WorldWideScience

Sample records for range enhancement applied

  1. Photonic limiters with enhanced dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Rodion; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos; Anisimov, Igor; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Chabanov, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Optical limiters transmit low intensity input light while blocking input light with the intensity exceeding certain limiting threshold. Conventional passive limiters utilize nonlinear optical materials, which are transparent at low light intensity and turn absorptive at high intensity. Strong nonlinear absorption, though, can result in over- heating and destruction of the limiter. Another problem is that the limiting threshold provided by the available optical material with nonlinear absorption is too high for many applications. To address the above problems, the nonlinear material can be incorporated in a photonic structure with engineered dispersion. At low intensity, the photonic structure can display resonant transmission via localized mode(s), while at high intensity the resonant transmission can disappear, and the entire stack can become highly re ective (not absorptive) within a broad frequency range. In the proposed design, the transition from the resonant transmission at low intensity to nearly total re ectivity at high intensity does not rely on nonlinear absorption; instead, it requires only a modest change in the refractive index of the nonlinear material. The latter implies a dramatic increase in the dynamic range of the limiter. The main idea is to eliminate the high-intensity resonant transmission by decoupling the localized (resonant) modes from the input light, rather than suppressing those modes using nonlinear absorption. Similar approach can be used for light modulation and switching.

  2. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  3. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  4. Enhancing Teachers' Motivation to Apply Humanist Information Technology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the following issue: How can we build a training and support system that would enhance the motivation and capacity of teachers for high-quality implementation of information technology innovations guided by humanist ideas? That is, a system that would not only increase teachers' motivation to apply Humanist Information…

  5. A Novel Range Compression Algorithm for Resolution Enhancement in GNSS-SARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of a passive Global Navigation Satellite System-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GNSS-SAR is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, within each azimuth bin, firstly range compression is carried out by correlating a reflected GNSS intermediate frequency (IF signal with a synchronized direct GNSS base-band signal in the range domain. Thereafter, spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results for suppressing side lobes to obtain a final range-compressed signal. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR images can be achieved by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.

  6. Fast and robust wavelet-based dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement model with color restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unaldi, Numan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2009-05-01

    Recently we proposed a wavelet-based dynamic range compression algorithm to improve the visual quality of digital images captured from high dynamic range scenes with non-uniform lighting conditions. The fast image enhancement algorithm that provides dynamic range compression, while preserving the local contrast and tonal rendition, is also a good candidate for real time video processing applications. Although the colors of the enhanced images produced by the proposed algorithm are consistent with the colors of the original image, the proposed algorithm fails to produce color constant results for some "pathological" scenes that have very strong spectral characteristics in a single band. The linear color restoration process is the main reason for this drawback. Hence, a different approach is required for the final color restoration process. In this paper the latest version of the proposed algorithm, which deals with this issue is presented. The results obtained by applying the algorithm to numerous natural images show strong robustness and high image quality.

  7. Enhanced pid vs model predictive control applied to bldc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, M. S.; Muhammad, Auwal; Aliyu Abdulkadir, Rabiu; Salim, S. N. S.; Madugu, I. S.; Tijjani, Aminu; Aminu Yusuf, Lukman; Dauda Umar, Ibrahim; Khairi, M. T. M.

    2018-01-01

    BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motor is a multivariable and highly complex nonlinear system. Variation of internal parameter values with environment or reference signal increases the difficulty in controlling the BLDC effectively. Advanced control strategies (like model predictive control) often have to be integrated to satisfy the control desires. Enhancing or proper tuning of a conventional algorithm results in achieving the desired performance. This paper presents a performance comparison of Enhanced PID and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applied to brushless direct current motor. The simulation results demonstrated that the PSO-PID is slightly better than the PID and MPC in tracking the trajectory of the reference signal. The proposed scheme could be useful algorithms for the system.

  8. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  9. Performance Enhancement of the Patch Antennas Applying Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Azermanesh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of micromachining technology for performance enhancement of two types of compact antennas which are becoming a common practice in microsystems. Shorted patch antennas (SPA and folded shorted patch antennas operating in the 5-6 GHz ISM band, with intended application in short-range wireless communications, are considered. The electrical length of antennas are modified by etching the substrate of the antennas, thus providing a new degree of freedom to control the antenna operating properties, which is the main novelty of our work. The gain and bandwidth of the antennas are increased by increasing the etching depth. However, etching the substrate affects the operating frequency as well. To keep the operating frequency at a pre-specified value, the dimension of the antennas must be increased by deepening the etching depth. Therefore, a trade off between the performance enhancement of the antennas and the dimensional enlargement is required.

  10. Optimisation of design parameters for modular range enhanced projectile

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, Z

    2016-01-01

    There is an underpinning requirement for artillery systems to achieve longer range, better precision, and an adequate lethal effect. The main objective of this research is to investigate various methods of range increase and propose optimal solution for range extension of existing artillery systems. The proposed solution is novel, modular projectile design. Several methodologies for projectile range increment (such as improved aerodynamics and ballistic profile) were combined to achieve the "...

  11. Enhancing international medical graduates' communication: the contribution of applied linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Maria R; Yates, Lynda; Ogden, Kathryn; Rooney, Kim; Sheldon, Brooke

    2015-08-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) make up one-third of the Australian medical workforce. Those from non-English-language backgrounds can face cultural and communication barriers, yet linguistic support is variable and medical educators are often required to provide feedback on both medical and communication issues. However, some communication difficulties may be very specific to the experiences of IMGs as second language users. This interdisciplinary study combines perspectives from applied linguistics experts and clinical educators to address IMGs' difficulties from multiple dimensions and to enhance feedback quality. Five video-recorded patient encounters with five IMGs were collected at Launceston General Hospital. Three clinical educators gave quantitative and qualitative feedback using the Rating Instrument for Clinical Consulting Skills, and two applied linguistics experts analysed the data for language, pragmatic and communication difficulties. The comparison of the educators' language-related feedback with linguistic analyses of the same interactions facilitated the exploration of differences in the difficulties identified by the two expert groups. Although the clinical educators were able to use their tacit intuitive understanding of communication issues to identify IMG difficulties, they less frequently addressed the underlying issues or suggested specific remedies in their feedback. This pilot study illustrates the effectiveness of interdisciplinary collaboration in highlighting the specific discourse features contributing to IMG communication difficulties and thus assists educators in deconstructing their intuitive knowledge. The authors suggest that linguistic insights can therefore improve communications training by assisting educators to provide more targeted feedback. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. APPLYING PBL AND ZUVIO TO ENHANCE ENGLISH LEARNING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOR-TYNG WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To inspire college students’ English learning motivation, this study proposed to combine Project-Based Learning (PBL with ZUVIO online teaching platform. The traditional teaching methods focus on teachers’ direct instruction in class, which mean that students only receive knowledge from teachers instead of formulating the answers on their own. This also decreases interaction in the classroom and prevents students from collaborating with other peers. However, implementing PBL and ZUVIO would allow students to apply knowledge in the social context and work with their classmates. In this study, two freshman English classes in a private university in central Taiwan were chosen as the sample. The students in both classes were low-level students (CEF A2 level. One class (N = 39 was chosen as the experimental group which had to complete the PBL tasks assigned by the teacher and use peer assessment function in ZUVIO for one academic year. The other class (N = 43 was chosen as the control group which was given the traditional teaching instructions. The results showed that the experimental group performed better on the midterm exam compared to the control group during both semesters (p = 0.001. Additionally, the results of the questionnaire showed that students’ motivation to learn English increased when using PBL and ZUVIO as teaching methods. To cite this document: Bor-Tyng Wang, "Applying PBL and ZUVIO to enhance English learning motivation", International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1-16, 2016.

  13. CLOSE RANGE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING INTEGRATED WITH TERRESTRIAL LIDAR SCANNING APPLIED TO ROCK CHARACTERISATION AT CENTIMETRE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Kurz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact and lightweight hyperspectral imagers allow the application of close range hyperspectral imaging with a ground based scanning setup for geological fieldwork. Using such a scanning setup, steep cliff sections and quarry walls can be scanned with a more appropriate viewing direction and a higher image resolution than from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Integration of the hyperspectral imagery with terrestrial lidar scanning provides the hyperspectral information in a georeferenced framework and enables measurement at centimetre scale. In this paper, three geological case studies are used to demonstrate the potential of this method for rock characterisation. Two case studies are applied to carbonate quarries where mapping of different limestone and dolomite types was required, as well as measurements of faults and layer thicknesses from inaccessible parts of the quarries. The third case study demonstrates the method using artificial lighting, applied in a subsurface scanning scenario where solar radiation cannot be utilised.

  14. A Sinusoidal Applied Electric Potential can Induce a Long-Range, Steady Electrophoretic Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrei, Seyyed Hashemi; Ristenpart, William D.; Miller, Greg R.

    2017-11-01

    We use the standard electrokinetic model to numerically investigate the electric field in aqueous solutions between parallel electrodes under AC polarization. In contrast to prior work, we invoke no simplifying assumptions regarding the applied voltage, frequency, or mismatch in ionic mobilities. We find that the nonlinear electromigration terms significantly contribute to the overall shape of the electric potential vs. time, which at sufficiently high applied potentials develops multi-modal peaks. More surprisingly, we find that electrolytes with non-equal mobilities yield an electric field with non-zero time average at large distances from the electrodes. Our calculations indicate this long-range electric field suffices to levitate colloidal particles many microns away from the electrode against the gravitational field, in accord with experimental observations of such behavior (Woehl et al., PRX, 2015). Moreover, the results indicate that particles will aggregate laterally near electrodes in some electrolytes but separate in others, helping explain a longstanding but not well understood phenomenon.

  15. Continuous firefly algorithm applied to PWR core pattern enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursalehi, N., E-mail: npsalehi@yahoo.com [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Moghaddam, H.K. [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Numerical results indicate the reliability of CFA for the nuclear reactor LPO. ► The major advantages of CFA are its light computational cost and fast convergence. ► Our experiments demonstrate the ability of CFA to obtain the near optimal loading pattern. -- Abstract: In this research, the new meta-heuristic optimization strategy, firefly algorithm, is developed for the nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization problem. Two main goals in reactor core fuel management optimization are maximizing the core multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) in order to extract the maximum cycle energy and minimizing the power peaking factor due to safety constraints. In this work, we define a multi-objective fitness function according to above goals for the core fuel arrangement enhancement. In order to evaluate and demonstrate the ability of continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) to find the near optimal loading pattern, we developed CFA nodal expansion code (CFANEC) for the fuel management operation. This code consists of two main modules including CFA optimization program and a developed core analysis code implementing nodal expansion method to calculate with coarse meshes by dimensions of fuel assemblies. At first, CFA is applied for the Foxholes test case with continuous variables in order to validate CFA and then for KWU PWR using a decoding strategy for discrete variables. Results indicate the efficiency and relatively fast convergence of CFA in obtaining near optimal loading pattern with respect to considered fitness function. At last, our experience with the CFA confirms that the CFA is easy to implement and reliable.

  16. Continuous firefly algorithm applied to PWR core pattern enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Moghaddam, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical results indicate the reliability of CFA for the nuclear reactor LPO. ► The major advantages of CFA are its light computational cost and fast convergence. ► Our experiments demonstrate the ability of CFA to obtain the near optimal loading pattern. -- Abstract: In this research, the new meta-heuristic optimization strategy, firefly algorithm, is developed for the nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization problem. Two main goals in reactor core fuel management optimization are maximizing the core multiplication factor (K eff ) in order to extract the maximum cycle energy and minimizing the power peaking factor due to safety constraints. In this work, we define a multi-objective fitness function according to above goals for the core fuel arrangement enhancement. In order to evaluate and demonstrate the ability of continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) to find the near optimal loading pattern, we developed CFA nodal expansion code (CFANEC) for the fuel management operation. This code consists of two main modules including CFA optimization program and a developed core analysis code implementing nodal expansion method to calculate with coarse meshes by dimensions of fuel assemblies. At first, CFA is applied for the Foxholes test case with continuous variables in order to validate CFA and then for KWU PWR using a decoding strategy for discrete variables. Results indicate the efficiency and relatively fast convergence of CFA in obtaining near optimal loading pattern with respect to considered fitness function. At last, our experience with the CFA confirms that the CFA is easy to implement and reliable

  17. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensors with Enhanced Sensitivity and Range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA application...

  18. Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...

  19. Applying living lab methodology to enhance skills in innovation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and which is also inline with the South African medium term strategic framework and the millennium goals of the Department of Science and Technology. Evidence of how the living lab methodology can enhance innovation skills was made clear during various...

  20. Anode engineering for photocurrent enhancement in a polymer solar cell and applied on plastic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hsing-Wang; Li, Pei-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Chungli 32001 (China); Pei, Zingway; Cheng, Shor-Jeng; Hsieh, Wei-Shung [Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227 (China); Chen, Chun-Chao; Chan, Yi-Jen [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories (EOL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Hsinchu 31040 (China)

    2011-02-15

    In this work, a multilayer structure, PEDOT:PSS/insulator/PEDOT:PSS (CIC), was designed and used as the anode in a polymer solar cell (PSC) to enhance the efficiency at low annealing temperature. The efficiency for PSC with CIC multilayers could increase around 22% as compared to the reference cell. The internal electrical field enhancement due to the effective work function increase by CIC multilayer was assumed and responded to efficiency enhancement. The work function of the multilayer anode structure was explored by an electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) analysis. The EFM result shows that the surface potential of PEDPT:PSS in CIC structure is around 0.6 V higher than PEDOT:PSS in reference structure, indicating a higher work function for PEDOT:PSS in multilayer structure. By the input photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) study, the major enhancement in photocurrent occurred at solar spectrum range of 400-650 nm. Further applied to plastic substrate, the PSC exhibits 9.2% enhancement in efficiency. (author)

  1. Local contrast-enhanced MR images via high dynamic range processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shekhar S; Engstrom, Craig; Fripp, Jurgen; Neubert, Ales; Jin, Jin; Walker, Duncan; Salvado, Olivier; Ho, Charles; Crozier, Stuart

    2018-09-01

    To develop a local contrast-enhancing and feature-preserving high dynamic range (HDR) image processing algorithm for multichannel and multisequence MR images of multiple body regions and tissues, and to evaluate its performance for structure visualization, bias field (correction) mitigation, and automated tissue segmentation. A multiscale-shape and detail-enhancement HDR-MRI algorithm is applied to data sets of multichannel and multisequence MR images of the brain, knee, breast, and hip. In multisequence 3T hip images, agreement between automatic cartilage segmentations and corresponding synthesized HDR-MRI series were computed for mean voxel overlap established from manual segmentations for a series of cases. Qualitative comparisons between the developed HDR-MRI and standard synthesis methods were performed on multichannel 7T brain and knee data, and multisequence 3T breast and knee data. The synthesized HDR-MRI series provided excellent enhancement of fine-scale structure from multiple scales and contrasts, while substantially reducing bias field effects in 7T brain gradient echo, T 1 and T 2 breast images and 7T knee multichannel images. Evaluation of the HDR-MRI approach on 3T hip multisequence images showed superior outcomes for automatic cartilage segmentations with respect to manual segmentation, particularly around regions with hyperintense synovial fluid, across a set of 3D sequences. The successful combination of multichannel/sequence MR images into a single-fused HDR-MR image format provided consolidated visualization of tissues within 1 omnibus image, enhanced definition of thin, complex anatomical structures in the presence of variable or hyperintense signals, and improved tissue (cartilage) segmentation outcomes. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Enhanced Thomson scattering theory applied to eight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Short, R.W.; Seka, W.; Goldman, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The onset of an instability, such as the 2ω/sub p/ at the n/sub c//4 surface, usually leads to wave breaking and the emission of hot electron pulses which can profoundly influence instability thresholds and scattering behavior elsewhere in the plasma. In particular, enhanced Thomson scattering (via the plasma line) can occur, and this has been used to explain the observation of the SRS instability well below the theoretical threshold. A simple model of the hot electron pulses based on measured values of the hot and cold electron temperatures, T/sub h/ and T/sub c/, has yielded good agreement with experimental observation of the Raman spectral frequency bands. The agreement has continued, even for experiments which are clearly above the SRS threshold, with the enhanced noise likely acting as a ''seed'' for the SRS growth. We will show details of the successful comparison of this theory with six experiments carried out on SHIVA, ARGUS, NOVETTE(2), and GDL(2), and also with an upscattering feature seen at Garching. In addition, a recent experiment using 6 beams of OMEGA (at 0.35μ) will be discussed, and compared with the theory. The report is comprised of viewgraphs of the talks

  3. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  5. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a nonequilibrium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. They use Newton's method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. They investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, mesh sequencing, and a pseudotransient continuation technique is used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with incomplete lower-upper (ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a mesh sequencing implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented

  6. Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED.

  7. SAW passive wireless sensor-RFID tags with enhanced range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID sensor-tags with enhanced range for remote monitoring of large groups of...

  8. Applying gold nanoparticles as tumor-vascular disrupting agents during brachytherapy: estimation of endothelial dose enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

    2010-01-01

    Tumor vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) represent a promising approach to the treatment of cancer, in view of the tumor vasculature's pivotal role in tumor survival, growth and metastasis. VDAs targeting the tumor's dysmorphic endothelial cells can cause selective and rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature, leading to tumor cell death from ischemia and extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. In this study, the potential for applying gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as VDAs, during brachytherapy, is examined. Analytic calculations based on the electron energy loss formula of Cole were carried out to estimate the endothelial dose enhancement caused by radiation-induced photo/Auger electrons originating from AuNPs targeting the tumor endothelium. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF), representing the ratio of the dose to the endothelium with and without gold nanoparticles was calculated for different AuNP local concentrations, and endothelial cell thicknesses. Four brachytherapy sources were investigated, I-125, Pd-103, Yb-169, as well as 50 kVp x-rays. The results reveal that, even at relatively low intra-vascular AuNP concentrations, ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells due to photo/Auger electrons from the AuNPs can be achieved. Pd-103 registered the highest EDEF values of 7.4-271.5 for local AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 350 mg g -1 , respectively. Over the same concentration range, I-125, 50 kVp and Yb-169 yielded values of 6.4-219.9, 6.3-214.5 and 4.0-99.7, respectively. Calculations of the EDEF as a function of endothelial cell thickness showed that lower energy sources like Pd-103 reach the maximum EDEF at smaller thicknesses. The results also reveal that the highest contribution to the EDEF comes from Auger electrons, apparently due to their shorter range. Overall, the data suggest that ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells can be achieved by applying tumor vasculature-targeted AuNPs as adjuvants to brachytherapy, with

  9. Applying gold nanoparticles as tumor-vascular disrupting agents during brachytherapy: estimation of endothelial dose enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I, E-mail: mmakrigiorgos@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-11-07

    Tumor vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) represent a promising approach to the treatment of cancer, in view of the tumor vasculature's pivotal role in tumor survival, growth and metastasis. VDAs targeting the tumor's dysmorphic endothelial cells can cause selective and rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature, leading to tumor cell death from ischemia and extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. In this study, the potential for applying gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as VDAs, during brachytherapy, is examined. Analytic calculations based on the electron energy loss formula of Cole were carried out to estimate the endothelial dose enhancement caused by radiation-induced photo/Auger electrons originating from AuNPs targeting the tumor endothelium. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF), representing the ratio of the dose to the endothelium with and without gold nanoparticles was calculated for different AuNP local concentrations, and endothelial cell thicknesses. Four brachytherapy sources were investigated, I-125, Pd-103, Yb-169, as well as 50 kVp x-rays. The results reveal that, even at relatively low intra-vascular AuNP concentrations, ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells due to photo/Auger electrons from the AuNPs can be achieved. Pd-103 registered the highest EDEF values of 7.4-271.5 for local AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 350 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. Over the same concentration range, I-125, 50 kVp and Yb-169 yielded values of 6.4-219.9, 6.3-214.5 and 4.0-99.7, respectively. Calculations of the EDEF as a function of endothelial cell thickness showed that lower energy sources like Pd-103 reach the maximum EDEF at smaller thicknesses. The results also reveal that the highest contribution to the EDEF comes from Auger electrons, apparently due to their shorter range. Overall, the data suggest that ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells can be achieved by applying tumor vasculature-targeted AuNPs as adjuvants to

  10. Applying gold nanoparticles as tumor-vascular disrupting agents during brachytherapy: estimation of endothelial dose enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Berbeco, Ross I.

    2010-11-01

    Tumor vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) represent a promising approach to the treatment of cancer, in view of the tumor vasculature's pivotal role in tumor survival, growth and metastasis. VDAs targeting the tumor's dysmorphic endothelial cells can cause selective and rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature, leading to tumor cell death from ischemia and extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. In this study, the potential for applying gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as VDAs, during brachytherapy, is examined. Analytic calculations based on the electron energy loss formula of Cole were carried out to estimate the endothelial dose enhancement caused by radiation-induced photo/Auger electrons originating from AuNPs targeting the tumor endothelium. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF), representing the ratio of the dose to the endothelium with and without gold nanoparticles was calculated for different AuNP local concentrations, and endothelial cell thicknesses. Four brachytherapy sources were investigated, I-125, Pd-103, Yb-169, as well as 50 kVp x-rays. The results reveal that, even at relatively low intra-vascular AuNP concentrations, ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells due to photo/Auger electrons from the AuNPs can be achieved. Pd-103 registered the highest EDEF values of 7.4-271.5 for local AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 350 mg g-1, respectively. Over the same concentration range, I-125, 50 kVp and Yb-169 yielded values of 6.4-219.9, 6.3-214.5 and 4.0-99.7, respectively. Calculations of the EDEF as a function of endothelial cell thickness showed that lower energy sources like Pd-103 reach the maximum EDEF at smaller thicknesses. The results also reveal that the highest contribution to the EDEF comes from Auger electrons, apparently due to their shorter range. Overall, the data suggest that ablative dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells can be achieved by applying tumor vasculature-targeted AuNPs as adjuvants to brachytherapy, with lower

  11. Dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration in single pump fibre optic parametric amplifiers using DPSK modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....

  12. Anisotropic metamaterial for efficiency enhancement of mid-range wireless power transfer under coil misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, A L A K; Moscoso, Carlos Arriola; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils is one of the key factors affecting efficiency. Recently, metamaterials have shown great potential to enhance electromagnetic propagation in various environments. In this work, we apply a metamaterial to enhance the WPT in a more general environment where misalignment is considered. Using an anisotropic metamaterial, we obtain a significant efficiency enhancement. Therefore, we propose that the metamaterial is an effective means to mitigate the decreased efficiency caused by misalignment. In addition, we investigate the effect of coil misalignment on the threshold distance beyond which the metamaterial enhances the performance of WPT. (paper)

  13. Developmental evaluation applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Developmental evaluation (DE) offers a powerful approach to monitoring and supporting social innovations by working in partnership with program decision makers. In this book, eminent authority Michael Quinn Patton shows how to conduct evaluations within a DE framework. Patton draws on insights about complex dynamic systems, uncertainty, nonlinearity, and emergence. He illustrates how DE can be used for a range of purposes: ongoing program development, adapting effective principles of practice to local contexts, generating innovations and taking them to scale, and facilitating rapid response in crisis situations. Students and practicing evaluators will appreciate the book's extensive case examples and stories, cartoons, clear writing style, "closer look" sidebars, and summary tables. Provided is essential guidance for making evaluations useful, practical, and credible in support of social change.

  14. Applying multimedia design principles enhances learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Nabil; Schuller, Mary; Santacaterina, Susan; Shapiro, Michael; Wang, Edward; Mayer, Richard E; DaRosa, Debra A

    2011-08-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges' Institute for Improving Medical Education's report entitled 'Effective Use of Educational Technology' called on researchers to study the effectiveness of multimedia design principles. These principles were empirically shown to result in superior learning when used with college students in laboratory studies, but have not been studied with undergraduate medical students as participants. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used, in which the traditional-learning group received a lecture on shock using traditionally designed slides and the modified-design group received the same lecture using slides modified in accord with Mayer's principles of multimedia design. Participants included Year 3 medical students at a private, midwestern medical school progressing through their surgery clerkship during the academic year 2009-2010. The medical school divides students into four groups; each group attends the surgery clerkship during one of the four quarters of the academic year. Students in the second and third quarters served as the modified-design group (n=91) and students in the fourth-quarter clerkship served as the traditional-design group (n=39). Both student cohorts had similar levels of pre-lecture knowledge. Both groups showed significant improvements in retention (paffect transfer of learning. Further research on applying the principles of multimedia design to medical education is needed to verify the impact it has on the long-term learning of medical students, as well as its impact on other forms of multimedia instructional programmes used in the education of medical students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  15. Image enhancement circuit using nonlinear processing curve and constrained histogram range equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkovic, S.D.; With, de P.H.N.; Panchanathan, S.; Vasudev, B.

    2004-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, image fidelity is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. The obtained image fidelity is a result from amongst others dynamic range expansion and video signal enhancement. The dynamic range of the signal needs adaptation, because the

  16. Enhancement tuning and control for high dynamic range images in multi-scale locally adaptive contrast enhancement algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; Schirris, Johan; de With, Peter H. N.

    2009-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are unacceptable. Compression of the dynamic range is therefore a compulsory part of any high-end video processing chain because standard monitors are inherently Low- Dynamic Range (LDR) devices with maximally two orders of display dynamic range. In real-time camera processing, many complex scenes are improved with local contrast enhancements, bringing details to the best possible visibility. In this paper, we show how a multi-scale high-frequency enhancement scheme, in which gain is a non-linear function of the detail energy, can be used for the dynamic range compression of HDR real-time video camera signals. We also show the connection of our enhancement scheme to the processing way of the Human Visual System (HVS). Our algorithm simultaneously controls perceived sharpness, ringing ("halo") artifacts (contrast) and noise, resulting in a good balance between visibility of details and non-disturbance of artifacts. The overall quality enhancement, suitable for both HDR and LDR scenes, is based on a careful selection of the filter types for the multi-band decomposition and a detailed analysis of the signal per frequency band.

  17. Applying Enhancement Filters in the Pre-processing of Images of Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sérgio Henrique; Do Nascimento, Marcelo Zanchetta; Neves, Leandro Alves; Batista, Valério Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the immune system, and is classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin. It is one of the ten types of cancer that are the most common on earth. Among all malignant neoplasms diagnosed in the world, lymphoma ranges from three to four percent of them. Our work presents a study of some filters devoted to enhancing images of lymphoma at the pre-processing step. Here the enhancement is useful for removing noise from the digital images. We have analysed the noise caused by different sources like room vibration, scraps and defocusing, and in the following classes of lymphoma: follicular, mantle cell and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The filters Gaussian, Median and Mean-Shift were applied to different colour models (RGB, Lab and HSV). Afterwards, we performed a quantitative analysis of the images by means of the Structural Similarity Index. This was done in order to evaluate the similarity between the images. In all cases we have obtained a certainty of at least 75%, which rises to 99% if one considers only HSV. Namely, we have concluded that HSV is an important choice of colour model at pre-processing histological images of lymphoma, because in this case the resulting image will get the best enhancement

  18. Development and evaluation of automatic registration system for multi-range fiducials applied to augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake; Yang, Shoufeng; Yan, Weida; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an automatic registration system was developed that can measure 3 dimensional position and orientation of multi-range fiducials automatically using a camera, laser range finder and motion bases connected to a computer. Result of the experimental evaluation shows that the measurement takes about 50 seconds per marker and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the position and orientation measurement are 3.5 mm and 1.2 degrees respectively. (author)

  19. Enhanced Strain Measurement Range of an FBG Sensor Embedded in Seven-Wire Steel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Song-Yi; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2017-07-18

    FBG sensors offer many advantages, such as a lack of sensitivity to electromagnetic waves, small size, high durability, and high sensitivity. However, their maximum strain measurement range is lower than the yield strain range (about 1.0%) of steel strands when embedded in steel strands. This study proposes a new FBG sensing technique in which an FBG sensor is recoated with polyimide and protected by a polyimide tube in an effort to enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands. The validation test results showed that the proposed FBG sensing technique has a maximum strain measurement range of 1.73% on average, which is 1.73 times higher than the yield strain of the strands. It was confirmed that recoating the FBG sensor with polyimide and protecting the FBG sensor using a polyimide tube could effectively enhance the maximum strain measurement range of FBG sensors embedded in strands.

