pico grueso puede catalogarse como especie potencial a utilizar hábitats suburbanos cuando éstos son similares a los hábitats en los que se distribuye de manera natural.The first record of the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat (Geothlypis poliocephala in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt biogeographic region (Mexico, within the Morelia city suburbs is presented. Sites were this parulid was sighted / captured were located 427 m higher than its described altitudinal range. This could be due to 2 factors: 1 urbanization generates suitable habitats for this species in periurban areas, and 2 temperature values have increased in the region where the city of Morelia is located. These factors allow that a lowland bird species can inhabit in more elevated areas. Thus, our records suggest that the Grey-crowned Yellowthroat can be catalogued as potential to use suburban environments when these are similar to those used by the species on its natural distribution area.

  15. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  17. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations......, the proposal extends a hybrid tag-based recommender system with a semantic factor, which looks for tag relations in different semantic sources. In order to evaluate the benefits acquired with the semantic extension, we have compared the new findings with results from a previous experiment involving 38 people......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. This paper proposes a semantic...

  18. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  19. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  20. In Vitro Spine Testing Using a Robot-Based Testing System: Comparison of Displacement Control and “Hybrid Control”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kevin M.; Hartman, Robert A.; Gilbertson, Lars G.; Kang, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The two leading control algorithms for in-vitro spine biomechanical testing—“load control” and “displacement control”— are limited in their lack of adaptation to changes in the load-displacement response of a spine specimen—pointing to the need for sufficiently sophisticated control algorithms that are able to govern the application of loads/motions to a spine specimen in a more realistic, adaptive manner. A robotics-based spine testing system was programmed with a novel hybrid control algorithm combining “load control” and “displacement control” into a single, robust algorithm. Prior to in-vitro cadaveric testing, preliminary testing of the new algorithm was performed using a rigid-body-spring model with known structural properties. The present study also offers a direct comparison between “hybrid control” and “displacement control”. The hybrid control algorithm enabled the robotics-based spine testing system to apply pure moments to an FSU (in flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation) in an unconstrained manner through active control of secondary translational/rotational degrees-of-freedom—successfully minimizing coupled forces/moments. The characteristic nonlinear S-shaped curves of the primary moment-rotation responses were consistent with previous reports of the FSU having a region of low stiffness (neutral zone) bounded by regions of increasing stiffness (elastic zone). Direct comparison of “displacement control” and “hybrid control” showed that hybrid control was able to actively minimize off-axis forces and resulted in larger neutral zone and range of motion. PMID:23702044

  1. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  2. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  3. Continuous transition from the extensive to the non-extensive statistics in an agent-based herding model

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2014-01-01

    Systems with long-range interactions often exhibit power-law distributions and can by described by the non-extensive statistical mechanics framework proposed by Tsallis. In this contribution we consider a simple model reproducing continuous transition from the extensive to the non-extensive statistics. The considered model is composed of agents interacting among themselves on a certain network topology. To generate the underlying network we propose a new network formation algorithm, in which the mean degree scales sub-linearly with a number of nodes in the network (the scaling depends on a single parameter). By changing this parameter we are able to continuously transition from short-range to long-range interactions in the agent-based model. Our numerical results are backed by the analytical mean-fi?eld description of the model.

  4. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  5. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  6. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  9. Evolutionary impacts of hybridization and interspecific gene flow on an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D G; Gray, C A; West, R J; Ayre, D J

    2009-01-01

    For free-spawning estuarine taxa, gene flow among estuaries may occur via hybridization with mobile congeners. This phenomenon has rarely been investigated, but is probably susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance. In eastern Australia, the estuarine Black Bream Acanthopagrus butcheri and marine Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis have overlapping distributions and the potential to hybridize. We used surveys of microsatellite and mtDNA variation in 565 adults from 25 estuaries spanning their distributional range to characterize the species and their putative hybrids. Hybrids were widespread (68% of estuaries) and hybrid frequencies varied greatly among estuaries (0-58%). Most (88%) were classed as advanced generation backcrosses with A. butcheri and displayed A. butcheri mtDNA haplotypes. We found most hybrids in the three estuaries within the zone of sympatry (57%). Our study highlights the underemphasized importance of estuaries as sites of hybridization and suggests that hybridization is driven both by opportunity for contact and human activity.

  10. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  11. Management and outcomes of carotid artery extension of aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Adriana; Drucker, Charles B; Harris, Donald G; Flohr, Tanya; Toursavadkohi, Shahab; Sarkar, Rajabrata; Taylor, Bradley; Crawford, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is the most common aortic catastrophe. Carotid artery dissection due to extension of AD (CAEAD) is one severe complication of this condition. Despite years of refinement in the techniques for repair of AD, the optimal management strategy for CAEAD remains yet to be described. We hypothesized that CAEAD eventually resolves on antiplatelet therapy with a low but not insignificant risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This was a single-institution retrospective review of patients admitted with nontraumatic coincident aortic and carotid dissection between 2001 and 2013. CAEAD was present in 38 patients (24 men [53%]). The median age was 59.5 years (range, 25-85 years). A Stanford type A AD was diagnosed in 36 patients (95%). CVA or transient ischemic attack was identified in 11 patients (29%). Eight were potentially attributable to the carotid lesion. Two of these eight strokes resulted in death. Of the 11 CVAs and transient ischemic attacks, 8 were evident at presentation, 2 were diagnosed postoperatively during hospitalization, and 1 was diagnosed during early follow-up. Only one of these three postadmission strokes was attributable to the carotid lesion. Nonoperative management of aortic and carotid dissections was pursued in 9 patients (24%), 26 (68%) underwent open repair, and 4 (11%) had endovascular management of AD (2 thoracic endovascular aortic repair, 2 endovascular fenestrations), including 1 patient with a staged hybrid procedure (frozen elephant trunk). There were eight inpatient deaths (21%) and nine deaths in the follow-up period. Of the 30 patients who survived to discharge, 24 (80%) were managed with antiplatelet therapy. At a median follow-up of 14.5 months in 22 patients with follow-up computed tomography scans available, a minority of lesions had resolved, and only one CVA was reported. This study found that CAEAD was associated almost exclusively with type A AD, was typically unilateral, most often on the left, and

  12. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  13. Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé Maria Tereza C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delimiting genetic units is useful to enhance taxonomic discovery and is often the first step toward understanding evolutionary mechanisms generating diversification. The six species within the Rhinella crucifer group of toads were defined under morphological criteria alone. Previous data suggest limited correspondence of these species to mitochondrial lineages, and morphological intergradation at transitions between forms suggests hybridization. Here we extensively sampled populations throughout the geographic distribution of the group and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to delimit genetic units using tree–based and allele frequency–based approaches. Results These approaches yielded complementary results, with allele frequency-based methods performing unexpectedly well given the limited number of loci examined. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported a genetic structure of five units within the group, with three of the inferred units distributed within its main range, while two other units occur in separate isolates. The inferred units are mostly discordant with currently described forms: unequivocal association exists for only two of the six species in the group. Genetic evidence for hybridization exists for two pairs of units, with clear cyto–nuclear allele mixing observed in one case. Conclusions Our results confirmed that current taxonomy does not represent evolutionary units in the Rhinella crucifer group. Correspondence between genetically distinguishable units and the currently recognized species is only possible for Rhinella henseli and R. inopina. The recognition of other species relies on the reassessment of the geographic range of R. crucifer, the examination of the type series of R. ornata for hybrids, and on the use of additional markers to verify the genetic distinctiveness of R. abei. We state that R. pombali should not remain a valid species since its description appears to be

  14. Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Delimiting genetic units is useful to enhance taxonomic discovery and is often the first step toward understanding evolutionary mechanisms generating diversification. The six species within the Rhinella crucifer group of toads were defined under morphological criteria alone. Previous data suggest limited correspondence of these species to mitochondrial lineages, and morphological intergradation at transitions between forms suggests hybridization. Here we extensively sampled populations throughout the geographic distribution of the group and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to delimit genetic units using tree–based and allele frequency–based approaches. Results These approaches yielded complementary results, with allele frequency-based methods performing unexpectedly well given the limited number of loci examined. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported a genetic structure of five units within the group, with three of the inferred units distributed within its main range, while two other units occur in separate isolates. The inferred units are mostly discordant with currently described forms: unequivocal association exists for only two of the six species in the group. Genetic evidence for hybridization exists for two pairs of units, with clear cyto–nuclear allele mixing observed in one case. Conclusions Our results confirmed that current taxonomy does not represent evolutionary units in the Rhinella crucifer group. Correspondence between genetically distinguishable units and the currently recognized species is only possible for Rhinella henseli and R. inopina. The recognition of other species relies on the reassessment of the geographic range of R. crucifer, the examination of the type series of R. ornata for hybrids, and on the use of additional markers to verify the genetic distinctiveness of R. abei. We state that R. pombali should not remain a valid species since its description appears to be based on hybrids, and that

  15. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  16. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  17. EXTENSION OPERATOR AND NEURON NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    LUIZ CARLOS C PEDROZA

    1997-01-01

    Na tese se desenvolve a teoria do Operador de extensão (OPEX) e utiliza-se desta para compreender melhor algumas questões relativas a teoria de Redes Neurais(RN). A abordagem de Redes Neurais pela ótica do Operador de Extensão possibilita também um melhoramento no algoritmo de retropropagação de erro usado no treinamento supervisionado das Redes Neurais. In this thesis, theory of Extension Operator is developed and used to understand some questions related to ...