  20. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  1. Philosophies Applied in the Selection of Space Suit Joint Range of Motion Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsway; Ross, Amy; Matty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Space suits are the most important tool for astronauts working in harsh space and planetary environments; suits keep crewmembers alive and allow them to perform exploration, construction, and scientific tasks on a routine basis over a period of several months. The efficiency with which the tasks are performed is largely dictated by the mobility features of the space suit. For previous space suit development programs, the mobility requirements were written as pure functional mobility requirements that did not separate joint ranges of motion from the joint torques. The Constellation Space Suit Element has the goal to make more quantitative mobility requirements that focused on the individual components of mobility to enable future suit designers to build and test systems more effectively. This paper details the test planning and selection process for the Constellation space suit pressure garment range of motion requirements.

  2. Does the Animal Welfare Act apply to free-ranging animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the long-standing role that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) have played in reviewing and approving studies at academic institutions, compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is not always complete for government natural resource agencies that use free-ranging animals in research and management studies. Even at universities, IACUCs face uncertainties about what activities are covered and about how to judge proposed research on free-ranging animals. One reason for much of the confusion is the AWA vaguely worded exemption for "field studies." In particular, fish are problematic because of the AWA exclusion of poikilothermic animals. However, most university IACUCs review studies on all animals, and the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) has published the "IRAC Principles," which extend coverage to all vertebrates used by federal researchers. Despite this extended coverage, many scientists working on wild animals continue to view compliance with the AWA with little enthusiasm. IACUCs, IACUC veterinarians, wildlife veterinarians, and fish and wildlife biologists must learn to work together to comply with the law and to protect the privilege of using free-ranging animals in research.

  3. Transducer-based fiber Bragg grating high-temperature sensor with enhanced range and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Venkata Reddy; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Ravinuthala, Lakshmi Narayana Sai Prasad; Tumu, Venkatappa Rao

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based high-temperature sensor with enhanced-temperature range and stability has been developed and tested. The sensor consists of an FBG and a mechanical transducer, which furnishes a linear temperature-dependent tensile strain on FBG by means of differential linear thermal expansion of two different ceramic materials. The designed sensor is tested over a range: 20°C to 1160°C and is expected to measure up to 1500°C.

  4. Automatic control of scale range applied for analog study of reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, O.; Tellier, N.

    1967-01-01

    We study the response of a reactor, initially in a sub-critical state, for linear release of reactivity obeying to the following criteria, a rod drop comes in 10 seconds after the moment when the neutron power becomess equal to 10 -3 times the nominal power. We are interested in the maximum reactivity reached and in the energy released during the power excursion. For the power varying in a range from 1 to 10 10 we have used the method of automatic change scale which was installed and described in a previous report [fr

  5. Applying Questioning or Reading Strategy to Review Technology Enhanced Coedited Notes of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Wu, Chiu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether applying questioning review better enhances elementary level students' learning from technology-enhanced coediting-based note taking than does traditional reading review. A nonequivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design was implemented and replicated on four independent units. Two sixth grade elementary…

  6. Self-Biased Differential Rectifier with Enhanced Dynamic Range for Wireless Powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.; Khalil, Waleed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    A self-biased, cross-coupled, differential rectifier is proposed with enhanced power-conversion efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for UHF 433MHz RF power-harvesting applications and is implemented using 0.18μm

  7. Video Enhancement and Dynamic Range Control of HDR Sequences for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ramponi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CMOS video cameras with high dynamic range (HDR output are particularly suitable for driving assistance applications, where lighting conditions can strongly vary, going from direct sunlight to dark areas in tunnels. However, common visualization devices can only handle a low dynamic range, and thus a dynamic range reduction is needed. Many algorithms have been proposed in the literature to reduce the dynamic range of still pictures. Anyway, extending the available methods to video is not straightforward, due to the peculiar nature of video data. We propose an algorithm for both reducing the dynamic range of video sequences and enhancing its appearance, thus improving visual quality and reducing temporal artifacts. We also provide an optimized version of our algorithm for a viable hardware implementation on an FPGA. The feasibility of this implementation is demonstrated by means of a case study.

  8. CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY APPLIED TO THE DOCUMENTATION OF AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN GAZA STRIP, PALESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a geopolitical very complex context as the Gaza Strip it has to be dealt with an enhancement of an archaeological site. This site is the monastery of St. Hilarion. To enable a cultural appropriation of a place with several identified phases of occupation must undertake extensive archaeological excavation. Excavate in this geographical area is to implement emergency excavations, so the aim of such a project can be questioned for each mission. Real estate pressure is also a motivating setting the documentation because the large population density does not allow systematic studies of underground before construction projects. This is also during the construction of a road that the site was discovered. Site dimensions are 150 m by 80 m. It is located on a sand dune, 300 m from the sea. To implement the survey, four different levels of detail have been defined for terrestrial photogrammetry. The first level elements are similar to objects, capitals, fragment of columns, tiles for example. Modeling of small objects requires the acquisition of very dense point clouds (density: 1 point / 1 mm on average. The object must then be a maximum area of the sensor of the camera, while retaining in the field of view a reference pattern for the scaling of the point cloud generated. The pictures are taken at a short distance from the object, using the images at full resolution. The main obstacle to the modeling of objects is the presence of noise partly due to the studied materials (sand, smooth rock, which do not favor the detection of points of interest quality. Pretreatments of the cloud will be achieved meticulously since the ouster of points on a surface of a small object results in the formation of a hole with a lack of information, useful to resulting mesh. Level 2 focuses on the stratigraphic units such as mosaics. The monastery of St. Hilarion identifies thirteen floors of which has been documented years ago by silver photographs, scanned later

  9. 78 FR 51176 - Record of Decision for the Modernization and Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex in Alaska ACTION... Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex (JPARC) in... the EIS, including technical considerations, public review and Tribal and agency input. The Final EIS...

  10. Enhanced optoelastic interaction range in liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, F.; Lalli, S.; Lucchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell' Ambiente ed Urbanistica and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Criante, L. [Center for Nano Science and Technology-PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brasselet, E. [Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-01-06

    We demonstrate that the long-range interaction between surface-functionalized microparticles immersed a nematic liquid crystal—a “nematic colloid”—and a laser-induced “ghost colloid” can be enhanced by a low-voltage quasistatic electric field when the nematic mesophase has a negative dielectric anisotropy. The optoelastic trapping distance is shown to be enhanced by a factor up to 2.5 in presence of an electric field. Experimental data are quantitatively described with a theoretical model accounting for the spatial overlap between the orientational distortions around the microparticle and those induced by the trapping light beam itself.

  11. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  12. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  13. A Delphi Study on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) Applied on Computer Science (CS) Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Marcela; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Martinez-Costa, Carme; Maillet, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a new pedagogical domain aiming to study the usage of information and communication technologies to support teaching and learning. The following study investigated how this domain is used to increase technical skills in Computer Science (CS). A Delphi method was applied, using three-rounds of online survey…

  14. Neurons are sensitive to the magnetic fields applied within the range of MR intensity used for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azanza, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A very high number of data, obtained from molecular and cell biology experimental work, show that living beings are sensitive to either the static magnetic fields (SMF) or the electromagnetic fields in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range (1). Considering the question of the intensity range of the SMF applied for clinical diagnosis, we have made experiments by applying SMF (0,3-0,7 T) directly to neurons. We have shown that there exist a neuron magneto sensitivity explained as a result of the diamagnetism of the phospholipid and protein molecules of the lipid bilayer plasma membrane. This diamagnetism is working together with electric dipolar interactions (a mixed up interaction coined as super diamagnetism) and binded membrane Ca''2+ cooperative coulomb explosion, which in turn operate Ca''2+ -dependent-K''+ membrane channels (2,3). The specific intrinsic metabolic characteristics of the neurons populations explain two types of responses: either a variation in the firing frequency (increases or decreases) or a decrease in the spikes amplitude. This second effect is explained by the inhibition of the Na''+ -K''+-ATP-ase ionic pumps, inactivated by the same superdiamagnetims mechanism. We show in this paper the dependence of the frequency and amplitude changes, of the electrophysiological activity of the neurons, with the intensity of the applied SMF. (Author) 30 refs

  15. Surface enhanced raman scattering at Ag-Pyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Moon Gu; Ko, Eu; Kwan, Do Kyeong; Lee, Ja Hyung; Chang, Joon Sung

    1990-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N) has been performed at silverpyridine interface by use of long range surface plasmon (LRSP) which is generated in the Sarid-type attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure consisting of prism, dielectic, metal and dielectic media. Generation of LRSP has been confirmed by observing the propagation of the LRSP. Raman signal of pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in the above layered structure has been observed and compared with the bulk Raman signal and SERS signal from the chemically adsorbed pyridine. SERS experiment by use of LRSP has not yet reported to the best of our knowledge. (Author)

  16. Self-Biased Differential Rectifier with Enhanced Dynamic Range for Wireless Powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2016-08-29

    A self-biased, cross-coupled, differential rectifier is proposed with enhanced power-conversion efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for UHF 433MHz RF power-harvesting applications and is implemented using 0.18μm CMOS technology. The proposed rectifier architecture is compared to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. It demonstrates an improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and an input power range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional crosscoupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm (30μW) input power for 1V output voltage and a peak power-conversion efficiency of 65% are achieved for a 50kω load. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

  17. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  18. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  19. Enhanced Chromatographic Determination of Nicotine in Human Plasma: Applied to Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Bassam M; Mohamady, Samy; Hendy, Moataz S; Elmazar, Mohamed M

    2015-12-01

    Development of enhanced UPLC-UV method for determination of nicotine in human plasma was achieved on a Symmetry(®) C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm) applying isocratic elution based on Methanol: Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer (pH: 2.7) with the ratio (20:30:50, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The ultraviolet detector was operated at 260 nm. The mobile phase was pumped through the column at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). The column temperature was adjusted to 50ºC and the injection volume was 2 μL. Quinine was selected as an internal standard (IS) due to its structure similarity to nicotine having basic pyridine ring to optimize the liquid liquid extraction procedure using diethyl ether coupled with vacuum evaporation at 40°C. Validation parameters for nicotine were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-50 ng ml(-1). The application of the proposed method on four healthy human volunteers was approved by the ethical committee. The study was carried out under fasting conditions and the concerned subjects were informed about the objectives and possible risks involved in the study. The proposed method proved to be simple and fast which is a major advantage to analyze large number of samples per day using the accelerated vacuum evaporation technique. The method showed satisfactory data for all the parameters tested within the limits for bioanalytical assays. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) permits the application of the method for further pharmacological and clinical studies.

  20. Automatic classification of unexploded ordnance applied to Spencer Range live site for 5x5 TEMTADS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2013-06-01

    This paper details methods for automatic classification of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) as applied to sensor data from the Spencer Range live site. The Spencer Range is a former military weapons range in Spencer, Tennessee. Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) sensing is carried out using the 5x5 Time-domain Electromagnetic Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System (5x5 TEMTADS), which has 25 receivers and 25 co-located transmitters. Every transmitter is activated sequentially, each followed by measuring the magnetic field in all 25 receivers, from 100 microseconds to 25 milliseconds. From these data target extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are extracted using the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and the Ortho-Normalized Volume Magnetic Source (ONVMS) algorithms, respectively. Namely, the inversion provides x, y, and z locations and a time series of the total ONVMS principal eigenvalues, which are intrinsic properties of the objects. The eigenvalues are fit to a power-decay empirical model, the Pasion-Oldenburg model, providing 3 coefficients (k, b, and g) for each object. The objects are grouped geometrically into variably-sized clusters, in the k-b-g space, using clustering algorithms. Clusters matching a priori characteristics are identified as Targets of Interest (TOI), and larger clusters are automatically subclustered. Ground Truths (GT) at the center of each class are requested, and probability density functions are created for clusters that have centroid TOI using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The probability functions are applied to all remaining anomalies. All objects of UXO probability higher than a chosen threshold are placed in a ranked dig list. This prioritized list is scored and the results are demonstrated and analyzed.

  1. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  2. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hainan; Zhao, Ziguang; Cai, Yudong; Zhou, Jiajia; Hua, Wenda; Chen, Lie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianqi; Han, Dong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Many biological organisms with exceptional freezing tolerance can resist the damages to cells from extra-/intracellular ice crystals and thus maintain their mechanical stability at subzero temperatures. Inspired by the freezing tolerance mechanisms found in nature, here we report a strategy of combining hydrophilic/oleophilic heteronetworks to produce self-adaptive, freeze-tolerant and mechanically stable organohydrogels. The organohydrogels can simultaneously use water and oil as a dispersion medium, and quickly switch between hydrogel- and organogel-like behaviours in response to the nature of the surrounding phase. Accordingly, their surfaces display unusual adaptive dual superlyophobic in oil/water system (that is, they are superhydrophobic under oil and superoleophobic under water). Moreover, the organogel component can inhibit the ice crystallization of the hydrogel component, thus enhancing the mechanical stability of organohydrogel over a wide temperature range (-78 to 80 °C). The organohydrogels may have promising applications in complex and harsh environments.

  3. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  4. A Doherty Power Amplifier with Large Back-Off Power Range Using Integrated Enhancing Reactance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Doherty power amplifier (DPA based on integrated enhancing reactance (IER was proposed for large back-off applications. The IER was generated using the peaking amplifier with the help of a desired impedance transformation in the low-power region to enhance the back-off efficiency of the carrier amplifier. To convert the impedances properly, both in the low-power region and at saturation, a two-impedance matching method was employed to design the output matching networks. For verification, a symmetric DPA with large back-off power range over 2.2–2.5 GHz was designed and fabricated. Measurement results show that the designed DPA has the 9 dB back-off efficiency of higher than 45%, while the saturated output power is higher than 44 dBm over the whole operation bandwidth. When driven by a 20 MHz LTE signal, the DPA can achieve good average efficiency of around 50% with adjacent channel leakage ratio of about –50 dBc after linearization over the frequency band of interest. The linearity improvement of the DPA for multistandard wireless communication system was also verified with a dual-band modulated signal.

  5. Geomorphic evidence for enhanced Pliocene-Quaternary faulting in the northwestern Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Magdalena A; Barnes Jason B,; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Mountains in the U.S. Basin and Range Province are similar in form, yet they have different histories of deformation and uplift. Unfortunately, chronicling fault slip with techniques like thermochronology and geodetics can still leave sizable, yet potentially important gaps at Pliocene–Quaternary (∼105–106 yr) time scales. Here, we combine existing geochronology with new geomorphic observations and approaches to investigate the Miocene to Quaternary slip history of active normal faults that are exhuming three footwall ranges in northwestern Nevada: the Pine Forest Range, the Jackson Mountains, and the Santa Rosa Range. We use the National Elevation Dataset (10 m) digital elevation model (DEM) to measure bedrock river profiles and hillslope gradients from these ranges. We observe a prominent suite of channel convexities (knickpoints) that segment the channels into upper reaches with low steepness (mean ksn = ∼182; θref = 0.51) and lower, fault-proximal reaches with high steepness (mean ksn = ∼361), with a concomitant increase in hillslope angles of ∼6°–9°. Geologic maps and field-based proxies for rock strength allow us to rule out static causes for the knickpoints and interpret them as transient features triggered by a drop in base level that created ∼20% of the existing relief (∼220 m of ∼1050 m total). We then constrain the timing of base-level change using paleochannel profile reconstructions, catchment-scale volumetric erosion fluxes, and a stream-power–based knickpoint celerity (migration) model. Low-temperature thermochronology data show that faulting began at ca. 11–12 Ma, yet our results estimate knickpoint initiation began in the last 5 Ma and possibly as recently as 0.1 Ma with reasonable migration rates of 0.5–2 mm/yr. We interpret the collective results to be evidence for enhanced Pliocene–Quaternary fault slip that may be related to tectonic reorganization in the American West, although we cannot rule out climate as a

  6. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  7. Departing from PowerPoint default mode: Applying Mayer's multimedia principles for enhanced learning of parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagmoti, Jyoti Mahantesh

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology. Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I) and an essay test after six months (test-II) which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected. Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019) indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use. It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures.

  8. Applying Semigroup Property of Enhanced Chebyshev Polynomials to Anonymous Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply semigroup property of enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to present an anonymous authentication protocol. This paper aims at improving security and reducing computational and storage overhead. The proposed scheme not only has much lower computational complexity and cost in the initialization phase but also allows the users to choose their passwords freely. Moreover, it can provide revocation of lost or stolen smart card, which can resist man-in-the-middle attack and off-line dictionary attack together with various known attacks.

  9. Technology Applied to ELT: Reviewing Practical Uses to Enhance English Teaching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas Serrano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author reports on some of the areas of technology currently used in the teaching and learning of languages, and reviews some of the uses of technological tools that are present in the English Adult Program and activities carried out at The Centro Colombo Americano (CCA in Bogota, Colombia. After briefly describing what is being applied worldwide in terms of what is being done at the CCA, some suggestions are offered in order to enhance the English teaching and learning processes through the use of new technologies.

  10. Heat transfer enhancement in a convective field by applying ionic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Y.; Takimoto, A.; Hayashi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study has been conducted to pursue the heat transfer enhancement in a convective field by applying electric field. Firstly, aimed at thinning boundary layer, swirl motions were caused by utilizing the ionic wind in a channel flow with parallel wire-electrode arrangement. Secondly, ionic wind was induced at right angle to the primary flow at regular intervals by using cross wire-electrode arrangement. Thirdly, to utilize the dynamical effect of adding particles under the Coulomb force, electric field was applied to gas-solid suspensions flow field. On the basis of these results, fundamental characteristics of the combined flow structure and the heat transfer in the EHD field were clarified, and the possibility of the practical application will be insighted

  11. Optimized lighting method of applying shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of LED-multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Hu, Yajia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimized lighting method of applying a shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of light emitting diode (LED)-multispectral imaging system. The optimized lighting method is based on the linear response zone of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the spectral response of the camera. The auxiliary light at a higher sensitivity-camera area is introduced to increase the A/D quantization levels that are within the linear response zone of ADC and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The active light is modulated by the shaped-function signal to improve the gray-scale resolution of the image. And the auxiliary light is modulated by the constant intensity signal, which is easy to acquire the images under the active light irradiation. The least square method is employed to precisely extract the desired images. One wavelength in multispectral imaging based on LED illumination was taken as an example. It has been proven by experiments that the gray-scale resolution and the accuracy of information of the images acquired by the proposed method were both significantly improved. The optimum method opens up avenues for the hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue.

  12. SERS as an analytical tool in environmental science: The detection of sulfamethoxazole in the nanomolar range by applying a microfluidic cartridge setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patze, Sophie; Huebner, Uwe; Liebold, Falk; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a commonly applied antibiotic for treating urinary tract infections; however, allergic reactions and skin eczema are known side effects that are observed for all sulfonamides. Today, this molecule is present in drinking and surface water sources. The allowed concentration in tap water is 2·10 -7  mol L -1 . SMX could unintentionally be ingested by healthy people when drinking contaminated tap water, representing unnecessary drug intake. To assess the quality of tap water, fast, specific and sensitive detection methods are required, in which consequence measures for improving the purification of water might be initiated in the short term. Herein, the quantitative detection of SMX down to environmentally and physiologically relevant concentrations in the nanomolar range by employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a microfluidic cartridge system is presented. By applying surface-water samples as matrices, the detection of SMX down to 2.2·10 -9  mol L -1 is achieved, which illustrates the great potential of our proposed method in environmental science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2. Methods. In rats, VPA ( or sodium chloride (NaCl ( containing polycaprolactone (PCL implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (. In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms.

  14. Applied information system-based in enhancing students' understanding towards higher order thinking (HOTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ang Kean; Ping, Owi Wei

    2017-05-01

    The application of information and communications technology (ICT) had become more important in our daily life, especially in educational field. Teachers are encouraged to use information system-based in teaching Mathematical courses. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) approach is unable to explain using chalk and talk methods. It needs students to analyze, evaluate, and create by their own natural abilities. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application information system-based in enhance the students understanding about HOTS question. Mixed-methods or quantitative and qualitative approach was applied in collecting data, which involve only the standard five students and the teachers in Sabak Bernam, Selangor. Pra-postests was held before and after using information system-based in teaching to evaluate the students' understanding. The result from post-test indicates significant improvement which proves that the use of information system based able to enhance students' understanding about HOTS question and solve it. There were several factor influenced the students such as students' attitude, teachers attraction, school facilities, and computer approach. Teachers play an important role in attracting students to learn. Therefore, the school should provide a conducive learning environment and good facilities for students to learn so that they are able to access more information and always exposed to new knowledge. As conclusion, information system-based are able to enhance students understanding the need of HOTS questions and solve it.

  15. Enhancement of salinity tolerance in wheat through soil applied calcium carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide (CaC2 has been reported to increase growth and yield of crops under normal soil conditions. This study assessed its capacity to enhance salinity tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; cv- 1076 under saline conditions. Three levels of salinity: 0, 7 and 12 dS m-1 were created using NaCl. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulphate and KH2PO4 at 50 and 25 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. The encapsulated calcium carbide (ECC at 45 mg kg-1 soil produced 1291.8 µmols of acetylene (C2H2 and 257.5 µmols of its product ethylene (C2H4 over a period of 80 days. The results of the pot study indicated that ECC increased the weight of spike, weight of grains per spike, length of spike, total water concentration, root/shoot ratio and relative leaf water content up to 17, 23, 22, 35, 33 and 3%, respectively, over the control. Contrary to this, salinity (at 12 dS m -1 decreased all these parameters up to 68, 60, 26, 30, 28 and 8%, respectively, compared to the control. These results indicate that ECC enhances salinity tolerance in wheat by improving uptake of nutrients through enhanced root growth, increased hydraulic conductivity and hormonal action of ethylene released by ECC. Total water concentration was positively correlated (0.73 with grains spike-1 at P ≤ 0.05

  16. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  17. Systematic investigation of resonance-induced single-harmonic enhancement in the extreme-ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the intensity enhancement of single harmonics in high-order harmonic generation from laser plasma. We identified several targets (In, Sn, Sb, Cr, and Mn) that demonstrate resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic, that are spectrally close to ionic transitions with strong oscillator strengths. We optimized and obtained enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 21st, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from the above targets, by varying the chirp of the 800 nm wavelength femtosecond laser. We also observe harmonic enhancement by using frequency-doubled pump laser (400 nm wavelength). For Mn plasma pumped by the 400 nm wavelength laser, the maximum order of the enhanced harmonic observed was the 17th order (λ=23.5 nm), which corresponds to the highest photon energy (52.9 eV) reported for an enhanced single harmonic

  18. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  19. Laser-induced thermal coagulation enhances skin uptake of topically applied compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Hannibal, J; Paasch, U

    2017-01-01

    microchannels surrounded by CZ compared to channels with no CZ (CZ-20 and CZ-80>CZ-0).The thickness of CZ affected PEG distribution in skin. A thin CZ-20 favored significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities inside CZ areas compared to CZ-80 (PEG 350, 1,000, and 5,000; P ...BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional laser (AFL) generates microchannels in skin surrounded by a zone of thermally altered tissue, termed the coagulation zone (CZ). The thickness of CZ varies according to applied wavelength and laser settings. It is well-known that AFL channels facilitate uptake...... of topically applied compounds, but the importance of CZ is unknown. METHODS: Franz Cells were used to investigate skin uptake and permeation of fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with mean molecular weights (MW) of 350, 1,000, and 5,000 Da. Microchannels with CZ thicknesses ranging from 0 to 80...

  20. Efficiency enhancement of GT-MHRs applied on ship propulsion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Garcia, Ramon, E-mail: ferreiro@udc.es [Dept. Industrial Engineering, University of A Coruna, ETSNM, C/Paseo de Ronda, 51, 15011 A Coruna (Spain); Carril, Jose Carbia; Catoira, Alberto DeMiguel; Romero Gomez, Javier [Dept. Energy and Propulsion, University of A Coruna ETSNM, C/Paseo de Ronda, 51, 15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient ship propulsion system powered by HTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conventional Rankine cycle renders high efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intermediate heat exchanger isolates the nuclear reactor from the process heat application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intermediate heat exchanger allows the system to be built to non-nuclear standards. - Abstract: High temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR) may operate as electric power suppliers to be applied on ship propulsion plants. In such propulsion systems performance enhancement can be achieved at effective cost under safety conditions using alternative cycles to the conventional Brayton cycle. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of an ultra supercritical Rankine cycle, in which water is used as working fluid. The proposed study is carried out in order to achieve performance enhancement on the basis of turbine temperature increasing. The helium cooled high temperature reactor supplies thermal energy to the Rankine cycle via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE) under safety conditions. The results of the study show that the efficiency of the propulsion plant using a multi-reheat Rankine cycle is significantly improved (from actual 48% to more than 55%) while keeping safety standards.

  1. Enhancing Ignition Probability and Fusion Yield in NIF Indirect Drive Targets with Applied Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. John; Logan, B. Grant; Ho, Darwin; Zimmerman, George; Rhodes, Mark; Blackfield, Donald; Hawkins, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under capsule compression may relax conditions for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive ICF targets. This may allow attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently-performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation. Results of detailed 2D radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction and stabilization of higher-mode RT instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are around 50 T. Off-line testing has been performed of a hohlraum coil and pulsed power supply that could be integrated on NIF; axial fields of 58T were obtained. Given the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by 3-D resistive MHD, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to NIF ICF ignition and burn. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. The generic methodology for verification and validation applied to medium range anti-tank simulation training devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Roza, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Defense (NL-MoD) has recently acquired an update of its medium range anti tank (MRAT) missile system, called the GILL. The update to the SPIKE Long Range (LR) weapon system is accompanied with the acquisition of new simulation training devices (STDs). These devices are bought

  3. Enhancement tuning and control for high dynamic range images in multi-scale locally adaptive contrast enhancement algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkovic, S.D.; Schirris, J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2009-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are

  4. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  5. Unconventional isotope systems applied to enhancing the petrogenesis of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voignot, A.; Chipley, D.; Kyser, K.; Uvarova, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Among the new techniques applied to the petrogenesis and evolution of uranium deposits from their formation to later alteration is isotope tracing. The isotope systems being used include Li, C, N, Fe, Mo, Tl, Pb and U, all of which reflect different, but overlapping, processes. Although Pb isotopes have been used to understand the temporal evolution and migration of radiogenic Pb from the deposits, Li, C, N, Mo, Tl and U isotope systems are new ways to analyze deposits and barren areas and to reveal their precise redox mechanisms. Geochemical technologies for exploration include "2"3"8U/"2"3"5U ratios of uranium minerals, which vary as a function of the type of uranium deposit and the efficiency of the redox processes. Lithium isotope ratios in muscovite and chlorite associated with mineralizing events are distinct from background ratios, with the lowest values reflecting the beginning of hydrothermal alteration systems and the highest values indicative of the terminal flow of hydrothermal fluids. Carbon and N reflect the influence of biospheric processes on the deposits and dispersion of elements that can be used for exploration. Iron, Mo and Tl are common elements in many uranium deposits and are among the most redox active elements. Their isotopes separate among phases having different oxidation potentials. They reflect the efficiency of the redox systems associated with fixing the uranium and the subsequent processes involved in mobilizing elements from the deposits. Isotopes add benefits to refining genetic models for uranium deposits, thereby enhancing our exploration models as well. An additional goal of applying isotope geochemistry to uranium deposits is to be able to use them to reflect a definitive process that occurs in the deposit and not in barren systems, and then to relate these to something that is easier to measure, namely elemental concentrations. (author)

  6. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred....... A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment...