  18. Hybridization in geese: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridization, and (3) hybrid fertility. Hybridization in geese is common on a species-level, but rare on a per-individual level. An overview of the different behavioural mechanisms indicates that forced extra-pair copulations and interspecific nest parasisitm can both lead to hybridization. Other sources of hybrids include hybridization in captivity and vagrant geese, which may both lead to a scarcity of conspecifics. The different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is currently not possible to discriminate between the different mechanisms without quantitative data. Most hybrid geese are fertile; only in crosses between distantly related species do female hybrids become sterile. This fertility pattern, which is in line with Haldane's Rule, may facilitate interspecific gene flow between closely related species. The knowledge on hybrid geese should be used, in combination with the information available on hybridization in ducks, to study the process of avian speciation.

  19. Sampling approaches for extensive surveys in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, J C; Ferris, H

    1992-12-01

    Extensive surveys of the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes over large geographic areas provide useful data of unknown reliability. Time, cost, and logistical constraints may limit the sampling intensity that can be invested at any survey site. We developed a computer program to evaluate the probability of detection and the reliability of population estimates obtained by different strategies for collecting one sample of 10 cores from a field. We used data from two fields that had been sampled systematically and extensively as the basis for our analyses. Our analyses indicate that, at least for those two fields, it is possible to have a high probability of detecting the presence of nematode species and to reliably estimate abundance, with a single 10-core soil sample from a field. When species were rare or not uniformly distributed in a field, the probability of detection and reliability of the population estimate were correlated with the distance between core removal sites. Increasing the prescribed distance between cores resulted in the composite sample representing a wider range of microenvironments in the field.

  20. Improved Extension Neural Network and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension neural network (ENN is a new neural network that is a combination of extension theory and artificial neural network (ANN. The learning algorithm of ENN is based on supervised learning algorithm. One of important issues in the field of classification and recognition of ENN is how to achieve the best possible classifier with a small number of labeled training data. Training data selection is an effective approach to solve this issue. In this work, in order to improve the supervised learning performance and expand the engineering application range of ENN, we use a novel data selection method based on shadowed sets to refine the training data set of ENN. Firstly, we use clustering algorithm to label the data and induce shadowed sets. Then, in the framework of shadowed sets, the samples located around each cluster centers (core data and the borders between clusters (boundary data are selected as training data. Lastly, we use selected data to train ENN. Compared with traditional ENN, the proposed improved ENN (IENN has a better performance. Moreover, IENN is independent of the supervised learning algorithms and initial labeled data. Experimental results verify the effectiveness and applicability of our proposed work.

  1. Construct validity of lumbar extension measures in McKenzie's derangement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Helen A; Adams, Roger; Maher, Christopher G

    2007-11-01

    The McKenzie treatment model advocates extension-based treatments for sub-groups of low back pain (LBP) patients and an improvement in extension range is seen as a positive outcome. The treatment model states that patients who fit the McKenzie derangement classification respond faster than other patients. The validity of this treatment model and of the clinical measures of extension has not yet been established. Fifty patients with LBP were classified as derangement (n=40) or non-derangement (n=10) based on a McKenzie assessment and then treated with extension procedures. Lumbar extension was measured in two positions, standing and prone, with three methods, inclinometer, Schober and finger tip to floor, on Day 1 and Day 5 of treatment. Patients completed a global perceived effect (GPE) scale on Day 5. Construct validity was tested, by comparing extension improvement and the GPE scores between the two groups. Responsiveness of the six extension measures was calculated. All patients gained extension range however the derangement group had significantly higher GPE scores and greater improvement in extension range. The modified Schober method in standing was the most responsive method for measuring lumbar extension. The results of this study support the measurement of lumbar extension, for patients, treated with extension procedures and provides evidence for the construct validity of one aspect of the McKenzie treatment model. The modified Schober method is the preferred protocol for a clinical setting.

  2. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-02-12

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. High performance carbon nanotube--polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2015-10-28

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m(-2) exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.

  4. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  5. Hybrid least squares method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, L.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm is developed which blends two different approximations to the Hessian, the Levenberg--Marquardt approximation and Davidon's Optimally Conditioned Quasi-Newton approximation, through adaptively chosen parameters. The aim is to study how to combine effectively two different models of the function which are deduced from the available information. A particular implementation is discussed. Also test results and comparisons against the Levenberg--Marquardt and Davidon's Quasi-Newton method, which correspond to limiting cases of the hybrid algorithm.

  6. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  7. Advanced Photonic Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Advanced photonic hybrid materials    Final report from S. Parola, Laboratoire de  Chimie  ENS Lyon...Meeting, San Francisco, USA, April 2013.  ‐ Nanoparticules hybrides fluorescentes pour l’imagerie, S. Parola, GDR Imagerie,  Chimie  et Microscopie, Lyon

  8. Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Liu, Tingting; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a hybrid electrokinetic technique for label-free manipulation of pathogenic bacteria in biological samples toward medical diagnostic applications. While most electrokinetic techniques only function in low-conductivity buffers, hybrid electrokinetics enables effective operation in high-conductivity samples, such as physiological fluids (~1 S m−1). The hybrid electrokinetic technique combines short-range electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, and long-range AC electrothermal flow to improve its effectiveness. The major technical hurdle of electrode instability for manipulating high conductivity samples is tackled by using a Ti–Au–Ti sandwich electrode and a 3-parallel-electrode configuration is designed for continuous isolation of bacteria. The device operates directly with biological samples including urine and buffy coats. We show that pathogenic bacteria and biowarfare agents can be concentrated for over 3 orders of magnitude using hybrid electrokinetics. PMID:21487576

  9. Combined Dietotherapy after Extensive Hepatectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kiselev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the time course of nutritional changes in relation to the components of nutritive support in the early postoperative period after extensive hepatectomies.Subjects and methods. Beginning with the 1st postoperative day, 12 patients had parenteral feeding comprising 20% glucose, fat emulsions, and specialized amino acid solutions (Group 1. Beginning with the same day, 14 patients were given the parenteral formula Oliclinomel (Group 2. Starting from the 2nd postoperative day, both groups additionally received a balanced feeding formula by sipping.Results. Postoperatively, first-to-second degree encephalopathy was recorded in both groups. Positive changes as consciousness recovery were found in both Group 1 in which the patients used branched-chain amino acid-enriched solutions and Group 2 (parenteral Oliclinomel feeding. The patients under examination were not given albumin solutions and fresh frozen plasma in the postoperative period. Moreover, by postoperative day 7, there were significant increases in the levels of albumin and total protein in Groups 1 and 2, in those of cholinesterase and the absolute count of lymphocytes, and a reduction in the concentration of C-reactive protein.Conclusion. Combined parenteral and enteral feedings are effective in patients after extensive hepatectomies. The parenteral feeding formula Oliclinomel may be used in this group of patients. 

  10. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  11. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  12. Borna Disease in a Free-Ranging Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    OpenAIRE

    Degiorgis, M.-P.; Berg, A.-L.; Hård af Segerstad, C.; Mörner, T; Johansson, M.; Berg, M.

    2000-01-01

    A free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx) was shot because of its abnormal behavior. Histopathological examination revealed a nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the presence of Borna disease virus infection in the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of Borna disease in a large felid.

  13. Borna Disease in a Free-Ranging Lynx (Lynx lynx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, M.-P.; Berg, A.-L.; Hård af Segerstad, C.; Mörner, T.; Johansson, M.; Berg, M.

    2000-01-01

    A free-ranging lynx (Lynx lynx) was shot because of its abnormal behavior. Histopathological examination revealed a nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the presence of Borna disease virus infection in the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of Borna disease in a large felid. PMID:10921984

  14. The long-range electromobility; Die Langstrecken-Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The recent advances in the fuel cell technology prompted the automotive developers to bring to design hybrid electric vehicles with a fuel cell and a lithium-ion battery. Thus, the long-range electric mobility is possible at a short refueling time simultaneously. In addition, the lithium battery is suitable for preconditioning of the hydrogen fuel cell.

  15. Hybrid graphene/silicon Schottky photodiode with intrinsic gating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Luongo, Giuseppe; Giubileo, Filippo; Funicello, Nicola; Niu, Gang; Schroeder, Thomas; Lisker, Marco; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    We propose a hybrid device consisting of a graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) Schottky diode in parallel with a Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor for high-performance photodetection. The device, fabricated by transfer of commercial graphene on low-doped n-type Si substrate, achieves a photoresponse as high as 3 \\text{A} {{\\text{W}}-1} and a normalized detectivity higher than 3.5× {{10}12} \\text{cm} \\text{H}{{\\text{z}}1/2} {{\\text{W}}-1} in the visible range. It exhibits a photocurrent exceeding the forward current because photo-generated minority carriers, accumulated at Si/SiO2 interface of the Gr/SiO2/Si capacitor, diffuse to the Gr/Si junction. We show that the same mechanism, when due to thermally generated carriers, although usually neglected or disregarded, causes the increased leakage often measured in Gr/Si heterojunctions. We perform extensive I-V and C-V characterization at different temperatures and we measure a zero-bias Schottky barrier height of 0.52 eV at room temperature, as well as an effective Richardson constant A **  =  4× {{10}-5} \\text{A} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} {{\\text{K}}-2} and an ideality factor n≈ 3.6 , explained by a thin (<1 nm) oxide layer at the Gr/Si interface.

  16. Hybrid Multifoil Aerogel Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Paik, Jong-Ah; Jones, Steven; Nesmith, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This innovation blends the merits of multifoil insulation (MFI) with aerogel-based insulation to develop a highly versatile, ultra-low thermally conductive material called hybrid multifoil aerogel thermal insulation (HyMATI). The density of the opacified aerogel is 240 mg/cm3 and has thermal conductivity in the 20 mW/mK range in high vacuum and 25 mW/mK in 1 atmosphere of gas (such as argon) up to 800 C. It is stable up to 1,000 C. This is equal to commercially available high-temperature thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of the aerogel is 36 percent lower compared to several commercially available insulations when tested in 1 atmosphere of argon gas up to 800 C.