  7. Observation of silicon self-diffusion enhanced by the strain originated from end-of-range defects using isotope multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoda, Taiga; Uematsu, Masashi; Itoh, Kohei M., E-mail: kitoh@appi.keio.ac.jp [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Si self-diffusion in the presence of end-of-range (EOR) defects is investigated using {sup nat}Si/{sup 28}Si isotope multilayers. The isotope multilayers were amorphized by Ge ion implantation, and then annealed at 800–950 °C. The behavior of Si self-interstitials is investigated through the {sup 30}Si self-diffusion. The experimental {sup 30}Si profiles show further enhancement of Si self-diffusion at the EOR defect region, in addition to the transient enhanced diffusion via excess Si self-interstitials by EOR defects. To explain this additional enhanced diffusion, we propose a model which takes into account enhanced diffusion by tensile strain originated from EOR defects. The calculation results based on this model have well reproduced the experimental {sup 30}Si profiles.

  8. Performance enhancement of microbial fuel cell by applying transient-state regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Zhang, Changyong; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Zhang, Helan; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Xufei; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MFC was operated with transient-state regulation to enhance its performance. • Effects of the TSR parameters on MFC performance were thoroughly investigated. • Long-term operation of MFC in TSR mode allowed 32.7% higher power production. • Anode capacitance helped reduce the MFC’s internal impedance in the TSR mode. - Abstract: A binder-free, pseudocapacitive anode was fabricated by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO_2) nanoparticles on stainless steel fibre felt (SS). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with this novel anode yielded a maximum power density of 1045 mW m"−"2, 20 times higher than that of a similar MFC with a bare SS anode (46 mW m"−"2). Transient-state regulation (TSR) was implemented to further improve the MFC’s power generation. The optimal TSR duty cycle ranged from 67% to 95%, and the MFC’s power density increased with TSR frequency. A maximum power density output of 1238 mW m"−"2 was achieved at the TSR duty cycle of 75% and the frequency of 1 Hz, 18.4% greater than that obtained from the steady state operation. The TSR mode delivered better MFC performance especially when the external resistance was small. Long-term operation tests revealed that the current density and power density yielded in the TSR mode were on average 15.0% and 32.7% greater than those in the steady state mode, respectively. The TSR mode was believed to reduce the internal resistance of the MFC while enhance substrate mass transfer and electron transfer within the anode matrix, thereby improving the MFC performance.

  9. Automotive FMCW Radar-Enhanced Range Estimation via a Local Resampling Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailing Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In complex traffic scenarios, more accurate measurement and discrimination for an automotive frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW radar is required for intelligent robots, driverless cars and driver-assistant systems. A more accurate range estimation method based on a local resampling Fourier transform (LRFT for a FMCW radar is developed in this paper. Radar signal correlation in the phase space sees a higher signal-noise-ratio (SNR to achieve more accurate ranging, and the LRFT - which acts on a local neighbour as a refinement step - can achieve a more accurate target range. The rough range is estimated through conditional pulse compression (PC and then, around the initial rough estimation, a refined estimation through the LRFT in the local region achieves greater precision. Furthermore, the LRFT algorithm is tested in numerous simulations and physical system experiments, which show that the LRFT algorithm achieves a more precise range estimation than traditional FFT-based algorithms, especially for lower bandwidth signals.

  10. Enhancing the dynamic range of Ultrasound Imaging Velocimetry using interleaved imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelma, C.; Fraser, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, non-invasive velocity field measurement based on correlation of ultrasound images has been introduced as a promising technique for fundamental research into disease processes, as well as a diagnostic tool. A major drawback of the method is the relatively limited dynamic range when

  11. Enhanced thermal conduction -- An alternative solution for removing a broad range of hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of Enhanced Thermal Conduction (ETC), an ex-situ soil remediation process. A review of a practical demonstration of this process which was conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants to determine the capability of the technology for remediating soils from gasworks sites that have been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyanide is also presented in this paper. Projections for using this process to treat soils contaminated with other hazardous materials such as TCE PCE and PCB's are discussed as well.

  12. Genomic deletion of a long-range bone enhancer misregulatessclerostin in Van Buchem disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, Gabriela G.; Kneissel, Michaela; Keller, Hansjoerg; Baptist, Myma; Chang, Jessie; Collette, Nicole M.; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-15

    Mutations in distant regulatory elements can negatively impact human development and health, yet due to the difficulty of detecting these critical sequences we predominantly focus on coding sequences for diagnostic purposes. We have undertaken a comparative sequence-based approach to characterize a large noncoding region deleted in patients affected by Van Buchem disease (VB), a severe sclerosing bone dysplasia. Using BAC recombination and transgenesis we characterized the expression of human sclerostin (sost) from normal (hSOSTwt) or Van Buchem(hSOSTvb D) alleles. Only the hSOSTwt allele faithfully expressed high levels of human sost in the adult bone and impacted bone metabolism, consistent with the model that the VB noncoding deletion removes a sost specific regulatory element. By exploiting cross-species sequence comparisons with in vitro and in vivo enhancer assays we were able to identify a candidate enhancer element that drives human sost expression in osteoblast-like cell lines in vitro and in the skeletal anlage of the E14.5 mouse embryo, and discovered a novel function for sclerostin during limb development. Our approach represents a framework for characterizing distant regulatory elements associated with abnormal human phenotypes.

  13. Enhancing Understanding of the Visual Cycle by Applying CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the vertebrate visual cycle, all-trans-retinal is exported from photoreceptors to the adjacent RPE or Müller glia wherein 11-cis-retinal is regenerated. The 11-cis chromophore is returned to photoreceptors, forming light-sensitive visual pigments with opsin GPCRs. Dysfunction of this process perturbs phototransduction because functional visual pigment cannot be generated. Mutations in visual cycle genes can result in monogenic inherited forms of blindness. Though key enzymatic processes are well characterized, questions remain as to the physiological role of visual cycle proteins in different retinal cell types, functional domains of these proteins in retinoid biochemistry and in vivo pathogenesis of disease mutations. Significant progress is needed to develop effective and accessible treatments for inherited blindness arising from mutations in visual cycle genes. Here, we review opportunities to apply gene editing technology to two crucial visual cycle components, RPE65 and CRALBP. Expressed exclusively in the human RPE, RPE65 enzymatically converts retinyl esters into 11-cis retinal. CRALBP is an 11-cis-retinal binding protein expressed in human RPE and Muller glia. Loss-of-function mutations in either protein results in autosomal recessive forms of blindness. Modeling these human conditions using RPE65 or CRALBP murine knockout models have enhanced our understanding of their biochemical function, associated disease pathogenesis and development of therapeutics. However, rod-dominated murine retinae provide a challenge to assess cone function. The cone-rich zebrafish model is amenable to cost-effective maintenance of a variety of strains. Interestingly, gene duplication in zebrafish resulted in three Rpe65 and two Cralbp isoforms with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns. Functional investigations of zebrafish Rpe65 and Cralbp were restricted to gene knockdown with morpholino oligonucleotides. However, transient

  14. Laser-induced thermal coagulation enhances skin uptake of topically applied compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, C S; Hannibal, J; Paasch, U; Anderson, R R; Haedersdal, M

    2017-08-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) generates microchannels in skin surrounded by a zone of thermally altered tissue, termed the coagulation zone (CZ). The thickness of CZ varies according to applied wavelength and laser settings. It is well-known that AFL channels facilitate uptake of topically applied compounds, but the importance of CZ is unknown. Franz Cells were used to investigate skin uptake and permeation of fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with mean molecular weights (MW) of 350, 1,000, and 5,000 Da. Microchannels with CZ thicknesses ranging from 0 to 80 μm were generated from micro-needles (0 μm, CZ-0), and AFL (10,600 nm) applied to -80°C deep frozen skin (20 μm, CZ-20) and skin equilibrated to room temperature (80 μm, CZ-80). Channels penetrated into similar mid-dermal skin depths of 600-700 μm, and number of channels per skin area was similar. At 4 hours incubation, skin uptake of PEGs into CZ and dermis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy at specific skin depths of 150, 400, and 1,000 μm and the transcutaneous permeation was quantified by fluorescence of receptor fluids. Overall, the highest uptake of PEGs was reached through microchannels surrounded by CZ compared to channels with no CZ (CZ-20 and CZ-80>CZ-0).The thickness of CZ affected PEG distribution in skin. A thin CZ-20 favored significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities inside CZ areas compared to CZ-80 (PEG 350, 1,000, and 5,000; P channels was significantly higher than through CZ-80 and CZ-0 at all skin depths (PEG 350, 1,000 and 5,000, 150-1,000 μm; P distribution, with highest PEG uptake achieved from microchannels surrounded by a thin CZ. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:582-591, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  16. Characterization of a compliant multi-layer system for tactile sensing with enhanced sensitivity and range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Miao; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2018-06-01

    To allow robots to interact with humans via touch, new sensing concepts are needed that can detect a wide range of potential interactions and cover the body of a robot. In this paper, a skin-inspired multi-layer tactile sensing architecture is presented and characterized. The structure consists of stretchable piezoresistive strain-sensing layers over foam layers of different stiffness, allowing for both sufficient sensitivity and pressure range for human contacts. Strip-shaped sensors were used in this architecture to produce a deformation response proportional to pressure. The roles of the foam layers were elucidated by changing their stiffness and thickness, allowing the development of a geometric model to account for indenter interactions with the structure. The advantage of this architecture over other approaches is the ability to easily tune performance by adjusting the stiffness or thickness of the foams to tailor the response for different applications. Since viscoelastic materials were used, the temporal effects were also investigated.

  17. Enhancement of concentration range of chromatographically detectable components with array detector mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Christie

    2013-02-19

    Methods and instruments for high dynamic range analysis of sample components are described. A sample is subjected to time-dependent separation, ionized, and the ions dispersed with a constant integration time across an array of detectors according to the ions m/z values. Each of the detectors in the array has a dynamically adjustable gain or a logarithmic response function, producing an instrument capable of detecting a ratio of responses or 4 or more orders of magnitude.

  18. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  19. Enhancing Transportation Equity Analysis for Long Range Planning and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Bills, Tierra Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) regularly perform equity analyses for their long-range transportation plans, as this is required by Environmental Justice regulations. These regional-level plans may propose hundreds of transportation infrastructure and policy changes (e.g. highway and transit extensions, fare changes, pricing schemes, etc.) as well as land-use policy changes. The challenge is to assess the distribution of impacts from all the proposed changes across different popula...

  20. Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies: Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Gomes, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Frequently found in southeastern South America during the warm season from October through May, strong and localized precipitation maxima are usually associated with the presence of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) travelling across the region. Flashfloods and landslides can be caused by these extremes in precipitation, with damages to the local communities. Heavily populated, southeastern South America hosts many agricultural activities and hydroelectric production. It encompasses one of the most important river basins in South America, the La Plata River Basin. Therefore, insufficient precipitation is equally prejudicial to the region socio-economic activities. MCCs are originated in the warm season of many regions of the world, however South American MCCs are related to the most severe thunderstorms, and have significantly contributed to the precipitation regime. We used the hourly outputs of Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in the analysis of the dynamics and physical characteristics of MCCs in South America. SRDAS is the 25-km resolution downscaling of a global reanalysis available from January 1998 through December 2010. The Regional Spectral Model is the SRDAS atmospheric component and assimilates satellite-based precipitation estimates from the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique global precipitation analyses. In this study, the SRDAS atmospheric and land-surface variables, global reanalysis products, infrared satellite imagery, and the physical retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), on board of the NASA's Aqua satellite, were used in the evaluation of the MCCs developed in southeastern South America from 2008 and 2010. Low-level circulations and vertical profiles were analyzed together to establish the relevance of the moisture transport in connection with the upper-troposphere dynamics to the development of those MCCs.

  1. Signal enhancement in collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo, E-mail: gunicolodelli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Senesi, Giorgio Saverio, E-mail: giorgio.senesi@imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Romano, Renan Arnon, E-mail: renan.romano@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz de, E-mail: ivanperazzoli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira, E-mail: debora.milori@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known consolidated analytical technique employed successfully for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid, liquid, gaseous and aerosol samples of very different nature and origin. Several techniques, such as dual-pulse excitation setup, have been used in order to improve LIBS's sensitivity. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the key parameters as excitation wavelength, delay time and interpulse, that influence the double pulse (DP) LIBS technique in the collinear beam geometry when applied to the analysis at atmospheric air pressure of soil samples of different origin and texture from extreme regions of Brazil. Additionally, a comparative study between conventional single pulse (SP) LIBS and DP LIBS was performed. An optimization of DP LIBS system, choosing the correct delay time between the two pulses, was performed allowing its use for different soil types and the use of different emission lines. In general, the collinear DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique by enhancing the intensity of emission lines of some elements up to about 5 times, when compared with conventional SP-LIBS, and reduced the continuum emission. Further, the IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma. - Highlights: • The correct choice of the delay time between the two pulses is crucial for the DP system. • An optimization of DP LIBS system was performed allowing its use for different soil and the use of different emission lines. • The DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique up to about 5 times, when compared with SP LIBS. • The IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma.

  2. A Series of MATLAB Learning Modules to Enhance Numerical Competency in Applied Marine Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. M.; Lucieer, V.; Burke, C.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced numerical competency to navigate the massive data landscapes are critical skills students need to effectively explore, analyse and visualize complex patterns in high-dimensional data for addressing the complexity of many of the world's problems. This is especially the case for interdisciplinary, undergraduate applied marine science programs, where students are required to demonstrate competency in methods and ideas across multiple disciplines. In response to this challenge, we have developed a series of repository-based data exploration, analysis and visualization modules in MATLAB for integration across various attending and online classes within the University of Tasmania. The primary focus of these modules is to teach students to collect, aggregate and interpret data from large on-line marine scientific data repositories to, 1) gain technical skills in discovering, accessing, managing and visualising large, numerous data sources, 2) interpret, analyse and design approaches to visualise these data, and 3) to address, through numerical approaches, complex, real-world problems, that the traditional scientific methods cannot address. All modules, implemented through a MATLAB live script, include a short recorded lecture to introduce the topic, a handout that gives an overview of the activities, an instructor's manual with a detailed methodology and discussion points, a student assessment (quiz and level-specific challenge task), and a survey. The marine science themes addressed through these modules include biodiversity, habitat mapping, algal blooms and sea surface temperature change and utilize a series of marine science and oceanographic data portals. Through these modules students, with minimal experience in MATLAB or numerical methods are introduced to array indexing, concatenation, sorting, and reshaping, principal component analysis, spectral analysis and unsupervised classification within the context of oceanographic processes, marine geology and

  3. Enhancing swimming pool safety by the use of range-imaging cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerardyn, D.; Boulanger, S.; Kuijk, M.

    2015-05-01

    Drowning is the cause of death of 372.000 people, each year worldwide, according to the report of November 2014 of the World Health Organization.1 Currently, most swimming pools only use lifeguards to detect drowning people. In some modern swimming pools, camera-based detection systems are nowadays being integrated. However, these systems have to be mounted underwater, mostly as a replacement of the underwater lighting. In contrast, we are interested in range imaging cameras mounted on the ceiling of the swimming pool, allowing to distinguish swimmers at the surface from drowning people underwater, while keeping the large field-of-view and minimizing occlusions. However, we have to take into account that the water surface of a swimming pool is not a flat, but mostly rippled surface, and that the water is transparent for visible light, but less transparent for infrared or ultraviolet light. We investigated the use of different types of 3D cameras to detect objects underwater at different depths and with different amplitudes of surface perturbations. Specifically, we performed measurements with a commercial Time-of-Flight camera, a commercial structured-light depth camera and our own Time-of-Flight system. Our own system uses pulsed Time-of-Flight and emits light of 785 nm. The measured distances between the camera and the object are influenced through the perturbations on the water surface. Due to the timing of our Time-of-Flight camera, our system is theoretically able to minimize the influence of the reflections of a partially-reflecting surface. The combination of a post image-acquisition filter compensating for the perturbations and the use of a light source with shorter wavelengths to enlarge the depth range can improve the current commercial cameras. As a result, we can conclude that low-cost range imagers can increase swimming pool safety, by inserting a post-processing filter and the use of another light source.

  4. Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by comparing with conventional MoS2 devices. This study demonstrates a very high performance ReSe2 photodetector with high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms), and broad photodetection range (possible above 1064 nm). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The use of isothermal titration calorimetry to assess the solubility enhancement of simvastatin by a range of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rajesh; Buckton, Graham; Gaisford, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Surfactants are commonly used to increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs but the interactions between drug and surfactant can be complex and quantitative relationships can be hard to derive. One approach is to quantify the thermodynamics of interaction and relate these parameters to known solubility or dissolution rate enhancement data. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the enthalpy and free energy of transfer of a model drug (simvastatin) to a number of surfactant (SDS, HTAB, SDCH and Brij 35) micelles. These data were then compared with the solubility enhancements determined for each surfactant using HPLC assays. As expected, there was correlation between the free energy of transfer for the drug to each surfactant and the solubility enhancement of that surfactant. Although the data set is limited, the results suggest that ITC screening of a range of surfactants against a poorly water soluble drug may allow the selection of the best potential solubilising surfactants

  6. Gold nanoparticle assisted assembly of a heme protein for enhancement of long-range interfacial electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    and characterization of water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with core diameter 3-4 nm and their application for the enhancement of long-range interfacial ET of a heme protein. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically conjugated with cyt c to form nanoparticle-protein hybrid ET systems with well...... and the protein molecule. When the nanoparticle-protein conjugates are assembled on Au(111) surfaces, long-range interfacial ET across a physical distance of over 50 A via the nanoparticle becomes feasible. Moreover, significant enhancement of the interfacial ET rate by more than an order of magnitude compared...... with that of cyt c in the absence of AuNPs is observed. AuNPs appear to serve as excellent ET relays, most likely by facilitating the electronic coupling between the protein redox center and the electrode surface....

  7. Enhanced Rate Capability of Oxide Coated Lithium Titanate within Extended Voltage Ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Dongjoon [College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Xiao, Xingcheng, E-mail: xingcheng.xiao@gm.com [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} or LTO) is a promising negative electrode material of high-power lithium-ion batteries, due to its superior rate capability and excellent capacity retention. However, the specific capacity of LTO is less than one half of that of graphite electrode. In this work, we applied ultrathin oxide coating on LTO by the atomic layer deposition technique, aiming for increasing the energy density by extending the cell voltage window and specific capacity of LTO. We demonstrated that a few nanometer thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can suppress the mechanical distortion of LTO cycled at low potential, which enable the higher specific capacity and excellent capacity retention. Furthermore, the surface coating can facilitate the charge transfer, leading to significantly improved rate capabilities, comparing with the uncoated LTO.

  8. Context and meter enhance long-range planning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses demonstrate evidence of resonance, or oscillation, during the production of periodic auditory events. Music contains periodic auditory events that give rise to a sense of beat, which in turn generates a sense of meter on the basis of multiple periodicities. Metrical hierarchies may aid memory for music by facilitating similarity-based associations among sequence events at different periodic distances that unfold in longer contexts. A fundamental question is how metrical associations arising from a musical context influence memory during music performance. Longer contexts may facilitate metrical associations at higher hierarchical levels more than shorter contexts, a prediction of the range model, a formal model of planning processes in music performance (Palmer and Pfordresher, 2003; Pfordresher et al., 2007. Serial ordering errors, in which intended sequence events are produced in incorrect sequence positions, were measured as skilled pianists performed musical pieces that contained excerpts embedded in long or short musical contexts. Pitch errors arose from metrically similar positions and further sequential distances more often when the excerpt was embedded in long contexts compared to short contexts. Musicians’ keystroke intensities and error rates also revealed influences of metrical hierarchies, which differed for performances in long and short contexts. The range model accounted for contextual effects and provided better fits to empirical findings when metrical associations between sequence events were included. Longer sequence contexts may facilitate planning during sequence production by increasing conceptual similarity between hierarchically associated events. These findings are consistent with the notion that neural oscillations at multiple periodicities may strengthen metrical associations across sequence events during planning.

  9. XRAY applied program package for calculation of electron-photon fields in the energy range of 1-1000 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappa, A.V.; Khadyeva, Z.M.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Vasil'ev, O.N.

    1990-01-01

    The package of applied XRAY programs is intended for calculating the linear and fluctuation characteristics of photon and electron radiation fields in heterogeneous medium within 1-1000 keV energy range. The XRAY program package consists of moduli written in FORTRAN-IV and data files. 9 refs

  10. From assistive to enhancing technology: should the treatment-enhancement distinction apply to future assistive and augmenting technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca; Giubilini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    The treatment-enhancement distinction is often used to delineate acceptable and unacceptable medical interventions. It is likely that future assistive and augmenting technologies will also soon develop to a level that they might be considered to provide users, in particular those with disabilities, with abilities that go beyond natural human limits, and become in effect an enhancing technology. In this paper, we describe how this process might take place, and discuss the moral implications of such developments. We argue that such developments are morally acceptable and indeed desirable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Can we apply the MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rasha M; Helal, Maha H; Mansour, Sahar M; Haggag, Marwa A; Nada, Omniya M; Farahat, Iman G; Alieldin, Nelly H

    2016-07-12

    To assess the feasibility of using the MRI breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon morphology descriptors to characterize enhancing breast lesions identified on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). The study is a retrospective analysis of the morphology descriptors of 261 enhancing breast lesions identified on CESM in 239 patients. We presented the morphological categorization of the included lesions into focus, mass and non-mass. Further classifications included (1) the multiplicity for "focus" category, (2) the shape, margin and internal enhancement for "mass" category and (3) the distribution and internal enhancement for "non-mass" category. Each morphology descriptor was evaluated individually (irrespective of all other descriptors) by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value (PPV) and negative-predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs). The study included 68/261 (26.1%) benign lesions and 193/261 (73.9%) malignant lesions. Intensely enhancing foci, whether single (7/12, 58.3%) or multiple (2/12, 16.7%), were malignant. Descriptors of "irregular"-shape (PPV: 92.4%) and "non-circumscribed" margin (odds ratio: 55.2, LR positive: 4.77; p-value: <0.001) were more compatible with malignancy. Internal mass enhancement patterns showed a very low specificity (58.0%) and NPV (40.0%). Non-mass enhancement (NME) was detected in 81/261 lesions. Asymmetrical NME in 81% (n = 52/81) lesions was malignant lesions and internal enhancement patterns indicative of malignancy were the heterogeneous and clumped ones. We can apply the MRI morphology descriptors to characterize lesions on CESM, but with few expectations. In many situations, irregular-shaped, non-circumscribed masses and NME with focal, ductal or segmental distribution and heterogeneous or clumped enhancement are the most suggestive descriptors of malignant pathologies. (1) The MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors can be applied in the

  12. Read Range Enhancement of a Sensing RFID Tag by Photovoltaic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Molina-Farrugia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An RFID tag with energy harvesting and sensing capabilities is presented in this paper. This RFID tag is based on an integrated circuit (SL900A that incorporates a sensor front-end interface capable of measuring voltages, currents, resistances, and capacitances. The aim of this work is to improve the communication distance from the reader to the tag using energy harvesting techniques. Once the energy source and harvester are chosen according to the environment of work, the conditioning circuit for energy management has to be appropriately designed with respect to the nature of the transductor. As a proof of concept, a photovoltaic panel is used in this work to collect the energy from the environment that is managed by a DC-DC converter and stored in a capacitor acting as battery. Such energy is used to support the power system of the tag, giving autonomy to the device and allowing data logging. In particular, the developed tag monitors the ambient temperature and the power voltage. It would be possible to add external sensors without changing the architecture. An increase in the read range of more than 200% is demonstrated. This feature is especially interesting in environments where the access could be difficult.

  13. Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.

  14. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  15. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  17. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  18. AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT expression through the long range interaction between promoter and intronic enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Wang, Genjie; Hu, Qingzhu; Xiao, Xichun; Chen, Shuxia

    2018-04-01

    The AML1/ETO onco-fusion protein is crucial for the genesis of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is well documented as a transcriptional repressor through dominant-negative effect. However, little is known about the transactivation mechanism of AML1/ETO. Through large cohort of patient's expression level data analysis and a series of experimental validation, we report here that AML1/ETO transactivates c-KIT expression through directly binding to and mediating the long-range interaction between the promoter and intronic enhancer regions of c-KIT. Gene expression analyses verify that c-KIT expression is significantly high in t(8;21) AML. Further ChIP-seq analysis and motif scanning identify two regulatory regions located in the promoter and intronic enhancer region of c-KIT, respectively. Both regions are enriched by co-factors of AML1/ETO, such as AML1, CEBPe, c-Jun, and c-Fos. Further luciferase reporter assays show that AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT promoter activity through directly recognizing the AML1 motif and the co-existence of co-factors. The induction of c-KIT promoter activity is reinforced with the existence of intronic enhancer region. Furthermore, ChIP-3C-qPCR assays verify that AML1/ETO mediates the formation of DNA-looping between the c-KIT promoter and intronic enhancer region through the long-range interaction. Collectively, our data uncover a novel transcriptional activity mechanism of AML1/ETO and enrich our knowledge of the onco-fusion protein mediated transcription regulation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available the surveillance system performance. This paper discusses an image processing method that tracks the behaviour of the PSF and then de-warps the image to reduce the disruptive effects of turbulence. Optical flow, an average image filter and a simple unsharp mask...

  20. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  1. Image Enhancer: A Graphic Editor to Apply Numerous Effects in Digital Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Hazra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Image Enhancer is an open source, portable graphic editor developed for Windows platform. It is equipped with an enriched set of digital imaging filters with advanced computer vision techniques embedded within, like Interest Point Detection (Susan Corner Detector, Linear Edge Detection (Simple, Sobel, Canny, Histogram Equalization, Dithering (Bayer, Burkes, Sierra, Jarvis Judis Ninke, Transforming to Polar images and vice versa etc.  Image Enhancer was released under GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL and the software was made available from the Microsoft’s open source project hosting repository Codeplex (http://imageenhancer.codeplex.com. Image Enhancer was tested and hosted by several popular software archives like SoftPedia, CNET, Freeware Files, ZDNet, Soft Tango and others. A stable Release Candidate (RC version has been made available in which some major modifications were done which were not present in the earlier Beta version. The download link for the Image Enhancer (both Release Candidate & Beta Version from CodePlex repository is (http://imageenhancer.codeplex.com/releases.