  17. Host range extension of Cydia pomonella granulovirus: adaptation to Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta

    OpenAIRE

    Graillot, Benoit; Blachere, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Among various Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates, the Mexican isolate (CpGV-M) has demonstrated a significant ability to reduce damage induced by the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (=Cydia molesta) in peach crops. To obtain a more efficient virus for G. molesta control, an experimental virus population was constructed by mixing various CpGV isolates. This mixture was then selected for replication in a G. molesta laboratory colony. After 12 successive passages on thi...

  18. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Report. Volume IIB. Gila Bend Group and White Sands Missile Range Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-07

    taken to be the San Andreas, Sand Hills, and Algodones faults. Recorded seismicity within the zone adjacent the study area includes many earthquakes of...earthquakes with 8+ magnitudes. Therefore, the San Andreas, Sand Bills, and Algodones faults have been considered capable of producing an earthquake of

  19. Blonanserin extensively occupies rat dopamine D3 receptors at antipsychotic dose range

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Satoko; Enomoto, Takeshi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ono, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor has been hypothesized to be beneficial for schizophrenia cognitive deficits, negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that most antipsychotics do not occupy D3 receptors in vivo, despite their considerable binding affinity for this receptor in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the D3 receptor binding of blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors antagonist, in vitro an...

  20. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  1. Pickfordiateuthis pulchella [Cephalopoda: Myopsida]; range extension to Bonaire (N.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    On August 3, 1982 a small squid was collected opposite “Trans World Radio” at Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). It was kept in a tank for several hours before it died. The species was identified as Pickfordiateuthis pulchella Voss, 1953, hitherto only known from the Florida Keys, U.S.A. According to

  2. Tropical Range Extension for the Temperate, Endemic South-Eastern Australian Nudibranch Goniobranchus splendidus (Angas, 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerida G. Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to many tropical animals expanding southwards on the Australian coast concomitant with climate change, here we report a temperate endemic newly found in the tropics. Chromodorid nudibranchs are bright, colourful animals that rarely go unnoticed by divers and underwater photographers. The discovery of a new population, with divergent colouration is therefore significant. DNA sequencing confirms that despite departures from the known phenotypic variation, the specimen represents northern Goniobranchus splendidus and not an unknown close relative. Goniobranchus tinctorius represents the sister taxa to G. splendidus. With regard to secondary defences, the oxygenated terpenes found previously in this specimen are partially unique but also overlap with other G. splendidus from southern Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW. The tropical specimen from Mackay contains extracapsular yolk like other G. splendidus. This previously unknown tropical population may contribute selectively advantageous genes to cold-water species threatened by climate change. Competitive exclusion may explain why G. splendidus does not strongly overlap with its widespread sister taxon.

  3. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the coast before the southern edge of the Santa Cruz Mountains which marks the southern boundary of... to San Francisco Bay is a valid tool for assessing population structure and developing population... asserted that the coho bones found there were from fish that were of marine origin, rather than from a...

  4. A design scheme of energy management,control,optimisation system for hybrid solar-wind and battery energy storages system

    OpenAIRE

    Sarban Singh, Ranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University London. Hybrid renewable energy system was introduced to improve the individual renewable energy power system’s productivity and operation-ability. This circumstance has led towards an extensive technological study and analysis on the hybrid renewable energy system. The extensive technological study is conducted using many different approaches, but in this research the linear programming, arti...

  5. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  6. Co-simulation Methodologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Veintimilla Porlán, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, full electric and hybrid electric vehicles have emerged as an alternative to conventional cars due to a range of factors, including environmental and economic aspects. These vehicles are the result of considerable efforts to seek ways of reducing the use of fossil fuel for vehicle propulsion. Sophisticated technologies such as hybrid and electric powertrains require careful study and optimization. Mathematical models play a key role at this point. Currently, many advanced m...

  7. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248 +/- 94 nm to 600 +/- 201 nm, depending on the amount of phospholipid...... culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system....

  8. Agricultural Extension Systems in West Africa: Adoptable Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National agricultural extension and advisory systems have undergone major changes during the past two decades. These changes have been attributed to the success of the. Green Revolution, commercialisation of agriculture and trade liberalization. In addition, transnational corporations develop a wide range of new ...