  2. Comparison of vessel enhancement algorithms applied to time-of-flight MRA images for cerebrovascular segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phellan, Renzo; Forkert, Nils D

    2017-11-01

    Vessel enhancement algorithms are often used as a preprocessing step for vessel segmentation in medical images to improve the overall segmentation accuracy. Each algorithm uses different characteristics to enhance vessels, such that the most suitable algorithm may vary for different applications. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the accuracy gains in vessel segmentation generated by the use of nine vessel enhancement algorithms: Multiscale vesselness using the formulas described by Erdt (MSE), Frangi (MSF), and Sato (MSS), optimally oriented flux (OOF), ranking orientations responses path operator (RORPO), the regularized Perona-Malik approach (RPM), vessel enhanced diffusion (VED), hybrid diffusion with continuous switch (HDCS), and the white top hat algorithm (WTH). The filters were evaluated and compared based on time-of-flight MRA datasets and corresponding manual segmentations from 5 healthy subjects and 10 patients with an arteriovenous malformation. Additionally, five synthetic angiographic datasets with corresponding ground truth segmentation were generated with three different noise levels (low, medium, and high) and also used for comparison. The parameters for each algorithm and subsequent segmentation were optimized using leave-one-out cross evaluation. The Dice coefficient, Matthews correlation coefficient, area under the ROC curve, number of connected components, and true positives were used for comparison. The results of this study suggest that vessel enhancement algorithms do not always lead to more accurate segmentation results compared to segmenting nonenhanced images directly. Multiscale vesselness algorithms, such as MSE, MSF, and MSS proved to be robust to noise, while diffusion-based filters, such as RPM, VED, and HDCS ranked in the top of the list in scenarios with medium or no noise. Filters that assume tubular-shapes, such as MSE, MSF, MSS, OOF, RORPO, and VED show a decrease in accuracy when considering patients with an AVM

  3. Enhancement and creation of secondary channel habitat: Review of project performance across a range of project types and settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J.; Lind, P.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary channels provide critical off-channel habitat for key life stages of aquatic species. In many systems, interruption of natural processes via anthropogenic influences have reduced the quantity of secondary channel habitat and have impaired the processes that help form and maintain them. Creation and enhancement of secondary channels is therefore a key component of stream rehabilitation, particularly in the Pacific Northwest where the focus has been on enhancement of habitat for ESA-listed salmonids. Secondary channel enhancement varies widely in scope, scale, and approach depending on species requirements, hydrology/hydraulics, geomorphologic setting, sediment dynamics, and human constraints. This presentation will review case studies from numerous secondary channel projects constructed over the last 20 years by different entities and in different settings. Lessons learned will be discussed that help to understand project performance and inform future project design. A variety of secondary channel project types will be reviewed, including mainstem flow splits, year-round flow through, seasonally activated, backwater alcove, natural groundwater-fed, and engineered groundwater-fed (i.e. groundwater collection galleries). Projects will be discussed that span a range of project construction intensities, such as full excavation of side channels, select excavation to increase flow, or utilizing mainstem structures to activate channels. Different configurations for connecting to the main channel, and their relative performance, will also be presented. A variety of connection types will be discussed including stabilized channel entrance, free-formed entrance, using bar apex jams to split flows, using `bleeder' jams to limit secondary channel flow, and obstructing the main channel to divert flows into secondary channels. The performance and longevity of projects will be discussed, particularly with respect to the response to sediment mobilizing events. Lessons

  4. Applying Sight Translation as a Means to Enhance Reading Ability of Iranian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Sight translation is the oral translation of a written text and is a mixture of translation and interpreting. Sight translation is a widely-used activity in translation training programs. Yet, this mode of translation has rarely been applied as a reading instruction technique in Iranian EFL instruction context in spite of the growing interest in…

  5. Enhancing Students' Confidence in Employability Skills through the Practice of "Recall, Adapt and Apply"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to apply prior knowledge to new challenges is a skill that is highly valued by employers, but the confidence to achieve this does not come naturally to all students. An essential step to becoming an independent researcher requires a transition between simply following a fail-safe set of instructions to being able to adapt a known…

  6. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  7. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil by applying an ammonia continuous circulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shufa; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Shuangyan [Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine contaminated soil and to analyze its influence on soil pH after remediation. An experimental study was carried out in self-made electrokinetic apparatus. The voltage gradient was set at 1.0V/cm and ammonia water with different concentrations was used as electrolyte which circulated in series. Comparative studies were made by using deionized water as electrolyte which circulated separately in one experiment and continuously in another. According to the experiment the continuous circulation of ammonia water increased the current value during the remediation process and maintained current through the soil cell stabler, which not only increased fluorine migration but also reduced energy consumption. Among the given ammonia concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2mol/L) the removal rate increased with ammonia concentration. 0.2mol/L had the highest current (26.8mA), and the removal rate amounted up to 57.3%. By using ammonia circulation enhanced electrokinetic technology, the difference between pH values of cathode soil and anode soil became smaller. Ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetics can effectively remediate fluorine contaminated soil and the residual ammonia in the soil can also improve soil fertility.

  8. Enhancement of power output by a new stress-applied mode on circular piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fangming; Yang, Tongqing; Liu, Yaoze

    2018-04-01

    A new stress-applied mode is proposed on piezoelectric circular diaphragm energy harvester. Differing from the usual mode used in previous researches, the mass stick at the center of the diaphragm (PZT-51) is designed into an annular hollow shape. In this case, stress of the mass is applied along the edge of the copper sheet. A screw bonded with the undersurface of the diaphragm transfers force from the vibrator to the diaphragm. This device has a cylindrical shape and its volume is ˜7.9 cm3. With this new stress-applied mode, the piezoelectric energy harvester (with an optimal load of 18 kΩ, a mass of 30 g) could generate a maximum power output of ˜20.8 mW under 9.8 m.s-2 at its resonant frequency of ˜237 Hz. Meanwhile, the greater the hardness ratio between the ceramic and the copper sheet, the greater the advantages of the new structure.

  9. SVC control enhancement applying self-learning fuzzy algorithm for islanded microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining voltage stability, within acceptable levels, for islanded Microgrids (MGs is a challenge due to limited exchange power between generation and loads. This paper proposes an algorithm to enhance the dynamic performance of islanded MGs in presence of load disturbance using Static VAR Compensator (SVC with Fuzzy Model Reference Learning Controller (FMRLC. The proposed algorithm compensates MG nonlinearity via fuzzy membership functions and inference mechanism imbedded in both controller and inverse model. Hence, MG keeps the desired performance as required at any operating condition. Furthermore, the self-learning capability of the proposed control algorithm compensates for grid parameter’s variation even with inadequate information about load dynamics. A reference model was designed to reject bus voltage disturbance with achievable performance by the proposed fuzzy controller. Three simulations scenarios have been presented to investigate effectiveness of proposed control algorithm in improving steady-state and transient performance of islanded MGs. The first scenario conducted without SVC, second conducted with SVC using PID controller and third conducted using FMRLC algorithm. A comparison for results shows ability of proposed control algorithm to enhance disturbance rejection due to learning process.

  10. Enhancing emerging organic compound degradation: applying chaotic flow to managed aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Drechsel, Johannes; Folch, Albert; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The coupling of Managed Aquifer Recharge with soil aquifer remediation treatment, by placing a reactive layer containing organic matter at the bottom of the infiltration pond, is a promising technology to improve the rate of degradation of EOCs. Its success is based on assuming that recharged water and groundwater get well mixed, which is not always true. It has been demonstrated that mixing can be enhanced by inducing chaotic advection through extraction-injection engineering. In this work we analyze how chaotic advection might enhance the spreading of redox conditions with the final aim of improving degradation of a mix of benzotriazoles: benzotriazole, 5-methyl-benzotriazole, and 5-chloro-benzotriazole. The first two compounds are better degraded under aerobic conditions whereas the third one under nitrate reducing conditions. We developed a reactive transport model that describes how a recharged water rich in organic matter mixes with groundwater, how this organic matter is oxidized by different electron acceptors, and how the benzotriazoles are degraded attending for the redox state. The model was tested in different scenarios of recharge, both in homogenous and in heterogenous media. It was found that chaotic flow increases the spreading of the plume of recharged water. Consequently, different redox conditions coexist at a given time within the area affected by recharge, facilitating the degradation of EOCs.

  11. A study on the economics enhancement of OPR1000 applied to advanced construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jo; Yoon, Eun Sang

    2007-01-01

    OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000MW) is a totally improved design model of Korea nuclear power plants and the latest 1,000MW nuclear power plant in the Republic of Korea. Shin Kori 1 and 2 and Shin Wolsong 1 and 2 and under construction and these are OPR1000 types. Although OPR1000 is up to data 1,000MW nuclear power plant, it is not enough to be much superior to other nuclear power plants. Under the WTO and FTA circumstance of domestic and stiff overseas competition for nuclear power plants, it is necessary to enhance the economics of OPR1000. And then, the enhanced economic alternatives are reviewed and the advanced construction methods are considered. Based on research and a comprehensive review of nuclear power plant construction experiences, an alternative application of advanced construction methods is developed and compared with existing OPR1000 for schedule and economics. In this paper, economic analyses of a construction cost and a levelized electricity generation cost are performed

  12. Enhancing Quantum Discord in Cavity QED by Applying Classical Driving Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yi; Xu Jing-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical fields and classical fields, and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields. It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields. Finally, the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined. (general)

  13. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    optimization problems where the environment does not change dynamically. For that reason, the requirement for convergence in static optimization problems is not as timecritical as for dynamic optimization problems. Most MOEAs use generic variables and operators that scale to static multi-objective optimization...... problem. The domain specific operators only encode existing knowledge about the environment. A comprehensive comparative study is provided to evaluate the results of applying the CONTROLEUM-GA compared to NSGAII, e-NSGAII and e- MOEA. Experimental results demonstrate clear improvements in convergence time...

  14. Short-ranged structural rearrangement and enhancement of mechanical properties of organosilicate glasses induced by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacopi, F.; Travaly, Y.; Eyckens, B.; Waldfried, C.; Abell, T.; Guyer, E.P.; Gage, D.M.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Sajavaara, T.; Houthoofd, K.; Grobet, P.; Jacobs, P.; Maex, K.

    2006-01-01

    The short-ranged bonding structure of organosilicate glasses can vary to a great extent and is directly linked to the mechanical properties of the thin film material. The combined action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thermal activation is shown to generate a pronounced rearrangement in the bonding structure of thin organosilicate glass films involving no significant compositional change or film densification. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates loss of -OH groups and an increase of the degree of cross-linking of the organosilicate matrix for UV-treated films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows a pronounced enhancement of the Si-O-Si network bond structure, indicating the formation of more energetically stable silica bonds. Investigation with x-ray reflectivity and ellipsometric porosimetry indicated only minor film densification. As a consequence, the mechanical properties of microporous organosilicate dielectric films are substantially enhanced while preserving the organosilicate nature and pristine porosity of the films. UV-treated films show an increase in elastic modulus and hardness of more than 40%, and a similar improvement in fracture energy compared to untreated films. A minor increase in material dielectric constant from 3.0 to 3.15 was observed after UV treatment. This mechanism is of high relevance for the application of organosilicate glasses as dielectric materials for microelectronics interconnects, for which a high mechanical stability and a low dielectric constant are both essential film requirements

  15. Coarse graining from variationally enhanced sampling applied to the Ginzburg–Landau model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Michele; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A powerful way to deal with a complex system is to build a coarse-grained model capable of catching its main physical features, while being computationally affordable. Inevitably, such coarse-grained models introduce a set of phenomenological parameters, which are often not easily deducible from the underlying atomistic system. We present a unique approach to the calculation of these parameters, based on the recently introduced variationally enhanced sampling method. It allows us to obtain the parameters from atomistic simulations, providing thus a direct connection between the microscopic and the mesoscopic scale. The coarse-grained model we consider is that of Ginzburg–Landau, valid around a second-order critical point. In particular, we use it to describe a Lennard–Jones fluid in the region close to the liquid–vapor critical point. The procedure is general and can be adapted to other coarse-grained models. PMID:28292890

  16. Coarse graining from variationally enhanced sampling applied to the Ginzburg-Landau model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Michele; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-03-01

    A powerful way to deal with a complex system is to build a coarse-grained model capable of catching its main physical features, while being computationally affordable. Inevitably, such coarse-grained models introduce a set of phenomenological parameters, which are often not easily deducible from the underlying atomistic system. We present a unique approach to the calculation of these parameters, based on the recently introduced variationally enhanced sampling method. It allows us to obtain the parameters from atomistic simulations, providing thus a direct connection between the microscopic and the mesoscopic scale. The coarse-grained model we consider is that of Ginzburg-Landau, valid around a second-order critical point. In particular, we use it to describe a Lennard-Jones fluid in the region close to the liquid-vapor critical point. The procedure is general and can be adapted to other coarse-grained models.

  17. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  18. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a non-equilibrium plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially-ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales, and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. We use Newton`s method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. We investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, one-way multigrid and a pseudo-transient continuation technique are used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with Incomplete Lower-Upper(ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a one-way multigrid implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of the modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented.

  19. Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.

  20. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  1. A Study on Strategies Applied for Enhancing Anthraquinones Production by Fusarium spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Shahin, A.A.M.; El-Bialy, H.A.; Alsharqawey, A.A.A.; Hassan, E.A.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty Fusarium isolates were selected from different isolation sources and screened for their ability to produce anthraquinones; seventeen of which showed high or a moderate ability to produce anthraquinones. Selected Fusarium isolates were screened for Fusaric acid production to exclude toxin synthesis isolates. F. arthosporoides and F. verticellioides showed the highest anthraquinones production since their production yields were 649.1 and 275.7 μg/g; respectively. The anthraquinones derivatives produced by selected Fusarium strains were characterized by HPLC and GC-MS. The optimization of fermentation conditions for F. arthosporoides revealed that the maximum anthraquinones titer was achieved at 10 days of incubation period, ph 6.5 and 30 ° C and under shaking and light conditions. For F. verticellioides, the highest anthraquinones yield was accomplished after the same incubation period at ph 6.0, 25 °C and under static and dark conditions. Results evaluated the positive effect of ionizing (gamma) and non ionizing (UV) irradiations on the anthraquinones production by F. verticellioides since 0.25 kGy and 50 J/m"2 enhanced the anthraquinone yield by nearly 30%. The antimicrobial and dyeing properties of the produced anthraquinone are also studied. The present study succeeded to reduce the cost of anthraquinones production by using kitchen garbage

  2. Applying the creating lasting family connections marriage enhancement program to marriages affected by prison reentry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Arnold, Brooke B; McKiernan, Patrick; Collins, David A; Strader, Ted N

    2013-09-01

    Divorce proportions are currently high in the US and they are even higher among those who are incarcerated with substance abuse problems. Although much research has examined marital interventions, only two studies have examined marital interventions with prison populations. There is some empirical evidence that incarcerated couples benefit from traditional marital therapy (O'Farrell and Fals-Stewart, 1999, Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook, New York, Oxford University Press). An adaptation of the evidence-based Creating Lasting Family Connections program was implemented with 144 married couples, where one spouse was incarcerated, in a southern state with particularly high divorce and incarceration proportions. Results suggested that married men exposed to the program had larger improvements in some relationship skills relative to a convenience sample of men not so exposed. Both husbands and wives exposed to the program exhibited similar and significant increases in relationship skills. The results were comparable to a Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program adaptation for inmates. The implications of the findings for prevention practitioners are discussed. © FPI, Inc.

  3. A novel approach to enhance food safety: industry-academia-government partnership for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael T; Ostrowsky, Julie; Farrar, Jeff A; Gravani, Robert B; Tauxe, Robert V; Buchanan, Robert L; Hedberg, Craig W

    2009-07-01

    An independent collaborative approach was developed for stimulating research on high-priority food safety issues. The Fresh Express Produce Safety Research Initiative was launched in 2007 with $2 million in unrestricted funds from industry and independent direction and oversight from a scientific advisory panel consisting of nationally recognized food safety experts from academia and government agencies. The program had two main objectives: (i) to fund rigorous, innovative, and multidisciplinary research addressing the safety of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and (ii) to share research findings as widely and quickly as possible to support the development of advanced safeguards within the fresh-cut produce industry. Sixty-five proposals were submitted in response to a publicly announced request for proposals and were competitively evaluated. Nine research projects were funded to examine underlying factors involved in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and potential strategies for preventing the spread of foodborne pathogens. Results of the studies, published in the Journal of Food Protection, help to identify promising directions for future research into potential sources and entry points of contamination and specific factors associated with harvesting, processing, transporting, and storing produce that allow contaminants to persist and proliferate. The program provides a model for leveraging the strengths of industry, academia, and government to address high-priority issues quickly and directly through applied research. This model can be productively extended to other pathogens and other leafy and nonleafy produce.

  4. Performance and Stability Enhancement of Perovskite-Type Nanomaterials Applied for Carbon Capture Utilizing Oxyfuel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwan Shen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Ba-Co-Operovskite-type oxygen carriers has been successfully synthesized by the microwave-assisted sol-gel method and further applied for producing an O2/CO2 mixture gas. The oxygen adsorption/desorption performance of synthesized samples was studied in a fixed-bed reactor system. Effects of A/B-site substitution on the oxygen desorption performance of Ba-Co-O–based perovskites are also included. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions including the adsorption time and temperature as well as the desorption temperature on oxygen production performance were investigated in detail. The results indicated that BaCoO3-δ exhibited an excellent oxygen desorption performance among the synthesized A/B-site–substituted ACoO3-δ and BaBO3-δ samples, and that the optimal adsorption time, adsorption temperature and desorption temperatureforBaCoO3-δ were determined to be 20min, 850◦Cand850◦C, respectively, in this study.

  5. Unfolding and smoothing applied to the quality enhancement of neutron tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Silvani, Maria I.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2008-01-01

    Resolution and contrast are the major parameters defining the quality of a computer-aided tomographic image. These parameters depend upon several features of the image acquisition system, such as detector resolution, geometrical arrangement of the source-object-detector, beam divergence, source strength, detector efficiency and counting time. Roughly, the detector finite resolution is the main source of systematic errors affecting the separation power of the image acquisition system, while the electronic noise and statistical fluctuation are responsible for the data dispersion, which spoils the contrast. An algorithm has been developed in this work aiming at the improvement of the image quality through the minimization of both types of errors. The systematic ones are reduced by a mathematical unfolding of the position spectra - used as projections to reconstruct the 2D-images - using the Line Spread Function - LSF of the neutron tomographic system. The principle behind this technique is that every single channel contains information about all channels of the spectrum, but it is concealed due to the automatic integration carried out by the detector. Therefore, knowing the shape of this curve, it is possible to retrieve the original spectra. These spectra are unfortunately corrupted by the unavoidable statistical fluctuation, and by oscillations arising from the unfolding process, which strongly affects the quality of the final unfolded image. In order to reduce this impact, the spectra have been filtered by a Fourier transform technique or smoothed with a least square fitting procedure. The algorithm has been applied to spectra of some test-bodies generated by an earlier developed tomographic simulator, which reproduces the spectra furnished by a thermal neutron tomographic system employing a position sensitive detector. The obtained results have shown that the unfolded spectra produce final images capable to resolve features otherwise not achievable with the

  6. Applying short-duration pulses as a mean to enhance volatile organic compounds removal by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Neriah, Asaf; Paster, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Application of short-duration pulses of high air pressure, to an air sparging system for groundwater remediation, was tested in a two-dimensional laboratory setup. It was hypothesized that this injection mode, termed boxcar, can enhance the remediation efficiency due to the larger ZOI and enhanced mixing which results from the pressure pulses. To test this hypothesis, flow and transport experiments were performed. Results confirm that cyclically applying short-duration pressure pulses may enhance contaminant cleanup. Comparing the boxcar to conventional continuous air-injection shows up to a three-fold increase in the single well radius of influence, dependent on the intensity of the short-duration pressure-pulses. The cleanup efficiency of Toluene from the water was 95% higher than that achieved under continuous injection with the same average conditions. This improvement was attributed to the larger zone of influence and higher average air permeability achieved in the boxcar mode, relative to continuous sparging. Mixing enhancement resultant from recurring pressure pulses was suggested as one of the mechanisms which enhance the contaminant cleanup. The application of a boxcar mode in an existing, multiwell, air sparging setup can be relatively straightforward: it requires the installation of an on-off valve in each of the injection-wells and a central control system. Then, turning off some of the wells, for a short-duration, result in a stepwise increase in injection pressure in the rest of the wells. It is hoped that this work will stimulate the additional required research and ultimately a field scale application of this new injection mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental integrative muscular movement technique enhances cervical range of motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Benjamin G; Carter, Ronald; Thompson, William R; Duncan, Randall L; Cooper, Carlton R

    2015-04-01

    Neck pain presents a tremendous physical and financial burden. This study compared the efficacy of the complementary and alternative medical treatments of integrative muscular movement technique (IMMT) and Swedish massage on neck pain in women of occupation age, the largest demographic group with neck pain. A total of 38 women were assigned to IMMT (n=28) or Swedish massage (n=10) in a blinded manner. Both groups received eight 30-minute treatments over 4 weeks. Cervical range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, sidebending, and rotation was measured before and after treatment. Each patient's pain was assessed by using an analogue pain scale of 0-10. Compared with the Swedish massage group, patients receiving IMMT experienced a significant increase in ROM in cervical flexion (ppain for IMMT was -1.75 units compared with -0.3 units for Swedish massage (pcervical ROM in every movement measured compared with Swedish massage. Inclusion of the IMMT in a treatment regimen for chronic neck pain may lead to decreased pain and increased cervical ROM. These positive effects of the IMMT intervention may have a role in enhancing functional outcomes in patients with neck pain.

  8. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  9. An experimental investigation on a novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle applied in the domestic refrigerator-freezer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a NERC (novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle) applied in the domestic refrigerator-freezer (BCD-249). Experimental studies were conducted to validate the NERC system feasibility in a practical NERC based refrigerator-freezer prototype. The system performances of energy consumption, ejector pressure lift ratio and compressor power were compared under different combinations of system configuration parameters. The results showed that the NERC system could effectively reduce the thermodynamic losses in the throttle processing. The minimum energy consumption of 0.520 kWh 24 h"−"1 was obtained for the NERC prototype, indicating 5.45% energy consumption reduction compared with the conventional domestic refrigerator-freezer. Furthermore, the effects of system configuration parameters including the refrigerant charge amount, the compressor displacement and the length of capillary tube were investigated. This study aims at providing deep insight into ejector-expansion technology applied in domestic refrigerator-freezers. - Highlights: • A NERC (novel ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle) was experimentally studied. • 73 experimental data points with different system configuration were acquired. • Energy consumption could be reduced with optimum system configuration. • 5.45% energy consumption reduction is obtained compared with the conventional system.

  10. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  11. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy combined with topically applied vascular disrupting agent vadimezan leads to enhanced antitumor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

    2011-01-01

    The tumor vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. In addition, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared with ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  14. Determination of Ethanol in Blood Samples Using Partial Least Square Regression Applied to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Güneş; Hamamci, Berna; Yildiz, Abdulkadir

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol consumption triggers toxic effect to organs and tissues in the human body. The risks are essentially thought to be related to ethanol content in alcoholic beverages. The identification of ethanol in blood samples requires rapid, minimal sample handling, and non-destructive analysis, such as Raman Spectroscopy. This study aims to apply Raman Spectroscopy for identification of ethanol in blood samples. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized to obtain Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of blood samples. The SERS spectra were used for Partial Least Square (PLS) for determining ethanol quantitatively. To apply PLS method, 920~820 cm -1 band interval was chosen and the spectral changes of the observed concentrations statistically associated with each other. The blood samples were examined according to this model and the quantity of ethanol was determined as that: first a calibration method was established. A strong relationship was observed between known concentration values and the values obtained by PLS method (R 2 = 1). Second instead of then, quantities of ethanol in 40 blood samples were predicted according to the calibration method. Quantitative analysis of the ethanol in the blood was done by analyzing the data obtained by Raman spectroscopy and the PLS method.

  15. Performance enhancement of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry by applying differential-RF-driven operation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yue; Tang, Fei; Zhai, Yadong; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-09-01

    The traditional operation mode of high-field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) uses a one-way radio frequency (RF) voltage input as the dispersion voltage. This requires a high voltage input and limits power consumption reduction and miniaturization of instruments. With higher dispersion voltages or larger compensation voltages, there also exist problems such as low signal intensity or the fact that the dispersion voltage is no longer much larger than the compensation voltage. In this paper, a differential-RF-driven operation mode of FAIMS is proposed. The two-way RF is used to generate the dispersion field, and a phase difference is added between the two RFs to generate a single step waveform field. Theoretical analysis, and experimental results from an ethanol sample, showed that the peak positions of the ion spectra changed linearly (R 2 = 0.9992) with the phase difference of the two RFs in the differential-RF-driven mode and that the peak intensity of the ion spectrum could be enhanced by more than eight times for ethanol ions. In this way, it is possible to convert the ion spectrum peaks outside the separation or compensation voltage range into a detectable range, by changing the phase difference. To produce the same separation electric field, the high-voltage direct current input voltage can be maximally reduced to half of that in the traditional operation mode. Without changing the drift region size or drift condition, the differential-RF-driven operation mode can reduce power consumption, increase signal-to-noise ratio, extend the application range of the dispersion voltage and compensation voltage, and improve FAIMS detection performance.

  16. Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating with Anticorrosion and Electrochemical Property-Enhancing Effects Applied in Hydrogen Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Li, Na; Zhang, Tong-Ling; Feng, Qing-Ping; Du, Qian; Wu, Xing-Hua; Huang, Gui-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Low-capacity retention is the most prominent problem of the magnesium nickel alloy (Mg 2 Ni), which prevents it from being commercially applied. Here, we propose a practical method for enhancing the cycle stability of the Mg 2 Ni alloy. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) possesses a graphene-based structure, which could provide high-quality barriers that block the hydroxyl in the aqueous electrolyte; it also possesses good hydrophilicity. rGO has been successfully coated on the amorphous-structured Mg 2 Ni alloy via electrostatic assembly to form the rGO-encapsulated Mg 2 Ni alloy composite (rGO/Mg 2 Ni). The experimental results show that ζ potentials of rGO and the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy are totally opposite in water, with values of -11.0 and +22.4 mV, respectively. The crumpled structure of rGO sheets and the contents of the carbon element on the surface of the alloy are measured using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The Tafel polarization test indicates that the rGO/Mg 2 Ni system exhibits a much higher anticorrosion ability against the alkaline solution during charging/discharging. As a result, high-capacity retentions of 94% (557 mAh g -1 ) at the 10th cycle and 60% (358 mAh g -1 ) at the 50th cycle have been achieved, which are much higher than the results on Mg 2 Ni capacity retention combined with the absolute value reported so far to our knowledge. In addition, both the charge-transfer reaction rate and the hydrogen diffusion rate are proven to be boosted with the rGO encapsulation. Overall, this work demonstrates the effective anticorrosion and electrochemical property-enhancing effects of rGO coating and shows its applicability in the Mg-based hydrogen storage system.

  17. Developing the STS sound pollution unit for enhancing students' applying knowledge among science technology engineering and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpatong, Sutthaya; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    STEM education suggested that students should be enhanced to learn science with integration between Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. To help Thai students make sense of relationship between Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, this paper presents learning activities of STS Sound Pollution. The developing of STS Sound Pollution is a part of research that aimed to enhance students' perception of the relationship between Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics. This paper will discuss how to develop Sound Pollution through STS approach in framework of Yuenyong (2006) where learning activities were provided based on 5 stages. These included (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decisionmaking, and (5) socialization stage. The learning activities could be highlighted as following. First stage, we use video clip of `Problem of people about Sound Pollution'. Second stage, students will need to identification of potential solutions by design Home/Factory without noisy. The need of scientific and other knowledge will be proposed for various alternative solutions. Third stage, students will gain their scientific knowledge through laboratory and demonstration of sound wave. Fourth stage, students have to make decision for the best solution of designing safety Home/Factory based on their scientific knowledge and others (e.g. mathematics, economics, art, value, and so on). Finally, students will present and share their Design Safety Home/Factory in society (e.g. social media or exhibition) in order to validate their ideas and redesigning. The paper, then, will discuss how those activities would allow students' applying knowledge of science technology engineering, mathematics and others (art, culture and value) for their possible solution of the STS issues.