  9. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  10. Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Herder, E., & Kärger, P. (2008). Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 20-25). October, 6-10, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: Universität Würzburg. Website with link

  11. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  12. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  13. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  14. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  15. Molecular confirmation of hybridization between Dascyllus reticulatus × Dascyllus aruanus from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-11-17

    To date, more than 81 species of tropical coral reef fish have been reported to hybridize in nature, spanning multiple families, including the Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, and Labridae. Hybridization, however, is seemingly rare among benthic nesting species that engage in pair spawning, such as the Pomacentridae. Here, we present evidence for the first molecularly confirmed record of hybridization within the genus Dascyllus; D. aruanus and D. reticulatus. Interestingly, although many hybridization events are attributed to peripheral range effects or areas of limited overlap among otherwise allopatric species, this hybrid individual was collected from the northern Great Barrier Reef, centrally located within the distribution ranges of both species. The hybrid exhibited coloration and meristic counts intermediate between D. aruanus and D. reticulatus. Diagnostic genetic markers and subsequent microsatellites analysis confirmed that this individual was a hybrid offspring of D. aruanus and D. reticulatus, with the latter providing the maternal contribution. The occurrence of the D. aruanus × D. reticulatus hybrid on the Great Barrier Reef represents an exception to the otherwise species-specific haplotypes. The nuclear diagnostic marker which was identified during this study could serve as a hybrid indicator and benefit future hybrid investigations for hybridization between these two species.

  16. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  17. An Expressive Extension of TLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann

    2002-01-01

    A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....

  18. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  19. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  20. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  2. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  3. Extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Songqing; Hu, Lu; Chen, Ketao; Gao, Haixiang, E-mail: hxgao@cau.edu.cn

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • An extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction was developed. • A fully automatic SPE workstation with a modified operation program was used. • Ionic liquid-based in situ DLLME was used as model method. • SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene fiber was used for phase separation. • The approach was applied to the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water. - Abstract: In this study, a convenient and extensible automated ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (automated IL-based in situ DLLME) was developed. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide ([C{sub 8}MIM]NTf{sub 2}) is formed through the reaction between [C{sub 8}MIM]Cl and lithium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf{sub 2}) to extract the analytes. Using a fully automatic SPE workstation, special SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP) fiber, and a modified operation program, the procedures of the IL-based in situ DLLME, including the collection of a water sample, injection of an ion exchange solvent, phase separation of the emulsified solution, elution of the retained extraction phase, and collection of the eluent into vials, can be performed automatically. The developed approach, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD), was successfully applied to the detection and concentration determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in water samples. Parameters affecting the extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved extraction recoveries of 80% to 89% for water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the range of 0.16–0.45 ng mL{sup −1}. The intra-column and inter-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.6%. Good linearity (r > 0.9986) was obtained over the calibration range from 2 to 500 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed

  4. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  5. Extension contact and professional competencies needed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension contact and professional competencies needed by extension agents in the Central Region of Ghana for effective transfer of fish-processing technologies to small-scale women in fish processing - Provisional Communication.

  6. Evidence of natural hybridization between Aegilops geniculata and wheat under field conditions in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, María Concepción; García-Baudín, José María; Chueca, María Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with hybrids between Aegilops geniculata and bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., detected in two Ae. geniculata populations in the "Meseta Central", Spain's central plateau where wheat is a major crop. Morphological traits and pentaploid chromosome numbers were used to identify hybrids in 2004 and 2005. The frequency of hybridization under natural conditions was calculated for one of these populations. Six hybrids were detected from a sample of 3158 seeds from this population. The hybrids were mainly sterile but seed set can be found. This study extends the range of documented hybridization to include central Spain. The potential risks associated with natural hybridization in the context of transgenic wheat cultivation are discussed.

  7. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable... Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter... INFORMATION: The Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Extension for the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range...

  8. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  9. Novel hybrid adaptive controller for manipulation in complex perturbation environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M C Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing.

  10. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  11. Synergy of Genetic Algorithm with Extensive Neighborhood Search for the Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The permutation flowshop scheduling problem (PFSP is an important issue in the manufacturing industry. The objective of this study is to minimize the total completion time of scheduling for minimum makespan. Although the hybrid genetic algorithms are popular for resolving PFSP, their local search methods were compromised by the local optimum which has poorer solutions. This study proposed a new hybrid genetic algorithm for PFSP which makes use of the extensive neighborhood search method. For evaluating the performance, results of this study were compared against other state-of-the-art hybrid genetic algorithms. The comparisons showed that the proposed algorithm outperformed the other algorithms. A significant 50% test instances achieved the known optimal solutions. The proposed algorithm is simple and easy to implement. It can be extended easily to apply to similar combinatorial optimization problems.

  12. [The detection of plasmid pCAMBIA1301 in transgenic rice by arrayed primer extension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Yang, Jian-Bo; Jing, Feng-Xiang; Zhao, Jian-Long

    2005-03-01

    Biochip technology which had emerged from the fusion of biotechnology and micro/nanofabrication technology at the end of 1980s has been widely used in life science, medicine, clinical diagnosis, drug development, agriculture, environmental protection and strategies. DNA microarray (also call gene chip, DNA chip), one kind of biochips, is small chip containing many oligonucleotide probes. It can hybridize with labelled sample, making it possible to detect large numbers of oligonucleotides at one time. So DNA microarray can overcome the disadvantage of traditional hybridization technology such as complexity, low automation, poor efficiency and quantity of molecules detected. This paper describes a new method to detect transgenic plant with gene chip. We have developed a novel arrayed-primer extension technique. It combines hybridization and PCR in one step, while ordinary DNA microarray needs two separate steps. Therefore our method provide a feasibility to detect long DNA fragment .