  18. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Wang, Jianchen; Tian, Yixin; Hu, Weimin; Zhu, Liwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Hu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR), rhodamine B (RB), and magnetic powder (MP) were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85) and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY). Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm). And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm). All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  19. The novel approach to enhance seed security: dual anti-counterfeiting methods applied on tobacco pelleted seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Seed security is of prime importance for agriculture. To protect true seeds from being faked, more secure dual anti-counterfeiting technologies for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. pelleted seed were developed in this paper. Fluorescein (FR, rhodamine B (RB, and magnetic powder (MP were used as anti-counterfeiting labels. According to their different properties and the special seed pelleting process, four dual-labeling treatments were conducted for two tobacco varieties, MS Yunyan85 (MSYY85 and Honghua Dajinyuan (HHDJY. Then the seed germination and seedling growth status were investigated, and the fluorescence in cracked pellets and developing seedlings was observed under different excitation lights. The results showed that FR, RB, and MP had no negative effects on the germination, seedling growth, and MDA content of the pelleted seeds, and even some treatments significantly enhanced seedling dry weight, vigor index, and shoot height in MS YY85, and increased SOD activity and chlorophyll content in HHDJY as compared to the control. In addition, the cotyledon tip of seedlings treated with FR and MP together represented bright green fluorescence under illumination of blue light (478 nm. And the seedling cotyledon vein treated with RB and MP together showed red fluorescence under green light (546 nm. All seeds pelleted with magnetic powder of proper concentration could be attracted by a magnet. Thus, it indicated that those new dual-labeling methods that fluorescent compound and magnetic powder simultaneously applied in the same seed pellets definitely improved anti-counterfeiting technology and enhanced the seed security. This technology will ensure that high quality seed will be used in the crop production.

  20. Developing a short range vehicle to infrastructure communication system to enhance the safety at STOP sign intersections : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Stop sign controlled unsignalized intersections raise a public safe concern. Even though various strategies, such as engineering, education, and policy, have been applied in practice, there are a number of fatal crashes occurred at unsignalized inter...

  1. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  2. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma

    2017-07-20

    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  3. Assembled microneedle arrays enhance the transport of compounds varying over a large range of molecular weight across human dermatomed skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; van den Berg, D.J.; Groenink, W.H.H.; Verpoorten, H.; Lüttge, Regina; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility to use microneedle arrays manufactured from commercially available 30G hypodermal needles to enhance the transport of compounds up to a molecular weight of 72 kDa. Piercing of human dermatomed skin with microneedle arrays was studied by Trypan Blue

  4. Examining South Atlantic Subtropical Cyclone Anita using the Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies Hourly Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicberg, H.; Palmeira, A. C. P. A.; Nunes, A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on South Atlantic cyclones are mainly compromised by scarcity of observations. Therefore, remote sensing and global (re) analysis products are usually employed in investigations of their evolution. However, the frequent use of global reanalysis might difficult the assessment of the characteristics of the cyclones found in South Atlantic. In that regard, studies on "subtropical" cyclones have been performed using the 25-km resolution, Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), a product developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. In SRDAS, the Regional Spectral Model assimilates precipitation estimates from environmental satellites, while dynamically downscaling a global reanalysis using the spectral nudging technique to maintain the large-scale features in agreement with the regional model solution. The use of regional models in the downscaling of general circulation models provides more detailed information on weather and climate. As a way of illustrating the usefulness of SRDAS in the study of the subtropical South Atlantic cyclones, the subtropical cyclone Anita was selected because of its intensity. Anita developed near Brazilian south/southeast coast, with damages to local communities. Comparisons with available observations demonstrated the skill of SRDAS in simulating such an extreme event.

  5. Making a difference? Applying Vitellone's Social Science of the Syringe to performance and image enhancing drug injecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Aaron

    2018-04-18

    Vitellone's Social Science of the Syringe investigates epistemologies of injecting drug use. She argues for a methodology that can be simultaneously sensitive to biopolitical power regimes; the trajectories of social stratification; and the resistance, creativity and dignity of human agency. She proposes a methodological focus on the syringe-in-use as an active participant in these dynamics. Harm reduction policy and service provision frameworks have paid little attention to the phenomena of performance and image enhancing drug (PIEDs) injection. One way of assessing the merit of Vitellone's proposal is to use it to investigate these phenomena. I argue that Vitellone's method can be used to articulate a range of significant differences between people who inject PIEDs and other people who inject drugs, and that these differences can inform harm reduction initiatives. When compared to the heroin syringe, the PIED syringe participates in different socio-economic and material contexts, gendered identities, and biopolitical governance regimes. These differences materialise in different rates of syringe sharing and blood-borne virus transmission; and different experiences of needle exchange services. I offer a thought experiment demonstrating how a different syringe might alter the structural dynamics, biopolitical governance, and the agentic choices of people who inject PIEDs. Judging by the productive effects of diffracting Vitellone's analysis through an empirical concern with PIED injecting, I concur with Vitellone's proposition that 'something objective may be gained from an empirical investigation of the syringe-in-use' (p. 33). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of a Layer-by-Layer Microbubbles-Based Delivery System for Applying Minoxidil to Enhance Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hang-Kang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is a conventional drug for treating androgenetic alopecia, preventing hair loss, and promoting hair growth. The solubility of Mx has been improved using chemical enhancement methods to increase its skin permeability over the long term. This study created a new ultrasound (US) contrast agent-albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) that absorb chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and Mx-and combined it with sonication by US energy in the water phase to enhance hair growth while shortening the treatment period. COL and Mx grafted with MBs (mean diameter of 1480 nm) were synthesized into self-assembled complexes of COL-MBs and Mx-COL-MBs that had mean diameters of 4150 and 4500 nm, respectively. The US was applied at 3 W/cm(2) for 1 min, and combined with Mx-COL-MBs containing 0.3% Mx. The diffusion of Mx through the dialysis membrane from Mx-COL-MB during US (US+Mx-COL-MB) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 7.4, which is favorable given that the environment of the scalp is mildly acidic (pH=4.5-5.5). In Franz diffusion experiments performed in vitro, the release rates at 18 hours in the US+Mx-COL-MBs and US+MBs+Mx groups resulted in 2.3 and 1.7 times the penetration and deposition, respectively, of Mx relative to the group with Mx alone. During 21 days treatment in animal experiments, the growth rates at days 10 and 14 in the US+Mx-COL-MBs group increased by 22.6% and 64.7%, respectively, and there were clear significant differences (p<0.05) between the US+Mx-COL-MBs group and the other four groups. The use of US+Mx-COL-MB in the water phase can increased the effects of Mx so as to shorten the telogen phase, and also increase both the diameter of keratinized hair shafts and the size of hair follicles without causing skin damage.

  7. The difference between the metal ion extracted from the R.F. ion source by applying plasma chemistry reaction and by non-plasma range chemistry reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Gui Bin

    1987-01-01

    The paper introduced the difference between using plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion and non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. By using of the plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion higher percentage than non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. The authors plasma chemistry reaction to R.F. ion source and implanter successfully. The effect is very well, it has its own characteristic

  8. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  10. Combined Flux Observer With Signal Injection Enhancement for Wide Speed Range Sensorless Direct Torque Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Andreescu, G.-D.; Pitic, C.I.

    2008-01-01

    voltage-current model with PI compensator for low-speed operations. As speed increases, the observer switches gradually to a PI compensated closed-loop voltage model, which is solely used at high speeds. High-frequency rotating-voltage injection with a single D-module bandpass vector filter and a phase......This paper proposes a motion-sensorless control system using direct torque control with space vector modulation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives, for wide speed range operation, including standstill. A novel stator flux observer with variable structure uses a combined...

  11. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI), International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-12-12

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77–0.94 compared to 0.01–0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0

  12. Dosimetric performance of an enhanced dose range radiographic film for intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    Film-based quality assurance (QA) is an important element of any intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) program. XV2 film is often used for IMRT QA, however, it has saturation and energy response limitations which hinder accurate film dosimetry. A new commercially released ready-pack film has been introduced that has an extended dose range (EDR2), reportedly allowing measured doses above 600 cGy without saturation. Also, this film may have less energy dependence due to its composition. The purpose of this paper is to study and compare the two types of film with respect to absolute dose accuracy for IMRT plans, percent depth dose accuracy for square fields between 2 and 20 cm, ability to measure composite plan isodoses and single beam fluence maps for IMRT cases, and sensitivity to processor variations over time. In 19 IMRT patient QA tests, the EDR2 film was able to achieve an absolute dose accuracy of better than 2% vs over 4% for XV2 film. The EDR2 film was able to reproduce ionization chamber and diode-measured percent depth doses to 20 cm depth generally to within 1% over the range of field sizes tested compared to about 10% for the XV2 film. When compared to calculations, EDR2 film agreed better than XV2 film for both composite plan isodoses and single beam fluence intensity maps. The EDR2 film was somewhat more resistant to processor changes over time than the XV2 film, with a standard deviation of dose reproducibility of less than 2% compared to 6%, respectively

  13. Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B; Bolan, N S; Choppala, G; Kunhikrishnan, A; Sanderson, P; Wang, H; Currie, L D; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Y S; Kim, G

    2017-10-01

    Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Curriculum Management Process by Applying Lean Concept for Waste Elimination to Enhance Curriculum Implementation of Primary School Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrangsan, Nadrudee; Sawekngam, Wichai; Thongthew, Sumlee

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study and develop a curriculum management process by applying Lean concept for waste elimination to enhance curriculum implementation of primary school teacher. This study was conducted with a focus on qualitative data collection by dividing into 2 phases, including (1) analyze and synthesize relevant notions, theories,…

  15. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  16. Investigation of the range of validity of the pairwise summation method applied to the calculation of the surface roughness correction to the van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso, André; Burnham, Nancy A.

    2016-09-01

    It has long been recognized that stochastic surface roughness can considerably change the van der Waals (vdW) force between interacting surfaces and particles. However, few analytical expressions for the vdW force between rough surfaces have been presented in the literature. Because they have been derived using perturbative methods or the proximity force approximation the expressions are valid when the roughness correction is small and for a limited range of roughness parameters and surface separation. In this work, a nonperturbative approach, the effective density method (EDM) is proposed to circumvent some of these limitations. The method simplifies the calculations of the roughness correction based on pairwise summation (PWS), and allows us to derive simple expressions for the vdW force and energy between two semispaces covered with stochastic rough surfaces. Because the range of applicability of PWS and, therefore, of our results, are not known a priori, we compare the predictions based on the EDM with those based on the multilayer effective medium model, whose range of validity can be defined more properly and which is valid when the roughness correction is comparatively large. We conclude that the PWS can be used for roughness characterized by a correlation length of the order of its rms amplitude, when this amplitude is of the order of or smaller than a few nanometers, and only for typically insulating materials such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, diamond, and certain glasses, polymers and ceramics. The results are relevant for the correct modeling of systems where the vdW force can play a significant role such as micro and nanodevices, for the calculation of the tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy, and in problems involving adhesion.

  17. Mono and multi-objective optimization techniques applied to a large range of industrial test cases using Metamodel assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard; Marie, Stéphane; Ejday, Mohsen; Monnereau, Dominique; Massé, Thomas; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The use of material processing numerical simulation allows a strategy of trial and error to improve virtual processes without incurring material costs or interrupting production and therefore save a lot of money, but it requires user time to analyze the results, adjust the operating conditions and restart the simulation. Automatic optimization is the perfect complement to simulation. Evolutionary Algorithm coupled with metamodelling makes it possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. Ten industrial partners have been selected to cover the different area of the mechanical forging industry and provide different examples of the forming simulation tools. It aims to demonstrate that it is possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. The large computational time is handled by a metamodel approach. It allows interpolating the objective function on the entire parameter space by only knowing the exact function values at a reduced number of "master points". Two algorithms are used: an evolution strategy combined with a Kriging metamodel and a genetic algorithm combined with a Meshless Finite Difference Method. The later approach is extended to multi-objective optimization. The set of solutions, which corresponds to the best possible compromises between the different objectives, is then computed in the same way. The population based approach allows using the parallel capabilities of the utilized computer with a high efficiency. An optimization module, fully embedded within the Forge2009 IHM, makes possible to cover all the defined examples, and the use of new multi-core hardware to compute several simulations at the same time reduces the needed time dramatically. The presented examples

  18. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Estupinan, E. G. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 (United States); Lapatovich, W. P. [Independent Consultant, 51 Pye Brook Lane, Boxford, Massachusetts 01921 (United States); Shastri, S. D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI{sub 3}/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI{sub 3}/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  19. Enhanced optical transmission through a star-shaped bull's eye at dual resonant-bands in UV and the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Tavakol; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Kong, Byung-Joo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-07-13

    Dual resonant bands in UV and the visible range were simultaneously observed in the enhanced optical transmission (EOT) through star-shaped plasmonic structures. EOTs through four types of polygonal bull's eyes with a star aperture surrounded by the concentric star grooves were analyzed and compared for 3, 4, 5, and 6 corners, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to plasmonic resonances in the visible range, the UV-band resonance intensity was found to scale with the number of corners, which is related with higher order multipole interactions. Spectral positions and relative intensities of the dual resonances were analyzed parametrically to find optimal conditions to maximize EOT in UV-visible dual bands.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar thermo-chronology and lithospheric mechanisms. Methodological and applied approach: the Kunlun range (Asia) and the Afar triple junction area (East Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, C.

    1998-01-01

    A 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological study has been carried out for two contrasted geodynamic settings: - the Eastern Kunlun range (Northern Tibet), in order to characterize the lithospheric deformation mechanisms related to the India-Asia collision; - the Afar triple junction area (East Africa), in order to constrain the timing of mantle plume-related basement uplift in Ethiopia and Yemen, which will indicate whether rifting was active or passive. In the Kunlun, the cooling event (9-15 deg.C/Ma) outlined at 30 Ma for the granitoids (Bt = 128-138 Ma; Kf = 102-147 Ma) reflects a denudation event (0.2-0.3 km/Ma), related to ramp stacking and normal faulting with associated uplift. This unroofing period is coeval with the great Asian strike-slip faults. This suggests that 30 Ma ago, the India-Asia collision was accommodated by lateral extrusion along great strike-slip faults, which might have led to local crustal thickening because of the formation of anticlines from major thrusts 'branching' from the Kunlun fault. In the Afar area the Panafrican basement (granitoids = 462-678 Ma;metamorphic rocks 505-750 Ma) has undergone a reheating event during the Cenozoic; its temperature is estimated around 138-177 deg.C over the last 50 Ma for a depth of 2 km, implying a thermal gradient of 69-88 deg./km. This reheating event results from both heat conduction, related to the mantle plume. and heat advection. because of magma transfer. However, it was not possible to define the timing of the mantle plume-related basement uplift. This study outlines the important thermal effect of continental flood basalts on the crust and suggests that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronology does not allow to characterize the denudation of the lithosphere for an extension-type geodynamic setting. Finally, some of the results suggest that diffusion in the laboratory and in nature may be different. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar thermo-chronological analysis thus might be tricky, especially in investigating geologic

  1. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirheim, Heidi Ugelstad; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different toxicity assays for use on proliferating buccal TR146 cells and on stratified TR146 epithelium and to compare these results to the permeability enhancing effect of glycocholate (GC). Both the proliferating cells and the epithelium were...... across the epithelium concurrent with a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was also determined. The robustness of the epithelium was significantly higher than that of the proliferating cells (P...

  2. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha). These trained parents will then be able to implement effective behavior management and teaching strategies with... parents . Interventions based on applied behavior analysis are well documented, but unfortunately these services are often not available to military...availability of this effective treatment. The fifth year of the award involved the continued recruitment of families with a child with an ASD to

  3. An iterative method applied to optimize the design of PIN photodiodes for enhanced radiation tolerance and maximum light response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A.P.; Cappelletti, M.A.; Casas, G.; Peltzer y Blanca, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    An iterative method based on numerical simulations was developed to enhance the proton radiation tolerance and the responsivity of Si PIN photodiodes. The method allows to calculate the optimal values of the intrinsic layer thickness and the incident light wavelength, in function of the light intensity and the maximum proton fluence to be supported by the device. These results minimize the effects of radiation on the total reverse current of the photodiode and maximize its response to light. The implementation of the method is useful in the design of devices whose operation point should not suffer variations due to radiation.

  4. Identifying problems and generating recommendations for enhancing complex systems: applying the abstraction hierarchy framework as an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    This study adopts J. Rasmussen's (1985) abstraction hierarchy (AH) framework as an analytical tool to identify problems and pinpoint opportunities to enhance complex systems. The process of identifying problems and generating recommendations for complex systems using conventional methods is usually conducted based on incompletely defined work requirements. As the complexity of systems rises, the sheer mass of data generated from these methods becomes unwieldy to manage in a coherent, systematic form for analysis. There is little known work on adopting a broader perspective to fill these gaps. AH was used to analyze an aircraft-automation system in order to further identify breakdowns in pilot-automation interactions. Four steps follow: developing an AH model for the system, mapping the data generated by various methods onto the AH, identifying problems based on the mapped data, and presenting recommendations. The breakdowns lay primarily with automation operations that were more goal directed. Identified root causes include incomplete knowledge content and ineffective knowledge structure in pilots' mental models, lack of effective higher-order functional domain information displayed in the interface, and lack of sufficient automation procedures for pilots to effectively cope with unfamiliar situations. The AH is a valuable analytical tool to systematically identify problems and suggest opportunities for enhancing complex systems. It helps further examine the automation awareness problems and identify improvement areas from a work domain perspective. Applications include the identification of problems and generation of recommendations for complex systems as well as specific recommendations regarding pilot training, flight deck interfaces, and automation procedures.

  5. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    modification, we changed the script such that the confederate not only exhibits the target skills but also a range of challenging responses that may make...implementation of the target skills more difficult. By including these challenging responses during the role-plays, the parents and tutors are...that may be recommended during the installation. d. VLC Player: i. Open the VLC installer. Under installation type select “recommended.” e. K-Lite

  6. Long Range Strategic Planning. An Applied Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    African view is that the republic stands alone in confronting a communist inspired "total onslaught". General Magnus Malan, South Africa’s Minister of...John, "The Technology of Modern Weapons for Limited Military Use", ORBIS, Spring, 1978. Chase , John, "Defining the National Interest of the United

  7. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayun Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  8. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yayun; Yang, Xijun; Jin, Nan; Li, Wenwen; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2017-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  9. Enhancing the lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato juice synergistically applying thermal and non-thermal processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Cregenzán-Albertia, Oliver; Grant, Irene R; Lyng, James; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-04-15

    The influence of moderate intensity pulsed electric field pre-processing on increasing the lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato fruit, and the combined effect of blanching, ultrasonic and high intensity pulsed electric field processing on further enhancement of the lycopene bioaccessibility after juicing were investigated. Maximum total lycopene bioaccessibility (9.6%) of the tomato fruit was achieved by a 4μs pre-processed treatment after 24h holding period and further processing results revealed that all treatments were effective to increase the total lycopene. Most of juice processing treatments decreased the release of lycopene from the tomato matrix during digestion. Only the treatment of blanching followed by high intensity pulsed electric field showed a significant release of trans-(4.01±0.48) and cis-(5.04±0.26μg/g) lycopene, achieving 15.6% total lycopene bioaccessibility. Thus, processing of pre-blanched juice using high intensity pulsed electric field, derived from pre-processed tomato was the best overall process to achieve the highest nutritive value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency enhancement of polymer solar cells by applying poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a cathode buffer layer via spin coating or self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Wenfeng; Xu, Chenhui; Bi, Xianghong; Chen, Boxue; Yang, Shangfeng

    2013-01-01

    A non-conjugated polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was applied as a new cathode buffer layer in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ-PSCs), by means of either spin coating or self-assembly, resulting in significant efficiency enhancement. For the case of incorporation of PVP by spin coating, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/PVP/Al BHJ-PSC device (3.90%) is enhanced by 29% under the optimum PVP spin-coating speed of 3000 rpm, which leads to the optimum thickness of PVP layer of ~3 nm. Such an efficiency enhancement is found to be primarily due to the increase of the short-circuit current (J(sc)) (31% enhancement), suggesting that the charge collection increases upon the incorporation of a PVP cathode buffer layer, which originates from the conjunct effects of the formation of a dipole layer between P3HT:PCBM active layer and Al electrodes, the chemical reactions of PVP molecules with Al atoms, and the increase of the roughness of the top Al film. Incorporation of PVP layer by doping PVP directly into the P3HT:PCBM active layer leads to an enhancement of PCE by 13% under the optimum PVP doping ratio of 3%, and this is interpreted by the migration of PVP molecules to the surface of the active layer via self-assembly, resulting in the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer. While the formation of the PVP cathode buffer layer is fulfilled by both fabrication methods (spin coating and self-assembly), the dependence of the enhancement of the device performance on the thickness of the PVP cathode buffer layer formed by self-assembly or spin coating is different, because of the different aggregation microstructures of the PVP interlayer.

  11. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA. The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  12. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Won, E-mail: pjw@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yootaek [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Kyonggi Universtiy, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Windes, William E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  13. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  14. Salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction with a dual-role solvent for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with a wide polarity range in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Man; Qu, Jingang; Chen, Kai; Jin, Lide; Dahlgren, Randy Alan; Wang, Huili; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-11-01

    In real aquatic environments, many occupational pollutants with a wide range of polarities coexist at nanogram to milligram per liter levels. Most reported microextraction methods focus on extracting compounds with similar properties (e.g., polarity or specific functional groups). Herein, we developed a salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction based on a dual-role solvent (SILM-DS) for simultaneous detection of tetracycline, doxycycline, bisphenol A, triclosan, and methyltriclosan, with log K ow ranging from -1.32 to 5.40 in complex milk and environmental water matrices. The disperser in the ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was converted to the extraction solvent in the subsequent salting-out-assisted microextraction procedures, and thus a single solvent performed a dual role as both extractant and disperser in the SILM-DS process. Acetonitrile was selected as the dual-role solvent because of its strong affinity for both ionic liquids and water, as well as the extractant in the salting-out step. Optimized experimental conditions were 115 μL [C 8 MIM][PF 6 ] as extractor, 1200 μL acetonitrile as dual-role solvent, pH 2.0, 5.0 min ultrasound extraction time, 3.0 g Na 2 SO 4 , and 3.0 min vortex extraction time. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries of the five pollutants ranged from 74.5 to 106.9%, and their LODs were 0.12-0.75 μg kg -1 in milk samples and 0.11-0.79 μg L -1 in environmental waters. Experimental precision based on relative standard deviation was 1.4-6.4% for intraday and 2.3-6.5% for interday analyses. Compared with previous methods, the prominent advantages of the newly developed method are simultaneous determination of pollutants with a wide range of polarities and a substantially reduced workload for ordinary environmental monitoring and food tests. Therefore, the new method has great application potential for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with strongly contrasting polarities in several

  15. The performance of the new enhanced-resolution satellite passive microwave dataset applied for snow water equivalent estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Jiang, L.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The newly-processed NASA MEaSures Calibrated Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) reconstructed using antenna measurement response function (MRF) is considered to have significantly improved fine-resolution measurements with better georegistration for time-series observations and equivalent field of view (FOV) for frequencies with the same monomial spatial resolution. We are looking forward to its potential for the global snow observing purposes, and therefore aim to test its performance for characterizing snow properties, especially the snow water equivalent (SWE) in large areas. In this research, two candidate SWE algorithms will be tested in China for the years between 2005 to 2010 using the reprocessed TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), with the results to be evaluated using the daily snow depth measurements at over 700 national synoptic stations. One of the algorithms is the SWE retrieval algorithm used for the FengYun (FY) - 3 Microwave Radiation Imager. This algorithm uses the multi-channel TB to calculate SWE for three major snow regions in China, with the coefficients adapted for different land cover types. The second algorithm is the newly-established Bayesian Algorithm for SWE Estimation with Passive Microwave measurements (BASE-PM). This algorithm uses the physically-based snow radiative transfer model to find the histogram of most-likely snow property that matches the multi-frequency TB from 10.65 to 90 GHz. It provides a rough estimation of snow depth and grain size at the same time and showed a 30 mm SWE RMS error using the ground radiometer measurements at Sodankyla. This study will be the first attempt to test it spatially for satellite. The use of this algorithm benefits from the high resolution and the spatial consistency between frequencies embedded in the new dataset. This research will answer three questions. First, to what extent can CETB increase the heterogeneity in the mapped SWE? Second, will

  16. Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern

  17. VERONA V6.22 – An enhanced reactor analysis tool applied for continuous core parameter monitoring at Paks NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Végh, J., E-mail: janos.vegh@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Postbus 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Pós, I., E-mail: pos@npp.hu [Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd., H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Horváth, Cs., E-mail: csaba.horvath@energia.mta.hu [Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Kálya, Z., E-mail: kalyaz@npp.hu [Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd., H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Parkó, T., E-mail: parkot@npp.hu [Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd., H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Ignits, M., E-mail: ignits@npp.hu [Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd., H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    Between 2003 and 2007 the Hungarian Paks NPP performed a large modernization project to upgrade its VERONA core monitoring system. The modernization work resulted in a state-of-the-art system that was able to support the reactor thermal power increase to 108% by more accurate and more frequent core analysis. Details of the new system are given in Végh et al. (2008), the most important improvements were as follows: complete replacement of the hardware and the local area network; application of a new operating system and porting a large fraction of the original application software to the new environment; implementation of a new human-system interface; and last but not least, introduction of new reactor physics calculations. Basic novelty of the modernized core analysis was the introduction of an on-line core-follow module based on the standard Paks NPP core design code HELIOS/C-PORCA. New calculations also provided much finer spatial resolution, both in terms of axial node numbers and within the fuel assemblies. The new system was able to calculate the fuel applied during the first phase of power increase accurately, but it was not tailored to determine the effects of burnable absorbers as gadolinium. However, in the second phase of the power increase process the application of fuel assemblies containing three fuel rods with gadolinium content was intended (in order to optimize fuel economy), therefore off-line and on-line VERONA reactor physics models had to be further modified, to be able to handle the new fuel according to the accuracy requirements. In the present paper first a brief overview of the system version (V6.0) commissioned after the first modernization step is outlined; then details of the modified off-line and on-line reactor physics calculations are described. Validation results for new modules are treated extensively, in order to illustrate the extent and complexity of the V&V procedure associated with the development and licensing of the new

  18. Free Range, Organic? Polish Consumers Preferences Regarding Information on Farming System and Nutritional Enhancement of Eggs: A Discrete Choice Based Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.

  19. Operation of a New Half-Bridge Gate Driver for Enhancement - Mode GaN FETs, Type LM5113, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) gate driver designed to drive both the high-side and the low-side enhancement-mode GaN FETs, National Semiconductor's type LM5113, was evaluated for operation at temperatures beyond its recommended specified limits of -40 C to +125 C. The effects of limited thermal cycling under the extended test temperature, which ranged from -194 C to +150 C, on the operation of this chip as well as restart capability at the extreme cryogenic and hot temperatures were also investigated. The driver circuit was able to maintain good operation throughout the entire test regime between -194 C and +150 C without undergoing any major changes in its outputs signals and characteristics. The limited thermal cycling performed on the device also had no effect on its performance, and the driver chip was able to successfully restart at each of the extreme temperatures of -194 C and +150 C. The plastic packaging of this device was also not affected by either the short extreme temperature exposure or the limited thermal cycling. These preliminary results indicate that this new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) halfbridge eGaN FET driver integrated circuit has the potential for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature environments. Further testing is planned under long-term cycling to assess the reliability of these parts and to determine their suitability for extended use in the harsh environments of space.