  13. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  14. Improving the Extension Facilities in C+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P F; Scott, B A

    1999-09-24

    CXX is a facility for extending Python using C++. Recently, the authors have substantially revised and improved the way in which you create extension objects and extension modules in C++. The method is now much more natural and has much less overhead, both in the code generated and in the effort needed to create the objects and extensions.

  15. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  16. Agricultural Extension training needs of the Nongovernment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension practitioners from the private sector are highly trained in the Natural Science. Some shortfalls in their Extension Science training have been identified. Perceived training needs in the Extension Science within this sector have been privatised. A number of possible training inputs and options are suggested. Options ...

  17. Extensive Reading and the Effect of Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ueda, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extensive reading (ER) and shadowing on performance on reading comprehension tests. This study addressed the following research questions: (a) Can extensive reading improve students' reading comprehension? and (b) can shadowing enhance the effects of extensive reading? The participants in the…

  18. Rural Extension Services. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jock R.; Feder, Gershon

    This paper analyzes the considerations that lead policy makers to undertake extension investments as a key public responsibility, as well as the complex set of factors and intra-agency incentives that explain variations in performance between different extension systems. The goals of extension include transferring knowledge from researchers to…

  19. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  1. [Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C; Grobusch, M P; Wagner, D

    2008-02-01

    Recently an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (MTB) strains have been described worldwide. The term XDR- (extensively drug-resistant) tuberculosis (TB) has been introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to characterize multi-drug-resistant MTB strains that are in vitro resistant against fluorochinolones and one of the injectible substances amikacin, capreomycin or kanamycin in addition to isoniazid and rifampin. Strains of XDR-MTB are currently increasingly seen in HIV-seropositive individuals with tuberculosis in southern Africa, where these strains are passed by person-to person contact. XDR-TB has become a serious problem for the health administrations in this region. In contrast, cases of XDR-TB are only rarely seen in Germany so far, mainly among the population of pre-treated migrants from eastern Europe. The development of rapid diagnostic tests for resistance testing and new drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis has lacked support for several decades. The sudden emergence of XDR-MTB strains now warrants immediate action for the development of such tests and new classes of antibiotics to give all patients with TB a chance for a successful treatment.

  2. XPL the Extensible Presentation Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santangelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the development of web interfaces enabling both multiple ways to access contents and, at the same time, fruition by multiple modalities of interaction (point-and-click, contents reading, voice commands, gestures, etc.. In this paper we describe a framework aimed at streamlining the design process of multi-channel, multimodal interfaces enabling full reuse of software components. This framework is called the eXtensible Presentation architecture and Language (XPL, a presentation language based on design pattern paradigm that keeps separated the presentation layer from the underlying programming logic. The language supplies a methodology to expedite multimodal interface development and to reduce the effort to implement interfaces for multiple access devices, by means of using the same code. This paper describes a methodology approach based on Visual Design Pattern (ViDP and Verbal Design Pattern (VeDP, offering examples of multimodal and multichannel interfaces created with the XPL Editor.

  3. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  4. C*-algebras associated with reversible extensions of logistic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaśniewski, Bartosz K.

    2012-10-01

    The construction of reversible extensions of dynamical systems presented in a previous paper by the author and A.V. Lebedev is enhanced, so that it applies to arbitrary mappings (not necessarily with open range). It is based on calculating the maximal ideal space of C*-algebras that extends endomorphisms to partial automorphisms via partial isometric representations, and involves a new set of 'parameters' (the role of parameters is played by chosen sets or ideals). As model examples, we give a thorough description of reversible extensions of logistic maps and a classification of systems associated with compression of unitaries generating homeomorphisms of the circle. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  5. Combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Lönn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    valve stenosis (AS) who are considered at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this report, we describe the combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of an extensive TAA and AS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hybrid TAA repair combined with TAVR.......An extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition and remains a technical challenge to surgeons. Over the past decade, repair of aortic arch aneurysms has been accomplished using both hybrid (open and endovascular) and totally endovascular techniques. Thoracic...... endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has changed and extended management options in thoracic aorta disease, including in those patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for open surgery. Accordingly, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat patients with symptomatic severe aortic...

  6. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  7. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...... of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t

  8. COI NMSD Hybrid Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Greg; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of the 1.6 meter hybrid mirror demonstrator for the NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) program. The COI design approach for the NGST program combines the optical performance of glass, with the high specific stiffness capabilities of composite materials The foundation technologies being exploited in the development of the hybrid mirror focus upon precision Composite Materials for cryogenic operation, and non-contact optical processing (ion figuring) of the lightweight mirror surface. The NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) has been designed and built by Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) with optical processing performed by SAGEM (REOSC). The sponsors of these efforts are the NASA Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers.

  9. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  10. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  11. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  12. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...environment, establish a test procedure for evaluating the performance and create a validated simulation tool for evaluating system -level performance [5, 6...Electric  Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) – Parallel Electric  Family Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV) – Hydraulic Hybrid  Family Medium

  13. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  14. Hybrid chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Markovian pure jump processes model a wide range of phenomena, including chemical reactions at the molecular level, dynamics of wireless communication networks, and the spread of epidemic diseases in small populations. There exist algorithms such as Gillespie\\'s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and Anderson\\'s modified next reaction method (MNRM) that simulate a single path with the exact distribution of the process, but this can be time consuming when many reactions take place during a short time interval. Gillespie\\'s approximated tau-leap method, on the other hand, can be used to reduce computational time, but it may lead to nonphysical values due to a positive one-step exit probability, and it also introduces a time discretization error. Here, we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual paths which adaptively switches between the SSA and the tau-leap method. The switching strategy is based on a comparison of the expected interarrival time of the SSA and an adaptive time step derived from a Chernoff-type bound for the one-step exit probability. Because this bound is nonasymptotic, we do not need to make any distributional approximation for the tau-leap increments. This hybrid method allows us (i) to control the global exit probability of any simulated path and (ii) to obtain accurate and computable estimates of the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Engineered 3D-scaffolds of photocrosslinked chitosan-gelatin hydrogel hybrids for chronic wound dressings and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isadora C; Mansur, Herman S

    2017-09-01

    Wound repair is one of the most complex biological processes in human life. To date, no ideal biomaterial solution has been identified, which that encompasses all functions and properties of real skin tissue. Thus, this study focused on the synthesis of new biocompatible hybrid hydrogel scaffolds based on methacrylate-functionalized high molecular mass chitosan with gelatin-A photocrosslinked with UV radiation to tailor matrix network properties. These hybrid hydrogels were produced via freeze-drying and were extensively characterized by swelling and degradation measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The results demonstrated that hydrogels were produced with broadly designed swelling degrees typically ranging from 500% to 2000%, which were significantly dependent on the relative concentration of polymers and irradiation time for crosslinking. Analogously, degradation was reduced with increased photocrosslinking of the network. Moreover, insights into the mechanism of photochemical crosslinking were suggested based on FTIR and UV-Vis analyses of the characteristic functional groups involved in the reactions. SEM analysis associated with micro-CT imaging of the hybrid scaffolds showed uniformly interconnected 3D porous structures, with architectural features affected by the crosslinking of the network. These hydrogels were biocompatible, with live cell viability responses of human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells being above 95%. Hence, novel hybrid hydrogels were designed and produced with tunable properties through photocrosslinking and with a biocompatible response suitable for use in wound dressing and skin tissue repair applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  17. Hybrid X-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Mishin, S. A.; Mingaleev, A. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Tilikin, I. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Knapp, P. F.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Results from experimental studies of a hybrid X-pinch with an initial configuration in the form of a high-current diode with conical tungsten electrodes spaced by 1-2 mm and connected to one another with 20- to 100-{mu}m-diameter wires are presented. The experiments were carried out at four facilities with a current amplitude from 200 to 1000 kA and front duration from 45 to 200 ns. It is shown that, in spite of their simpler configuration, hybrid X-pinches with a short rise time of the current pulse (50-100 ns) are highly competitive with standard X-pinches in the generated soft X-ray power and the formation of a single hot spot in them is much more stable, while hard X-ray emission is almost absent. The possibility of using hybrid X-pinches as soft X-ray sources for point projection X-ray imaging of plasma objects is considered.

  18. Hybrid BioMicromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2017-09-01

    Micromotors are devices that operate at the microscale and convert energy to motion. Many micromotors are microswimmers, i.e., devices that can move freely in a liquid at a low Reynolds number, where viscous drag dominates over inertia. Hybrid biomicromotors are microswimmers that consist of both biological and artificial components, i.e., one or several living microorganisms combined with one or many synthetic attachments. Initially, living microbes were used as motor units to transport synthetic cargo at the microscale, but this simple allocation has been altered and extended gradually, especially considering hybrid biomicromotors for biomedical in vivo applications, i.e., for non-invasive microscale operations in the body. This review focuses on these applications, where other properties of the microbial component, for example, the capability of chemotaxis, biosensing, and cell-cell interactions, have been exploited in order to realize tasks like localized diagnosis, drug delivery, or assisted fertilization in vivo. In the biohybrid approach, biological and artificially imposed functionalities act jointly through a microrobotic device that can be controlled or supervised externally. We review the development and state-of-the-art of such systems and discuss the mastery of current and future challenges in order to evolve hybrid biomicromotors from apt swimmers to adapted in vivo operators.

  19. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  20. Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United...