  20. Comparisons with measured data of the simulated local core parameters by the coupled code ATHLET-BIPR-VVER applying a new enhanced model of the reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.; Pautz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the performed comparisons of measured and simulated local core data based on the OECD/NEA Benchmark on Kalinin-3 NPP: 'Switching off of one of the four operating main circulation pumps at nominal reactor power'. The local measurements of in core self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) in 64 fuel assemblies on 7 axial levels are used for the comparisons of the assemblies axial power distributions and the thermocouples readings at 93 fuel assembly heads are applied for the fuel assembly coolant temperature comparisons. The analyses are done on the base of benchmark transient calculations performed with the coupled system code ATHLET/BIPR-VVER. In order to describe more realistically the fluid mixing phenomena in a reactor pressure vessel a new enhanced nodalization scheme is being developed. It could take into account asymmetric flow behaviour in the reactor pressure vessel structures like downcomer, reactor core inlet and outlet, control rods' guided tubes, support grids etc. For this purpose details of the core geometry are modelled. About 58000 control volumes and junctions are applied. Cross connection are used to describe the interaction between the fluid objects. The performed comparisons are of great interest because they show some advantages by performing coupled code production pseudo-3D analysis of NPPs applying the parallel thermo-hydraulic channel methodology (or 1D thermo-hydraulic system code modeling). (Authors)

  1. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  2. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  3. Dual-Emission SG7@MOF Sensor via SC-SC Transformation: Enhancing the Formation of Excimer Emission and the Range and Sensitivity of Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hong-Ru; Wu, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian

    2018-05-30

    In this study, a water stable metal-organic framework FIR-53 is applied as a single-crystal container for anion exchange. The exceptional chemical stability and low crystallographic symmetry of FIR-53 makes it possible to determine anionic guests. Through ion exchange and single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) transformation, 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (SG7, solvent green 7, ion form as SG7 3- ) is introduced into the pores of FIR-53 to obtain SG7@FIR-53. Because of the spatial confinement and partition effect, SG7@FIR-53 shows the bright exciter emission of SG7 ions. Interestingly, the composite SG7@FIR-53 exhibits a sensitive fluorescence quenching response against Cr 2 O 7 2- and MnO 4 - in aqueous solution. Especially, the detection limit toward MnO 4 - is as low as 0.12 ppb, which is the smallest value to date. Moreover, the prepared SG7@FIR-53 film also displays a broad response to nitro explosives in vapor/aqueous phase. Compared with the results of FIR-53, the range and sensitivity were greatly improved.

  4. Effect of applying an arsenic-resistant and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium to enhance soil arsenic phytoremediation by Populus deltoides LH05-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Xiong, D; Zhao, P; Yu, X; Tu, B; Wang, G

    2011-11-01

    Bioremediation of highly arsenic (As)-contaminated soil is difficult because As is very toxic for plants and micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate soil arsenic removal effects using poplar in combination with the inoculation of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). A rhizobacterium D14 was isolated and identified within Agrobacterium radiobacter. This strain was highly resistant to arsenic and produced indole acetic acid and siderophore. Greenhouse pot bioremediation experiments were performed for 5 months using poplar (Populus deltoides LH05-17) grown on As-amended soils, inoculated with strain D14. The results showed that P. deltoides was an efficient arsenic accumulator; however, high As concentrations (150 and 300 mg kg(-1)) inhibited its growth. With the bacterial inoculation, in the 300 mg kg(-1) As-amended soils, 54% As in the soil was removed, which was higher than the uninoculated treatments (43%), and As concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were significantly increased by 229, 113 and 291%, respectively. In addition, the As translocation ratio [(stems + leaves)/roots = 0·8] was significantly higher than the uninoculated treatments (0·5). About 45% As was translocated from roots to the above-ground tissues. The plant height and dry weight of roots, stems and leaves were all enhanced; the contents of chlorophyll and soluble sugar, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were all increased; and the content of a toxic compound malondialdehyde was decreased. The results indicated that the inoculation of strain D14 could contribute to the increase in the As tolerance of P. deltoides, promotion of the growth, increase in the uptake efficiency and enhancement of As translocation. The use of P. deltoides in combination with the inoculation of strain D14 provides a potential application for efficient soil arsenic bioremediation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ©2011 The Society for Applied

  5. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O 2 /L R -d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied

  6. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun Wei [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: jywang@ntu.edu.sg [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was

  7. SU-F-T-661: Dependence of Gold Nano Particles Cluster Morphology On Dose Enhancement of Photon Radiation Therapy Apply for Radiation Biology Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K; Han, Y; Park, H [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine radiation oncology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Injected gold nano particles (GNPs) to a body for dose enhancement are known to form in the tumorcell cluster morphology. We investigated the dependence of dose enhancement on the morphology characteristic with an approximated morphology model by using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: For MC simulation, TOPAS version 2.0P-03 was used. GNP cluster morphology was approximated as a body center cubic(BCC) model by placing 8 GNPs at the corner and one at the center of cube with length from 2.59 µm to 0.25 µm located in a 4 µm length water filled cube phantom. 4 µm length square shaped beams of poly-energetic 50, 260 kVp photons were irradiated to the water filled cube phantom with 100 nm diameter GNPs in it. Dose enhancement ratio(DER) was computed as a function of distance from the surface of the GNP at the cube center for 18 cubes geometries. For scoring particles, 10 nm width of concentric shell shaped detector was constructed up to 100 nm from the center. Total dose in a sphere of 100 nm radius of detector were normalized to 2.59 µm length cube morphology. To verified biological effect of BCC model applied to cell survival curve fitting. Results: DER increase as the distance of the GNPs reduces. DER was largest for 0.25 µm length cube. Dependence of GNP distance DER increment was 1.73, 1.60 for 50 kVp, 260 kVp photons, respectively. Also, Using BCC model applied to cell survival curve was well prediction. Conclusion: DER with GNPs was larger when they are closely packed in the phantom. Therefore, better therapeutic effects can be expected with close-packed GNPs. This research was supported by the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012M3A9B6055201 and 2012R1A1A2042414), Samsung Medical Center grant[GFO1130081].

  8. Applying the concept of quality of life to Israeli special education programs: a national curriculum for enhanced autonomy in students with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Shunit; Schalock, Robert L

    2008-03-01

    This study provides a description of the design and development of guidelines and programs for a national core curriculum for special education in Israel. Israel was exposed during the 1970s to the ideology of normalization. Later on, toward the end of the 1980s, the concept of quality of life was added. Several research studies were conducted, resulting in the following core ideas about education: a shift of emphasis from teaching independent-living skills to teaching autonomy, self-awareness, self-direction, and interdependence is required. On the basis of these ideas, a new model of instruction was devised and termed the 'cycle of internalized learning' (CIL). The CIL is based on a holistic orientation toward the student and builds on abilities rather than disabilities. The peer group is the basic unit of instruction. Attention is on processes and outcomes. The CIL involves several clearly defined teaching steps: (i) opening--the presentation of the subject matter; (ii) discussion--a conceptual analysis of the subject; (iii) open conversation--students discuss the issues they raised during the first session, express their personal life experiences while applying the new concepts they learned, and suggest possible solutions to problems; (iv) trying out the solutions suggested by students; and (v) repeated discussions, to arrive at personal and social conclusions. Currently there are three published units of the CIL: (i) Social Education, (ii) Career Education, and (iii) Towards Leaving Home for Independent Living in the Community. The fourth unit, on citizenship education through the use of computers, is in its final stages of preparation. The success of the implementation of the program is expressed both at the students' level--as an enhanced sense of self-worth and self-confidence, as well as enhanced academic achievements and social skills--and at the teachers' level--as a paradigm shift from a medical model of approach to students with disabilities to a

  9. What happens in the lab does not stay in the lab [corrected]: Applying midstream modulation to enhance critical reflection in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Daan

    2011-12-01

    In response to widespread policy prescriptions for responsible innovation, social scientists and engineering ethicists, among others, have sought to engage natural scientists and engineers at the 'midstream': building interdisciplinary collaborations to integrate social and ethical considerations with research and development processes. Two 'laboratory engagement studies' have explored how applying the framework of midstream modulation could enhance the reflections of natural scientists on the socio-ethical context of their work. The results of these interdisciplinary collaborations confirm the utility of midstream modulation in encouraging both first- and second-order reflective learning. The potential for second-order reflective learning, in which underlying value systems become the object of reflection, is particularly significant with respect to addressing social responsibility in research practices. Midstream modulation served to render the socio-ethical context of research visible in the laboratory and helped enable research participants to more critically reflect on this broader context. While lab-based collaborations would benefit from being carried out in concert with activities at institutional and policy levels, midstream modulation could prove a valuable asset in the toolbox of interdisciplinary methods aimed at responsible innovation.

  10. Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model applied to quantification of cerebral blood flow using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Yamazaki, Youichi; Shinohara, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in comparison with deconvolution analysis based on singular value decomposition (DA-SVD). Using computer simulations, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) modeled as a gamma-variate function under various CBFs, cerebral blood volumes and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for three different types of residue function (exponential, triangular, and box-shaped). We also considered the effects of delay and dispersion in AIF. The ARMA model and DA-SVD were used to estimate CBF values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIFs, and the estimated values were compared with the assumed values. We found that the CBF value estimated by the ARMA model was more sensitive to the SNR and the delay in AIF than that obtained by DA-SVD. Although the ARMA model considerably overestimated CBF at low SNRs, it estimated the CBF more accurately than did DA-SVD at high SNRs for the exponential or triangular residue function. We believe this study will contribute to an understanding of the usefulness and limitations of the ARMA model when applied to quantification of CBF with DSC-MRI. (author)

  11. ENHANCING STUDENTS‟ MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN LEARNING GRAMMAR THROUGH CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING THROUGH RELATING, EXPERIENCING, APPLYING, COOPERATING AND TRANSFERRING (REACT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashlihatul Umami Umami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of whether Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL through REACT (Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating and Transferring strategy is able to enhance motivation and achievement of English Department students‘ in learning grammar. The researcher uses a classroom action research in which it was held for about two cycles. The instruments of collecting the data are observation, rubric, questionaire and test. The researcher analyzes the data using three steps, i.e. students‘ motivation to learn are analyzed by the sheet of observation, each of individuals is also analyzed by fulfilling the questionnaire of self assessment, the progress of students‘ motivation and achievement are all monitored by rubric assessment tool, seven components of REACT strategy in learning is also recorded by the sheets of observation and the statistical analysis using t-test measures the improvement occurred. In addition, the researcher prepares field note and questionnaire to monitor the process of learning. Based on the results of qualitative-quantitative analysis, it can be found that the use of CTL approach especially using project based and cooperative learning improves the students‘ motivation and achievement in learning grammar.

  12. Functional Variants at the 11q13 Risk Locus for Breast Cancer Regulate Cyclin D1 Expression through Long-Range Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Juliet D.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L.; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ahmed, Shahana; Khan, Sofia; Maranian, Mel J.; O’Reilly, Martin; Hillman, Kristine M.; Betts, Joshua A.; Carroll, Thomas; Bailey, Peter J.; Dicks, Ed; Beesley, Jonathan; Tyrer, Jonathan; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Beck, Andrew; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Chen, Constance; Kraft, Peter; Barnes, Daniel; González-Neira, Anna; Alonso, M. Rosario; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Aitken, Zoe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Justenhoven, Christina; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Sueta, Aiko; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Peeters, Stephanie; Smeets, Ann; Floris, Giuseppe; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Sardella, Domenico; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lee, Adam; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Ng, Char-Hong; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Klevebring, Daniel; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Healey, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Pooley, Karen A.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Sim, Xueling; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Godwin, Andrew K.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Chen, Shou-Tung; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Brown, Melissa A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of 4,405 variants in 89,050 European subjects from 41 case-control studies identified three independent association signals for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors at 11q13. The strongest signal maps to a transcriptional enhancer element in which the G allele of the best candidate causative variant rs554219 increases risk of breast cancer, reduces both binding of ELK4 transcription factor and luciferase activity in reporter assays, and may be associated with low cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors. Another candidate variant, rs78540526, lies in the same enhancer element. Risk association signal 2, rs75915166, creates a GATA3 binding site within a silencer element. Chromatin conformation studies demonstrate that these enhancer and silencer elements interact with each other and with their likely target gene, CCND1. PMID:23540573

  13. Functional variants at the 11q13 risk locus for breast cancer regulate cyclin D1 expression through long-range enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    French, Juliet D; Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of 4,405 variants in 89,050 European subjects from 41 case-control studies identified three independent association signals for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors at 11q13. The strongest signal maps to a transcriptional enhancer element in which the G allele of the best candidate causativ...

  14. Applied Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  15. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  16. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  17. Dye@bio-MOF-1 Composite as a Dual-Emitting Platform for Enhanced Detection of a Wide Range of Explosive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Tian, Li; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Shiqiang; Wang, Peng; Liang, Yun; Zhang, Wanlin; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Guangtao

    2017-06-14

    By incorporating a cationic dye within a metal-organic framework (MOF) through an ion-exchange process, a responsive dye@bio-MOF-1 composite has been synthesized, serving as a dual-emitting platform for enhanced detection of different kinds of nitro-explosives, especially nitroalkanes, nitramines, and nitrate esters. The dye@bio-MOF-1 composite was constructed with free amines on their well-defined cavities, which is essential for the capture of explosives into their confined nanospace. It was observed that the encapsulation of explosives into the constructed dye@bio-MOF-1 composite could dramatically alter the luminescent properties of the dyes as well as the MOF skeletons owing to the size exclusivity and confinement-induced effect. For nitroaromatics, the dye@bio-MOF-1 composite exhibits turn-off responses via fluorescence quenching. Unexpectedly, the composite shows unique turn-on responses for aliphatic nitro-organics via confinement-induced enhancement, demonstrating enhanced ability to detecting different kinds of explosives selectively in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the dye@bio-MOF-1 film was facilely fabricated, making the chemical sensing more convenient and easier to realize the discrimination of the targeted explosives. The dual tunable responses indicate that dye@bio-MOF-1 composites are favorable materials for molecular sensing. On the basis of the host-guest properties of the constructed dye@bio-MOF-1 composite, our work can be further extended to sensing specific analytes with remarkable turn-on sensing properties, in particular those difficult to recognize with conventional methods.

  18. ENHANCING VACCINAL PREVENTION OF THE HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRAL (HPV INFECTION: PROTECTING PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX FROM A RANGE OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Galitskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HPV is the most widespread sexually transmitted infection. HPV affects men and women regardless of age and leads to the development of various anogenital area diseases. International studies proved a wide clinical range of the tetravalent HPV vaccine protection and allowed recommending it for the prevention of not only cervical cancer, but also of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer and anogenital condylomae in patients of both sexes. 42 countries have already introduced national HPV-vaccination programs in compliance with WHO recommendations. Anogenital area cancer morbidity reduction in these countries is expected in 10-15 years. However, a reduction or even complete disappearance of anogenital condylomae among the population has already been noted in a range of countries because the incubation period of this disease is short; this is the first marker of vaccination efficacy in a population.

  19. Photodetectors: Broad Detection Range Rhenium Diselenide Photodetector Enhanced by (3-Aminopropyl)Triethoxysilane and Triphenylphosphine Treatment (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Youl; Kang, Dong-Ho; Shim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Jaeho; Choi, Seunghyuk; Kim, Minwoo; Park, Yongkook; Lee, Jaehyeong; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of triphenylphosphine (PPh3 ) and (3-amino-propyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on a rhenium diselenide (ReSe2 ) photodetector are systematically studied by J.-H. Park and co-workers on page 6711 in comparison with a conventional MoS2 device. A very high performance ReSe2 photodetector is demonstrated, which has a broad photodetection range, high photoresponsivity (1.18 × 10(6) A W(-1) ), and fast photoswitching speed (rising/decaying time: 58/263 ms). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Real-time dynamic range and signal to noise enhancement in beam-scanning microscopy by integration of sensor characteristics, data acquisition hardware, and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, David J.; Muir, Ryan D.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2013-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of multi-photon and confocal microscopy measurements in biology, the core techniques typically suffer from fundamental compromises between signal to noise (S/N) and linear dynamic range (LDR). In this study, direct synchronous digitization of voltage transients coupled with statistical analysis is shown to allow S/N approaching the theoretical maximum throughout an LDR spanning more than 8 decades, limited only by the dark counts of the detector on the low end and by the intrinsic nonlinearities of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector on the high end. Synchronous digitization of each voltage transient represents a fundamental departure from established methods in confocal/multi-photon imaging, which are currently based on either photon counting or signal averaging. High information-density data acquisition (up to 3.2 GB/s of raw data) enables the smooth transition between the two modalities on a pixel-by-pixel basis and the ultimate writing of much smaller files (few kB/s). Modeling of the PMT response allows extraction of key sensor parameters from the histogram of voltage peak-heights. Applications in second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are described demonstrating S/N approaching the shot-noise limit of the detector over large dynamic ranges.

  1. Enhancement of the range of electric-powered vehicles by means of an optimized thermal management; Steigerung der Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeugen durch optimiertes Thermomanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Unwerth, Thomas von [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the development of energy efficient air conditioning systems for electric-powered vehicles is one of the most difficult challenges because the reach of these vehicles significantly is influenced by the air-conditioning systems in part. For this reason, computational models have been developed at the Technical University of Chemnitz (Federal Republic of Germany) in order to simulate and optimize the processes in car air conditioning and passenger cabin. The passenger cabin model has now been extended by a simplified model of comfort which will be presented in more detail in the contribution under consideration. Under consideration of the occupants comfort, these models help to investigate the impact of the various optimization measures on the necessary amount of cooling capacity and the range of the vehicle. The calculations were made both for summerly and for winterly environmental conditions. As shown in detail, the required cooling capacity can be reduced by reducing the degree of transmittance of the windows for example in the summer. However, in contrast the heating power increases in the winter due to the lower solar heat input which in turn reduces the achievable range of electric-powered vehicles.

  2. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying Amide Proton Transfer MR Imaging to Hybrid Brain PET/MR: Concordance with Gadolinium Enhancement and Added Value to [18F]FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongzan; Xin, Jun; Zhou, Jinyuan; Lu, Zaiming; Guo, Qiyong

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic concordance and metric correlations of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F-]fluoro-D-glucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), using hybrid brain PET/MRI. Twenty-one subjects underwent brain gadolinium-enhanced [ 18 F]FDG PET/MRI prospectively. Imaging accuracy was compared between unenhanced MRI, MRI with enhancement, APT-weighted (APTW) images, and PET based on six diagnostic criteria. Among tumors, the McNemar test was further used for concordance assessment between gadolinium-enhanced imaging, APT imaging, and [ 18 F]FDG PET. As well, the relation of metrics between APT imaging and PET was analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. APT imaging and gadolinium-enhanced MRI showed superior and similar diagnostic accuracy. APTW signal intensity and gadolinium enhancement were concordant in 19 tumors (100 %), while high [ 18 F]FDG avidity was shown in only 12 (63.2 %). For the metrics from APT imaging and PET, there was significant correlation for 13 hypermetabolic tumors (P PET in the evaluation of tumor metabolic activity during brain PET/MR studies.

  4. Engineering Pyrite-Type Bimetallic Ni-Doped CoS2 Nanoneedle Arrays over a Wide Compositional Range for Enhanced Oxygen and Hydrogen Electrocatalysis with Flexible Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of cheap and efficient catalytic electrodes is of great importance, to promote the sluggish overall water-splitting systems associated with the large-scale application of clean and renewable energy technologies. In this work, we report the controlled synthesis of pyrite-type bimetallic Ni-doped CoS2 nanoneedle (NN arrays supported on stainless steel (SS (designated as NixCo1−xS2 NN/SS, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and the related compositional influence on electrocatalytic efficiencies for the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reaction (OER/HER. Impressively, the Ni0.33Co0.67S2 NN/SS displays superior activity and faster kinetics for catalyzing OER (low overpotential of 286 mV at 50 mA cm−2; Tafel value of 55 mV dec−1 and HER (low overpotential of 350 mV at 30 mA cm−2; Tafel value of 76 mV dec−1 than those of counterparts with other Ni/Co ratios and also monometallic Ni- or Co-based sulfides, which is attributed to the optimized balance from the improved electron transfer capability, increased exposure of electrocatalytic active sites, and favorable dissipation of gaseous products over the nanoneedle surface. Furthermore, the conductive, flexible SS support and firmly attached in-situ integrated feature, result in the flexibility and remarkable long-term stability of as-prepared binder-free Ni0.33Co0.67S2 NN/SS electrode. These results demonstrate element-doping could be an efficient route at the atomic level to design new materials and further optimize the surface physicochemical properties for enhancing the overall electrochemical water splitting activity.

  5. Long range surface plasmon resonance enhanced electro-optically tunable Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift in ZnSe prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nabamita; Kar, Aparupa; Saha, Ardhendu

    2014-11-01

    A new theoretical approach towards the tuning of Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift for the reflected light beam is observed, designed and simulated in this paper through electro-optically tunable liquid crystal at an incident wavelength of 1550 nm within the communication window. Here the considered Kretschmann-Raether geometry comprises a ZnSe prism and a liquid crystal layer of E44 between two metal layers of silver, where with the application of electric field from (0-10) V electro-optically tuning of the Goos-Hänchen shift from 64.09 μm to -53.408 μm and the Imbert-Fedorov shift from 122.8 μm to -32.5 μm for a change in refractive index of the liquid crystal layer from 1.52-1.79 are envisaged. This idea expedites the scope of fine tuning in optical switching within the μm ranges.

  6. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  7. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  8. Delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) can be effectively applied for longitudinal cohort evaluation of articular cartilage regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; Lambertus, W.B.; Benink, R.J.; Tsuchida, A.I.; Vincken, K.L.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) facilitates non-invasive evaluation of the glycosaminoglycan content in articular cartilage. The primary aim of this study was to show that the dGEMRIC technique is able to monitor cartilage repair following regenerative cartilage

  9. Reduction in respiratory motion artefacts on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI after training technicians to apply a simple and more patient-adapted breathing command

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Matoori, Simon; Weymarn, Constantin von; Reischauer, Carolin; Goyen, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Forstner, Rosemarie; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Soyka, Jan D.; Doert, Aleksis; Koh, Dow-Mu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether a trained group of technicians using a modified breathing command during gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI reduces respiratory motion artefacts compared to non-trained technicians using a traditional breathing command. The gadoxetate-enhanced liver MR images of 30 patients acquired using the traditional breathing command and the subsequent 30 patients after training the technicians to use a modified breathing command were analyzed. A subgroup of patients (n = 8) underwent scans both by trained and untrained technicians. Images obtained using the traditional and modified breathing command were compared for the presence of breathing artefacts [respiratory artefact-based image quality scores from 1 (best) to 5 (non-diagnostic)]. There was a highly significant improvement in the arterial phase image quality scores in patients using the modified breathing command compared to the traditional one (P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with severe and extensive breathing artefacts in the arterial phase decreased from 33.3 % to 6.7 % after introducing the modified breathing command (P = 0.021). In the subgroup that underwent MRI using both breathing commands, arterial phase image quality improved significantly (P = 0.008) using the modified breathing command. Training technicians to use a modified breathing command significantly improved arterial phase image quality of gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI. (orig.)

  10. INF-γ Enhances Nox2 Activity by Upregulating phox Proteins When Applied to Differentiating PLB-985 Cells but Does Not Induce Nox2 Activity by Itself.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ellison

    Full Text Available The cytokine and drug interferon-γ enhances superoxide anion production by the antimicrobicidal Nox2 enzyme of neutrophils. Because mature neutrophils have a short lifespan, we hypothesized that the effects of interferon-γ on these cells might be mediated by its prolonged exposure to differentiating neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow rather than its brief exposure to mature circulating neutrophils. Effects of INF-Γ on NOX2 activity: To address this possibility we exposed the myeloid PLB-985 cell line to interferon-γ for 3 days in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide which induces terminal differentiation of these cells. Interferon-γ was found to enhance superoxide production by Nox2 in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, application of interferon-γ alone for 3 days failed to induce detectible Nox2 activity. Additionally, application of interferon-γ for 3 hours to pre-differentiated PLB-985 cells, which models studies using isolated neutrophils, was much less effective at enhancing superoxide anion production. Effects of INF-Γ on phox protein levels: Addition of interferon-γ during differentiation was found to upregulate the Nox2 proteins gp91phox and p47phox in concert with elevated transcription of their genes. The p22phox protein was upregulated in the absence of increased transcription presumably reflecting stabilization resulting from binding to the elevated gp91phox. Thus, increased levels of gp91phox, p47phox and p22phox likely account for the interferon-γ mediated enhancement of dimethyl sulfoxide-induced Nox2 activity. In contrast, although interferon-γ alone also increased various phox proteins and their mRNAs, the pattern was very different to that seen with interferon-γ plus dimethyl sulfoxide. In particular, p47phox was not induced thus explaining the inability of interferon -γ alone to enhance Nox2 activity. Short application of interferon-γ to already differentiated cells failed to increase any phox

  11. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  12. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI), International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    .01–0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0.86) over a range of plant

  13. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  15. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  16. Q-factor enhancement for self-actuated self-sensing piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying a lock-in driven feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, M; Bittner, A; Schmid, U; Manzaneque, T; Sánchez-Rojas, J L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a robust Q-control approach based on an all-electrical feedback loop enhancing the quality factor of a resonant microstructure by using the self-sensing capability of a piezoelectric thin film actuator made of aluminium nitride. A lock-in amplifier is used to extract the feedback signal which is proportional to the piezoelectric current. The measured real part is used to replace the originally low-quality and noisy feedback signal to modulate the driving voltage of the piezoelectric thin-film actuator. Since the lock-in amplifier reduces the noise in the feedback signal substantially, the proposed enhancement loop avoids the disadvantage of a constant signal-to-noise ratio, which an analogue feedback circuit usually suffers from. The quality factor was increased from the intrinsic value of 1766 to a maximum of 34 840 in air. These promising results facilitate precise measurements for self-actuated and self-sensing MEMS cantilevers even when operated in static viscous media. (paper)

  17. Applying carbon dioxide, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and EDTA can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass in a soil polluted with zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junkang; Feng, Renwei; Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the use of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54 (PGPR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of ryegrass in response to multiple heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soil containing zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). All of the single or combined CO2, PGPR and EDTA treatments promoted ryegrass growth. The stimulation of ryegrass growth by CO2 and PGPR could primarily be attributed to the regulation of photosynthesis rather than decreased levels of Zn, As and Cd in the shoots. Most treatments seemed to reduce the Zn, As and Cd contents in the shoots, which might be associated with enhanced shoot biomass, thus causing a "dilution effect" regarding their levels. The combined treatments seemed to perform better than single treatments in removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from soil, judging from the larger biomass and relatively higher total amounts (TAs) of Zn, As, Cd and Pb in both the shoots and roots. Therefore, we suggest that the CO2 plus PGPR treatment will be suitable for removing Zn, As, Cd and Pb from heavy metal (or metalloid)-polluted soils using ryegrass as a phytoremediation material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Results obtained with LEGe detectors applied for partial-body counting in the low-energy range (3-150 keV); Erfahrungen mit LEGe-Detektoren bei Teilkoerpermessungen im Bereich niedriger Energien (3-150 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmann, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Due to a change in the field of duties, the Phoswich detector hitherto used for organ and partial-body scanning for measuring low-energy {gamma} radiation and X-radiation had to be replaced by a modern detector system. A key application of the new system is detection and in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the human skeleton. This method of measuring {sup 210}Pb as a long-lived daughter product of radon is applied for retrospective assessment of radiation doses emanatingfrom the radon decay chain, applied to former uranium miners (WISMUT) and members of the population living or having lived in houses with high radon concentrations. The bone activities to be expected from relevant exposures are only slightly above those of the normal {sup 210}Pb content in the bones (10-30 Bq), and the Phoswich detector system was not able to detect incorporated activity down to these low levels. The new system was also tested for its suitability and efficiency in detecting radionuclide depositions in body organs, particularly the actinides that are difficult to identify, in compliance with the relevant regulatory guide. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der Inkorporationsmessstelle musste auf Grund neuer Aufgabenstellungen der fuer Organ- und Teilkoerpermessungen zum Nachweis niederenergetischer {gamma}- und Roentgenstrahlung eingesetzte Phoswich-Detektor durch ein modernes Detektorsystem ersetzt werden. Ein wichtiges Einsatzgebiet des neuen Systems ist die Bestimmung von {sup 210}Pb im menschlichen Skelett ueber In-vivo-Messungen. Diese Methode der Bestimmung von {sup 210}Pb als langlebiges Folgeprodukt des Radons dient der retrospektiven Ermittlung der Exposition durch Radon-Zerfallsprodukte bei ehemaligen Uranbergleuten (WISMUT) und Personen aus der Bevoelkerung, die in Wohnhaeusern mit hohen Radonkonzentrationen leben bzw. gelebt haben. Die fuer relevante Expositionen zu erwartenden Skelettaktivitaeten liegen nur wenig ueber dem {sup 210}Pb-Normalgehalt (10-30 Bq). Mit einer

  19. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  20. Enhancement in transport critical current density of ex situ PIT Ag/(Ba, K)Fe2As2 tapes achieved by applying a combined process of flat rolling and uniaxial pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Kazumasa; Gao, Zhaoshun; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2013-11-01

    We report that the transport critical current density Jc of ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT) processed (Ba, K)Fe2As2 (Ba-122) tapes can be significantly enhanced by applying uniaxial cold pressing at the final stage of deformation. The tapes were prepared by packing high quality precursor powder into a Ag tube, cycles of rolling and intermediate annealing, and pressing followed by the final heat treatment for sintering. The Jc values in applied magnetic fields were increased by almost one order of magnitude compared to the tapes processed without pressing, exceeding 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K. We achieved the highest Jc (at 4.2 K and 10 T) of 2.1×104 A cm-2 among PIT-processed Fe-based wires and tapes reported so far. The Jc-H curves measured at higher temperatures maintain small field dependence up to around 20 K, suggesting that these tapes are promising for applications at higher temperatures as well as at liquid helium temperature. The microstructure investigations reveal that there are two possible causes of the large Jc enhancement by pressing: one is densification and the other is the change of crack structure. Optimization of processing parameters such as the reduction ratio of rolling and pressing is expected to yield further Jc enhancement.

  1. The Consortium for Evidence Based Research in Rural Educational Settings (CEBRRES): Applying Collaborative Action Research as a Means of Enhancing the Development of Rural Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, A. H.

    2006-05-01

    Kentucky ranks third in the U.S. in need of rural education attention. Rural schools in Kentucky serve nearly 40% of the total student population, and graduation rates and NAEP scores are low. A two-year pilot study is being completed addressing psychological, social, and content knowledge based constructs, as they apply to science and mathematics achievement in rural environments. The goals are to identify the key aspects of rural teachers knowledge and skills, use a framework to describe how knowledge and skills develop in the rural classroom, apply a useful model of intervention to promote teacher development and increased student learning. If proven successful the knowledge can be incorporated into the practice of current teaching and preservice pedagogical methods. The problem that was identified and addressed by CEBRRES is the high level of student disengagement and the shortage of rigorous stimulating curriculum models. The action taken was the development and implementation of model eliciting activities. Teachers at the target school were expected to utilize action research methodology to execute model-eliciting activities in the classroom, and then communicate results in forms that are useful for other teachers. Benefits to teachers included stipends, increased science content depth and breadth, support to achieve "highly qualified teacher status", extensive professional development, and technology, equipment, and supplies for their school. Survey instruments were devised to address school perceptions (61% worry that they are not doing well enough in school), future plans (80% expect to attend college vs. the current 47.5%), various self concepts, academic self concepts (23% feel that learning is difficult for them), and family self concepts. Science was identified by the students as the subject that interests them the most, followed by math, yet Kentucky ranks near the bottom of the U.S. in math and science training in the workplace. Geology

  2. Fate of Fertilizer-Derived N Applied to Enhance Rice Straw Decomposition in a Paddy Field during the Fallow Season under Cool Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen (N derived from fertilizer (fertilizer-derived N applied to a paddy field after rice harvesting to promote rice straw decomposition during the fallow season, and to determine its effect on soil N fertility in northern Japan. A frame containing soil mixed with rice straw and 15N-labeled fertilizer (4.3 g N m−2 ammonium sulfate [AS] or lime-nitrogen [LN] was placed into a paddy field on a gray lowland soil during the fallow season (October–April, and the following rice-growing season (May–September. Before cultivation (April, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in soil + straw were higher for LN (55–72% than for AS (41–63%. At the harvesting stage (September, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in plants were significantly higher for LN (4.9–6.2% than for AS (3.4–5.3%, and the percentages in soil were also significantly higher for LN (42–61% than for AS (31–38%. This could be attributed to the nitrification inhibitory effect of LN and result in the suppression of N losses via leaching. Consequently, fertilizer-derived N could contribute to the maintenance of soil N fertility, and this effect could be higher for LN than AS.

  3. Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' use of electronic medication management systems in two Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Deborah; Taylor, Natalie; Lipworth, Wendy; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne; Black, Deborah; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-03-27

    Medication errors harm hospitalised patients and increase health care costs. Electronic Medication Management Systems (EMMS) have been shown to reduce medication errors. However, nurses do not always use EMMS as intended, largely because implementation of such patient safety strategies requires clinicians to change their existing practices, routines and behaviour. This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' appropriate use of EMMS in two Australian hospitals. This qualitative study draws on in-depth interviews with 19 acute care nurses who used EMMS. A convenience sampling approach was used. Nurses working on the study units (N = 6) in two hospitals were invited to participate if available during the data collection period. Interviews inductively explored nurses' experiences of using EMMS (step 1). Data were analysed using the TDF to identify theory-derived barriers to nurses' appropriate use of EMMS (step 2). Relevant behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified to overcome key barriers to using EMMS (step 3) followed by the identification of potential literature-informed targeted intervention strategies to operationalise the identified BCTs (step 4). Barriers to nurses' use of EMMS in acute care were represented by nine domains of the TDF. Two closely linked domains emerged as major barriers to EMMS use: Environmental Context and Resources (availability and properties of computers on wheels (COWs); technology characteristics; specific contexts; competing demands and time pressure) and Social/Professional Role and Identity (conflict between using EMMS appropriately and executing behaviours critical to nurses' professional role and identity). The study identified three potential BCTs to address the Environmental Context and Resources domain barrier: adding objects to the environment; restructuring the physical environment; and prompts and cues. Seven BCTs to address Social

  4. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  5. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  6. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  7. Applying fermentation liquid of food waste as carbon source to a pilot-scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor for enhancing nitrogen removal: Microbial communities and membrane fouling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Hu, Yisong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Li, Yuyou; Zhang, Yongmei

    2017-07-01

    Fermentation liquid of food waste (FLFW) was applied as an external carbon source in a pilot-scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) system to enhance nitrogen removal for treating low COD/TN ratio domestic wastewater. Results showed that, with the FLFW addition, total nitrogen removal increased from lower than 20% to 44-67% during the 150days of operation. The bacterial metabolic activities were obviously enhanced, and the significant change in microbial community structure promoted pollutants removal and favored membrane fouling mitigation. By monitoring transmembrane pressure and characterizing typical membrane foulants, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and inorganics and biopolymers in the cake layer, it was confirmed that FLFW addition did not bring about any additional accumulation of membrane foulants, acceleration of fouling rate, or obvious irreversible membrane fouling in the whole operation period. Therefore, FLFW is a promising alternative carbon source to enhance nitrogen removal for the A/O-MBR system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  9. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  10. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  11. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  12. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  13. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  14. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  15. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011017-20020120.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  16. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040622-20040808.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  17. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050411-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  18. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050413-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  19. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20040919-20050411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  20. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20030718-20030826.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  1. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20090515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011022-20020325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20020911-20030718.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  4. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040919-20050411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20080401.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  6. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10283, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20020315-20021024.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  7. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); CNMI, SAI; Long: 145.72285, Lat: 15.23750 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20030819-20050921.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  8. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020724-20020920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  9. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20050411-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  10. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  11. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020423-20020910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  12. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20071017.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  13. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Environmental Data Logger (EDL); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.00m; Data Range: 20030826-20040809.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to sea surface measure water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  14. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020911-20030305.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  15. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20100410.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  16. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  17. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  18. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  19. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of systems and processes of ‘Applied Systems Theory’ makes it suitable for managers, engineers, students, researchers, academics and professionals from a wide range of disciplines; they can use this ‘toolbox’ for describing, analysing and designing biological, engineering and organisational systems as well as getting a better understanding of societal problems. This revised, updated and expanded second edition includes coverage of a...

  20. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  1. Color enhancement of landsat agricultural imagery: JPL LACIE image processing support task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.; Green, W. B.; Wherry, D. B.; Lewis, S. D.

    1978-01-01

    Color enhancement techniques were applied to LACIE LANDSAT segments to determine if such enhancement can assist analysis in crop identification. The procedure involved increasing the color range by removing correlation between components. First, a principal component transformation was performed, followed by contrast enhancement to equalize component variances, followed by an inverse transformation to restore familiar color relationships. Filtering was applied to lower order components to reduce color speckle in the enhanced products. Use of single acquisition and multiple acquisition statistics to control the enhancement were compared, and the effects of normalization investigated. Evaluation is left to LACIE personnel.

  2. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  3. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  4. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  8. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  9. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  10. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  11. Applied computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Boudreau, Joseph F; Bianchi, Riccardo Maria

    2018-01-01

    Applied Computational Physics is a graduate-level text stressing three essential elements: advanced programming techniques, numerical analysis, and physics. The goal of the text is to provide students with essential computational skills that they will need in their careers, and to increase the confidence with which they write computer programs designed for their problem domain. The physics problems give them an opportunity to reinforce their programming skills, while the acquired programming skills augment their ability to solve physics problems. The C++ language is used throughout the text. Physics problems include Hamiltonian systems, chaotic systems, percolation, critical phenomena, few-body and multi-body quantum systems, quantum field theory, simulation of radiation transport, and data modeling. The book, the fruit of a collaboration between a theoretical physicist and an experimental physicist, covers a broad range of topics from both viewpoints. Examples, program libraries, and additional documentatio...

  12. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  13. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  14. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  15. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  16. Fast long-range connections in transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares Viana, Matheus; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is applied in order to visualize an analogue of the small-world effect implied by edges having different displacement velocities in transportation networks. Our findings are illustrated for two real-world systems, namely the London urban network (streets and underground) and the US highway network enhanced by some of the main US airlines routes. We also show that the travel time in these two networks is drastically changed by attacks targeting the edges with large displacement velocities. - Highlights: → Multidimensional scaling used to visualize the effects of fast long-range connections. → Fast long-range connections are important to decrease the average travel time. → The average travel time diverges quickly when the network is under target attacks.

  17. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  18. Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Cowsik, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

  19. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  20. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  1. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  2. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  3. Enhancing the humidity sensitivity of Ga2O3 /SnO2 core/shell microribbon by applying mechanical strain and its application as a flexible strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kewei; Sakurai, Makoto; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-12-07

    The humidity sensitivity of a single β-Ga(2) O(3) /amorphous SnO(2) core/shell microribbon on a flexible substrate is enhanced by the application of tensile strain and increases linearly with the strain. The strain-induced enhancement originates from the increase in the effective surface area where water molecules are adsorbed. This strain dependence of humidity sensitivity can be used to monitor the external strain. The strain sensing of the microribbon device under various amounts of mechanical loading shows excellent reliability and reproducibility with a gauge factor of -41. The flexible device has high potential to detect both humidity and strain at room temperature. These findings and the mechanism involved are expected to pave the way for new flexible strain and multifunctional sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  5. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  6. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  7. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  8. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  9. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  10. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available to answer ... a law firm. Read more about the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation . TO GET HELP CALL: (877) End-Meso ...

  11. OAM-enhanced transmission for multimode short-range links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    We propose, experimentally demonstrate, and evaluate the performance of a multimode (MM) transmission fiber data link which is based on orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. The proposed scheme uses OAM modes to increase capacity or reach without recurring to mode division multiplexing (MDM...

  12. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  13. Embracing uncertainty in applied ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; Shea, K

    2017-12-01

    Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty. Synthesis and applications . Applied ecologists can become more effective at informing management by using approaches that explicitly take account of uncertainty.

  14. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  15. Enhancing decision-making and cognitive impulse control with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC): A randomized and sham-controlled exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Julien; McGirr, Alexander; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Jollant, Fabrice; Lepage, Martin; Berlim, Marcelo T

    2015-10-01

    Decision-making and impulse control (both cognitive and motor) are complex interrelated processes which rely on a distributed neural network that includes multiple cortical and subcortical regions. Among them, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) seems to be particularly relevant as demonstrated by several neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In the present study we assessed whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied bilaterally over the OFC is able to modulate decision-making and cognitive impulse control. More specifically, 45 healthy subjects were randomized to receive a single 30-min session of active or sham anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) applied over either the left or the right OFC (coupled with contralateral cathodal tDCS). They were also assessed pre- and post-tDCS with a battery of computerized tasks. Our results show that participants who received active anodal tDCS (irrespective of laterality), vs. those who received sham tDCS, displayed more advantageous decision-making (i.e., increased Iowa Gambling Task "net scores" [p = 0.04]), as well as improved cognitive impulse control (i.e., decreased "interference" in the Stroop Word-Colour Task [p = 0.007]). However, we did not observe tDCS-related effects on mood (assessed by visual analogue scales), attentional levels (assessed by the Continuous Performance Task) or motor impulse control (assessed by the Stop-Signal Task). Our study potentially serves as a key translational step towards the development of novel non-invasive neuromodulation-based therapeutic interventions directly targeting vulnerability factors for psychiatric conditions such as suicidal behaviour and addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  17. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  18. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  19. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  20. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  1. Applied social geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hilpert, Markus

    2002-01-01

    Applied social geography : management of spatial planning in reflective discourse ; research perspectives towards a ‚Theory of Practice‘. - In: Geografija in njene aplikativne moˆznosti = Prospects of applied geography. - Ljubljana : Oddelek za Geografijo, Filozofska Fakulteta, 2002. S. 29-39. - (Dela / Oddelek za geografijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani ; 18)

  2. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  3. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  4. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics publishes papers of the highest quality and significance in specific areas of physics, pure and applied, as listed below. The journal content reflects core physics disciplines, but is also open to a broad range of topics whose central theme falls within the bounds of physics.

  5. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author) [pt

  6. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  7. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  8. Bare and protected sputtered-noble-metal films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, David; Bonhommeau, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Sputtered silver and gold films with different surface morphologies have been prepared and coated with a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer. Rough noble metal films showed strong Raman features assigned to adsorbed benzenethiol molecules upon irradiation over a wide energy range in the visible spectrum, which disclosed the occurrence of a significant surface-enhanced Raman scattering with maximal enhancement factors as high as 6 × 106. In addition, the adsorption of ethanethiol onto silver surfaces hinders their corrosion over days while preserving mostly intact enhancement properties of naked silver. This study may be applied to develop stable and efficient metalized probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Long-range interaction between spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.C.; Pradhan, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that invariance of Lagrangian field theory under a class of the coordinate-dependent Lorentz group of transformations requires the introduction of a massless axial vector gauge field which gives rise to a super-weak long-range spin-spin force between particles in vacuum. Recent experiments demonstrating repulsion and attraction between circularly polarised laser beams are interpreted to be due to such a force enhanced by spin polarisation of sodium vapour, through which these beams pass. (author)

  10. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  11. Problems of applied geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, L N

    1983-01-01

    The concept of applied geochemistry was introduced for the first time by A. Ye. Fersman. He linked the branched and complicated questions of geochemistry with specific problems of developing the mineral and raw material base of our country. Geochemical prospecting and geochemistry of mineral raw materials are the most important sections of applied geochemistry. This now allows us the right to view applied geochemistry as a sector of science which applies geochemical methodology, set of geochemical methods of analysis, synthesis, geological interpretation of data based on laws governing theoretical geochemistry to the solution of different tasks of geology, petrology, tectonics, stratigraphy, science of minerals and other geological sciences, and also the technology of mineral raw materials, interrelationships of man and nature (ecogeochemistry, technogeochemistry, agrogeochemistry). The main problem of applied geochemistry, geochemistry of ore fields is the prehistory of ore formation. This is especially important for metallogenic and forecasting constructions, for an understanding of the reasons for the development of fields and the detection of laws governing their distribution, their genetic links with the general geological processes and the products of these processes.

  12. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  13. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  14. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  15. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  16. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  17. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Applying a Hybrid Model: Can It Enhance Student Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in the use of online learning over the past decade. There remains conflict in the current body of research on the efficacy of online versus face to face learning in these environments. One resolution of these issues is the hybrid learning option which is a combination of face-to-face classroom instruction with…

  19. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  20. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    At the present time, myoelectric prostheses perform only one function of the hand: open and close with the thumb, index and middle finger coming together to grasp various shaped objects. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function prostheses and the needs of the individuals who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (August 1992 - November 1994), surveyed approximately 2500 individuals with upper limb loss. When asked to identify specific features of their current electric prosthesis that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement as well as poor control capability. Simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. Individuals with upper limb loss tend to reject prostheses that require continuous visual monitoring and concentration to control. Robotics researchers at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Rice University have made substantial progress in myoelectric teleoperation. A myoelectric teleoperation system translates signals generated by an able-bodied robot operator's muscles during hand motions into commands that drive a robot's hand through identical motions. Farry's early work in myoelectric teleoperation used variations over time in the myoelectric spectrum as inputs to neural networks to discriminate grasp types and thumb motions. The resulting schemes yielded up to 93% correct classification on thumb motions. More recently, Fernandez achieved 100% correct non-realtime classification of thumb abduction, extension, and flexion on the same myoelectric data. Fernandez used genetic programming to develop functions that discriminate between thumb motions using myoelectric signal parameters. Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary programming method where the computer can modify the discriminating functions' form to improve its performance, not just adjust numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  1. Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    highlights works inspired by neuroscience discoveries in the last twenty years. Neuroscience Literature and Research In his 1994 book, Descartes ’ Error...http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ facts.html (accessed 9 October 2011). Damasio, Antonio. 1994. Descartes ’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human

  2. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  3. Unattended real-time re-establishment of visibility in high dynamic range video and stills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, B.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a portable unattended persistent surveillance system that corrects for harsh illumination conditions, where bright sun light creates mixed contrast effects, i.e., heavy shadows and washouts. These effects result in high dynamic range scenes, where illuminance can vary from few luxes to a 6 figure value. When using regular monitors and cameras, such wide span of illuminations can only be visualized if the actual range of values is compressed, leading to the creation of saturated and/or dark noisy areas and a loss of information in these areas. Images containing extreme mixed contrast cannot be fully enhanced from a single exposure, simply because all information is not present in the original data. The active intervention in the acquisition process is required. A software package, capable of integrating multiple types of COTS and custom cameras, ranging from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) data links to digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), is described. Hardware and software are integrated via a novel smart data acquisition algorithm, which communicates to the camera the parameters that would maximize information content in the final processed scene. A fusion mechanism is then applied to the smartly acquired data, resulting in an enhanced scene where information in both dark and bright areas is revealed. Multi-threading and parallel processing are exploited to produce automatic real time full motion corrected video. A novel enhancement algorithm was also devised to process data from legacy and non-controllable cameras. The software accepts and processes pre-recorded sequences and stills, enhances visible, night vision, and Infrared data, and successfully applies to night time and dark scenes. Various user options are available, integrating custom functionalities of the application into intuitive and easy to use graphical interfaces. The ensuing increase in visibility in surveillance video and intelligence imagery will expand the performance and

  4. Advances in applied mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Theodore Y; Wu, Theodore Y

    2000-01-01

    This highly acclaimed series provides survey articles on the present state and future direction of research in important branches of applied solid and fluid mechanics. Mechanics is defined as a branch of physics that focuses on motion and on the reaction of physical systems to internal and external forces.

  5. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  6. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  7. Journal of Applied Biosciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Biosciences provides a forum for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish their research findings or theoretical concepts and ideas of a scientific nature. Other websites related to this journal: http://m.elewa.org/Journals/about-jab/ ...

  8. Thermodynamics applied. Where? Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. This paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition, it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future

  9. Thermodynamics, applied. : Where? why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    In recent years thermodynamics has been applied in a number of new fields leading to a greater societal impact. The paper gives a survey of these new fields and the reasons why these applications are important. In addition it is shown that the number of fields could be even greater in the future and

  10. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  11. Applied research on glucansucrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although glycansucrases have been known for over 70 years, they remain relatively unknown except to a small group of researchers. Practical, applied research on glycansucrases has been focused on certain key areas. The earliest of these was the development of blood plasma extenders from dextran, d...

  12. Essays in applied microeconometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Duration analysis has been widely used in the applied economic research since the late 1970s. The framework allows to examine the duration of time intervals and the rate of transition across a set of states over time. Many economic behaviors follow a similar pattern, such as transition from the

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  14. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  15. Applied Anthropology in Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselein, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Three different applied media anthropology projects are described. These projects stem from the broadcasters' legal need to know about the community (community ascertainment), the broadcasters' need to know about the station audience (audience profile), and the broadcasters' desire to change a community (action projects). (Author)

  16. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  17. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  18. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  19. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  20. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  1. APPLIED ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applied disciplines in the sphere of construction which are engaged in the solution of vital macroeconomical problems (the general trend of development of these disciplines is the expansion of problematics and mutual integration are considered. Construction organization characteristic at the present stage as a systems engineering discipline covering the investment process of creation of real estate items, is given. The main source of current research trends for applied sciences (socio-economic development forecasts, regional and local programs is determined. Interpenetration and integration of various fields of knowledge exemplified by the current interindustry problem of blocks renovation organization of existing development, is demonstrated. Mathematical model of wave construction (for the period of deployment is proposed. Nature of dependence of the total duration of renovation on the limit of annual input and coefficient of renovation, is established. Overall structure of the Moscow region housing market is presented, and approaches to definition of effective demand are proposed.

  2. Applied evaluative informetrics

    CERN Document Server

    Moed, Henk F

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on applied evaluative informetric artifacts or topics. It explains the base notions and assumptions of evaluative informetrics by discussing a series of important applications. The structure of the book is therefore not organized by methodological characteristics, but is centered around popular, often discussed or used informetric artifacts - indicators, methodologies, products, databases - or so called hot topics in which informetric indicators play an important role. Most of the artifacts and topics emerged during the past decade. The principal aim of the book is to present a state of the art in applied evaluative informetrics, and to inform the readers about the pros and cons, potentialities and limitations of the use of informetric/bibliometric indicators in research assessment. The book is a continuation of the book Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation (Springer, 2005). It is of interest to non-specialists, especially research students at advanced master level and higher, all thos...

  3. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  4. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  5. Applied mediation analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sørensen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, mediation analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to disentangle causal pathways from an exposure/treatment to clinically relevant outcomes. Mediation analysis has been applied in scientific fields as diverse as labour market relations and randomized clinical trials of heart...... disease treatments. In parallel to these applications, the underlying mathematical theory and computer tools have been refined. This combined review and tutorial will introduce the reader to modern mediation analysis including: the mathematical framework; required assumptions; and software implementation...

  6. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  7. Applied clinical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book demonstrates how clinical engineering has applied engineering principles to the development and use of complex medical devices for the diagnosis and treatment of the sick and injured. It discusses the proper utilization of medical devices and equipment in the health-care industry and provides understanding of complex engineering systems, and their uses in the modern hospital or other health-care facility

  8. Applied general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Important relativistic effects and issues are discussed which must be considered in the interpretation of current measurements such as ranging measurements to LAGEOS and to the moon, in the implementation of the Global Positioning System, in the synchronization of clocks near the earth's surface, and in the adoption of appropriate scales of time and length for the communication of scientific results.

  9. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  10. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  11. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  12. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  13. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  14. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  15. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  16. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  17. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  18. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  20. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  1. Numerical simulation in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Juan Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...

  2. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  3. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.C.; Couture, M.; Douglas, S.; Leivo, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    The Workshop on Applied Mathematics was held at the Cockcroft Centre, Deep River, Ontario, 1992 February 7-8. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for applied mathematicians to survey the use and to discuss the future of applied mathematics at AECL Research. There were 57 participants at the workshop A total of eight 30-minute and 25 15-minute talks were presented describing mathematical techniques used in the whole range of activities at AECL Research, from numerical simulation of fluid flow through eddy current testing to quantum algebra and accelerator physics

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on applied mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H C; Couture, M; Douglas, S; Leivo, H P

    1992-10-01

    The Workshop on Applied Mathematics was held at the Cockcroft Centre, Deep River, Ontario, 1992 February 7-8. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for applied mathematicians to survey the use and to discuss the future of applied mathematics at AECL Research. There were 57 participants at the workshop A total of eight 30-minute and 25 15-minute talks were presented describing mathematical techniques used in the whole range of activities at AECL Research, from numerical simulation of fluid flow through eddy current testing to quantum algebra and accelerator physics.

  6. Applied computing in medicine and health

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Jumeily, Dhiya; Mallucci, Conor; Oliver, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Applied Computing in Medicine and Health is a comprehensive presentation of on-going investigations into current applied computing challenges and advances, with a focus on a particular class of applications, primarily artificial intelligence methods and techniques in medicine and health. Applied computing is the use of practical computer science knowledge to enable use of the latest technology and techniques in a variety of different fields ranging from business to scientific research. One of the most important and relevant areas in applied computing is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in health and medicine. Artificial intelligence in health and medicine (AIHM) is assuming the challenge of creating and distributing tools that can support medical doctors and specialists in new endeavors. The material included covers a wide variety of interdisciplinary perspectives concerning the theory and practice of applied computing in medicine, human biology, and health care. Particular attention is given to AI-bas...

  7. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst

  8. Applied time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    ""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…

  9. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  10. Applied Bayesian modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an accessible approach to Bayesian computing and data analysis, with an emphasis on the interpretation of real data sets. Following in the tradition of the successful first edition, this book aims to make a wide range of statistical modeling applications accessible using tested code that can be readily adapted to the reader's own applications. The second edition has been thoroughly reworked and updated to take account of advances in the field. A new set of worked examples is included. The novel aspect of the first edition was the coverage of statistical modeling using WinBU

  11. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  12. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  13. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  14. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  15. Computer simulations applied in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y{sub 2}(Ti,Sn,Zr){sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO{sub 2}; composition defect maps for A{sup 3+}B{sup 3+}O{sub 3} perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  16. Computer simulations applied in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La 2 Zr 2 O 7 pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y 2 (Ti,Sn,Zr) 2 O 7 pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO 2 ; composition defect maps for A 3+ B 3+ O 3 perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  17. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  18. Applied antineutrino physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river

  19. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  20. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  1. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  2. Applied linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Olver, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook develops the essential tools of linear algebra, with the goal of imparting technique alongside contextual understanding. Applications go hand-in-hand with theory, each reinforcing and explaining the other. This approach encourages students to develop not only the technical proficiency needed to go on to further study, but an appreciation for when, why, and how the tools of linear algebra can be used across modern applied mathematics. Providing an extensive treatment of essential topics such as Gaussian elimination, inner products and norms, and eigenvalues and singular values, this text can be used for an in-depth first course, or an application-driven second course in linear algebra. In this second edition, applications have been updated and expanded to include numerical methods, dynamical systems, data analysis, and signal processing, while the pedagogical flow of the core material has been improved. Throughout, the text emphasizes the conceptual connections between each application and the un...

  3. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  4. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  5. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  6. Electroluminescence Efficiency Enhancement using Metal Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soref, Richard A; Khurgin, J. B; Sun, G

    2008-01-01

    We apply the "effective mode volume" theory to evaluate enhancement of the electroluminescence efficiency of semiconductor emitters placed in the vicinity of isolated metal nanoparticles and their arrays...

  7. A systematic method for characterizing the time-range performance of ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, A D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is linked to the ability to measure the signal time-of-flight in order to provide an accurate radar-to-target range estimate. Having knowledge of the actual time range and timing nonlinearities of a trace is therefore important when seeking to make quantitative range estimates. However, very few practical methods have been formally reported in the literature to characterize GPR time-range performance. This paper describes a method to accurately measure the true time range of a GPR to provide a quantitative assessment of the timing system performance and detect and quantify the effects of timing nonlinearity due to timing jitter. The effect of varying the number of samples per trace on the true time range has also been investigated and recommendations on how to minimize the effects of timing errors are described. The approach has been practically applied to characterize the timing performance of two commercial GPR systems. The importance of the method is that it provides the GPR community with a practical method to readily characterize the underlying accuracy of GPR systems. This in turn leads to enhanced target depth estimation as well as facilitating the accuracy of more sophisticated GPR signal processing methods. (paper)

  8. Radiographic enhancement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic image enhancement and analysis techniques are discussed as they apply to nondestructive inspection. A system is described which has been developed to enhance and quantitatively evaluate radiographic images using digital computer techniques. Some examples of typical applications are also presented as an introduction to this new inspection technique. (author)

  9. Phytolith studies applied to geomorphologic analysis in the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These factors accounts as well for the larger diameter of the gravels in P1, giving evidences of a more effective action of mechanical weathering near the outcrop. The stock of phytoliths of P1 follows a normal trend of decrease with depth, while P2 presents a very large increase in the organic horizon. In the surface horizons, the indexes D/P are characteristic of open vegetation, but in P1 the current tree cover density is slightly higher than in P2, probably because, being closer to the outcrop, it is located in a place that concentrates more humidity, or because phytoliths comes from the more wooded vegetation of the hillside. D/P index decreases with depth, except for a significant increase in the detritic pavement, suggesting a more humid environment. In the deeper horizons the values are lower than today, but the weathering of phytoliths at this depth is so great that the phytolith signal is weak, remaining only phytoliths that are more resistant to dissolution. In this case, the reconstitution of vegetation by the phytoliths is not reliable, and we can only infer that the erosive processes during this period were very noticeable, indicating a high-energy environment.

  10. Applying the Training Range Environmental Evaluation and Characterization System (TREECS) (User Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    calculation of the erosion rate is based on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Universal Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ). ERDC/EL TR-12-16 147...to specifying the USLE input parameters, the user must select which method to use for computing the soil loss type (i.e., “SDR,” or “Without SDR...34  Soil Model

  11. Object oriented business process modelling in RFID applied computing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Liu, Chengfei; Lin, T.; Ranasinghe, D.C.; Sheng, Q.Z.

    2010-01-01

    As a tracking technology, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is now widely applied to enhance the context awareness of enterprise information systems. Such awareness provides great opportunities to facilitate business process automation and thereby improve operation efficiency and accuracy. With

  12. Apply Lean Thinking in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Ngoc, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the effects of Lean Thinking in Project Management and how applying Lean Project Management could enhance the productivity of project work. The study was carried using theoretical research and collecting empirical data from three interviews and one case study at a local company. At the end of the study, the major project management problems at the company were identified and analyzed following Lean Principles. It was also pointed out where there...

  13. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  14. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  15. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  16. An off-on Fluorescent Sensor for Detecting a Wide Range of Water Content in Organic Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kanghyeon; Lee, Wanjin; Kim, Jae Nyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This paper describes the synthesis and water sensing properties of a fluorescent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) sensor (5) with an extended operating sensing range. The 1,8-naphthalimide derivative (5) attached with a piperazine group and a carboxylic group was synthesized and applied as a fluorescent water sensor in water-miscible organic solvents. The fluorescence intensity of the dye 5 increased with increasing water content up to 80% (v/v) and the fluorescence intensities were enhanced 45-, 67- and 122-fold in aqueous EtOH, DMF and DMSO solutions, respectively. In aqueous acetone solution, the enhancement of the fluorescence intensities was somewhat lower (30-fold) but the response range was wider (0-90%, v/v)

  17. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  18. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  19. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  1. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  2. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  3. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  4. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  5. Rethinking enhancement in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.

  6. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  7. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  8. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  9. Special issue - Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    T'he CERN Courier is the international journal of high energy physics, covering current developments in and around this branch of basic science. A recurrent theme is applying the technology developed for particle accelerators, the machines which produce beams of high energy particles for physics experiments. Twentieth-century science is full of similar examples of applications derived from pure research. This special issue of the CERN Courier is given over to one theme - the applications of accelerators. Accelerator systems and facilities are normally associated with highenergy particle physics research, the search for fundamental particles and the quest to understand the physics of the Big Bang. To the layman, accelerator technology has become synonymous with large and expensive machines, exploiting the most modern technology for basic research. In reality, the range of accelerators and their applications is much broader. A vast number of accelerators, usually much smaller and operating for specific applications, create wealth and directly benefit the population, particularly in the important areas of healthcare, energy and the environment. There are well established applications in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine for research and routine clinical treatments. Accelerators and associated technologies are widely employed by industry for manufacturing and process control. In fundamental and applied research, accelerator systems are frequently used as tools. The biennial conference on the Applications of Accelerators in Industry and Research at Denton, Texas, attracts a thousand participants. This special issue of the CERN Courier includes articles on major applications, reflecting the diversity and value of accelerator technology. Under Guest Editor Dewi Lewis of Amersham International, contributions from leading international specialists with experience of the application end of the accelerator chain describe their fields of direct interest. The

  10. Special issue - Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-07-15

    T'he CERN Courier is the international journal of high energy physics, covering current developments in and around this branch of basic science. A recurrent theme is applying the technology developed for particle accelerators, the machines which produce beams of high energy particles for physics experiments. Twentieth-century science is full of similar examples of applications derived from pure research. This special issue of the CERN Courier is given over to one theme - the applications of accelerators. Accelerator systems and facilities are normally associated with highenergy particle physics research, the search for fundamental particles and the quest to understand the physics of the Big Bang. To the layman, accelerator technology has become synonymous with large and expensive machines, exploiting the most modern technology for basic research. In reality, the range of accelerators and their applications is much broader. A vast number of accelerators, usually much smaller and operating for specific applications, create wealth and directly benefit the population, particularly in the important areas of healthcare, energy and the environment. There are well established applications in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine for research and routine clinical treatments. Accelerators and associated technologies are widely employed by industry for manufacturing and process control. In fundamental and applied research, accelerator systems are frequently used as tools. The biennial conference on the Applications of Accelerators in Industry and Research at Denton, Texas, attracts a thousand participants. This special issue of the CERN Courier includes articles on major applications, reflecting the diversity and value of accelerator technology. Under Guest Editor Dewi Lewis of Amersham International, contributions from leading international specialists with experience of the application end of the accelerator chain describe their fields of direct interest. The contributions

  11. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  12. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  13. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  14. 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2015, the 2nd Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Krabi, Thailand in December 2015. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  15. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  16. Image interpolation used in three-dimensional range data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoze; Zhang, Jianqi; Huang, Xi; Liu, Delian

    2016-05-20

    Advances in the field of three-dimensional (3D) scanning have made the acquisition of 3D range data easier and easier. However, with the large size of 3D range data comes the challenge of storing and transmitting it. To address this challenge, this paper presents a framework to further compress 3D range data using image interpolation. We first use a virtual fringe-projection system to store 3D range data as images, and then apply the interpolation algorithm to the images to reduce their resolution to further reduce the data size. When the 3D range data are needed, the low-resolution image is scaled up to its original resolution by applying the interpolation algorithm, and then the scaled-up image is decoded and the 3D range data are recovered according to the decoded result. Experimental results show that the proposed method could further reduce the data size while maintaining a low rate of error.

  17. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  18. Recent advances in applied research on DRO procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessel, Joshua; Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2016-12-01

    Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) has been applied to reduce problem behavior in various forms across different populations. We review DRO research from the last 5 years, with a focus on studies that enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DRO. We also discuss implications for practitioners and applied researchers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  20. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  1. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  2. Long-range tactile masking occurs in the postural body schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-01

    Long-range tactile masking has been reported between mirror symmetric body locations. This suggests a general principle of contralateral inhibition between corresponding points on each side of the body that may serve to enhance distinguishing touches on the two halves of the body. Do such effects occur before or after posture is added to the body schema? Here, we address this question by exploring the effect of arm position on long-range tactile masking. The influence of arm position was investigated using different positions of both the test and masking arms. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile-masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm or to a control site on the shoulder. No difference was found in sensitivity when test arm position was varied. Physical contact between the arms significantly increased the effectiveness of a masking stimulus applied to the other arm. Long-range masking between the arms was strongest when the arms were held parallel to each other and was abolished if the position of either the test arm or the masking arm was moved from this position. Modulation of the effectiveness of masking by the position of both the test and masking arms suggests that these effects occur after posture information is added to the body's representation in the brain.

  3. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  4. Applied computation and security systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Khalid; Choudhury, Sankhayan; Chaki, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the extended version of the works that have been presented and discussed in the First International Doctoral Symposium on Applied Computation and Security Systems (ACSS 2014) held during April 18-20, 2014 in Kolkata, India. The symposium has been jointly organized by the AGH University of Science & Technology, Cracow, Poland and University of Calcutta, India. The Volume I of this double-volume book contains fourteen high quality book chapters in three different parts. Part 1 is on Pattern Recognition and it presents four chapters. Part 2 is on Imaging and Healthcare Applications contains four more book chapters. The Part 3 of this volume is on Wireless Sensor Networking and it includes as many as six chapters. Volume II of the book has three Parts presenting a total of eleven chapters in it. Part 4 consists of five excellent chapters on Software Engineering ranging from cloud service design to transactional memory. Part 5 in Volume II is on Cryptography with two book...

  5. Flow Range of Centrifugal Compressor Being Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    General Aviation will benefit from turbine engines that are both fuel-efficient and reliable. Current engines fall short of their potential to achieve these attributes. The reason is compressor surge, which is a flow stability problem that develops when the compressor is subjected to conditions that are outside of its operating range. Compressor surge can occur when fuel flow to the engine is increased, temporarily back pressuring the compressor and pushing it past its stability limit, or when the compressor is subjected to inlet flow-field distortions that may occur during takeoff and landing. Compressor surge can result in the loss of an aircraft. As a result, engine designers include a margin of safety between the operating line of the engine and the stability limit line of the compressor. Unfortunately, the most efficient operating line for the compressor is usually closer to its stability limit line than it is to the line that provides an adequate margin of safety. A wider stable flow range will permit operation along the most efficient operating line of the compressor, improving the specific fuel consumption of the engine and reducing emissions. The NASA Glenn Research Center is working to extend the stable flow range of the compressor. Significant extension has been achieved in axial compressors by injecting air upstream of the compressor blade rows. Recently, the technique was successfully applied to a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor by injecting streams of air into the diffuser. Both steady and controlled unsteady injection were used to inject air through the diffuser shroud surface and extend the range. Future work will evaluate the effect of air injection through the diffuser hub surface and diffuser vanes with the goal of maximizing the range extension while minimizing the amount of injected air that is required.

  6. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials fabrications, applications and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology-Enhanced Orthopedic Materials provides the latest information on the emergence and rapid development of nanotechnology and the ways it has impacted almost every aspect of biomedical engineering. This book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the field, focusing on the fabrication and applications of these materials, presenting updated, practical, and systematic knowledge on the synthesis, processing, and modification of nanomaterials, along with the rationale and methodology of applying such materials for orthopedic purposes. Topics covered include a wide range of orthopedic material formulations, such as ceramics, metals, polymers, biomolecules, and self-assemblies. Final sections explore applications and future trends in nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials. Details practical information on the fabrication and modification of new and traditional orthopedic materials Analyzes a wide range of materials, designs, and applications of nanotechnology for orthopedics Investigate...

  8. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center: a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuderer, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was exceptionally farsighted in establishing the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center in January 1972, not long after the Nevada Test Site research programs began. Since its inception, the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics has been proven to be a useful tool to a wide range of researchers and planners, both nationally and internationally, in addition to those associated with the NAEG. Because of its versatility and ease of access, the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics has played a major role in the development of new projects by the Ecological Sciences Information Center

  10. A First Course in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rebaza, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Explore real-world applications of selected mathematical theory, concepts, and methods Exploring related methods that can be utilized in various fields of practice from science and engineering to business, A First Course in Applied Mathematics details how applied mathematics involves predictions, interpretations, analysis, and mathematical modeling to solve real-world problems. Written at a level that is accessible to readers from a wide range of scientific and engineering fields, the book masterfully blends standard topics with modern areas of application and provides the needed foundation

  11. Enhanced photothermal lens using a photonic crystal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Longju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2128 Coover Hall, Iowa State University, Ames,Iowa 50011 (United States); Zhao, Xiangwei [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering,Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189 (China); Lu, Meng, E-mail: menglu@iastate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2128 Coover Hall, Iowa State University, Ames,Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    A photonic crystal (PC)-enhanced photothermal lens (PTL) is demonstrated for the detection of optically thin light absorption materials. The PC-enhanced PTL system is based on a pump-probe scheme consisting of a PC surface, pump laser beam, and probe laser beam. Heated by the pump beam, light absorption materials on the PC surface generate the PTL and cause a substantial change to the guided-mode resonance supported by the PC structure. The change of the PC resonance is detected using the probe laser beam by measuring its reflectivity from the PC surface. When applied to analyze dye molecules deposited on the PC substrate, the developed system is capable of enhancing the PTL signal by 10-fold and reducing the lowest distinguishable concentration by 8-fold, in comparison to measuring without utilizing the PC resonance. The PC-enhanced PTL was also used to detect gold nanoparticles on the PC surface and exhibited a 20-fold improvement of the lowest distinguishable concentration. The PC-enhanced PTL technology offers a potential tool to obtain the absorption signatures of thin films in a broad spectral range with high sensitivity and inexpensive instrumentation. As a result, this technology will enable a broad range of applications of photothermal spectroscopy in chemical analysis and biomolecule sensing.

  12. Implementing an Applied Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Doug; Presson, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The work implied in the NASA Applied Science Program requires a delicate balancing act for the those doing it. At the implementation level there are multiple tensions intrinsic to the program. For example each application of an existing product to a decision support process requires deep knowledge about the data and deep knowledge about the decision making process. It is highly probable no one person has this range of knowledge. Otherwise the decision making process would already be using the data. Therefore, a team is required. But building a team usually requires time, especially across agencies. Yet the program mandates efforts of relatively short duration. Further, those who know the data are scientists, which makes them essential to the program. But scientists are evaluated on their publication record. Anything which diverts a scientist from the research for his next publication is an anathema to him and potential death to their career. Trying to get another agency to use NASA data does not strike most scientists as material inherently suitable for publication. Also, NASA wishes to rapidly implement often substantial changes to another agency's process. For many reasons, such as budget and program constraints, speed is important. But the owner of a decision making process is tightly constrained, usually by law, regulation, organization and custom. Changes when made are slow, cautious, even hesitant, and always done according a process specific to the situation. To manage this work MSFC must balance these and other tensions. Some things we have relatively little control over, such as budget. These we try to handle by structural techniques. For example by insisting all of our people work on multiple projects simultaneously we inherently have diversification of funding for all of our people. In many cases we explicitly use some elements of tension to be productive. For example the need for the scientists to constantly publish is motivation to keep tasks short and

  13. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  14. Plasmonic enhancement of electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaponenko, S. V.; Demir, H. V.

    2018-01-01

    Here plasmonic effect specifically on electroluminescence (EL) is studied in terms of radiative and nonradiative decay rates for a dipole near a metal spherical nanoparticle (NP). Contribution from scattering is taken into account and is shown to play a decisive role in EL enhancement owing to pronounced size-dependent radiative decay enhancement and weak size effect on non-radiative counterpart. Unlike photoluminescence where local incident field factor mainly determines the enhancement possibility and level, EL enhancement is only possible by means of quantum yield rise, EL enhancement being feasible only for an intrinsic quantum yield Q0 red-orange range only. Independently of positive effect on quantum yield, metal nanoparticles embedded in an electroluminescent device will improve its efficiency at high currents owing to enhanced overall recombination rate which will diminish manifestation of Auger processes. The latter are believed to be responsible for the known undesirable efficiency droop in semiconductor commercial quantum well based LEDs at higher current. For the same reason plasmonics can diminish quantum dot photodegradation from Auger process induced non-radiative recombination and photoionization thus opening a way to avoid negative Auger effects in emerging colloidal semiconductor LEDs.

  15. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  16. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  17. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  18. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  19. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  20. Enhance Video Film using Retnix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rasha; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Al-Saleh, Anwar H.; Mohamad, Haidar J.

    2018-05-01

    An enhancement technique used to improve the studied video quality. Algorithms like mean and standard deviation are used as a criterion within this paper, and it applied for each video clip that divided into 80 images. The studied filming environment has different light intensity (315, 566, and 644Lux). This different environment gives similar reality to the outdoor filming. The outputs of the suggested algorithm are compared with the results before applying it. This method is applied into two ways: first, it is applied for the full video clip to get the enhanced film; second, it is applied for every individual image to get the enhanced image then compiler them to get the enhanced film. This paper shows that the enhancement technique gives good quality video film depending on a statistical method, and it is recommended to use it in different application.

  1. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  2. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  3. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  4. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  5. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  6. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  7. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  8. Topics in theoretical and applied statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the latest research findings from the 46th International Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society (SIS) in Rome, during which both methodological and applied statistical research was discussed. This selection of fully peer-reviewed papers, originally presented at the meeting, addresses a broad range of topics, including the theory of statistical inference; data mining and multivariate statistical analysis; survey methodologies; analysis of social, demographic and health data; and economic statistics and econometrics.

  9. Philosophy of Research in Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Torabi

    2011-01-01

    The term  “ philosophy of research in applied linguistics” may be considered to cover a wide range of academically and philosophically important issues that have recently begun to capture the attention of scholars in research programs in their efforts, on the one hand, to reflect upon how they have traditionally approached their scientific practices and, on the other, to reconsider and redefine their research priorities in the light of new findings and revise their methodologies and designs i...

  10. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  11. 2015 ICSA/Graybill Applied Statistics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bushi; Hu, Xiaowen; Chen, Kun; Liu, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume represent a broad, applied swath of advanced contributions to the 2015 ICSA/Graybill Applied Statistics Symposium of the International Chinese Statistical Association, held at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. The contributions cover topics that range from statistical applications in business and finance to applications in clinical trials and biomarker analysis. Each papers was peer-reviewed by at least two referees and also by an editor. The conference was attended by over 400 participants from academia, industry, and government agencies around the world, including from North America, Asia, and Europe. Focuses on statistical applications from clinical trials, biomarker analysis, and personalized medicine to applications in finance and business analytics A unique selection of papers from broad and multi-disciplinary critical hot topics - from academic, government, and industry perspectives - to appeal to a wide variety of applied research interests All papers feature origina...

  12. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements and Record of Decision for the Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements, Final Environmental Impact Statement Dated November 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    de Altar in Mexico, managed by the Secretaria del Medio Ambiente , Recursos Naturales y Pesca (serving a similar function in Mexico to the USFWS......to result in an exceedance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Mitigation/Management Actions: None required. Biological Resources

  14. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  16. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  17. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  18. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  19. Wide range noble gas radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, H.S. III; Wyvill, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention contemplates providing a sample system for effluent from a nuclear process wherein the effluent in a first mode passes through a sample chamber whose noble gases are quantitatively detected. The sample of the first mode is continued until the detector count rate reaches a predetermined maximum. The detector establishes a control signal which is applied to terminate the first mode effluent flow to the chamber, evacuate the chamber to a predetermined value of vacuum and connect the effluent into the sample chamber with a predetermined mode of flow rate different from the rate of the first mode to establish a sample concentration in the chamber within the range of the detector. A subsequent predetermined minimum rate will generate a signal to reconnect the sample chamber to the first mode connection and thereby cycle the system back to its first mode of operation

  20. Short range order in liquid pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, M; Makov, G; Yahel, E; Greenberg, Y

    2013-01-01

    Liquid pnictides have anomalous physical properties and complex radial distribution functions. The quasi-crystalline model of liquid structure is applied to interpret the three-dimensional structure of liquid pnictides. It is shown that all the column V elements can be characterized by a short range order lattice symmetry similar to that of the underlying solid, the A7 structure, which originates from a Peierls distorted simple cubic lattice. The evolution of the liquid structure down the column as well as its temperature and pressure dependence is interpreted by means of the effect of thermodynamic parameters on the Peierls distortion. Surprisingly, it is found that the Peierls effect increases with temperature and the nearest neighbour distances exhibit negative thermal expansion. (paper)

  1. Finite-range-scaling analysis of metastability in an Ising model with long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, B.M.; Rikvold, P.A.; Novotny, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    We apply both a scalar field theory and a recently developed transfer-matrix method to study the stationary properties of metastability in a two-state model with weak, long-range interactions: the Nx∞ quasi-one-dimensional Ising model. Using the field theory, we find the analytic continuation f of the free energy across the first-order transition, assuming that the system escapes the metastable state by the nucleation of noninteracting droplets. We find that corrections to the field dependence are substantial, and, by solving the Euler-Lagrange equation for the model numerically, we have verified the form of the free-energy cost of nucleation, including the first correction. In the transfer-matrix method, we associate with the subdominant eigenvectors of the transfer matrix a complex-valued ''constrained'' free-energy density f α computed directly from the matrix. For the eigenvector with an associated magnetization most strongly opposed to the applied magnetic field, f α exhibits finite-range scaling behavior in agreement with f over a wide range of temperatures and fields, extending nearly to the classical spinodal. Some implications of these results for numerical studies of metastability are discussed

  2. Use of agent-based modelling in emergency management under a range of flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagg Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Life Safety Model (LSM was developed some 15 years ago, originally for dam break assessments and for informing reservoir evacuation and emergency plans. Alongside other technological developments, the model has evolved into a very useful agent-based tool, with many applications for a range of hazards and receptor behaviour. HR Wallingford became involved in its use in 2006, and is now responsible for its technical development and commercialisation. Over the past 10 years the model has been applied to a range of flood hazards, including coastal surge, river flood, dam failure and tsunami, and has been verified against historical events. Commercial software licences are being used in Canada, Italy, Malaysia and Australia. A core group of LSM users and analysts has been specifying and delivering a programme of model enhancements. These include improvements to traffic behaviour at intersections, new algorithms for sheltering in high-rise buildings, and the addition of monitoring points to allow detailed analysis of vehicle and pedestrian movement. Following user feedback, the ability of LSM to handle large model ‘worlds’ and hydrodynamic meshes has been improved. Recent developments include new documentation, performance enhancements, better logging of run-time events and bug fixes. This paper describes some of the recent developments and summarises some of the case study applications, including dam failure analysis in Japan and mass evacuation simulation in England.

  3. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Barry M. Goldwater Range East Range Enhancements (Including First and Second Record of Decision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    pronghorn are present, the mission would be rescheduled or cancelled. This system is currently in place at North TAC and South TAC and Sonoran...cancelled or rescheduled . In addition to standard monitoring, remote control cameras will be used to ensure no pronghorn are present on or near the track...N N Mobile home parks Y N N N N N Transient lodgings Y N(1) N(1) N(1) N N Public Use Schools Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing

  5. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement

  6. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S., E-mail: kssim@mmu.edu.my; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  7. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  8. The roles of electric field shear and Shafranov shift in sustaining high confinement in enhanced reversed shear plasmas on the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Beer, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    The relaxation of core transport barriers in TFTR Enhanced Reversed Shear plasmas has been studied by varying the radial electric field using different applied torques from neutral beam injection. Transport rates and fluctuations remain low over a wide range of radial electric field shear, but increase when the local E x B shearing rates are driven below a threshold comparable to the fastest linear growth rates of the dominant instabilities. Shafranov-shift-induced stabilization alone is not able to sustain enhanced confinement

  9. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  10. Study on the enhancement of solar disalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, O.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a single slope solar still using different operational parameters was studied experimentally. The increase in still productivity ranged from 22% to 51% when enhancers such as asphalt liner and sprinkler have been applied to the still. Also the ambient conditions were found to have direct effect on the productivity of the still. Increases are higher at night than in the day. due to the differences in temperature between the cover and water. The study also showed that the daily production of still can be increased by reducing the depth of the water in the basin. Distilled water can be used for drinking (some treatment required), and for industrial proposes (water jackets, batteries, chemical solutions).(Author)

  11. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  12. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  13. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  14. The Rise of Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpponneau, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of the use of the science of geography for practical purposes. Topics discussed include British schools of geography during the 19th century, contributions of many of the founders of applied geography, forms in which geographical work can be used for practical purposes, and the status of applied geography in various…

  15. Global patterns of protection of elevational gradients in mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Monahan, William B; Merenlender, Adina M

    2018-05-21

    Protected areas (PAs) that span elevational gradients enhance protection for taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. We quantified the global protection of elevational gradients by analyzing the elevational distributions of 44,155 PAs in 1,010 mountain ranges using the highest resolution digital elevation models available. We show that, on average, mountain ranges in Africa and Asia have the lowest elevational protection, ranges in Europe and South America have intermediate elevational protection, and ranges in North America and Oceania have the highest elevational protection. We use the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 to assess the proportion of elevational gradients meeting the 17% suggested minimum target and examine how different protection categories contribute to elevational protection. When considering only strict PAs [International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories I-IV, n = 24,706], nearly 40% of ranges do not contain any PAs, roughly half fail to meet the 17% target at any elevation, and ∼75% fail to meet the target throughout ≥50% of the elevational gradient. Observed elevational protection is well below optimal, and frequently below a null model of elevational protection. Including less stringent PAs (IUCN categories V-VI and nondesignated PAs, n = 19,449) significantly enhances elevational protection for most continents, but several highly biodiverse ranges require new or expanded PAs to increase elevational protection. Ensuring conservation outcomes for PAs with lower IUCN designations as well as strategically placing PAs to better represent and connect elevational gradients will enhance ecological representation and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  17. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  18. Applied probability and stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Sumita, Ushio

    1999-01-01

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes is an edited work written in honor of Julien Keilson. This volume has attracted a host of scholars in applied probability, who have made major contributions to the field, and have written survey and state-of-the-art papers on a variety of applied probability topics, including, but not limited to: perturbation method, time reversible Markov chains, Poisson processes, Brownian techniques, Bayesian probability, optimal quality control, Markov decision processes, random matrices, queueing theory and a variety of applications of stochastic processes. The book has a mixture of theoretical, algorithmic, and application chapters providing examples of the cutting-edge work that Professor Keilson has done or influenced over the course of his highly-productive and energetic career in applied probability and stochastic processes. The book will be of interest to academic researchers, students, and industrial practitioners who seek to use the mathematics of applied probability i...

  19. How synapses can enhance sensibility of a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protachevicz, P. R.; Borges, F. S.; Iarosz, K. C.; Caldas, I. L.; Baptista, M. S.; Viana, R. L.; Lameu, E. L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Batista, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the dynamic range in a neural network modelled by cellular automaton. We consider deterministic and non-deterministic rules to simulate electrical and chemical synapses. Chemical synapses have an intrinsic time-delay and are susceptible to parameter variations guided by learning Hebbian rules of behaviour. The learning rules are related to neuroplasticity that describes change to the neural connections in the brain. Our results show that chemical synapses can abruptly enhance sensibility of the neural network, a manifestation that can become even more predominant if learning rules of evolution are applied to the chemical synapses.

  20. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices.