WorldWideScience

Sample records for range electrical pressure

  1. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  2. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  3. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  4. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Seiho Kim; Jaesik Lee; Chulung Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models availabl...

  5. Ozone formation in pulsed SDBD in a wide pressure range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Nudnova, Maryia; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    Ozone concentration in surface anode-directed DBD for wide pressure range (150 - 1300 torr) was experimentally measured. Voltage and pressure effect were investigated. Reduced electric field was measured for anode-directed and cathode-directed SDBD. E/n values in cathode-directed SDBD is higher than in cathode-directed on 50 percent at atmospheric pressure. E/n value increase leads to decrease the rate of oxygen dissociation and Ozone formation at lower pressures. Radiating region thickness of sliding discharge was measured. Typical thickness of radiating zone is 0.4-1.0 mm within pressure range 220-740 torr. It was shown that high-voltage pulsed nanosecond discharge due to high E/n value produces less Ozone with compare to other discharges. Kinetic model was proposed to describe Ozone formation in the pulsed nanosecond SDBD.

  6. Electric gun: a new tool for ultrahigh-pressure research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, R.C.; Chau, H.H.; Goosman, D.R.; Hofer, W.W.; Honodel, C.A.; Lee, R.S.; Steinberg, D.J.; Stroud, J.R.

    1979-04-23

    We have developed a new tool for ultrahigh-pressure research at LLL. This system, which we call the electric gun, has already achieved thin flyer plate velocities in excess of 20 km/s and pressures of the order of 2 TPa in tantalum. We believe that the electric gun is competitive with laser- and nuclear-driven methods of producing shocks in the 1-to-5 TPa range because of its precision and ease and economy of operation. Its development is recommended for shock initiation studies, dry runs for Site 300 hydroshots, and as a shock wave generator for surface studies.

  7. High pressure electrical conductivity in naturally occurring silicate liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Waff, Harve S.

    Electrical conductivities of molten Hawaiian rhyodacite and Yellowstone rhyolite obsidian were measured between 1200° C and 1400° C and at pressures up to 25 kilobars. The two melts exhibit similar trends. Arrhenius behavior is observed at all pressures studied. Isobaric activation enthalpies increase from about 0.5 eV at atmospheric pressure to about 0.9 eV at 25 kbars, and the magnitude of the conductivity decreases by about a factor of 4 between 0 and 25 kbar. At pressures between about 10 and 15 kbar an abrupt decrease in the slopes of isothermal log a versus pressure plots is observed. In each pressure range an equation of the form σ = σ'0 exp [- (E'σ + PΔV'σ)/kT], where σ'0, E'σ, and ΔV'σ, are constants, describes the polybaric, polythermal data. Comparison of these data with high pressure electrical conductivities of molten basalt and andesite reveals that relatively silica-rich melts, from andesitic to rhyolitic in composition, display similar trends, while the basaltic melt has analogous, but quantitatively different trends. Comparison of zero-pressure electrical conductivity and sodium diffusivity by means of the Nernst-Einstein relation indicates that sodium ion transport is the dominant mechanism of charge transport in the obsidian melt at zero pressure. The tholeiitic melt, on the other hand, displays only order of magnitude agreement between the electrical conductivity and sodium diffusivity, indicating that either ions other than sodium play a significant role in electrical transport or that the motions of the sodium ions are strongly correlated, or both. Comparison of the isobaric and isochoric activation enthalpies indicates that electrical conduction is energy restrained, as opposed to volume restrained. Conductivities in the andesitic, rhyodacitic, and rhyolitic melts conform to a single compensation law line, with no indication of the change in activation volume. The tholeiitic melt has a slightly different compensation line. In light

  8. On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Rosca, B.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid and electric vehicles require accurate knowledge of the battery to make an educated guess about the expected electric driving range. Range prediction is complicated by the fact that batteries are subject to external influences and aging. Also the future driving behavior is often unknown. This

  9. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters can be operated over a wide range of specific impulse while maintaining high efficiency. However S/C power system constraints on electric propulsion...

  10. Flame stabilization in an electrical field at lowered pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaev, N.A.; Ksenofontov, S.I.; Tyameykin, V.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the effect of a longitudinal electric field on flame stabilization at low pressures. It is shown that in the absence of the effect of an ion wind at low pressures and the presence of an increase in the relative potential gradient, the collapse rates of a flame in an electrical field do not increase, which indicates that the electrical field has little influence on the kinetics of the chemical reactions.

  11. Electrical Pressure Transducers Based on Graphene Oxide Polysiloxane Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PELUSO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated graphite oxide embedded into a polysiloxane matrix can be simply obtained by sonochemical approach. These nanocomposites show an electrical conductivity depending on the applied stress and have most of crucial characteristics of an electrical pressure transducer (absence of electrical hysteresis, prompt resistivity variation, etc.. The highest sensitivity for these electrical devices is obtained with exfoliated graphene oxide concentration just a little inferior to the percolation threshold (that is, 5.5wt.% of graphene.

  12. Electrical Stimulation for Pressure Injuries: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Falk, Lindsey; Ali, Arshia; Holubowich, Corinne; Walter, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressure injuries (bedsores) are common and reduce quality of life. They are also costly and difficult to treat. This health technology assessment evaluates the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and lived experience of adding electrical stimulation to standard wound care for pressure injuries. Methods We conducted a systematic search for studies published to December 7, 2016, limited to randomized and non–randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of electrical stimulation plus standard wound care versus standard wound care alone for patients with pressure injuries. We assessed the quality of evidence through Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). In addition, we conducted an economic literature review and a budget impact analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness and affordability of electrical stimulation for treatment of pressure ulcers in Ontario. Given uncertainties in clinical evidence and resource use, we did not conduct a primary economic evaluation. Finally, we conducted qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers about their experiences with pressure injuries, currently available treatments, and (if applicable) electrical stimulation. Results Nine randomized controlled trials and two non–randomized controlled trials were found from the systematic search. There was no significant difference in complete pressure injury healing between adjunct electrical stimulation and standard wound care. There was a significant difference in wound surface area reduction favouring electrical stimulation compared with standard wound care. The only study on cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation was partially applicable to the patient population of interest. Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of electrical stimulation cannot be determined. We estimate that the cost of publicly funding electrical stimulation for pressure injuries would be $0.77 to $3.85 million yearly for the next 5

  13. Electrical resistivity of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Takaki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-05-15

    We have studied the superconducting properties of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressures by means of electrical resistivity measurements and determined the pressure-temperature phase diagrams for the superconducting transition. For both systems, the superconductivity exists in a wide pressure range, 1.5{<=}P{<=}6.5 GPa for CeRhIn{sub 5} and 0{<=}P{<=}5.2 GPa for CeIrIn{sub 5}.

  14. Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe single crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The changes in resistance observed by Bridgman anvils up to 8.5 GPa are well- reproduced with the DAC. The sample becomes more conducting as pressure increases and around 27 GPa the electrical resistance decreases by a factor of 5. We noticed slight slope change in resistance variation with pressure beyond 20 ...

  15. Range and Battery Depletion Concerns with Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomio Miwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the range of a battery electric vehicle (EV by using questionnaire data. The concern about battery depletion changes according to charging station deployment. Firstly, the methodology for deriving the probabilistic distribution of the daily travel distance is developed, which enables us to analyze people’s tolerance of the risk of battery depletion. Secondly, the desired range of an EV is modeled. This model considers the effect of changing charging station deployment and can analyze the variation in the desired range. Then, the intention of a household to purchase an EV is analyzed by incorporating range-related variables. The results show that people can live with a risk of battery depletion of around 2% to 5%. The deployment of charging stations at large retail facilities and/or workplace parking spaces reduces the desired range of an EV. Finally, the answers to the questionnaire show that the probability of battery depletion on a driving day has little effect on the intention to purchase an EV. Instead, people tend to evaluate the range by itself or directly compare it with their desired range.

  16. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2017-11-01

    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical stimulation to increase lower esophageal sphincter pressure after POEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Franco; Ditaranto, Andres; Bilder, Claudio; Badaloni, Adolfo; Lowenstein, Daniel; Riganti, Juan Martin; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Jobe, Blair; Nachman, Fabio; Nieponice, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative reflux remains to be a challenge for patients with achalasia undergoing Heller myotomy. Similarly, per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is gaining rapid acceptance but the impossibility of adding a fundoplication is questioned as the main pitfall to control reflux. Electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has emerged as a new alternative for the treatment of reflux disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of combining electrical stimulation with endoscopic esophageal myotomy to prevent post procedural reflux. Five pigs were subjected to POEM. After myotomy was completed, two electrical leads were implanted at the LES level and electrical stimulation was applied with the Endostim system with a regimen of 215 μs (5 mA amplitude), at 20 Hz for 25 min. LES pressures were recorded with manometry at pre and post-myotomy and after LES stimulation. Myotomy was completed successfully in all cases. Mean pre-myotomy LES pressure was 35.99 ± 8.08 mmHg. After myotomy, the LES pressure significantly dropped to 10.60 ± 3.24 mmHg (p = 0.03). Subsequent to LES-EST, LES pressure significantly increased to 21.74 ± 4.65 mmHg (p = 0.01). The findings of this study show that LES-EST in healthy animals increases LES pressure after POEM procedure, and could be useful tool to minimize gastroesophageal reflux.

  18. DC Electrical Ageing of XLPE under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Benlizidia Lalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental electrical ageing, of cross-linked polyethylene films 100 μm thick, was investigated under high hydrostatic pressure of 300 bar and at atmospheric pressure. The tests are conducted on direct current (dc for up to 1000 h ageing and at temperature of 70°C. The use of the Weibull statistic, with the estimation of confidence bounds at 90%, has shown that the hydrostatic pressure has a real effect on the lifetime. These lifetime data are qualitatively analyzed with the inverse power model. It was found that thermally activated process is able to describe the pressure effect on the electrical ageing of XLPE.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1770-99 All-Electric Range Test requirements. (a) ZEVs and Type A and Type B hybrid electric vehicles shall be subject to the All-Electric Range Test specified below for the purpose of determining the energy efficiency and operating range of a ZEV or of a hybrid electric vehicle...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically powered device used to...

  1. Pressure Dependence of the Electrical Resistivity in Polymer Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihui Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAN was prepared by using a technique of chemical synthesis to obtain the insulating emeraldine base form. And then PAN was doped with toluenesulfonic acid (TSA, HCl, or camphor sulfonic acid (CSA to protonate it into conducting salt form. The morphologies and electrical property of PAN under atmospheric pressure were investigated. Subsequently, the high pressure using a Bridgman anvil cell was applied on the doped PAN, and the effect of high pressure on the properties of doped PAN was analyzed. At normal pressure, the conductivity of PAN increases as the PH value increases. While at high pressures, the conductivity of PAN increases, and then it becomes independent of pressure. The results indicate that the conductivity of PAN is related to the presence of the polaron band, and the doped PAN under high pressure will be enhanced strongly in conductivity because of overlap of polaron band and π band. However, with the further increase of the applied pressure, scattering mechanisms of carriers limit the conductivity of PAN.

  2. Nanocomposite-Based Microstructured Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive pressure sensors capable of detecting ranges of low compressive stresses have been successfully fabricated and characterised. The 5.5 × 5 × 1.6 mm3 sensors consist of a planar aluminium top electrode and a microstructured bottom electrode containing a two-by-two array of truncated pyramids with a piezoresistive composite layer sandwiched in-between. The responses of two different piezocomposite materials, a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT-elastomer composite and a Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC, have been characterised as a function of applied pressure and effective contact area. The MWCNT piezoresistive composite-based sensor was able to detect pressures as low as 200 kPa. The QTC-based sensor was capable of detecting pressures as low as 50 kPa depending on the contact area of the bottom electrode. Such sensors could find useful applications requiring the detection of small compressive loads such as those encountered in haptic sensing or robotics.

  3. Electrical transport properties of manganite powders under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.G. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, UBA, and IFIBA (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A.G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acha, C., E-mail: acha@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, UBA, and IFIBA (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    We have measured the electrical resistance of micrometric to nanometric powders of the La{sub 5/8-y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (LPCMO with y=0.3) manganite for hydrostatic pressures up to 4 kbar. By applying different final thermal treatments to samples synthesized by a microwave assisted denitration process, we obtained two particular grain characteristic dimensions (40 nm and 1000 nm) which allowed us to analyze the grain size sensitivity of the electrical conduction properties of both the metal electrode interface with manganite (Pt/LPCMO) and the intrinsic intergranular interfaces formed by the LPCMO powder, conglomerate under the only effect of external pressure. We also analyzed the effects of pressure on the phase diagram of these powders. Our results indicate that different magnetic phases coexist at low temperatures and that the electrical transport properties are related to the intrinsic interfaces, as we observe evidences of a granular behavior and an electronic transport dominated by the Space Charge limited Current mechanism.

  4. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn-Jiang Hwang; Jia-Sheng Hu; Chih-Hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the ba...

  5. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Che-Yun; Wang, Alan X; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2011-01-01

    ...) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices...

  6. Electrical heater for very-low pressure helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V; Vuillierme, B

    1996-01-01

    Testing superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in superfluid helium requires large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8K. At CERN, this is provided by a combination of a cold compressor and a set of warm vacuum pumps capable of handling up to 18g/s at 1 kPa suction pressure. The cold helium vapour, after the cold compressor, is warmed up from about 5K to ambient temperature in a 32 kW electrical heater. The device is designed to operate reliably at flow rates varying from 1 to 18g/s, inlet pressure of 1 kPa to 3 kPa, with pressure drop 100 Pa. Design and construction of the heater, completely realised at CERN, are presented, as well as measured performance. Some technological problems are discussed.

  7. Magnetoresistance and electrical properties of multi-component copper chalcogenides at pressures up to 50 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nina; Tebenkov, Alexander; Babushkin, Alexey; Kurochka, Kirill; Phase Transitions Team; Transport Properties Team; Novel Materials Team

    2013-06-01

    Multi-component chalcogenides based on layered semiconductors A3B6 (such as InS, InSe, GaS, GaSe, etc) are new objects of study, they have interesting physical properties and undergo temperature and baric phase transitions. This paper presents the results of a study of the electrical properties and magnetoresistance of CuInS2, CuInSe2, CuInAsS3, CuInAsSe3, CuInSbS3 at pressures up to 50 GPa. High pressures have been generated in the cell with synthetic carbonado-type diamond anvils that can be used as electric contacts. Electric properties at high pressure have been investigated on dc current and by means of impedance spectroscopy. Magnetoresistance has been measured in transverse magnetic field. The pressure ranges of noticeable changes in a behavior of magnetoresistance, of impedance and admittance, tangent of loss angle, relaxation time upon a pressure increase and a pressure decrease are established. This behavior of physical parameters can be due to structural transitions and due to a change of electron structure. This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 13-02-00633.

  8. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-01

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ~3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  9. Measured electric field intensities near electric cloud discharges detected by the Kennedy Space Center's Lightning Detection and Ranging System, LDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    For a summer thunderstorm, for which simultaneous, airborne electric field measurements and Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System data was available, measurements were coordinated to present a picture of the electric field intensity near cloud electrical discharges detected by the LDAR System. Radar precipitation echos from NOAA's 10 cm weather radar and measured airborne electric field intensities were superimposed on LDAR PPI plots to present a coordinated data picture of thunderstorm activity.

  10. Wide range pressure sensor based on a piezoelectric bimorph microcantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortet, V.; Petersen, R.; Haenen, K.; D'Olieslaeger, M.

    2006-03-01

    Since the development of the atomic force microscope, interest in microfabricated cantilevers has grown. Cantilevers are excellent micromechanical sensors. In this work, we use a commercially available piezoelectric bimorph cantilever as pressure and temperature sensor. The piezoelectric layer acts as both sensor and actuator. The sensor detects the change in the resonance frequencies due to the drag force of the surrounding gas. The frequency shift of the resonant modes is measured as a function of the pressure and the temperature. The results show that both pressure and temperature can be measured simultaneously using the piezoelectric bimorph cantilever's resonant frequencies.

  11. Design, Manufacture and Testing of Capacitive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, manufacture and testing of a capacitive pressure sensor with a high, tunable performance to low compressive loads (<10 kPa and a resolution of less than 0.5 kPa. Such a performance is required for the monitoring of treatment efficacy delivered by compression garments to treat or prevent medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, leg ulcers, varicose veins or hypertrophic scars. Current commercial sensors used in such medical applications have been found to be either impractical, costly or of insufficient resolution. A microstructured elastomer film of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS blend with a tunable Young’s modulus was used as the force-sensing dielectric medium. The resulting 18 mm × 18 mm parallel-plate capacitive pressure sensor was characterised in the range of 0.8 to 6.5 kPa. The microstructuring of the surface morphology of the elastomer film combined with the tuning of the Young’s modulus of the PDMS blend is demonstrated to enhance the sensor performance achieving a 0.25 kPa pressure resolution and a 10 pF capacitive change under 6.5 kPa compressive load. The resulting sensor holds good potential for the targeted medical application.

  12. FBG pressure sensor of high pressure electric oil pumps for prestressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenwu; Liu, Guangwei; Meng, Qingbin; Ge, Fuwei; Li, Weixiang

    2013-03-01

    Prestressed concrete structure is getting more and more extensive application in architecture, hydraulic engineering and traffic engineering because of its significant advantages of crack later or not cracks completely. It is an internal stress concrete structure that a certain force relies on prestressing tendons. The effectivity of the prestressing tendon in concrete structure is directly related to the reliability, applicability and viability of the whole concrete structure. So it is a key program to apply accurate prestress to the prestressing tendon. According to the pressure sensing principle of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG), a circular plate diaphragm-based FBG sensor for high pressure electric oil pumps that is the pressure source device of the prestressed concrete structure was presented. To overcome the cross sensitivity of temperature and pressure, two FBGs were integrated in the sensor, one of the FBGs isolated from the pressure is used as temperature compensation grating, it is called temperature-FBG comparing to another FBG called pressure-FBG. The elastic diaphragm was chosen as the pressure sensing element whose distortion displace is proportional to the difference of the two sides' pressure of the diaphragm. A certain stress is applied to the pressure-FBG which is stuck to the center of the diaphragm, and then the reflection wavelength of the pressure-FBG is inverse proportional to load of the diaphragm. The results indicated that the linearity is up to 99.99%, and the pressure sensitivity coefficient is 0.024nm/MPa within the measurement scope of 0-70MPa.

  13. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: I. Review of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcers (PUs are common and debilitating wounds that arise when immobilized patients cannot shift their weight. Treatment is expensive and recurrence rates are high. Pathophysiological mechanisms include reduced bulk and perfusion of chronically atrophic muscles as well as prolonged occlusion of blood flow to soft tissues from lack of voluntary postural shifting of body weight. This has suggested that PUs might be prevented by reanimating the paralyzed muscles using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. A review of the published literature over the past 2 decades is detailed.

  14. Pressure dependence of the electrical transport in granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyssels, M; Laroche, C; Falcon, E; Castaing, B

    2017-05-01

    We report on systematic measurements of the electrical resistance of one- and three-dimensional (1D and 3D) metallic and oxidized granular materials under uni-axial compression. Whatever the dimension of the packing, the resistance follows a power law versus the pressure ([Formula: see text]), with an exponent [Formula: see text] much larger than the ones expected either with elastic or plastic contact between the grains. A simple model based on a statistical description of the micro-contacts between two grains is proposed. It shows that the strong dependence of the resistance on the pressure applied to the granular media is a consequence of large variabilities and heterogeneities present at the contact surface between two grains. Then, the effect of the three-dimensional structure of the packing is investigated using a renormalization process. This allows to reconcile two extreme approaches of a 3D lattice of widely distributed resistances: the effective medium and the percolation theories.

  15. Wide range pressure sensor based on a piezoelectric bimorph microcantilever

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; PETERSEN, Rainer; HAENEN, Ken; D'OLIESLAEGER, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Since the development of the atomic force microscope, interest in microfabricated cantilevers has grown. Cantilevers are excellent micromechanical sensors. In this work, we use a commercially available piezoelectric bimorph cantilever as pressure and temperature sensor. The piezoelectric layer acts as both sensor and actuator. The sensor detects the change in the resonance frequencies due to the drag force of the surrounding gas. The frequency shift of the resonant modes is measured as a func...

  16. The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

  17. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A power supply concept capable of operation over 25:1 and 64:1 impedance ranges at full power has been successfully demonstrated in our Phase I effort at...

  18. Calibration of the modified Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for use with pressurized pharmaceutical aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotian, Reshma; Peart, Joanne; Bryner, Joan; Byron, Peter R

    2009-03-01

    The modified Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is currently being used in several laboratories to determine inherent electrostatic charge of pharmaceutical aerosols as a function of their particle size. However, the ELPI appears to underestimate the aerodynamic particle size distributions (aPSDs) of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), casting doubt upon the manufacturer's calibration. In the present study, four commercially available pMDIs with a range of aPSDs were used to recalibrate cutoff diameters (d50s) of the ELPI stages using a reference ACI. Particle size analyses were performed in a mensurated ACI and a calibrated modified ELPI (n = 5); stage coating was employed in both instruments. The ACI data were fitted to a lognormal cumulative distribution function by nonlinear regression analysis. Best estimates for mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) for each pMDI were obtained and used in combination with impaction results from the modified ELPI to determine new d50s for each of the ELPI stages by numerical methods. Ventolin HFA was employed to validate the new ELPI d50 values. The curve-fitting procedure produced excellent fits of the ACI data for all the calibration pMDIs, which were well modeled as mono-modal and lognormally distributed. The mean d50s obtained following recalibration of the modified ELPI were found to deviate increasingly from the manufacturer-supplied values as aerodynamic diameter decreased. Ventolin HFA's MMAD determined using the modified ELPI with the manufacturer-supplied d50s was 2.06 +/- 0.08 microm. The MMAD calculated using the recalibrated d50s was 2.63 +/- 0.09 microm, which was statistically indistinguishable (p = 0.0852) from that determined for Ventolin HFA using the ACI (2.73 +/- 0.09 microm). In the absence of a comprehensive recalibration of the ELPI using monodisperse aerosols, the mean d50s for stages 4-12 of ELPI reported offer a practical way of analyzing the a

  19. Structure and electrical resistivity of mixed-valent EuNi2P2 at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, S. A.; Naumov, P.; Barkalov, O.; Shekhar, C.; Palasyuk, T.; Ksenofontov, V.; Wortmann, G.; Felser, C.

    2014-08-01

    The structural properties and electrical resistivity of homogeneous mixed-valent EuNi2P2 are studied at pressures up to 45 GPa. No structural phase transition is observed in the whole pressure range and the overall pressure behavior of the structural parameters is similar to that of related compounds in the collapsed tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure. Electrical resistivity measured up to 31 GPa at temperatures between 4 and 300 K exhibits continuous changes from the behavior typical for a mixed-valent Eu system to that of a normal metallic system at pressures above 20 GPa, indicating a transition of the strongly mixed-valent Eu atoms with a valence ~2.5 towards a pure trivalent state. No superconductivity was observed in the whole studied pressure-temperature range.

  20. A systematic review of electric-acoustic stimulation: device fitting ranges, outcomes, and clinical fitting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Paola V; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cowan, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Cochlear implant systems that combine electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear are now commercially available and the number of patients using these devices is steadily increasing. In particular, electric-acoustic stimulation is an option for patients with severe, high frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. There have been a range of approaches to combining electric stimulation and acoustic hearing in the same ear. To develop a better understanding of fitting practices for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation, we conducted a systematic review addressing three clinical questions: what is the range of acoustic hearing in the implanted ear that can be effectively preserved for an electric-acoustic fitting?; what benefits are provided by combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation?; and what clinical fitting practices have been developed for devices that combine electric and acoustic stimulation? A search of the literature was conducted and 27 articles that met the strict evaluation criteria adopted for the review were identified for detailed analysis. The range of auditory thresholds in the implanted ear that can be successfully used for an electric-acoustic application is quite broad. The effectiveness of combined electric and acoustic stimulation as compared with electric stimulation alone was consistently demonstrated, highlighting the potential value of preservation and utilization of low frequency hearing in the implanted ear. However, clinical procedures for best fitting of electric-acoustic devices were varied. This clearly identified a need for further investigation of fitting procedures aimed at maximizing outcomes for recipients of electric-acoustic devices.

  1. The electrical resistivity of solid and liquid Fe at pressures up to 7 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R. A.; Schloessin, H. H.

    1989-05-01

    The electrical resistivity of pure solid and liquid Fe has been measured at pressures up to 7 GPa in a large volume cubic anvil press. In conjunction with the four-wired method, a novel technique of potential lead attachment was employed to measure the resistivity of 0.020-in-diameter Fe wire samples. Both the temperature and pressure coefficients of resistivity have been determined for solid and liquid Fe. The temperature coefficients of resistivity (TCR) in the liquid state are of the order of 10-4 K-1 and show an abrupt increase at approximately 5.2 GPa corresponding to the δ-γ-liquid triple point. We have interpreted this discontinuity in the TCR to be a reflection of local atomic structure in the liquid state which is reminiscent of the parent solid structure. By analogy, this result can be applied to the geophysically more important γ-ɛ-liquid triple point. By examining the fundamental effects of pressure and temperature on the density of states function and their ranges we arrive at an estimate of 1.2-1.5 × 10-6 Ωm for the electrical resistivity of pure Fe at the pressures and temperatures expected in the Earth's core.

  2. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:26236771

  3. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jiang Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery’s state of charge (SOC. This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system’s SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  4. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  5. A Systematic Review of Electric-Acoustic Stimulation: Device Fitting Ranges, Outcomes, and Clinical Fitting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Incerti, Paola V.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cowan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear implant systems that combine electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear are now commercially available and the number of patients using these devices is steadily increasing. In particular, electric-acoustic stimulation is an option for patients with severe, high frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. There have been a range of approaches to combining electric stimulation and acoustic hearing in the same ear. To develop a better understanding of fitting practices for devic...

  6. High Pressure Study of Electrical Resistivity of CeB6 to 136 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzani, Neda; Lim, Jinhyuk; Schilling, James; Fabbris, Gilberto; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1960's the dense Kondo compound cerium hexaboride (CeB6) has attracted a great deal of interest. To investigate whether this material might evolve into a topological insulator under sufficient pressure, we have carried out four-point electrical resistivity measurements on CeB6 over the temperature range 1.3 K to 295 K in a diamond anvil cell to 136 GPa. Although a transition into an insulating phase is not observed, the evolution of the initial dense Kondo state under such extreme pressures is of considerable interest. As reported in earlier studies to 13 GPa, the temperature of the resistivity maximum near 3 K initially increases with pressure. We observe that between 33 and 53 GPa the resistivity maximum disappears and by 83 GPa CeB6 appears to have settled into a Fermi liquid state. The marked changes observed under pressure suggest that a change in valence and/or a structural transition may have occurred. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements are being carried out to investigate possible changes in crystal structure under extreme pressures. Work at Washington Univ. supported by NSF DMR-1104742 and Carnegie/DOE/NNSA DE-FC52-08NA28554.

  7. Hollow needle-to-plate electrical discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, S.; Kríha, V.; Simek, M.; Bálek, R.; Hanitz, F.

    1999-08-01

    Ecological applications dealing with the cleaning of flue gases, the decomposition of volatile hydrocarbons and the destruction of toxic pollutants require, in order to reach high efficiency, the use of non-thermal plasma sources. Typical sources of such non-equilibrium plasmas are barrier discharge, direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) gliding arc, pulsed or DC corona and DC atmospheric pressure discharge stabilized by a fast gas flow (APD-GFS). In case of APD-GFS the gas flows in a rectangular channel, the top wall of which serves as the anode and the multi-needle cathode is built into the bottom wall of the channel. In order to prevent the transition to a spark and to stabilize this type of discharge the velocity of the gas should be about 100-200 m s-1 or the discharge current must be limited. To avoid the problem connected with the acceleration of the primary (polluted) gas at such a velocity, the external flow of the primary gas around the needle electrodes can be superimposed by a flow of a secondary gas through the needles. Thus the primary gas need not be accelerated to high velocity and in order to stabilize the discharge a relatively small amount of a secondary gas supplied through the needle is required. This work is therefore focused on the study of the DC APD-GFS in hollow needle-to-plane geometry. The basic electrical characteristics, magnetic noise and integral emission spectra of this type discharge with the flow of nitrogen or air through the needle are given.

  8. Gas ion laser construction for electrically isolating the pressure gauge thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. E.; Witte, R. S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The valve and the pressure gauge of a gas ion laser were electrically insulated from the laser discharge path by connecting them in series with the cathode of the laser. The laser cathode can be grounded and preferably is a cold cathode although a hot cathode may be used instead. The cold cathode was provided with a central aperture to which was connected both the pressure gauge and the gas pressure reservoir through the valve. This will effectively prevent electric discharges from passing either to the pressure gauge or the valve which would otherwise destroy the pressure gauge.

  9. Mapping Regional Differences of Local Pressure-Volume Curves With Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Carvalho, Alysson R; Carvalho, Nadja C; Hammermüller, Sören; Amato, Marcelo B P; Muders, Thomas; Gittel, Claudia; Noreikat, Katharina; Wrigge, Hermann; Reske, Andreas W

    2017-04-01

    Lung-protective mechanical ventilation aims to prevent alveolar collapse and overdistension, but reliable bedside methods to quantify them are lacking. We propose a quantitative descriptor of the shape of local pressure-volume curves derived from electrical impedance tomography, for computing maps that highlight the presence and location of regions of presumed tidal recruitment (i.e., elastance decrease during inflation, pressure-volume curve with upward curvature) or overdistension (i.e., elastance increase during inflation, downward curvature). Secondary analysis of experimental cohort study. University research facility. Twelve mechanically ventilated pigs. After induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome by hydrochloric acid instillation, animals underwent a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure titration (steps of 2 cm H2O starting from ≥ 26 cm H2O). Electrical impedance tomography-derived maps were computed at each positive end-expiratory pressure-titration step, and whole-lung CT taken every second steps. Airway flow and pressure were recorded to compute driving pressure and elastance. Significant correlations between electrical impedance tomography-derived maps and positive end-expiratory pressure indicate that, expectedly, tidal recruitment increases in dependent regions with decreasing positive end-expiratory pressure (p electrical impedance tomography-derived tidal recruitment with poorly aerated regions (r = 0.43; p electrical impedance tomography-derived overdistension with nonaerated regions at lower positive end-expiratory pressures and with hyperaerated regions at higher positive end-expiratory pressures (r ≥ 0.72; p electrical impedance tomography-derived maps showed nonnegligible regions of presumed overdistension and tidal recruitment. Electrical impedance tomography-derived maps of pressure-volume curve shapes allow to detect regions in which elastance changes during inflation. This could promote individualized mechanical

  10. Interlaboratory comparison in the pressure range from 0 to 2 MPa for accredited calibration laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermanec Lovorka Grgec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes procedure and results of the interlaboratory comparison that was organised by Croatian national pressure laboratory (HMI/FSB-LPM between eight accredited pressure calibration laboratories. Comparison was performed in the gauge pressure range from 0 to 2 MPa with pressure transducer as transfer standard and using gas as transmitting medium. Basic aim of this comparison was to improve measurement methods and the measurement uncertainties of each participating laboratory. Analysis of the measurement results are given by calculating the deviation, En, normalized with respect to the stated measurement uncertainties.

  11. Experimental Emulation of Air Fluorescence and Study of its Yield at Low Pressure Electrical Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, S.; Drakakis, E.; Fokitis, E.; Geranios, A.; Gika, V.; Karabourniotis, D.; Antonakakis Spyropoylos, N.

    Having high-resolution UV spectra produced from EAS fluorescence, one can determine in a more accurate way the effects of atmospheric attenuation of these signals by including Rayleigh, Mie-scattering as well as resonance absorption inside the atmosphere. For this reason, we developed an experimental setup for emulating the air-fluorescence using high-resolution spectroscopy in the UV range from 300 to 400 nm. We used low pressure electrical discharges in air , as light source, and registered the spectra with high resolution spectrometers of 0.25, 1, 2 and 3 m focal lengths. These pressure and temperature conditions, existing in the low pressure lamp used, are far from the ones existing during EAS fluorescence but such data might be useful for better understanding of the fluorescence emission, and also in allowing to adapt such spectrometers in dedicated fluorescence yield experiments in accelerators, since in the relevant literature there are not available data with such high resolution. In addition, there are very few experimental data taking into account the parameter temperature in space and thus we designed a monochromator for measurements of air-fluorescence yield as a function of pressure and temperature, using spectral lamps in which the above parameters can be controlled, which is presented in this work.

  12. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage.

  13. Controlling a Conventional LS-pump based on Electrically Measured LS-pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the increasing use of sensors in mobile hydraulic equipment, the need for hydraulic pilot lines is decreasing, being replaced by electrical wiring and electrically controllable components. For controlling some of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need...... for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. In this paper controlling a hydraulic variable pump is considered. The LS-pressure is measured electrically and the hydraulic pilot pressure is generated using a small spool valve. From a control point of view there are two approaches for controlling...

  14. The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Linda; Singh, Bhawna; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of increasing battery size and driving range to the environmental impact of electric vehicles (EVs). To this end, we compile cradle-to-grave inventories for EVs in four size segments to determine their climate change potential. A second objective is to compare the lifecycle emissions of EVs to those of conventional vehicles. For this purpose, we collect lifecycle emissions for conventional vehicles reported by automobile manufacturers. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are calculated per vehicle and over a total driving range of 180 000 km using the average European electricity mix. Process-based attributional LCA and the ReCiPe characterisation method are used to estimate the climate change potential from the hierarchical perspective. The differently sized EVs are compared to one another to find the effect of increasing the size and range of EVs. We also point out the sources of differences in lifecycle emissions between conventional- and electric vehicles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis assesses the change in lifecycle emissions when electricity with various energy sources power the EVs. The sensitivity analysis also examines how the use phase electricity sources influences the size and range effect.

  15. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Haldrup, Niels; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    Equilibrium electricity spot prices and loads are often determined simultaneously in a day-ahead auction market for each hour of the subsequent day. Hence daily observations of hourly prices take the form of a periodic panel rather than a time series of hourly observations. We consider novel panel...... data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition...... of the underlying production technology and because the demand is more volatile than the supply, equilibrium prices and loads are argued to identify the periodic power supply curve. The estimated supply elasticities are estimated from fractionally co-integrated relations and range between 0.5 and 1...

  16. Understanding the impact of electric vehicle driving experience on range anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Nadine; Franke, Thomas; Krems, Josef F

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to increase understanding of the phenomenon of range anxiety and to determine the degree to which practical experience with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) reduces different levels of range anxiety. Limited range is a challenge for BEV users. A frequently discussed phenomenon in this context is range anxiety. There is some evidence suggesting that range anxiety might be a problem only for inexperienced BEV drivers and, therefore, might decrease with practical experience. We compared 12 motorists with high BEV driving experience (M = 60,500 km) with 12 motorists who had never driven a BEV before. The test drive was designed to lead to a critical range situation (remaining range < trip length). We examined range appraisal and range stress (i.e., range anxiety) on different levels (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral). Experienced BEV drivers exhibited less negative range appraisal and range anxiety than inexperienced BEV drivers, revealing significant, strong effects for all but one variable. Hence, BEV driving experience (defined as absolute kilometers driven with a BEV) seems to be one important variable that predicts less range anxiety. In order to reduce range anxiety in BEV drivers even when there is a critical range situation, it is important to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process.

  17. Generic methodology for driving range estimation of electric vehicle with on-road charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical estimation of driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) with contactIess on-road charging system is presented in this paper. Inductive power transfer (IPT) systems with different configurations (static, dynamic), power levels and road coverage have different (and non-linear) impact on

  18. The Contribution of Matched Envelope Dynamic Range to the Binaural Benefits in Simulated Bilateral Electric Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Qiu, Jianxin; Liu, Yehai; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of envelope dynamic-range mismatch on the intelligibility of Mandarin speech in noise by simulated bilateral electric hearing. Method: Noise-vocoded Mandarin speech, corrupted by speech-shaped noise at 5 and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios, was presented unilaterally or bilaterally to 10 normal-hearing…

  19. Non-invasive monitoring of central blood pressure by electrical impedance tomography: first experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Santos, Arnoldo; Tusman, Gerardo; Sipmann, Fernando Suárez; Bohm, Stephan H

    2011-04-01

    There is a strong clinical demand for devices allowing continuous non-invasive monitoring of central blood pressure (BP). In the state of the art a new family of techniques providing BP surrogates based on the measurement of the so-called pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been proposed, eliminating the need for inflation cuffs. PWV is defined as the velocity at which pressure pulses propagate along the arterial wall. However, no technique to assess PWV within central arteries in a fully unsupervised manner has been proposed so far. In this pilot study, we provide first experimental evidence that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is capable of measuring pressure pulses directly within the descending aorta. To obtain a wide range of BP values, we administrated noradrenalin and nitroglycerine to an anesthetized pig under mechanical ventilation. An arterial line was inserted into the ascending aorta for measuring reference BP. EIT images were generated from 32 impedance electrodes placed around the chest at the level of the axilla. Regions of Interest (ROI) such as the descending aorta and the lungs were automatically identified by a novel time-based processing algorithm as the respective EIT pixels representing these structures. The correct positions of these ROIs were confirmed by bolus injections of highly conductive concentrated saline into the right heart and into the ascending aorta. Aortic pulse transit time (PTT) values were determined as the delay between the opening of the aortic valve (obtained from arterial line) and the arrival of pressure pulses at the aortic ROI within the EIT plane. For 11 experimental conditions, with mean BP ranging from 73 to 141 mmHg, strongly significant correlation (r = -0.97, P invasive surrogate of central BP.

  20. Electric and spectroscopic properties of argon-hydrogen RF microplasma jets at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Correa, J A; Oliveira, C; Amorim, J [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol-CTBE, Caixa Postal 6170, 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomes, M P, E-mail: jorge.correa@bioetanol.org.b, E-mail: carlos.filho@bioetanol.org.b, E-mail: gomesmp@ita.b, E-mail: jayr.amorim@bioetanol.org.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica-ITA, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-10-06

    Microplasma jets of argon-hydrogen (Ar-H{sub 2}) gas mixture were generated by 144.0 MHz radio-frequency (RF) waves at powers of 5 W, 10 W, 20 W and 50 W. The experimental setup employed creates stable microplasmas at atmospheric pressure from 5.0 mm up to 20.0 mm visual glow lengths. We have determined the rms voltages, the rms electric currents and the power absorptions of these microplasma jets. By making use of optical spectroscopy, the emission spectra of Ar-H{sub 2} microplasma jets were recorded in the range 3060-8200 A, in order to estimate the axial distribution profiles of electron density, rotational temperature, excitation temperature and hydrogen atomic temperature.

  1. Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt solutions by a second generation high pressure electrical conductivity probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A; Dunstan, Dave E; Hartley, Patrick G; Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt solutions was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second generation of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl solutions upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl solutions was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.

  2. Electrical resistivity of the Kondo compound CeMg under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beille, J.; Najib, A.; Galera, R. M.; Pierre, J.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of CeMg has been measured under pressures up to 105 kbar. The Néel temperature continuously decreases, while the amplitude of the magnetic term as well as the negative slope at high temperature increase. We deduce the variation of the coupling constant Γ as a function of pressure.

  3. An Explosive Range Model Based on the Gas Composition, Temperature, and Pressure during Air Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air drilling is low cost and effectively improves the penetration rate and causes minimal damage to liquid-sensitive pay zones. However, there is a potential downhole explosion when combustible gas mixed with drilling fluid reaches the combustible condition. In this paper, based on the underground combustion mechanism, an explosive range calculation model is established. This model couples the state equation and the empirical formula method, which considers the inert gas content, pressure, mixed gas component, and temperature. The result shows that increase of the inert gas content narrows the explosive range, while increase of the gas temperature and pressure improves the explosive range. A case in Chongqing, China, is used to validate the explosive range calculation model.

  4. Electrical synapses between AII amacrine cells: dynamic range and functional consequences of variation in junctional conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruki, Margaret Lin; Oltedal, Leif; Hartveit, Espen

    2008-12-01

    AII amacrine cells form a network of electrically coupled interneurons in the mammalian retina and tracer coupling studies suggest that the junctional conductance (G(j)) can be modulated. However, the dynamic range of G(j) and the functional consequences of varying G(j) over the dynamic range are unknown. Here we use whole cell recordings from pairs of coupled AII amacrine cells in rat retinal slices to provide direct evidence for physiological modulation of G(j), appearing as a time-dependent increase from about 500 pS to a maximum of about 3,000 pS after 30-90 min of recording. The increase occurred in recordings with low- but not high-resistance pipettes, suggesting that it was related to intracellular washout and perturbation of a modulatory system. Computer simulations of a network of electrically coupled cells verified that our recordings were able to detect and quantify changes in G(j) over a large range. Dynamic-clamp electrophysiology, with insertion of electrical synapses between AII amacrine cells, allowed us to finely and reversibly control G(j) within the same range observed for physiologically coupled cells and to examine the quantitative relationship between G(j) and steady-state coupling coefficient, synchronization of subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations, synchronization and transmission of action potentials, and low-pass filter characteristics. The range of G(j) values over which signal transmission was modulated depended strongly on the specific functional parameter examined, with the largest range observed for action potential transmission and synchronization, suggesting that the full range of G(j) values observed during spontaneous run-up of coupling could represent a physiologically relevant dynamic range.

  5. Precise electrical transport measurements by using Bridgman type pressure cell at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Takayuki [Division of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ohashi, Masashi [Faculty of Environmental Design, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    We report a technique for the precise measurement of the electrical resisivity under high pressure at low temperature by using Bridgman anvils made of tungsten carbide. Quasi-hydrostatic pressure is generated up to {approx}15 GPa in the relatively large working space which allows the use of large specimens and simple experimental procedures rather than using a standard diamond anvil cell. The application is demonstrated by the measurements of the electrical resistivity of lead in order to describe the effect of pressure on the superconducting transition.

  6. Spontaneous ignition of methane-air mixtures in a wide range of pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhukov, VP; Sechenov, VA; Starikovskii, AY

    2003-01-01

    The ignition delay in methane-air mixtures (phi = 0.5) within the range of temperatures of 1200-1700 K and pressures of 3-450 atm behind reflected shock waves in a shock tube is measured on the basis of emission of the electron-excited OH radical (transition A(2)Sigma(+) - X(2)Pi) at the wavelength

  7. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  8. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the

  9. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...... to six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly sensitive to driving pattern and weather variables. The most important determinants of energy......-effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel...

  10. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  11. NREL/Industry Range-Extended Electric Vehicle for Package Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, John T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Range-extended electric vehicle (EV) technology can be a viable option for reducing fuel consumption from medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) engines by approximately 50 percent or more. Such engines have wide variations in use and duty cycles, however, and identifying the vocations/duty cycles most suitable for range-extended applications is vital for maximizing the potential benefits. This presentation provides information about NREL's research on range-extended EV technologies, with a focus on NREL's real-world data collection and analysis approach to identifying the vocations/duty cycles best suited for range-extender applications and to help guide related powertrain optimization and design requirements. The presentation also details NREL's drive cycle development process as it pertains to package delivery applications.

  12. Electrical resistance of SrFeO2 at ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayoshi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    SrFeO2 shows antiferromagnetic and insulating order at ambient pressure. The crystal structure of SrFeO2 has 2-dementional FeO2 plate and is interested in because this is common structure of high temperature superconductor. SrFeO2 has M-I, magnetic and spin transition with applying pressure. If magnetism disappears and metallization occurs with applying pressure, SrFeO2 may show superconductivity because of the crystal structure, so we measured electrical resistance at high pressure up to 150 GPa and low temperature down to 100 mK.

  13. Determination of dynamic pressure on infinite piezoelectric hollow cylinder from electric potential difference measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.M. [Department of Mechanics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: wanghuiming@zju.edu.cn; Ding, H.J. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-06-15

    An analytical method is developed for evaluating the dynamic pressure acted at the surface of infinite piezoelectric hollow cylinder by measuring the electric potential difference between the internal and external surfaces. By virtue of the separation of variables method and the orthogonal expansion technique, the inverse boundary problem is transformed to a second kind Volterra integral equation about the unknown dynamic pressure. The interpolation method is employed to solve the integral equation and the dynamic pressure is determined. The present method is suitable for the hollow cylinder with arbitrary thickness subjected to arbitrary dynamic pressure. Numerical experiments are also presented.

  14. Changes in mobile phase ion distribution when combining pressurized flow and electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Björn O; Dahl, Magnus; Andersson, Magnus B O; Blomberg, Lars G

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of ions in a capillary with both pressurized flow and an electric field has been studied. We have earlier reported that the overall concentration of ions increase in a capillary with high electric field and a pressurized flow. Now we describe how the ions are distributed in the capillary both along the capillary length and in the radial direction as a result of the parabolic flow profile. We have combined current measurements with finite element techniques in order to get better understanding of the system. We have found that the concentration of the ions that because of the electric mobility moves towards the flow primarily increases at the beginning of the electric field and close to the capillary wall. In view of the results we have proposed an alterative explanation of earlier published results concerning voltage-induced variation in capacity factors. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  15. Summary Report on the SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Russ [SRA International, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The SAE 2016 Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles Symposium was a 2-day technical meeting focused on the role of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) and other novel energy converter technologies for extending the range of electric vehicles (EVs). The first-of-its-kind symposium was notable for focusing solely on the range extender (REx) technologies and not the EVs. The technical program featured presentations from international leaders from industry, government, national laboratories, and academia. The opening keynote presentations covered a broad range of topics including consumer behavior, policy implications, regulatory considerations, and REx architectures as enablers for advanced technologies. The technical sessions focused on an array of REx technologies including conventional ICEs, as well as less conventional or emerging technologies such as microturbines, fuel cells, low-temperature combustion engines, and aluminum-air batteries. The symposium included two panel sessions. The trend toward increasing vehicle electrification and the changing role of ICEs and other auxiliary power unit technologies for use as REx’s is leading to new research and design development needs. The symposium captured the interest of the industry and research communities in exploring the opportunities and challenges associated with REx’s for EVs. This report includes key takeaways, summarized below, and draft notes for each presentation and panel discussion.

  16. Can hydrogen be stored inside carbon nanotubes under pressure in gigapascal range?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.H.; Gong, X. G.; Liu, Z. F.

    2006-01-01

    By using a newly fitted multi-parameter potential to describe the van der Waals interaction between carbon and molecular hydrogen, we study the hydrogen storage inside carbon nanotubes (CNT's) under pressure in gigapascal range. Comparing with the results of graphite, we find that the shape change of the nanotubes (the curvature effect) provides a different storage mechanism for hydrogen. The negative free energy change for hydrogen storage inside CNT's makes it possible to use CNT's as the n...

  17. Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    electric vehicles (BEVs) and provides insight into the factors that affect their energy consumption by harnessing big data from real-world driving. The analysis relied on four data sources: (i) driving patterns collected from 741 drivers over a two-year period; (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road...... type; (iv) weather conditions. The results of the analysis measure the mean ECR of BEVs at 0.183 kW h/km, underline a 34% increase in ECR and a 25% decrease in driving range in the winter with respect to the summer, and suggest the electricity tariff for BEVs to be cost efficient with respect...... to conventional ones. Moreover, the results of the analysis show that driving speed, acceleration and temperature have non-linear effects on the ECR, while season and precipitation level have a strong linear effect. The econometric model of the ECR of BEVs suggests that the optimal driving speed is between 45...

  18. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.benedetti@unimore.it; Bona, Alessandro di [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola [INSTM Udr Trieste-ST and Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Lupi, Stefano [CNR-IOM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Torelli, Piero [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  19. Electrical and thermoelectric transport by variable range hopping in reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Hong, Sung Ju; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hojin; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Park, Yung Woo; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport properties of single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGOs). The rGOs were prepared by the bubble deposition method followed by thermal reduction. The crossover of the transport mechanism from Efros-Shklovskii (ES) variable range hopping (VRH) between the localized states to Mott-VRH was observed near 70 K using the temperature-dependent conductance. The ES-VRH conduction below 70 K is apparent in the electric field dependence of the field-driven hopping transport in the high-electric field regime. We also figure out that the thermoelectric power is consistent with the 2D Mott VRH above 70 K. We argue that the VRH conduction results from the topological disorders of rGO as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. This infers that the average distance between defects is approximately 2.0 nm.

  20. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  1. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  2. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  3. Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) in characterization of fine particle concentration and size distribution from combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tikkanen; M. Moisio [Dekati Ltd., Tampere (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is a real time particle size distribution measurement instrument combining a cascade low pressure impactor with a diffusion charger and electrical detection. ELPI is manufactured by Dekati Ltd., and operates on size range of 10 {mu}m to 30 nm with 12 stages. ELPI is an ideal instrument for combustion studies. Its wide size range, real-time capability, size classification and collection in combination with electrical detection makes it a multipurpose tool. In the development of cleaning devices ELPI can be used in both grade efficiency measurements as well as in the study of charging efficiency of the precipitator charger. This is possible by turning off the ELPI charger and monitoring the charge carried by particles charged in the precipitator. Substantial improvements and cost savings can be achieved in the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) development and commissioning work. ELPI can also be used in emission studies, boiler operation studies, etc. The fact that ELPI measures the size distribution and collects the classified particles enables the user to monitor combustion processes in detail, e.g. behavior of heavy metals from coal combustion and ultra fine particle depletion during fluidized bed replenishment pulses. In this study, two coal combustion plants, two peat (mixed) combustion plants, a kraft recovery boiler, two waste combustion plants (CFB and BFB) and a bark combustion plant were considered. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Experimental and simulation investigation of electrical and plasma parameters in a low pressure inductively coupled argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, YANG; Angjian, WU; Xiaodong, LI; Yang, LIU; Fengsen, ZHU; Zhiliang, CHEN; Jianhua, YAN; Ruijuan, CHEN; Wangjun, SHEN

    2017-11-01

    The electrical and plasma parameters of a low pressure inductively coupled argon plasma are investigated over a wide range of parameters (RF power, flow rate and pressure) by diverse characterizations. The external antenna voltage and current increase with the augment of RF power, whereas decline with the enhancement of gas pressure and flow rate conversely. Compared with gas flow rate and pressure, the power transfer efficiency is significantly improved by RF power, and achieved its maximum value of 0.85 after RF power injected excess 125 W. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) provides the local mean values of electron excited temperature and electron density in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) post regime, which vary in a range of 0.81 eV to 1.15 eV and 3.7× {10}16 {{{m}}}-3 to 8.7× {10}17 {{{m}}}-3, respectively. Numerical results of the average magnitudes of electron temperature and electron density in two-dimensional distribution exhibit similar variation trend with the experimental results under different operating condition by using COMSOL Multiphysics. By comprehensively understanding the characteristics in a low pressure ICP, optimized operating conditions could be anticipated aiming at different academic and industrial applications.

  5. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. PIEZOELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE SENSOR FOR MEASURING PULSE PRESSURE IN CLOSED LIQUID VOLUMES AT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  7. Capillary pressure as a unique function of electric permittivity and water saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.; Van Turnhout, J.; Bruining, J.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between capillary pressure (Pc) and interfacial area has been investigated by measuring Pc and the electric permittivity at 100 kHz simultaneously as function of the water saturation, (Sw). Drainage and imbibition experiments have been conducted for sand-distilled water-gas (CO2/N2)

  8. Evaluating piezo-electric transducer response to thermal shock from in-cylinder pressure data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, E.; Sierens, R.; Baert, R.S.G.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major effects limiting the accuracy of piezo-electric transducers for performing in-cyclinder pressure measurements is their sensitivity to the cyclic thermal loading effects of the intermittent combustion process. This paper compares 5 different methods for evaluating the effect of this

  9. Electrical impedance tomography and trans-pulmonary pressure measurements in a patient with extreme respiratory drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shono (Atsuko); P. Somhorst (Peter); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPreserving spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation prevents muscle atrophy of the diaphragm, but may lead to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We present a case in which monitoring of trans-pulmonary pressure and ventilation distribution using Electrical Impedance

  10. Long-range correlations in the electric signals that precede rupture: further investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, P A; Sarlis, N V; Skordas, E S

    2003-02-01

    The correlations within the time series of the seismic electric signal (SES) activities have been studied in a previous paper [P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011902 (2002)]. Here, we analyze the time series of successive high- and low-level states' durations. The existence of correlation between the states is investigated by means of Hurst and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The multifractal DFA (MF-DFA) is also employed. The results point to a stronger correlation, and hence longer memory, in the series of the high-level states. Furthermore, an analysis in the "natural" time domain reveals that certain power spectrum characteristics seem to distinguish SES activities from "artificial" (man-made) electric noises. More precisely, for natural frequencies 0spectrum analysis in the natural time domain shows that the ICFMC curve almost coincides (in the range 0range 7-70 ms.

  11. Biomechanical Effect of an Interlaminar Device on Ranges of Motion, Intradiscal Pressure, and Centers of Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Guizzardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The IntraSPINE is a new interlaminar device that has been proposed with the aim to decompress the spinal canal without reducing the extension motion. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of L4-L5 spinal units implanted with this interlaminar device, in terms of ranges of motion, intradiscal pressure, and centers of rotation. Material and Methods. Six human lumbar spines were harvested within 10 days after death. A specific spine testing device was used to apply moments up to 10 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending (left-right flexion and left-right axial rotation (torsion, with measurement of vertebral 3D motion and of intervertebral disc pressure. Protocol was repeated for each specimen in 5 configurations: intact specimen; after L4-L5 bilateral medial hemifacetectomy and both yellow ligament resection; after implantation of the interlaminar device at the L4-L5 level; after removal of the L4-L5 supraspinous ligament, resection of the posterior third of the disc and addition of an artificial ligament; after device and artificial ligament removal. Results. The implant reduced increases in segmental flexion seen following injury particularly when applied with the artificial ligament. Intradiscal pressure reduced following application of the implant without reducing extension range. A small posterior shift of the Mean Centers of Rotation (MCR was noticed after instrumentation. Torsion and lateral bending range was unaffected by the interlaminar device. Conclusion. This biomechanical study yields a better understanding of this interlaminar implant effect. A large clinical trial with follow-up would be required to evaluate and confirm in vivo the observed in vitro biomechanical behavior of the device.

  12. Neural network based forward prediction of bladder pressure using pudendal nerve electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramipour, A; Makki, S; Erfanian, A

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders have problems in urinary bladder storage and in voiding function. In these people, the detrusor of bladder contracts at low volume and this causes incontinence. The goal of bladder control is to increase the bladder capacity by electrical stimulation of relative nerves such as pelvic nerves, sacral nerve roots or pudendal nerves. For this purpose, the bladder pressure has to be monitored continuously. In this paper, we propose a method for real-time estimating the bladder pressure using artificial neural network. The method is based upon measurements of electroneurogram (ENG) signal of pudendal nerve. This approach yields synthetic bladder pressure estimates during bladder contraction. The experiments were conducted on three rats. The results show that neural predictor can provide accurate estimation and prediction of bladder pressure with good generalization ability. The average error of 1-second and 5-second ahead prediction of bladder pressure are 9.62% and 10.54%, respectively.

  13. A technique for precise electrical-transport measurements under pressure above 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M [Division of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    We report a technique for the precise measurement of electrical resistivity at high pressures up to 15 GPa by using Bridgman anvils. The relatively large size of the pressure chamber (1.0 mm in diameter) allows the use of large specimens and simple experimental procedures rather than using a standard diamond anvil cell. A SUS310 gasket is pressed by two tungsten carbide anvils. A sample with typical dimensions of approximately 0.5x0.2x0.1mm{sup 3} is placed in a small hole of the gasket. In order to obtain a quasi-hydrostatic pressure, the pressure chamber is filled with a 1:1 mixture of Fluorinert FC70 and FC77 as the pressure transmitting medium. Electrical leads are introduced through shallow grooves milled into the anvil. The grooves are filled with a mixture of alumina powder for insulation. Accurate data of the resistance values of Bi and Fe at room temperature are available. We observe sharp transitions for Bi at 2.55, 2.7 and 7.7 GPa. The electrical resistance of Fe shows a sudden increase due to a structural transition near 14 GPa.

  14. Concentrating colloids with electric field gradients. II. Phase transitions and crystal buckling of long-ranged repulsive charged spheres in an electric bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of electric field gradients for the manipulation of the particle concentration in suspensions of charged colloids, which have long-ranged repulsive interactions. In particular, we studied the compression obtained by ``negative'' dielectrophoresis, which drives the

  15. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ∼8 Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  16. Start-Stop Moment Optimization of Range Extender and Control Strategy Design for Extended -Range Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Han, Bing-yuan; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-10-01

    Range extender is the core component of E-REV, its start-stop control determines the operation modes of vehicle. This paper based on a certain type of E-REV, researched constant power control strategy of range extender in extended-range model, to target range as constraint condition, combined with different driving cycle conditions, by correcting battery SOC for range extender start-stop moment, optimized the control strategy of range extender, and established the vehicle and range extender start-stop control simulation model. Selected NEDC and UDDS conditions simulation results show that: under certain target mileage, the range extender running time reduced by 37.2% and 28.2% in the NEDC condition, and running time UDDS conditions were reduced by 40.6% and 33.5% in the UDDS condition, reached the purpose of meeting the vehicle mileage and reducing consumption and emission.

  17. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV. In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the torque of the generator. Engine speed and generator torque were decoupled. An improved proportional resonant (PR controller is adopted to achieve fast output power regulation. In order to ensure the response characteristics of the control system and to improve the robustness, the impacts on system’s characteristics and stability caused by PR controller and parameters in the inner-current loop were analyzed via frequency response characteristics. A pre-Tustin with deviation compensation is proposed for PR controller’s discretization. A stable and robust power following control method is obtained for the range extender control system. Finally, simulation and experiment of the proposed control strategy illustrated its feasibility and correctness.

  18. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  19. Measurements and correlations of turbulent burning velocities over wide ranges of fuels and elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  20. Seat pressure changes after eight weeks of functional electrical stimulation cycling: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbow, David R; Gorgey, Ashraf S; Dolbow, James D; Gater, David R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common secondary condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). PUs can potentially interfere with activities of daily living, occupational duties, and rehabilitation programs, and in severe cases they may threaten life. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling has been proposed as an activity that may decrease the risk of PUs through the promotion of increased blood flow and thickening of the gluteus maximus. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure the effects of home-based FES cycling on the average and maximal seat pressure of wheelchair-reliant individuals with SCI. Eight male veterans with C5-T6 SCI participated in FES cycling 3 times per week. Cycling parameters were individualized depending on the comfort of the participants and the amount of current needed to perform the cycling activity. Pressure mapping was completed immediately before and after the 8 weeks of FES cycling with the measurement performed by a force sensitive application (FSA) 4 pressure mapping system. The mean average seat pressure decreased by 3.69 ± 4.46 mm Hg (35.57 ± 11.99 to 31.88 ± 13.02), while the mean maximum seat pressure decreased by 14.56 ±18.45 mm Hg (112 ± 34.73 to 98.36 ± 25.89). Although neither measurement was statistically significant, there was a strong trend toward a reduction in average and maximal seat pressure (P = .052 and P = .061, respectively). The positive trend of decreased seat pressure in our study creates incentive for further investigation of the effects of electrical stimulation activities on seat pressure and the prevention of PUs.

  1. Corneal hysteresis with intraocular pressure of a wide range: a test on porcine eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Sun, Yong; Zhou, Chuanqing; Roberts, Cynthia; Zhou, Dai; Ren, Qiushi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal hysteresis (CH) and intraocular pressure (IOP) using porcine eyes in the low to high IOP ranges. In vitro porcine eyes were used to investigate the relationship of CH and IOP. IOP was altered by changing the height of a drip stand within the dynamic range of 60 mm Hg. CH and IOP were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA; Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Depew, NY) at different heights. Second-order polynomial regression method was employed to assess the nonlinear correlation of CH and IOP. CH demonstrated an initial plateau stage with low IOP, which then decreased as IOP increased to higher values up to 60 mm Hg. The maximum CH value of approximately 6 to 8 mm Hg was achieved when IOP ranged from 11 to 25 mm Hg. The nonlinear regression lines of Goldmann correlated IOP (IOPg) and CH can be described as CH = − 0.0029 × IOPg2 + 0.1005 × IOPg + 5.2824, R2 = 0.3676, P < .05. CH was relatively constant for lower values of IOP and showed a decreasing relationship at higher values of IOP. This nonlinear relationship provides insight into understanding the viscoelastic nature of CH over a wider range of IOP values. The experimental data on porcine eyes may indicate that IOP should be taken into account when analyzing the deformation response of the cornea to an applied air puff.

  2. Effects of regional temperature on electric vehicle efficiency, range, and emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2015-03-17

    We characterize the effect of regional temperature differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, range, and use-phase power plant CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient temperature due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to temperature differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from BEVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix, which has three times the GHG intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient temperature variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV range: the average range of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.

  3. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  4. Lightweight Investigation of Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Based on Collision Failure Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqi Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total weight of Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV is too heavy, which affects rear-end collision safety. Using numerical simulation, a lightweight method is designed to reduce E-REV body and key parts weight based on rear-end collision failure analysis. To calculate and optimize the performance of vehicle safety, the simulation model of E-REV rear-end collision safety is built by using finite element analysis. Drive battery pack lightweight design method is analyzed and the bending mode and torsional mode of E-REV before and after lightweight are compared to evaluate E-REV rear-end collision safety performance. The simulation results of optimized E-REV safety structure are verified by both numerical simulation and experimental investigation of the entire vehicle crash test.

  5. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R

    2018-03-01

    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  6. Influence of the sputtering pressure on the morphological features and electrical resistivity anisotropy of nanostructured titanium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Paulo; Ferreira, Armando; Cote, Jean-Marc; Martin, Nicolas; Yazdi, Mohammad Arab Pour; Billard, Alain; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Vaz, Filipe

    2017-10-01

    Titanium films were DC sputtered with a particle flux incidence angle of 80°, using the Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique with increasing sputtering pressures from 0.2 to 1.5 Pa. This range of pressures is typically implemented for the deposition of thin films by the magnetron sputtering process. The main objective of this work was to study the anisotropic electrical resistivity behaviour of the different thin film nanostructures that were obtained. It is shown that low sputtering pressures (0.2-0.5 Pa) promote higher column angles β with respect to the substrate normal (15° ≤ β ≤ 40°), as well as better defined porous structures. On the other hand, intermediate and high pressures (0.6-0.8 Pa) originate secondary growth effects on the columnar structures perpendicular to the substrate normal (β = 0°). No defined columns can be seen when the films are sputtered using the highest pressure (1.5 Pa). The electrical resistivity is significantly affected by the differences in the columnar microstructure. Porous films exhibit higher room temperature (RT) resistivity values (0.95-1.5 × 10-5 Ω m), when compared to the more compact ones (0.6-0.9 × 10-5 Ω m). When a temperature cycle of RT(25)-300-RT(25) °C was applied, a more significant oxidation is evidenced in the more porous structures, as well as a higher resistivity anisotropy (maximum of 1.6) than in the more compact ones (minimum of 1.25).

  7. Pressure, temperature, and electric field dependence of phase transformations in niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wen D.; Carlos Valadez, J.; Gallagher, John A.; Jo, Hwan R.; Lynch, Christopher S., E-mail: cslynch@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wes [TRS Technologies, 2820 East College Avenue, State College, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops were open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.

  8. Electrical transport measurements of thin film samples under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, J; Parks, S C; Baum, B; Teker, A; Syassen, K; Mannhart, J

    2017-03-01

    We present a method to perform electrical measurements of epitaxial films and heterostructures a few nanometers thick under high hydrostatic pressures in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Hydrostatic pressure offers the possibility to tune the rich landscape of properties shown by epitaxial heterostructures, systems in which the combination of different materials, performed with atomic precision, can give rise to properties not present in their individual constituents. Measuring electrical conductivity under hydrostatic pressure in these systems requires a robust method that can address all the challenges: the preparation of the sample with side length and thickness that fits in the DAC setup, a contacting method compatible with liquid media, a gasket insulation that resists high forces, as well as an accurate procedure to place the sample in the pressure chamber. We prove the robustness of the method described by measuring the resistance of a two dimensional electron system buried at the interface between two insulating oxides under hydrostatic conditions up to ∼5 GPa. The setup remains intact until ∼10 GPa, where large pressure gradients affect the two dimensional conductivity.

  9. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: III. Clinical Pilot Study of Chronic Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: BIONs™ (BIOnic Neurons are injectable, wireless microstimulators that make chronic BION Active Seating (BAS possible for pressure ulcer prevention (PUP. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES produces skeletal motion and activates trophic factors, counteracting three major etiological mechanisms leading to pressure ulcers (PUs: immobility, soft-tissue atrophy, and ischemia. Companion papers I and II reviewed prior experience with NMES for PUP, and analyzed the biomechanical considerations, respectively. This paper presents a treatment strategy derived from this analysis, and the clinical results of the first three cases.

  10. High-pressure electrical resistivity studies on FeSe2 and FeTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, G.; Sharma, D. K.; Sharma, Y. K.; Chandra, Usha

    2013-02-01

    We report here for the first time the pressure dependence of the electrical resistivity of ferroselite (FeSe2) and frohbergite FeTe2 up to 8 GPa. The synthetic ferroselite shows a pressure induced marcasite-to-NiAs type structural phase transition at 6.8 GPa and frohbergite shows the transition at 5.7 GPa. The transition was observed with a discontinuous resistivity decrease by 0.9 times. We also present here the XRD results on the FeSe2 and FeTe2. The relevance of the phase transition to Martian mineral chemistry is discussed.

  11. Knee arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased following moderate pressure massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2015-11-01

    The literature on massage therapy effects on knee pain suggests that pain was reduced based on self-report, but little is known about range of motion (ROM) effects. Medical School staff and faculty who had knee arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure massage therapy or a waitlist control group (24 per group). Self-reports included the WOMAC (pain, stiffness and function) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. ROM and ROM-related pain were assessed before and after the last sessions. The massage group showed an immediate post-massage increase in ROM and a decrease in ROM-associated pain. On the last versus the first day of the study, the massage group showed greater increases in ROM and decreases in ROM-related pain as well as less self-reported pain and sleep disturbances than the waitlist control group. These data highlight the effectiveness of moderate pressure massage therapy for increasing ROM and lessening ROM-related pain and long-term pain and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface treatment by the ion flow from electron beam generated plasma in the forevacuum pressure range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of peculiarities of gas ion flows usage and their generation from large plasma formation (>50 sq.cm obtained by electron beam ionization of gas in the forevacuum pressure range. An upgraded source was used for electron beam generation, which allowed obtaining ribbon electron beam with no transmitting magnetic field. Absence of magnetic field in the area of ion flow formation enables to obtain directed ion flows without distorting their trajectories. In this case, independent control of current and ion energy is possible. The influence of electron beam parameters on the parameters of beam plasma and ion flow – current energy and density – was determined. The results of alumina ceramics treatment with a beam plasma ions flow are given.

  13. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and cryotherapy on pain threshold by induced pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel,Lairton Fabricio de Menezes; Ferreira,Jose Jamacy de Almeida; Santos, Heleodorio Honorato dos; Andrade,Palloma Rodrigues de

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that cryotherapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and the association of them promotes analgesia, but the effectiveness of this association is unclear. The objective was to evaluate the effects of single and combined application of TENS and cryotherapy on pressure-induced pain threshold in healthy subjects. The sample consisted of 40 subjects, randomly assigned into four groups: (1) cryotherapy group - CG, (2) TENS group - GT; (3) cryotherapy + TENS group...

  14. Magnetic and electrical properties of antiperovskite Mn3InN synthesized by a high-pressure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. S.; Guo, Y. F.; Wang, X. X.; Yi, W.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, S. B.; Sathish, C. I.; Belik, A. A.; Yamaura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mn3InN antiperovskite is synthesized under high-pressure conditions, followed by measurements of magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat. Multiple magnetic interactions are observed between 2 K and 400 K: the paramagnetic state turns to an antiferromagnetic state at 300 K on cooling, and a weak ferromagnetic contribution appears at 175 K by further cooling. Below 50 K, an enhanced ferromagnetic contribution is obvious. Although a long-range antiferromagnetic order is clearly established at room temperature, the material retains a good metallic conduction over a wide temperature range (the Sommerfeld coefficient is 43.3 mJ mol-1 K-2), suggesting a possible use of the material in spintronics applications.

  15. Partial discharges and breakdown in SF6 in the pressure range 25-150 kPa in non-uniform background fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, M.; Clemen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The partial discharge (PD) and electric breakdown mechanisms in SF6 at a plug contact in the pressure range 25-150 kPa were investigated at ambient temperature in a plug-plate arrangement. This parameter range has similar particle number densities as in the previous investigation of the dielectric recovery in a high-voltage circuit breaker (Seeger et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 395204), where optical access was limited and the relevant parameters of pressure and temperature could only be determined indirectly by computational fluid dynamic simulations. The present investigation did not have these limitations, since the pressure and temperature were well defined. Optical observation by an image intensified high speed camera in combination with a photo multiplier tube allowed an understanding of the various mechanisms for the PDs and breakdown to be gained. The breakdown fields and PD parameters could be well described by a simple leader model in the pressure range 75-150 kPa for negative polarity and above 25 kPa for positive polarity. Discrepancies with the model are observed below 75 kPa for negative polarity and at 25 kPa for positive polarity. This could be explained by a slow, repetitive heating mechanism which has not been reported so far.

  16. Electrical resistance measurement in lithium under high pressure and low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, K; Amaya, K

    2002-01-01

    Lithium is known as a 'simple metal' and the lightest alkaline metal in the periodic table. At ambient pressure lithium forms a body-centred-cubic structure and the conduction electrons are considered to be almost free from interaction with the atomic core. However, Neaton and Ashcroft (Neaton J B and Ashcroft N W 1999 Nature 400 141) predicted that dense lithium at around 100 GPa will be found to transform to a low-symmetry phase and show a semi-metallic behaviour, in their calculation. Recently Hanfland et al (Hanfland M, Syassen K, Christensen N E and Novikov D L 2000 Nature 408 174) reported the experimental behaviour of the existence of new high-pressure phase of lithium above 40 GPa which tends towards symmetry-breaking transitions. Here we report electrical resistance measurements on lithium performed at pressures up to 35 GPa at the temperature of 80 K.

  17. Electrical resistance measurement in lithium under high pressure and low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Ishikawa, H [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Amaya, K [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2002-11-11

    Lithium is known as a 'simple metal' and the lightest alkaline metal in the periodic table. At ambient pressure lithium forms a body-centred-cubic structure and the conduction electrons are considered to be almost free from interaction with the atomic core. However, Neaton and Ashcroft (Neaton J B and Ashcroft N W 1999 Nature 400 141) predicted that dense lithium at around 100 GPa will be found to transform to a low-symmetry phase and show a semi-metallic behaviour, in their calculation. Recently Hanfland et al (Hanfland M, Syassen K, Christensen N E and Novikov D L 2000 Nature 408 174) reported the experimental behaviour of the existence of new high-pressure phase of lithium above 40 GPa which tends towards symmetry-breaking transitions. Here we report electrical resistance measurements on lithium performed at pressures up to 35 GPa at the temperature of 80 K.

  18. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte D.P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24ºC with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean ± SD were obtained for SBP (121 ± 22 mmHg, DBP (86 ± 17 mmHg, mean BP (MBP, 98 ± 18 mmHg and heart rate (73 ± 16 bpm. The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test during the light period (125 ± 21, 88 ± 15 and 100 ± 17 mmHg, respectively than during the dark period (120 ± 21, 85 ± 17 and 97 ± 17 mmHg, respectively and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 ± 19 to 90 ± 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h. Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively. The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  19. Effect of external electric and magnetic field on propagation of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Meng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Haixin; Ouyang, Jiting

    2017-10-01

    The behaviors of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (CDBD) in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field are investigated experimentally. Time-resolved ICCD images of jet in electric field, magnetic field, and floating metal ring are recorded, respectively. The results show that the jet dynamics is affected significantly by a metal ring, an electric, and/or a magnetic field. In a transverse electric field, the jet shows behavior of deflection, broadening, and shortening according to the structure of electric field. In a transverse magnetic field, the jet deflects to up or down depending on the magnetic direction. The jet can be slowed down or obstructed by a floating metal ring on the jet path, but will still pass through the tube at higher applied voltages of DBD, without significant change in jet length or shape out of the tube compared with that without metal ring. A positive DC voltage on the metal ring helps to improve the jet length, but a negative voltage will reduce the length or completely stop the jet. The electric field to sustain the jet in helium is estimated to be about 24 ± 15 kV/cm from this experiment.

  20. Conduction of Complex Elements of Vacuum Systems in a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shemarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a statistical mathematical model of a rarefied gas flow based on the method of particles in cells. This approach enables to define basic parameters of gas flow and vacuum systems in a wide range of pressures, including such an important parameter as conductivity of the vacuum system.Key assumptions in designing a mathematical model are: describing the collision of the molecules as hard spheres of elastic collision; considering the collisions to be paired and instant; the molecules velocity distribution corresponding to the Maxwell distribution. The essential feature is simulation of waiting time for the next collision. It depends on the state of the entire system of particles and is independent of what pair is involved in collision.The paper presents a detailed algorithm for implementation of a mathematical model to calculate conductivity. It includes three main stages. The first stage simulates only collisions of particles within the fixed cell of grid. The second stage simulates displacement of particles in accordance with their speed and time step, as well as interaction with the internal surfaces of the vacuum system. The final stage determines system conductivity.As an example, numerical experiments were conducted to determine conductivity of the long cylindrical channel in a wide range of pressures and conductivity of chevron screens too. Obtained data are compared with experimental data, and an error is evaluated. In molecular and transient conditions of gas flow the method of particles in cells gives high accuracy. In the viscous conditions the accuracy decreases because of originating region of continuous medium.This model can be used not only to determine conductivity of vacuum systems, but also to calculate gas flow parameters in systems with large flows (no restrictions for the flow rate value for the channels and profiles with geometry of any complexity. An important feature is that it allows taking into account

  1. Electrical and thermal tuning of quality factor and free spectral range of optical resonance of nematic liquid crystal microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Junaid Ahmad; Mohiddon, M. A.; Dutta, N.; Dhara, Surajit

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally study the effect of temperature and electric field on the quality (Q ) factor and free spectral range (FSR) of whispering-gallery-mode optical resonance of dye-doped nematic liquid crystal microdroplets. Both the Q factor and the FSR are highly sensitive to the temperature and electric field and are tunable. The Q factor decreases, whereas the FSR increases substantially, with increasing temperature and electric field. The variation of the Q factor and FSR is understood based on the change in the effective refractive index and the dynamic size of the microdroplets.

  2. Applicability of the electrical low pressure impactor to size determination of aerosols attached to radon decay products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamasaki, Keizo

    2005-06-01

    Aerosol size information is very important for the risk estimation of radon exposure. Recently, a cascade impactor called the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was developed and commercialized. The impactor, which covers a wide diameter range from 0.03to10μm, gives number-weighted size distribution in real time by an electrical detection method. Prior to size measurements of the radon decay products being available, the effects of impaction substrates on size classification were studied. Tested substrate materials were stainless steel plate and aluminum foil, and those surfaces were as follows: (1) untreated, (2) covered with double sided adhesive tape, and (3) silicon grease coated. A large difference was observed among the measured size distributions. Compared with other sizing methods, it was found that the use of grease coated substrates did not interfere with the electrical measurements in the ELPI and also prevented particle rebound or redispersion. It was also confirmed that the coatings caused no damage to energy spectrum analysis in spite of the weak penetration power of radon's alpha ray. Using the ELPI allows size distribution data on aerosol number and activity to be independently determined for the same impactor sample. The ELPI will be useful for the size determination of radon decay products, and thus information on the attachment of radon decay products will be forthcoming.

  3. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  4. Study of pressure induced polyamorphic transition in Ce-based ternary BMG using in situ x-ray scattering and electrical conductivity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Ma, C.; Tang, R.; Li, L.; Liu, H.; Gao, C.; Yang, W.

    2015-12-01

    In situ high energy x-ray scattering and electrical conductivity measurements on Ce70Al10Cu20 bulk metallic glass have been conducted using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) in conjunction with synchrotron x-rays or a laboratory electrical measurement system. The relative volumetric change (V/V0) as a function of pressure is inferred using the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) and the universal fractional noncubic power law[1]. The result indicates a pressure-induced polyamorphic transition at about 4 GPa in the ternary system. While the observed pressure of such polyamorphic transition in the Ce-base binary BMG is not very sensitive to its composition based on some of the previous studies[2, 3], this study indicates that such transition pressure increases considerably when a new component is added to the system. In the electrical conductivity measurement, a significant resistance change was observed in the pressure range coupled to polyamorphic transition. More discussions will be given regarding the electrical conductivity behavior of this system under high pressure to illustrate the delocalization of 4f electrons as the origin of the observed polyamorphic transition. References: 1. Zeng Q, Kono Y, Lin Y, Zeng Z, Wang J, Sinogeikin SV, Park C, Meng Y, Yang W, Mao H-K (2014) Universal fractional noncubic power law for density of metallic glasses. Physical Review Letters 112: 185502-185502 2. Zeng Q-S, Ding Y, Mao WL, Yang W, Sinogeikin SV, Shu J, Mao H-K, Jiang JZ (2010) Origin of pressure-induced polyamorphism in Ce75Al25 metallic glass. Physical Review Letters 104: 105702-105702 3. Sheng HW, Liu HZ, Cheng YQ, Wen J, Lee PL, Luo WK, Shastri SD, Ma E (2007) Polyamorphism in a metallic glass. Nature Materials DOI: 10.1038/nmat1839.

  5. Water content dynamics at plot scale - comparison of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography monitoring and pore pressure modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Markart, Gerhard; Ottowitz, David; Römer, Alexander; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Geitner, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Physically-based dynamic modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility rests on several assumptions and simplifications. However, the applicability of physically-based models is only rarely tested in the field at the appropriate scale. This paper presents results of a spray irrigation experiment conducted on a plot of 100 m2 on an Alpine slope susceptible to shallow landsliding. Infiltrating precipitation applied at a constant rate (27.5 mm/h for 5.3 h) was monitored by means of 2D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography, combined with time-domain reflectometry sensors installed at various depths. In addition, regolith characteristics were assessed by dynamic cone penetration tests using a light-weight cone penetrometer. The spray irrigation experiment resulted in a vertically progressing wetting front to a depth of 80-100 cm. Below that, the unconsolidated material was already saturated by rainfall in the previous days. The observed mean resistivity reduction attributed to infiltrating water during irrigation was scaled to pressure head. Mean variations in pore pressure were reproduced by a linear diffusion model also used in physically-based dynamic landslide susceptibility modelling. Sensitive parameters (hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) were tested over selected value ranges and calibrated. Calibrated parameter values are within published and experimentally derived ranges. The results of the comparison of observations and model results suggest that the model is capable of reproducing mean changes of pore pressure at a suitable scale for physically-based modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility. However, small-scale variations in pore pressure that may facilitate the triggering of shallow landslides are not captured by the model.

  6. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  7. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering on Flexible Substrate Using Different Sputtering Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumtong, T.; Sukwisute, P.; Sakulkalavek, A.; Sakdanuphab, R.

    2017-05-01

    The microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thin films have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited on flexible substrate (polyimide) by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Sb2Te3 target using different sputtering pressures in the range from 4 × 10-3 mbar to 1.2 × 10-2 mbar. The crystal structure, [Sb]:[Te] ratio, and electrical and thermoelectric properties of the films were analyzed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Hall effect and Seebeck measurements, respectively. The XRD spectra of the films demonstrated polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation of (015), (110), and (1010). A high-intensity spectrum was found for the film deposited at lower sputtering pressure. EDS analysis of the films revealed the effects of the sputtering pressure on the [Sb]:[Te] atomic ratio, with nearly stoichiometric films being obtained at higher sputtering pressure. The stoichiometric Sb2Te3 films showed p-type characteristics with electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of 35.7 S cm-1, 6.38 × 1019 cm-3, and 3.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The maximum power factor of 1.07 × 10-4 W m-1 K-2 was achieved for the film deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.0 × 10-2 mbar.

  8. Electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride thin films for temperatures up to 650 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Groenland, A.W.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a study on electrical conduction in low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride thin films for temperatures up to 650 °C are described. Current density versus electrical field characteristics are measured as a function of temperature for 100 and 200 nm thick stoichiometric

  9. Photon Pressure Force on Space Debris TOPEX/Poseidon Measured by Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Bennett, J. C.; Lachut, M.; Sośnica, K.; Koshkin, N.; Shakun, L.; Koidl, F.; Steindorfer, M.; Wang, P.; Fan, C.; Han, X.; Grunwaldt, L.; Wilkinson, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Bianco, G.; Vespe, F.; Catalán, M.; Salmins, K.; del Pino, J. R.; Lim, H.-C.; Park, E.; Moore, C.; Lejba, P.; Suchodolski, T.

    2017-10-01

    The (TOPography EXperiment) TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry mission operated for 13 years before the satellite was decommissioned in January 2006, becoming a large space debris object at an altitude of 1,340 km. Since the end of the mission, the interaction of T/P with the space environment has driven the satellite's spin dynamics. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements collected from June 2014 to October 2016 allow for the satellite spin axis orientation to be determined with an accuracy of 1.7°. The spin axis coincides with the platform yaw axis (formerly pointing in the nadir direction) about which the body rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The combined photometric and SLR data collected over the 11 year time span indicates that T/P has continuously gained rotational energy at an average rate of 2.87 J/d and spins with a period of 10.73 s as of 19 October 2016. The satellite attitude model shows a variation of the cross-sectional area in the Sun direction between 8.2 m2 and 34 m2. The direct solar radiation pressure is the main factor responsible for the spin-up of the body, and the exerted photon force varies from 65 μN to 228 μN around the mean value of 138.6 μN. Including realistic surface force modeling in orbit propagation algorithms will improve the prediction accuracy, giving better conjunction warnings for scenarios like the recent close approach reported by the ILRS Space Debris Study Group—an approximate 400 m flyby between T/P and Jason-2 on 20 June 2017.

  10. Anomalous bulging behaviors of a dielectric elastomer balloon under internal pressure and electric actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Yuan, Chao; Lu, Tongqing; Wang, T. J.

    2017-05-01

    When a clamped membrane of elastomer is subject to a lateral pressure, it bulges into a hemispherical balloon. However, for a clamped membrane of dielectric elastomer (DE) under a lateral pressure as well as a voltage through the thickness, it may bulge into a regular hemispherical balloon or an irregular shape. This work focuses on the anomalous bulging behaviors (i.e. the irregular bulging shape) of a DE balloon under electromechanical coupling loading. The full set of the equilibrium configurations of the DE balloon is theoretically derived within the framework of thermodynamics, based on which we find that with the increase of the applied voltage, the pressure-volume relationship changes from the single-N shape for the case of purely mechanical loading to a double-N shape, where five or more equilibrium configurations exist including both regular and irregular bulging shapes. Through stability analysis we find that the anomalous bulging is a common behavior for the DE balloon under electromechanical coupling loading and all types of irregular bulging shapes can be achieved by following carefully designed loading paths. Besides, the irregular bulging region usually has the largest local strain which may initiate the failure of the DE membrane. Guided by the theoretical analysis, we conducted experiments on a DE balloon under the internal pressure and electrical actuation. Typical irregular shapes were successfully observed and the entire evolution of the shape changing agrees very well with theoretical predictions. These findings enrich understandings of highly nonlinear behaviors for soft materials under electromechanical coupling loading.

  11. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Cu and Zn on the Pressure-Dependent Melting Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R. A.; Ezenwa, I.; Yong, W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how the core cools through heat conduction and modelling the geodynamo requires knowledge of the thermal and electrical conductivity of solid and liquid Fe and its relevant alloys at high pressures. It has been proposed that electrical resistivity of a pure metal is constant along its P-dependent melting boundary (Stacey and Anderson, PEPI, 2001). If confirmed, this invariant behavior could serve as a practical tool for low P studies to assess electrical resistivity of Earth's core. Since Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) is a melting boundary of mainly Fe, measurements of electrical resistivity of Fe at the melting boundary, under any P, would serve as a proxy for the resistivity at the ICB. A revised treatment (Stacey and Loper, PEPI, 2007) accounted for s-d scattering in transition metals with unfilled d-bands and limited the proposal to metals with electrons of the same type in filled d-band metals. To test this proposal, we made high P, T measurements of electrical resistivity of d-band filled Cu and Zn in solid and liquid states. Experiments were carried out in a 1000 ton cubic anvil press up to 5 GPa and 300K above melting temperatures. Two thermocouples placed at opposite ends of the wire sample served as T probes as well as 4-wire resistance electrodes in a switched circuit. A polarity switch was used to remove any bias voltage measurement using thermocouple legs. Electron microprobe analyses were used to check the compositions of the recovered samples. The expected resistivity decrease with P and increase with T were found and comparisons with 1atm data are in very good agreement. Within the error of measurement, the resistivity values of Cu decrease along the melting boundary while Zn appears to support the hypothesis of constant resistivity along the melting boundary.

  12. Complementary vapor pressure data for 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Quezada, Nathalie [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl

    2009-09-15

    The vapor pressure of pure 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, components called congeners that are present in aroma of wine, pisco, and other alcoholic beverages, were measured with a dynamic recirculation apparatus at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa with an estimated uncertainty <0.2%. The measurements were performed at temperature ranges of (337 to 392) K for 2-methyl-1-propanol and (358 to 422) K for 3-methyl-1-butanol. Data were correlated using a Wagner-type equation with standard deviations of 0.09 kPa for the vapor pressure of 2-methyl-1-propanol and 0.21 kPa for 3-methyl-1-butanol. The experimental data and correlation were compared with data selected from the literature.

  13. Consumer Views: Fuel Economy, Plug-in Electric Vehicle Battery Range, and Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on fuel economy, plug-in electric vehicle battery range, and willingness to pay for advanced vehicle technologies.

  14. A tomographic visualization of electric discharge sound fields in atmospheric pressure plasma using laser diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Tsuda, Ryoichi; Sonoda, Yoshito; Danuta Stryczewska, Henryka

    2013-02-01

    The phase modulation of transparent gas can be detected using Fraunhofer diffraction technique, which we call optical wave microphone (OWM). The OWM is suitable for the detection of sonic wave from audible sound to ultrasonic wave. Because this technique has no influence on sound field or electric field during the measurement, we have applied it to the sound detection for the electric discharges. There is almost no research paper that uses the discharge sound to examine the electrical discharge phenomenon. Two-dimensional visualization of the sound field using the OWM is also possible when the computerized tomography (CT) is combined. In this work, coplanar dielectric barrier discharge sin different gases of Ar, N2, He were characterized via the OWM as well as applied voltage and discharge current. This is the first report to investigate the influence of the type of the atmospheric gas on the two-dimensional sound field distribution for the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge using the OWM with CT. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  15. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...

  16. An Automatic Hypothesis of Electrical Lines from Range Scans and Photographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krispel, Ulrich; Ullrich, Torsten; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2016-01-01

    spaces in order to provide a hypothesis of paths of electrical lines. The system assumes that legal requirements and standards exist for defining the placement of power supply lines. This prior knowledge is formalized in a set of rules, using a 2D shape grammar that yields installation zones for a given...

  17. Pressure effect on the long-range order in CeB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, M. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail: sera@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ikeda, S. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Iwakubo, H. [ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Hane, S. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kosaka, M. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Urawa 338-8570 (Japan); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    The pressure effect of CeB{sub 6} was investigated. The pressure dependence of the Neel temperature, T{sub N} and the critical field from the antiferro-magnetic phase III to antiferro-quadrupolar phase II, H{sub c}{sup III-II} of CeB{sub 6} exhibits the unusual pressure dependence that the suppression rate of H{sub c}{sup III-II} is much larger than that of T{sub N}. In order to explain this unusual result, we have performed the mean field calculation for the 4-sublattice model assuming that the pressure dependence of T{sub N}, the antiferro-octupolar and quadrupolar temperatures, T{sub oct} and T{sub Q} as follows; dT{sub N}/dP<0, dT{sub oct}/dP>dT{sub Q}/dP>0 and could explain the unusual pressure dependence of T{sub N} and H{sub c}{sup III-II}.

  18. Micromechanism Underlying Nonlinear Stress-Dependent K0 of Clays at a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the reported nonlinear at-rest coefficient of earth pressure, K0 of clays at high pressure, a particle-scale model which can be used to calculate vertical and horizontal repulsion between clay particles has been proposed. This model has two initial states which represent the clays at low pressure and high pressure, and the particles in this model can undergo rotation and vertical translation. The computation shows that the majority of particles in a clay sample at high pressure state would experience rotation during one-dimensional compression. In addition, rotation of particles which tends to form a parallel structure causes an increase of the horizontal interparticle force, while vertical translation leads to a decrease in it. Finally, the link between interparticle force, microstructure, and macroscopic K0 is analyzed and it can be used to interpret well the nonlinear changes in K0 with both vertical consolidation stress and height-diameter ratio.

  19. Agreement of high definition oscillometry with direct arterial blood pressure measurement at different blood pressure ranges in horses under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünsmeyer, Julia; Hopster, Klaus; Feige, Karsten; Kästner, Sabine Br

    2015-05-01

    To determine the agreement of high definition oscillometry (HDO) with direct arterial blood pressure measurements in normotensive, hypotensive and hypertensive horses during general anaesthesia. Experimental study. Seven healthy warmblood horses, aged 3-11 years, weighing 470-565 kg. Measurements from a HDO device with the cuff placed around the base of the tail were compared with pressures measured invasively from the facial artery. High blood pressures were induced by intravenous (IV) administration of dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) over ten minutes followed by norepinephrine (0.1 mg kg(-1) IV) and low pressures by increasing the inspired fraction of isoflurane and administration of nitroglycerine (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV). For analysis three pressure levels were determined: high (MAP>110 mmHg), normal (60 mmHginvasive and invasive measurements. A total of 245 paired measurements of systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) pressures were obtained. The HDO device underestimated blood pressure at hypertensive and normotensive levels and overestimated blood pressure at hypotensive levels. Best agreement was obtained for SAP and MAP within normotensive limits. At normotension, bias ± standard deviation for SAP, MAP and DAP were 0.1 ± 19.4 mmHg, 0.5 ± 14.0, 4.7 ± 15.6, respectively. At high pressure levels bias and SD were 26.1 ± 37.3 (SAP), 4.2 ± 19.4 (MAP), 1.5 ± 16.8 (DAP) and at low pressures -20.0 ± 20.9 (SAP), -11.4 ± 19.6 (MAP), -4.7 ± 20.1 (DAP), with HDO measurements at a MAP invasive arterial blood pressures was obtained with HDO at normotensive levels in horses. At high and low pressure ranges HDO was unreliable. Therefore, if haemodynamic instability is expected, invasive measurement remains preferable. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. High-pressure electrical resistivity studies for Ba1-xCsxFe2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, C.; Soeda, H.; Takahashi, H.; Hawai, T.; Nambu, Y.; Sato, T. J.; Hirata, Y.; Ohgushi, K.

    2017-10-01

    High-pressure electrical resistance measurements were performed for iron-based ladder material Ba1-xCsxFe2Se3 (x = 0.25 and 0.65) using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Recent high-pressure study revealed that iron-based ladder material BaFe2S3 exhibits an insulator-metal transition and superconductivity, and this discovery would provide important insight for understanding the mechanism of iron-based superconductors. Therefore, it is intriguing to investigate the high-pressure properties for the iron-based ladder material Ba1-xCsxFe2Se3 system. The parent compounds BaFe2Se3 and CsFe2Se3 show insulating and magnetic ordering features. For Ba1-xCsxFe2Se3 system, no magnetic ordering is observed for x = 0.25 and minimum charge gap was estimated for x = 0.65. The insulator-metal transitions are observed in both materials.

  1. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  2. Modeling Control Strategies and Range Impacts for Electric Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Systems with MATLAB/Simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, Gene; Lustbader, Jason Aaron

    2017-03-28

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) CoolSim MATLAB/Simulink modeling framework was used to explore control strategies for an electric vehicle combined loop system. Three system variants of increased complexity and efficiency were explored: a glycol-based positive temperature coefficient heater (PTC), PTC with power electronics and electric motor (PEEM) waste heat recovery, and PTC with PEEM waste heat recovery plus heat pump versions. Additionally, the benefit of electric motor preheating was considered. A two-level control strategy was developed where the mode selection and component control were treated separately. Only the parameters typically available by vehicle sensors were used to control the system. The control approach included a mode selection algorithm and controllers for the compressor speed, cabin blower flow rate, coolant flow rate, and the front-end heat exchanger coolant bypass rate. The electric motor was bypassed by the cooling circuit until its temperature exceeded the coolant inlet temperature. The impact of these thermal systems on electric vehicle range during warmup was simulated for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET2X) drive cycles weighted 45%/55% respectively. A range of ambient temperatures from -20 degrees C to +20 degrees C was considered. NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle modeling tool showed up to a 10.9% improvement in range for the full system over the baseline during warmup from cold soak. The full system with preheat showed up to 17% improvement in range.

  3. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  4. A high-pressure vessel for X-ray diffraction experiments for liquids in a wide temperature range

    CERN Document Server

    Hosokawa, S

    2001-01-01

    An internally heated high-pressure vessel was developed for angle-dispersive X-ray scattering experiments on liquids at high-temperatures and high-pressures. It consists of a closed-end Al cylinder and a steel flange. Continuous windows made of Be cover a scattering angle range up to 55 deg. In combination with a single-crystal sapphire cell and a small heating system inside the vessel, we were able to carry out diffraction measurements for liquids in a wide temperature range up to 2000 K at high pressures up to 150 bars. Some of our recent X-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation, such as inelastic scattering, high-energy elastic scattering, and anomalous scattering, are also reported.

  5. Clinical assessment of auto-positive end-expiratory pressure by diaphragmatic electrical activity during pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Giacomo; Coppadoro, Andrea; Patroniti, Nicolò; Turella, Marta; Arrigoni Marocco, Stefano; Grasselli, Giacomo; Mauri, Tommaso; Pesenti, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) may substantially increase the inspiratory effort during assisted mechanical ventilation. Purpose of this study was to assess whether the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) signal can be reliably used to estimate auto-PEEP in patients undergoing pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and whether NAVA was beneficial in comparison with pressure support ventilation in patients affected by auto-PEEP. In 10 patients with a clinical suspicion of auto-PEEP, the authors simultaneously recorded EAdi, airway, esophageal pressure, and flow during pressure support and NAVA, whereas external PEEP was increased from 2 to 14 cm H2O. Tracings were analyzed to measure apparent "dynamic" auto-PEEP (decrease in esophageal pressure to generate inspiratory flow), auto-EAdi (EAdi value at the onset of inspiratory flow), and IDEAdi (inspiratory delay between the onset of EAdi and the inspiratory flow). The pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, auto-EAdi, and IDEAdi was significantly lower in NAVA as compared with pressure support ventilation, decreased with increase in external PEEP, although the effect of external PEEP was less pronounced in NAVA. Both auto-EAdi and IDEAdi were tightly correlated with auto-PEEP (r = 0.94 and r = 0.75, respectively). In the presence of auto-PEEP at lower external PEEP levels, NAVA was characterized by a characteristic shape of the airway pressure. In patients with auto-PEEP, NAVA, compared with pressure support ventilation, led to a decrease in the pressure necessary to overcome auto-PEEP, which could be reliably monitored by the electrical activity of the diaphragm before inspiratory flow onset (auto-EAdi).

  6. Calculation of the density of solutions (sunflower oil + n-hexane) over a wide range of temperatures and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-09-01

    We present the results from an experimental investigation of the density of the sunflower oil system as a function of the mass concentration of n-hexane in the ranges of temperatures T=290 520 K and pressures P=0.101 98.1 MPa. A method of hydrostatic weighing was used to measure the density of the solutions under study.

  7. Escape factors for thermionic cathodes in atomic gases in a wide electric field range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benilov, M. S.; Naidis, G. V.; Petrovic, Z. Lj; Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Stojkovic, A.

    2006-07-01

    An approximate analytical expression is obtained for the escape factors for thermionically emitting cathodes in atomic gases that is uniformly valid at all values of the reduced electric field. This expression is used for evaluation of the escape factors in neon, helium and mercury. An independent evaluation is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The analytical results are in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, both for reflecting and non-reflecting cathodes.

  8. Escape factors for thermionic cathodes in atomic gases in a wide electric field range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do MunicIpio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal); Naidis, G V [Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Petrovic, Z Lj [Institute of Physics, POB 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M [Institute of Physics, POB 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Stojkovic, A [Institute of Physics, POB 68, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-07-21

    An approximate analytical expression is obtained for the escape factors for thermionically emitting cathodes in atomic gases that is uniformly valid at all values of the reduced electric field. This expression is used for evaluation of the escape factors in neon, helium and mercury. An independent evaluation is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The analytical results are in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations, both for reflecting and non-reflecting cathodes.

  9. EU-US evaluation of range extended electric vehicle performance at varying ambient temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    STUTENBERG KEVIN; GALASSI MARIA CRISTINA; OTURA GARCIA MARCOS; TRENTADUE GERMANA; SCHOLZ HARALD; CARRIERO MASSIMO; LOHSE-BUSCH H.

    2016-01-01

    The US DoE Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the EC Joint Research Centre (JRC) collaborate to promote a common EU/US approach towards global harmonization of standards for e-mobility and smart grids, with a common work plan including pre-normative research on the energy efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs). The aim of this paper is to introduce the cooperative and complementary ANL-JRC activities focusing on chassis dynamometer testing of electrified vehicles. Within this research progr...

  10. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  11. Atmospheric-pressure electric discharge as an instrument of chemical activation of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, V. V.; Shutov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of physicochemical characteristics of plasmas generated in different types of atmospheric-pressure discharges (pulsed streamer corona, gliding electric arc, dielectric barrier discharge, glow-discharge electrolysis, diaphragmatic discharge, and dc glow discharge) used to initiate various chemical processes in water solutions are analyzed. Typical reactor designs are considered. Data on the power supply characteristics, plasma electron parameters, gas temperatures, and densities of active particles in different types of discharges excited in different gases and their dependences on the external parameters of discharges are presented. The chemical composition of active particles formed in water is described. Possible mechanisms of production and loss of plasma particles are discussed.

  12. Testing of ground fault relay response during the energisation of megawatt range electric boilers in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Large controllable loads may support power systems with an increased penetration of fluctuating renewable energy, by providing a rapid response to a change in the power production. Megawatt range electric boilers are an example of such controllable loads, capable of change rapidly, with the advan......Large controllable loads may support power systems with an increased penetration of fluctuating renewable energy, by providing a rapid response to a change in the power production. Megawatt range electric boilers are an example of such controllable loads, capable of change rapidly...... for the testing of two ground fault protection relays, in order to assure that they are not triggered by the energisation of the boiler. The test is performed via an OMICRON CMC 256 with Advanced TransPlay SW, which generates the signals that would be present at the secondary of the instrumentation transformers......, resulting in a realistic simulation environment. The test of different cases demonstrates that the relays will not present unwanted triggering....

  13. Control of Chiral Magnetism Through Electric Fields in Multiferroic Compounds above the Long-Range Multiferroic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J; Baum, M; Holbein, S; Finger, T; Cronert, T; Tölzer, C; Fröhlich, T; Biesenkamp, S; Schmalzl, K; Steffens, P; Lee, C H; Braden, M

    2017-10-27

    Polarized neutron scattering experiments reveal that type-II multiferroics allow for controlling the spin chirality by external electric fields even in the absence of long-range multiferroic order. In the two prototype compounds TbMnO_{3} and MnWO_{4}, chiral magnetism associated with soft overdamped electromagnons can be observed above the long-range multiferroic transition temperature T_{MF}, and it is possible to control it through an electric field. While MnWO_{4} exhibits chiral correlations only in a tiny temperature interval above T_{MF}, in TbMnO_{3} chiral magnetism can be observed over several kelvin up to the lock-in transition, which is well separated from T_{MF}.

  14. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on) and pulse off time (T off) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between ‑51.2 and ‑46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  15. A Wearable Force Plate Designed Using Pressure Sensitive Electric Conductive Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    To perform 3D ground reaction force (GRF) and moments measurement with a comfortable interface for the foot, this paper presents a new 3D force sensor cell designed using pressure sensitive electric conductive rubber (PSECR). A wearable force plate with a four-support mechanism was proposed for measuring triaxial forces and moments. A compact electrical hardware system including amplifier modules, conditioning circuits, and then a micro-computer controller was developed and integrated into the sensor system. A shoes-based sensor system composed of two developed force plates was constructed for GRF and moment measurement. Calibration experiments were conducted, and a stationary force plate was used as a reference device to verify the measures of GRF and moment using the sensor system in trials by a normal walking speed. The results show a good correspondence between the developed sensor system and the reference system, which was examined by a root mean square (RMS) difference of 7.2N for x-axial force, 11.1N for y-axial force, and 9.5N for z-axial force. The RMS difference of the measured x-, y-, and z- directional moments was 6.4Nm, 1.9Nm, and 1.4Nm, respectively.

  16. Electrical and optical characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by neon trasformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Rusop, Mohamad; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by double sinusoidal waveform of neon transformer is reported in this paper. The commercial neon transformer produces about 5 kV of peak sinusoidal voltages and 35 kHz of frequency. Argon gas has been used as discharge gas for this system since the discharge was easily developed rather than using helium gas. In addition, argon gas is three times cheaper than helium gas. The electrical property of the argon discharge has been analyzed in details by measuring its voltage, current and power during the discharge process. Interestingly, it has been found that the total power on the inner needle electrode was slightly lower than that of outer electrode. This may be due to the polarization charges that occurred at inner needle electrode. Then, further investigation to understand the discharge properties was carried out using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. During OES measurements, two positions of plasma discharge are measured by aligning the quartz optical lens and spectrometer fiber. The OH emission intensity was found higher than that of N2 at the plasma orifice. However, OH emission intensity was lower at 1.5 cm distance from orifice which may be due to penning ionization effect. These results and understanding are essential for surface modification and biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet.

  17. Pressure tuning of the electrical transport properties of the Weyl semimetal NbP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Ricardo dos; Ajeesh, M.O.; Sun, Yan; Shekhar, Chandra; Schmidt, Marcus; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Nicklas, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Recently enormous attention has been given to a class of material called Weyl semimetal (WSM) due to the prediction of many exotic phenomena, in particular exceptional transport properties, making these systems not only interesting for fundamental research, but also promising materials for novel applications. WSM can be viewed as the hybrid of 3D graphene and topological insulators. The band crossing point, the so-called Weyl point, acts as a magnetic monopole (a singular point of Berry curvature) in momentum space, which always comes in a pairs. If the time-reversal and inversion symmetries are respected, a pair of Weyl points is degenerate in energy, forming another topological phase called Dirac semimetal. Owing this complex band structure the details of the electronic structure can play a significant role in the electrical transport properties of these materials. In this context, external pressure is an important control parameter to effectively tune lattice structures and the corresponding electronic states in a systematic fashion, avoiding the complexity brought by chemical doping. Here, we present a high pressure study of the magnetotransport properties of the Weyl semimetal NbP, which are particularly important to explore novel phenomena and understand the physics behind.

  18. Influence of the external conditions on salt retention and pressure-induced electrical potential measured across a composite membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence on these paramet......Transport on single electrolyte solutions (NaCl and MgCl2) due to pressure gradients across a commercial reverse osmosis membrane was studied by measuring volume flux (J(v)), salt rejection (S) and pressure induced electrical potential (Delta E) in a crossflow cell. The influence...... with respect to the value determined with single electrolytes at the same concentration was obtained, which is attributed to a strong coupling among the fluxes of individual ions and their distribution in the membrane when transport of mixed salt is studied. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxue; Tan, Wei; Luo, Danping; Lin, Jianhua; Yu, Yaoqing; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Wangyeng; Wu, Buling; Chen, Jun; He, Jiman

    2012-12-04

    Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 160-280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  20. Long-range PV R&D and the electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Terry M.

    1997-04-01

    In the short term, photovoltaics will probably continue to enjoy great success in niche markets and non-utility businesses, but see relatively little use within utilities. Deregulation is driving major restructuring of the electric-utility sector, causing great uncertainty among its planners and executives, and leading them to favor cost-cutting over other corporate strategies. However, the competitive motives at the root of that restructuring will ultimately induce resourceful utility executives to seek novel non-commodity energy-service businesses to sustain their companies' success in the deregulated industry of the future. In that industry, technology innovation will play a very important role. Specifically, photovoltaics will be highly valued in light of its unsurpassed modularity, extreme siting ease, very low operation and maintenance costs, and public popularity. The eventual leaders in wielding that powerful technology likely will be among those who recognize those assets earliest and strive to bring its promises to reality through innovative applications.

  1. Evaluation of aerodynamic particle sizer and electrical low-pressure impactor for unimodal and bimodal mass-weighted size distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Pagels, Joakim; Gudmundsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Eva; Asking, Lars; Bohgard, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and the Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI) to study mass weighted particle size distributions. Unimodal and bimodal liquid test aerosols were produced to a small chamber. Simultaneous measurements were performed with an APS 3320, an APS 3321, an ELPI and a Dekati Low-Pressure Impactor (DLPI) analyzed gravimetrically. ELPI current and mass responses were simulated for lognormal size dist...

  2. Electrical admittance for filling of the heart during lower body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yan; Holm, Søren; Jenstrup, Morten

    2000-01-01

    cardiac output, electrical impedance, heart rate, positron emission tomography, technetium-labeled erythrocytes......cardiac output, electrical impedance, heart rate, positron emission tomography, technetium-labeled erythrocytes...

  3. The Blood Pressure "Uncertainty Range" – a pragmatic approach to overcome current diagnostic uncertainties (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Cornel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A tremendous amount of scientific evidence regarding the physiology and physiopathology of high blood pressure combined with a sophisticated therapeutic arsenal is at the disposal of the medical community to counteract the overall public health burden of hypertension. Ample evidence has also been gathered from a multitude of large-scale randomized trials indicating the beneficial effects of current treatment strategies in terms of reduced hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. In spite of these impressive advances and, deeply disappointingly from a public health perspective, the real picture of hypertension management is overshadowed by widespread diagnostic inaccuracies (underdiagnosis, overdiagnosis as well as by treatment failures generated by undertreatment, overtreatment, and misuse of medications. The scientific, medical and patient communities as well as decision-makers worldwide are striving for greatest possible health gains from available resources. A seemingly well-crystallised reasoning is that comprehensive strategic approaches must not only target hypertension as a pathological entity, but rather, take into account the wider environment in which hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease carrying a great deal of our inheritance, and its interplay in the constellation of other, well-known, modifiable risk factors, i.e., attention is to be switched from one's "blood pressure level" to one's absolute cardiovascular risk and its determinants. Likewise, a risk/benefit assessment in each individual case is required in order to achieve best possible results. Nevertheless, it is of paramount importance to insure generalizability of ABPM use in clinical practice with the aim of improving the accuracy of a first diagnosis for both individual treatment and clinical research purposes. Widespread adoption of the method requires quick adjustment of current guidelines, development of appropriate technology

  4. Long-range correlations of microseism-band pressure fluctuations in the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Justin S.; Godin, Oleg A.; Evers, L.G.; Lv, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spatial coherence of underwater ambient noise using a yearlong time-series measured off Ascension Island. Qualitative agreement with observed cross-correlations is achieved using a simple range-dependent model, constrained by earlier, active tomographic studies in the area. In

  5. INFLUENCE OF CONTACTOR CONTACT PRESSURE IN POWER CIRCUITS OF ELECTRIC STOCK ON THEIR PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND FUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Baliichuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed at conducting the study to obtain the results that will quantify the influence of contactor contact pressure in power circuits of electric stock on the highest current value Id, that does not cause plastic deformation of contacts; and on the current value Ifs– incipient fusion of contacts taking into account the operation conditions. Therefore, such a study targeted to establish the contact fusing causes is relevant. Methodology. The paper proposes an engineering method for determining the currents Id and Ifs, taking into account the value of contact pressure, electrodynamic forces of contact repulsion Fe.d.r, as well as the pressure influence on the values of such forces. Findings. Taking the contactors 1SVAD8 (locomotive ChS8 and 7SP1 (locomotive ChS4 as an example, the authors conducted the calculations and found that the peak pressure force increases the currents Id and Ifs for these contactors by 11.8%; 15.5%; 11.8%; and 15.4% respectively (compared with the specified currents at the minimum pressure force. Influenced by Fe.d.r the pressure force of contacts for 1SVAD8 contactor decreased by 13.8…31.8%, and for 7SP1contactor the value Fe.d.r may be greater than the pressure force. This can lead to spontaneous shutdown of the closed contactor that is not provided by the control circuit. Ensuring during operation the maximum allowable pressure force of the contacts Fc slightly affects the value Fe.d.r, compared with the case when Fc has the minimum permissible value (in event of a fault in the heating circuit Fe.d.r for contactors 1SVAD8 and 7SP1 is reduced by only 2.45% and 2.59% respectively. Originality. The authors for the first time presented a quantitative assessment of influence of contactor contact pressure in power circuits of electric stock on their plastic deformation and fusing using the proposed engineering method. Practical value. The results obtained during the research allow solving the problem

  6. Neutron Diffraction and Electrical Transport Studies on Magnetic Transition in Terbium at High Pressures and Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel; Tulk, Christopher; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate its transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic ordered phase as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements using designer diamonds show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of the ferromagnetic transition decreases at a rate of -16.7 K/GPa till 3.6 GPa, where terbium undergoes a structural transition from hexagonal close packed (hcp) to an α-Sm phase. Above this pressure, the electrical resistance measurements no longer exhibit a change in slope. In order to confirm the change in magnetic phase suggested by the electrical resistance measurements, neutron diffraction measurements were conducted at the SNAP beamline at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements were made at pressures to 5.3 GPa and temperatures as low as 90 K. An abrupt increase in peak intensity in the neutron diffraction spectra signaled the onset of magnetic order below the Curie temperature. A magnetic phase diagram of rare earth metal terbium will be presented to 5.3 GPa and 90 K based on these studies.

  7. Electrical breakdown and optical emission properties of high pressure pulsed RF gas discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, S.R.; Hurst, G.S. [Pellissippi International, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, W.A. [Pellissippi International, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turner, J.E.; Hamm, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wright, H.A. [Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A fundamentally new technique for the measurement of the number of subexcitation electrons produced by the passage of ionizing radiation through a gas has ben developed by us during the past few years. The new detector is based on the digital characterization of the electrons in the particle track produced by the ionizing radiation where the charged particle track is registered by measuring the number of electrons found in given subvolumes of the gas in the ionization chamber. The track is thus characterized by a set of integers in each volume clement, from which parameters such as the track length and energy can be measured. We have specifically developed this technique for use in the field of microdosimetry, where the study of the fluctuations in the energy deposition in the charged particle track on the order of the molecular to cellular dimensions is important in understanding the chemical and biological effects of ionizing radiation. If the charged particle is a recoil nucleus produced by a neutron interaction, the energy deposited and the linear energy transfer can be inferred from this information, allowing the detector to act as neutron spectrometer. In this paper the experimental apparatus used to make these measurements and the optical and pulsed RF electric field optimization we have performed are described. Images of particle tracks produced by {alpha} and {beta} particles, and recoil protons from the interaction of high energy neutrons with hydrogenous materials, are also presented to illustrate the sensitivity and track imaging resolution. The quality of the information gained from the detector is a very sensitive function of the gas mixture constituents, purities and pressures used in the chamber, along with the magnitude, duration, and frequency of the pulsed RF electric field.

  8. Assessment of deep tissue hyperalgesia in the groin – a method comparison of electrical vs. pressure stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Werner, M U; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    and preventive strategies. Thus, there is a need for development of methods with direct stimulation of suspected hyperalgesic tissues to identify the peripheral origin of nociceptive input. METHODS: We compared the reliability of an ultrasound-guided needle stimulation protocol of electrical detection and pain...... thresholds to pressure algometry, by performing identical test-retest sequences 10 days apart, in deep tissues in the groin region. Electrical stimulation was performed by five up-and-down staircase series of single impulses of 0.04 ms duration, starting from 0 mA in increments of 0.2 mA until a threshold......: The presented tissue-specific direct deep tissue electrical stimulation technique has equal or superior reliability compared with the indirect tissue-unspecific stimulation by pressure algometry. This method may facilitate advances in mechanism based preventive and treatment strategies in acute and chronic post...

  9. Electrical resistivity and AC-calorimetric measurements of PrRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: miyake@djebel.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Holmes, A.T.; Kagayama, T.; Shimizu, K. [KYOKUGEN, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sekine, C.; Shirotani, I. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Kikuchi, D. [Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Sato, H. [Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure in the filled skutterudite PrRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}, which shows a metal-insulator (MI) transition at T{sub MI}=63 K, via simultaneous measurements of electrical resistivity ({rho}) and AC-calorimetry (C{sub AC}). Schottky-like anomalies in C{sub AC} disappear under pressure, suggesting a change of the ground state. The resistivity below T{sub MI} is strongly suppressed with increasing pressure, in contrast to the weak pressure dependence of T{sub MI}. Above 10 GPa, {rho}(T) shows metallic behavior with small anomalies at T{sub MI}. We discuss the likely change of ground state in PrRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} with pressure from triplet to singlet.

  10. Discharge physics and influence of the modulation on helium DBD modes in the medium-frequency range at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Margot, Joëlle; Massines, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    In this paper the recently reported hybrid mode (a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excited by an electric field oscillating at about 1 MHz) is investigated using space and time-resolved imaging together with electrical measurements. In contrast with the helium low-frequency DBD, at 1.6 MHz the light emission is desynchronized with the discharge current. It rather depends on the enhanced rate of stepwise excitation resulting from the massive secondary emission occurring 0.15Ƭ after the discharge current maximum (Ƭ is the excitation wave period). The consequence of ion impacts on the dielectric surfaces is a higher gas and dielectric temperatures as compared to typical helium DBDs. The electrical behavior and the gas temperature of a pulsed dielectric-barrier discharge operated at 1.6 MHz are also described in this paper as a function of the repetition rate (varying from 1 Hz to 10 kHz). The gas temperature is reduced when repetition rates higher or equal to 10 Hz is used. This is related to the gas renewal rate of 8.3 Hz, i.e., gas residence time of 120 ms in our conditions. In addition, due to the memory effect in the gas, the gas gap voltage decreases as the repetition rate increases. However, beyond 100 Hz, the power decreases and the gas gap voltage increases again. As a consequence, for a given power density, the optimal repetition rate is 100 Hz which minimizes the gas temperature without reducing the power density. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  11. Optimal Line Pressure Control for an Automatic Transmission-Based Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle considering Mode Change and Gear Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimal line pressure control algorithm was proposed for the fuel economy improvement of an AT-based parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. By performing lever analysis at each gear step, the required line pressure was obtained considering the torque ratio of the friction elements. In addition, the required line pressure of the mode clutch was calculated. Based on these results, the optimal line pressure map at each gear step of the EV and HEV modes was presented. Using the line pressure map, an optimal line pressure was performed for the AT input torque and mode. To investigate the proposed line pressure control algorithm, a HEV performance simulator was developed based on the powertrain model of the target HEV, and fuel economy improvement was evaluated. Simulation results showed that as the gear step became higher, the optimal line pressure control could reduce the hydraulic power loss, which gave a 2.2% fuel economy improvement compared to the existing line pressure control for the FTP-72 mode.

  12. Characterization of particle size distribution of mainstream cigarette smoke generated by smoking machine with an electrical low pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Kong, Haohui; Zhang, Xinying; Peng, Bin; Nie, Cong; Shen, Guanglin; Liu, Huimin

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a particle-related exposure. Studying the characteristics of the particle size distribution of cigarette smoke can aid in providing knowledge of smoke aerosol attributes. We used an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to measure the particle size distribution of mainstream cigarette smoke generated by a smoking machine and provided a continuum of particle sizes of cigarette smoke from a whole cigarette. The results showed that the aerodynamic diameters (D, geometric mean of a channel) of particles ranged from 0.021 to 1.956 μm, and the number concentrations were on the order of 10(5)-10(9) cm(-3) for different sizes of particles. The particle number of the size category below 0.1 μm approximated that of the category 0.1-2.0 μm, and the particles in the size category of 0.1-2.0 μm contributed extremely heavily to total particulate mass. In addition, the results with small samples indicated that the tar yields normalized per milligram of nicotine showed an approximately linear increase with increasing concentration of total particles. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  14. Ionization Capabilities of Hydronium Ions and High Electric Fields Produced by Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuhiko; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharge (APCD) was applied to the ionization of volatile organic compounds. The mass spectra of analytes having aromatic, phenolic, anilinic, basic and aliphatic in nature were obtained by using vapor supply and liquid smear supply methods. The vapor supply method mainly gave protonated analytes [A+H]+ caused by proton transfer from hydronium ion H3O+, except for benzene, toluene and n-hexane that have lower proton affinity. The use of the liquid smear supply method resulted in the formation of molecular ion A·+ and/or dehydride analyte [A-H]+, according to the nature of analytes used. The formation of A·+ without fragment ions could be explained by the electron tunneling via high electric fields 108 V/m at the tip of the corona needle. The dehydride analytes [A-H]+ observed in the mass spectra of n-hexane, di- and tributylamines may be explained by the hydride abstraction from the alkyl chains by the hydronium ion. The hydronium ion can play the two-roles for analytes, i.e., the proton donor to form [A+H]+ and the hydride acceptor to form [A-H]+.

  15. Reliability of Oscillometric Blood Pressure Monitoring in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Admitted for Electric Cardioversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Monica; Giantin, Valter; Corrado, Domenico; Franchin, Alessandro; Attanasio, Francesca; Pengo, Valentina; Tramontano, Alessandra; De Toni, Pietro; Perissinotto, Egle; Manzato, Enzo

    2015-07-01

    The reliability of automated oscillometric blood pressure (BP) monitors in atrial fibrillation (AF) has been poorly investigated, only comparing different patients with AF and sinus rhythm (SR), and is a method influenced by individual characteristics. This study compared the reliability of the oscillometric device A&D TM-2430 (A&D Company, Tokyo, Japan) with that of a mercury sphygmomanometer in AF patients whose SR was restored after electric cardioversion (ECV). Three consecutive BP measurements were obtained on the day before and about 30 days after ECV in stable treatment conditions. Of the 100 patients studied, 63 reported an SR at follow-up, with a significant increase in systolic BP and a significant decrease in diastolic BP according to both devices. There were no significant differences between the systolic and diastolic biases before and after ECV using Bland Altman analysis (P > .05 each). The oscillometric device analyzed, using three repeated measurements, is reliable in measuring BP in AF patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Potential and Limitations of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Disjunct Eddy Covariance Aerosol Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A.; Niessner, R.; Bosveld, F.; Klemm, O.

    2006-12-01

    A micrometeorological application of an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) is proposed for the measurement of size-resolved particle fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. This extends flux measurement capabilities to cover submicron particles in several size classes simultaneously. The disjunct eddy covariance system combines a sonic anemometer, an ELPI and a valve-controlled particle sampling unit. Depending on the valve setting, ambient air or filtered particle-free air is sampled and introduced into the impactor. For disjunct eddy covariance measurements, ambient air is sampled only during a very short sampling interval (~ 0.1 s) in measurement intervals of several seconds. The integrated ELPI signal is representative for the particle size distribution during the short sampling interval. This information may be correlated with fast measurements of the vertical wind speed to obtain turbulent fluxes of submicron particles simultaneously in several size classes. A prototype system has been tested in lab and field experiments in order to evaluate the technical limitations of this approach. Tests show that different valve switch cycles do not affect the concentration measurements. However, longitudinal diffusion processes within the sampling lines lead to signal dilatation. In addition, reliable measurements require a minimum number of charged particles impacting on each stage. This leads to the exclusion of some size bins in typical field applications. Nevertheless, the system showed its potential for size-resolved flux measurements under favorable conditions. Travel support by the ACCENT Access to Infrastructures program is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Unified one-dimensional model of bounded plasma with nonzero ion temperature in a broad pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-03-15

    A one-dimensional model for steady state plasmas bounded either between large parallel walls, or by a cylinder or a sphere, valid in a wide range of gas pressures, is considered. The model includes nonzero ion temperature, inertial terms in the ion momentum equations, and allows one to calculate the plasma electron temperature and ion current density reaching the wall, as well as the spatial distributions of the ion fluid velocity, plasma density, and plasma potential in the plasma bulk. In addition, the effect of electron inertia is analyzed. The model includes as particular cases several earlier models that were based on a similar set of differential equations, but that are restricted to a specific pressure regime (low, intermediate, or high). Analytical solution is found in planar geometry, and numerical solution is given in cylindrical and spherical geometry. The results obtained are compared with those of earlier models and the differences are analyzed.

  18. Why Did Better Place Fail?: Range Anxiety, Interpretive Flexibility, and Electric Vehicle Promotion in Denmark and Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Lance Douglas; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    With almost $1 billion in funding, Better Place was poised to become one of the most innovative companies in the electric mobility market. The system Better Place proposed had two novel prongs; first, to reduce the cost of batteries, and second, to reduce range anxiety, public infrastructure...... concerns, and long charging times. Yet, despite this seemingly strong combination, Better Place failed to make any progress in Denmark and Israel, the first two markets it operated in, and subsequently declared bankruptcy, selling off its collective assets for less than $500,000. Drawing from science...... and technology studies and the notion of “interpretive flexibility,” this paper posits several reasons to explain the failure of Better Place, including that Denmark is not as “green” as it seems nor is the Israeli market as attractive as believed, and that Better Place's solution to charging time and range...

  19. A High-Q Resonant Pressure Microsensor with Through-Glass Electrical Interconnections Based on Wafer-Level MEMS Vacuum Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high-Q resonant pressure microsensor with through-glass electrical interconnections based on wafer-level MEMS vacuum packaging. An approach to maintaining high-vacuum conditions by integrating the MEMS fabrication process with getter material preparation is presented in this paper. In this device, the pressure under measurement causes a deflection of a pressure-sensitive silicon square diaphragm, which is further translated to stress build up in “H” type doubly-clamped micro resonant beams, leading to a resonance frequency shift. The device geometries were optimized using FEM simulation and a 4-inch SOI wafer was used for device fabrication, which required only three photolithographic steps. In the device fabrication, a non-evaporable metal thin film as the getter material was sputtered on a Pyrex 7740 glass wafer, which was then anodically bonded to the patterned SOI wafer for vacuum packaging. Through-glass via holes predefined in the glass wafer functioned as the electrical interconnections between the patterned SOI wafer and the surrounding electrical components. Experimental results recorded that the Q-factor of the resonant beam was beyond 22,000, with a differential sensitivity of 89.86 Hz/kPa, a device resolution of 10 Pa and a nonlinearity of 0.02% F.S with the pressure varying from 50 kPa to 100 kPa. In addition, the temperature drift coefficient was less than −0.01% F.S/°C in the range of −40 °C to 70 °C, the long-term stability error was quantified as 0.01% F.S over a 5-month period and the accuracy of the microsensor was better than 0.01% F.S.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of fluid H2O-CO2 mixture in broad pressure-temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Zhao, Jijun; Plyasunov, Andrey V.; Belonoshko, Anatoly B.

    2017-11-01

    Properties of H2O and CO2 fluid and their mixtures under extreme pressures and temperatures are poorly known yet critically important in a number of applications. Several hundreds of first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) runs have been performed to obtain the pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) data on supercritical H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixtures. The pressure-temperature (P-T) range are from 0.5 GPa to 104 GPa (48.5 GPa for CO2) and from 600 K to 4000 K. Based on these data, we evaluate several existing equations of state (EOS) for the fluid H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixture. The results show that the EOS for H2O from Belonoshko et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 381-387; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3191-3208; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 3611-3626; Comput. Geosci. 18, 1267-1269] not only can be used in the studied P-T range but also is accurate enough to be used for prediction of P-V-T data. In addition, IAPWS-95 EOS for H2O shows excellent extrapolation behavior beyond 1.0 GPa and 1273 K. However, for the case of CO2, none of the existing EOS produces data in agreement with the FPMD results. We created new EOS for CO2. The precision of the new EOS is tested by comparison to the calculated P-V-T data, fugacity coefficient of the CO2 fluid derived from high P-T experimental data as well as to the (very scarce) experimental volumetric data in the high P-T range. On the basis of our FPMD data we created a new EOS for H2O-CO2 mixture. The new EOS for the mixture is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  1. Aerosol size distributions measured in urban, rural and high-alpine air with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A.; Zerrath, A.; McKeon, U.; Fehrenbach, T.; Niessner, R.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Kaminski, U.; Berresheim, H.; Pöschl, U.

    An electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to study atmospheric aerosol particle number, surface, and mass concentrations and size distributions over a diameter range of 7 nm-10 μm at urban, rural and high-alpine locations along an alpine altitude transect across Southern Germany. The measurements were performed in the city of Munich and at the global atmosphere watch (GAW) stations Hohenpeißenberg and Zugspitze in the years 2001-2004. To minimize particle bounce effects and enable chemical analysis of the collected particles without disturbance by grease on the impaction substrates, the sample flow was conditioned to about 75% relative humidity. The performance of the ELPI instrument was evaluated by comparison with well-established aerosol measurement techniques including condensation particle counters, scanning and differential mobility particle sizers, filter sampling, and gravimetric determination of particulate mass. In general, particle number concentrations, size distributions, and PM2.5 concentrations determined with the ELPI were in good agreement with alternative techniques (rank correlation coefficients ρ = 0.70-0.95). The ELPI filter stage data for the particle diameter range of 7-30 nm, however, appeared to be strongly biased towards high values. Long-term measurements at the rural site (Hohenpeißenberg) revealed distinct seasonal patterns with the highest number concentrations in summer (median daily average: 3100 cm -3) and the highest mass concentrations in spring and fall (median daily average PM2.5 and PM10: 21-25 and 27-35 μg m -3, respectively). In spring and fall we also observed pronounced maxima of particle surface and mass concentration in the coarse mode (peak at ˜3 μm), which are most likely due to primary biological material. Relatively clean air (PM10 = 10 μg m -3).

  2. Thermistor Pressure Gauge Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanick, A. P.; Ainsworth, J. E.

    1961-01-01

    Thermistor pressure gauges are characterized by large pressure range, good accuracy and stability, fast measurement, insensitivity to over-pressure, negligible out-gassing, ease in cleaning, and physical and electrical simplicity and ruggedness. A number of excellent papers have been published describing these gauges. However, a detailed account of design procedure and characteristics for a specific gauge would eliminate much of the trial and error encountered in designing a gauge having prescribed range, sensitivity, and stability.

  3. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  4. Electric properties of biodiesel in the range from 20 Hz to 20 MHz. Comparison with diesel fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Prieto, L.E. [Grupo de Energias Renovables, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires, 1063 (Argentina); Sorichetti, P.A. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Liquidos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Romano, S.D. [Grupo de Energias Renovables, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires, 1063 (Argentina); CONICET: Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires, 1033 (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Determination of electric properties at the different steps of biodiesel (BD) production contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the variables. Measurements of complex permittivity and conductivity make possible to survey efficiently the diverse steps of the industrial-scale production process, from the conditioning of the raw material to the quality control of the final product. Moreover, electrical measurements are 'non-destructive' and require relatively small sample volumes. In this work, complex permittivity spectra of BD and DF from 20 Hz to 20 MHz are presented. Experimental data were taken in a range of temperatures from 25 to 75 C, measured with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 C. The measuring system used in this work requires a sample volume of 25cm{sup 3} and gives the real part of permittivity ({epsilon}{sup '}) with an accuracy better than 1%. Dielectric loss (tg{delta}) can be measured between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup 2}. (author)

  5. Broad-Range Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances of a Multilayer Coaxial Nanohole Array with an Electroactive Polymer Wrapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziwei; Yu, Ye; Sun, Ningwei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Gu, Panpan; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Wei; König, Tobias A F; Fery, Andreas; Zhang, Gang

    2017-10-11

    Plasmonic assemblies featuring high sensitivity that can be readily shifted by external fields are the key for sensitive and versatile sensing devices. In this paper, a novel fast-responsive plasmonic nanocomposite composed of a multilayer nanohole array and a responsive electrochromic polymer is proposed with the plasmonic mode appearance vigorously cycled upon orthogonal electrical stimuli. In this nanocomposite, the coaxially stacked plasmonic nanohole arrays can induce multiple intense Fano resonances, which result from the crosstalk between a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the designed discrete transmission peaks with ultrahigh sensitivity; the polymer wrapper could provide the sensitive nanohole array with real-time-varied surroundings of refractive indices upon electrical stimuli. Therefore, a pronounced pure electroplasmonic shift up to 72 nm is obtained, which is the largest pure electrotuning SPR range to our knowledge. The stacked nanohole arrays here are also directly used as a working electrode, and they ensure sufficient contact between the working electrode (plasmonic structure) and the electroactive polymer, thus providing considerably improved response speed (within 1 s) for real-time sensing and switching.

  6. Effect of a DC external electric field on the properties of a nonuniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at reduced pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Yu. A., E-mail: lebedev@ips.ac.ru; Krashevskaya, G. V.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Titov, A. Yu.; Epshtein, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The effect of a dc external electrical field on the properties of a highly nonuniform electrode microwave discharge in hydrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr was studied using optical emission spectroscopy and selfconsistent two-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the negative voltage applied to the antenna electrode with respect to the grounded chamber increases the discharge radiation intensity, while the positive voltage does not affect the discharge properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data.

  7. Particle Size Distributions of Particulate Emissions from the Ferroalloy Industry Evaluated by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ? 1??m), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume ...

  8. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  9. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  10. Particle size distributions of particulate emissions from the ferroalloy industry evaluated by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm - 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols.

  11. Pressure and temperature induced electrical resistance change in nano-carbon/epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J. T.; Buschhorn, S. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Schulte, K.; Fiedler, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the changes of electrical resistance of the carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube (CNT) filled epoxy composites upon compression, swelling and temperature variation. For all samples we observe a decrease of electrical resistance under compression, while an increase of

  12. Electrical admittance for filling of the heart during lower body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yujia; Holm, S; Jenstrup, M

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate whether electrical admittance of intracellular water is applicable for monitoring filling of the heart, we determined the difference in intracellular water in the thorax (Thorax(ICW)), measured as the reciprocal value of the electrical impedance for the thorax at 1.5 and 100 kHz during...

  13. Ionisation potential theorem in the presence of the electric field: Assessment of range-separated functional in the reproduction of orbital and excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borpuzari, Manash Protim; Boruah, Abhijit; Kar, Rahul

    2016-04-28

    Recently, the range-separated density functionals have been reported to reproduce gas phase orbital and excitation energies with good accuracy. In this article, we have revisited the ionisation potential theorem in the presence of external electric field. Numerical results on six linear molecules are presented and the performance of the range-separated density functionals in reproducing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies, LUMO energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps in the presence of the external electric field is assessed. In addition, valence and Rydberg excitation energies in the presence of the external electric field are presented. It is found that the range-separated density functionals reproduce orbital and excitation energies accurately in the presence of the electric field. Moreover, we have performed fractional occupation calculation using cubic spline equation and tried to explain the performance of the functional.

  14. The Mechanical and Electrical Effects of MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor Based 3C-SiC for Extreme Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mechanical and electrical effects on 3C-SiC and Si thin film as a diaphragm for MEMS capacitive pressure sensor operating for extreme temperature which is 1000 K. This work compares the design of a diaphragm based MEMS capacitive pressure sensor employing 3C-SiC and Si thin films. A 3C-SiC diaphragm was bonded with a thickness of 380 μm Si substrate, and a cavity gap of 2.2 μm is formed between the wafers. The MEMS capacitive pressure sensor designs were simulated using COMSOL ver 4.3 software to compare the diaphragm deflection, capacitive performance analysis, von Mises stress, and total electrical energy performance. Both materials are designed with the same layout dimensional with different thicknesses of the diaphragm which are 1.0 μm, 1.6 μm, and 2.2 μm. It is observed that the 3C-SiC thin film is far superior materials to Si thin film mechanically in withstanding higher applied pressures and temperatures. For 3C-SiC and Si, the maximum von Mises stress achieved is 148.32 MPa and 125.48 MPa corresponding to capacitance value which is 1.93 pF and 1.22 pF, respectively. In terms of electrical performance, the maximum output capacitance of 1.93 pF is obtained with less total energy of 5.87 × 10−13 J, thus having a 50% saving as compared to Si.

  15. A GIS analysis of electricity production using pressure retarded osmosis in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jirout, David

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic power is an unexploited source of renewable energy that is based on mixing two types of water with a different salinity gradient. Osmotic power production (if life-cycle analysis of all necessary components is ignored) does not emit greenhouse gases to the atmosphere as opposed to fossil fuels employed in electricity production today, thus osmotic power does not systemically contribute to global warming and climate change. This thesis investigates the annual electricity production pot...

  16. Effect of iodine pressure in the sensitization treatment on the structural and electrical properties of PbSe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoon; Suh, Sang-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Influence of iodine vapor pressure during the sensitization process on the morphology, microstructure, and electrical properties of the PbSe films was studied. PbSe films of polycrystalline particles were coated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates by chemical bath deposition using a solution of lead acetate and sodium selenosulfate without or with iodine-doping. As-grown PbSe films were oxidized at 380°C for 30 min and then treated with iodine vapor of different pressures at 380 °C for 5 min. As the iodine vapor pressure was increased above 20 Pa during the iodination process, the PbI2 phase begins to form in the undoped films, while the PbI2O2 and Pb3O4 phases as well as PbI2 are formed in the iodine-doped films. Only iodine-doped films showed photo response. The sheet resistance and the signal to noise ratio increased with the iodine vapor pressure up to the 17.5 Pa iodine pressure. The role of iodine in the sensitization is thought to be helping recrystallization of PbSe grains and the resultant redistribution of oxygen atoms in the effective atomic sites.

  17. Pressure induced polymerization of acetylide anions in CaC2 and 107 fold enhancement of electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Kuo; Yang, Youyou; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Jiajia; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Chun-Hai; Tulk, Christopher A; Molaison, Jamie J; Ivanov, Ilia N; Feygenson, Mikhail; Yang, Wenge; Guthrie, Malcolm; Zhao, Yusheng; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Jin, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Transformation between different types of carbon-carbon bonding in carbides often results in a dramatic change of physical and chemical properties. Under external pressure, unsaturated carbon atoms form new covalent bonds regardless of the electrostatic repulsion. It was predicted that calcium acetylide (also known as calcium carbide, CaC2) polymerizes to form calcium polyacetylide, calcium polyacenide and calcium graphenide under high pressure. In this work, the phase transitions of CaC2 under external pressure were systematically investigated, and the amorphous phase was studied in detail for the first time. Polycarbide anions like C66- are identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and several other techniques, which evidences the pressure induced polymerization of the acetylide anions and suggests the existence of the polyacenide fragment. Additionally, the process of polymerization is accompanied with a 107 fold enhancement of the electrical conductivity. The polymerization of acetylide anions demonstrates that high pressure compression is a viable route to synthesize novel metal polycarbides and materials with extended carbon networks, while shedding light on the synthesis of more complicated metal organics.

  18. Electric wind produced by a surface dielectric barrier discharge operating in air at different pressures: aeronautical control insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, N; Balcon, N; Moreau, E [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (LEA), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, CNRS Bld Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2008-02-21

    The effects of the ambient air pressure level on the electric wind produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been investigated by Pitot velocity measurements. Pressures from 1 down to 0.2 atm were tested with a 32 kV{sub p-p} 1 kHz excitation. This preliminary study confirms the effectiveness of surface DBD at low pressure. Indeed, the induced velocity is strongly dependent on the ambient air pressure level. Quite surprisingly the produced airflow presents a local maximum at 0.6 atm. The measured velocities at 1 atm and 0.2 atm are 2.5 m s{sup -1} and 3 m s{sup -1}, respectively while 3.5 m s{sup -1} is reached at 0.6 atm. The position of the maximal velocity always coincides with the plasma extension. Mass flow rate calculations indicate that the DBD is effective in real flight pressure conditions. (fast track communication)

  19. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice. Part I: Impact on overall quality attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Knol, J.J.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Matser, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mild heat pasteurization, high pressure processing (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of freshly squeezed orange juice were comparatively evaluated examining their impact on microbial load and quality parameters immediately after processing and during two months of storage. Microbial

  20. Capital cost: pressurized water reactor plant. Commercial electric power cost studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume contains the drawings, equipment list and site description.

  1. The effect of surface electric stimulation of the gluteal muscles on the interface pressure in seated people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, A.; Herwegh, M.; van der Zee, C.H.; Daffertshofer, A.; Smit, C.A.; Niezen, A.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    van Londen A, Herwegh M, van der Zee CH, Daffertshofer A, Smit CA, Niezen A, Janssen TW. The effect of surface electric stimulation of the gluteal muscles on the interface pressure in seated people with spinal cord injury. Objective: To study effects of surface electric stimulation of the gluteal

  2. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, L A; Gorgo, Yu P; Dirckx, J J J; Bogdanov, V B; Buytaert, J A N; Lysenko, V A; Didyk, N P; Vershygora, A V; Erygina, V T

    2008-09-01

    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72-11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7-3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21-1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65-7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  3. Short range shooting distance estimation using variable pressure SEM images of the surroundings of bullet holes in textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Frank, Paulo Ricardo Ost; Vasconcellos, M A Z

    2017-03-01

    Modifications of cotton and polyester textiles due to shots fired at short range were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Different mechanisms of fiber rupture as a function of fiber type and shooting distance were detected, namely fusing, melting, scorching, and mechanical breakage. To estimate the firing distance, the approximately exponential decay of GSR coverage as a function of radial distance from the entrance hole was determined from image analysis, instead of relying on chemical analysis with EDX, which is problematic in the VP-SEM. A set of backscattered electron images, with sufficient magnification to discriminate micrometer wide GSR particles, was acquired at different radial distances from the entrance hole. The atomic number contrast between the GSR particles and the organic fibers allowed to find a robust procedure to segment the micrographs into binary images, in which the white pixel count was attributed to GSR coverage. The decrease of the white pixel count followed an exponential decay, and it was found that the reciprocal of the decay constant, obtained from the least-square fitting of the coverage data, showed a linear dependence on the shooting distance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of the robot for pressurizer electric heater inspection and repairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho; Su, Yong Chil

    1999-01-01

    In this study a robot system has been developed for inspection and maintenance of the pressurizer and the rod heaters. The developed robot system consists of four parts: two links, a support frame, a movable gripper, and a controller box. The robot is attached on the support frame, which is attached at the man-way flange of the pressurizer such that the robot is positioned inside pressurizer. To access arbitrary heater, at first two links horizontally rotate, and then the gripper suspended by two steel wires moves up and down by turing wire drum because the rod heaters are located about 8 meters under the robot and are arranged in two circular rows. The robot must be designed under several constraints such as its weight and collision with pressurized wall or spray nozzle because the robot is positioned and moves inside the pressurizer. To verify that the designed robot is free from collision during installation procedure and it can access any desired rod heater, it is simulated by 3-dimensional graphic software (RobCAD). For evaluating stress of the support frame finite element analysis is performed by using the ANSYS code.

  5. Development of the robot for pressurizer electric heater inspection and repairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho; Su, Yong Chil

    1998-01-01

    In this study a robot system has been developed for inspection and maintenance of the pressurizer and the rod heater. The developed robot system consists of four parts: two links, a support frame, a movable gripper, and a controller box. The robot is attached on the support frame, which is attached at the man-way flange of the pressurizer such that the robot is positioned inside pressurizer. To access arbitrary heater, at first two links horizontally rotate, and then the gripper suspended by two steel wires moves up and down by turing wire drum because the rod heaters are located about 8 meters under the robot and are arranged in two circular rows. The robot must be designed under several constraint such as its weight and collision with pressurizer wall or spray nozzle because the robot is positioned and moves inside the pressurizer. To verify that the designed robot is free from collision during installation procedure and it can access any desired rod heater, it is simulated by 3-dimensional graphic software (RobCAD). For evaluating stress of the support frame finite element analysis is performed by using the ANSYS code. For gripping the rod heater the passive self-locking mechanism is adopted, which is made up three balls and springs. Because the mechanism is very simple, it is very hardly defected than that adopted motor. (author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Experimental assessment of the surface temperature of copper electrodes submitted to an electric arc in air at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landfried, R; Leblanc, T; Andlauer, R; Teste, Ph, E-mail: teste@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris : SUPELEC - CNRS - Universites Paris VI et Paris XI - Plateau de Moulon - 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the assessment of the surface temperature of copper electrodes submitted to an electric arc in a non stationary regime in air. An infrared camera is used to measure the decrease of the temperature surface just after a controlled and very fast arc extinction. In the first part, the experimental method is described. In the second part, results are presented for 60-70 A with an electric arc duration in the range 3-4 ms. The temperature decrease after the arc extinction allows to reach an assessment of the surface temperature just at the arc switching off. In the present experimental conditions the mean temperatures reached for copper cathodes and anodes are in the range 750-850 deg. C.

  7. Photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells: Electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, S.Y. [Grupo de Educacion en Ciencias Experimentales y Matematicas-GECEM, Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-12-15

    The photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As coupled double quantum wells are presented by considering the simultaneous effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations have been made in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electric field is taken to be oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure whereas for the magnetic field both in-plane and in-growth directions have been considered. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure and the applied electric field are two useful tools to tune the direct and indirect exciton transitions in such heterostructures. Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings in double quantum wells under applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

  8. Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure: electrical properties and induced airflow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, Jerome; Moreau, Eric; Touchard, Gerard [LEA, University of Poitiers/CNRS/ENSMA, Bd. Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2005-10-07

    The electrical properties of an asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air have been investigated experimentally. The discharge is used for airflow production close to the dielectric surface, and the time-averaged flow velocity spatial profiles have been measured. Velocities of up to 3.5 m s{sup -1} at heights of 1-2 mm are reached when filamentary discharges with current peaks up to 20 mA are produced along the surface. In terms of powers, mechanical powers (output) of a few milliwatts are obtained for electrical powers (input) up to 10 W. Variation laws or behaviour with several discharge parameters (applied voltage waveform, distance between electrodes, dielectric thickness and permittivity) have been experimentally determined.

  9. Preliminary Study on the High Efficiency Supercritical Pressure Water-Cooled Reactor for Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Kyun; Cho, Bong Hyun and others

    2006-01-15

    This research has been performed to introduce a concept of supercritical pressure water cooled reactor(SCWR) in Korea The area of research includes core conceptual design, evaluation of candidate fuel, fluid systems conceptual design with mechanical consideration, preparation of safety analysis code, and construction of supercritical pressure heat transfer test facility, SPHINX, and preliminary test. As a result of the research, a set of tools for the reactor core design has been developed and the conceptual core design with solid moderator was proposed. The direct thermodynamic cycle has been studied to find a optimum design. The safety analysis code has also been adapted to supercritical pressure condition. A supercritical pressure CO2 heat transfer test facility has been constructed and preliminary test proved the facility works as expected. The result of this project will be good basis for the participation in the international collaboration under GIF GEN-IV program and next 5-year mid and long term nuclear research program of MOST. The heat transfer test loop, SPHINX, completed as a result of this project may be used for the power cycle study as well as further heat transfer study for the various geometries.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of hysteresis in capillary pressure and electric permittivity for multiphase flow through porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.C.; Bruining, J.; Moreno Tirado, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a tool that simultaneously measures the complex permittivity and the capillary pressure characteristics for multiphase flow. The sample holder is a parallel plate capacitor. A precision component analyzer is used to measure the impedance amplitude and phase angle as a function of

  11. Spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the downstream area of atmospheric pressure remote plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mishin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an experimental study of the ion flux characteristics behind the remote plasma zone in a vertical tube reaction chamber for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma was generated in pure He and gas mixtures: He–Ar, He–O2, He–TEOS. We previously used the reaction system He–TEOS for the synthesis of self-assembled structures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. It is likely that the electrical parameters of the area, where nanoparticles have been transported from the synthesis zone to the substrate, play a significant role in the self-organization processes both in the vapor phase and on the substrate surface. The results from the spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the discharge downstream area measured by means of the external probe of original design and the special data processing method are demonstrated in this work. Positive and negatives ions with maximum concentrations of 106–107 cm−3 have been found at 10–80 mm distance behind the plasma zone. On the basis of the revealed distributions for different gas mixtures, the physical model of the observed phenomena is proposed. The model illustrates the capability of the virtual ion emitter formation behind the discharge gap and the presence of an extremum of the electrical potential at the distance of approximately 10−2–10−1 mm from the grounded electrode.

  12. Numerical study of enhanced mixing in pressure-driven flows in microchannels using a spatially periodic electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, T.; Renganathan, T.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an innovative mechanism for enhancing mixing in steady pressure driven flow of an electrolytic solution in a straight rectangular microchannel. A transverse electric field is used to generate an electroosmotic flow across the cross-section. The resulting flow field consists of a pair of helical vortices that transport fluid elements along the channel. We show, through numerical simulations, that chaotic advection may be induced by periodically varying the direction of the applied electric field along the channel length. This periodic electric field generates a longitudinally varying, three-dimensional steady flow, such that the streamlines in the first half of the repeating unit cell intersect those in the second half, when projected onto the cross-section. Mixing is qualitatively characterized by tracking passive particles and obtaining Poincaré maps. For quantification of the extent of mixing, Shannon entropy is calculated using particle advection of a binary mixture. The convection diffusion equation is also used to track the evolution of a scalar species and quantify the mixing efficiency as a function of the Péclet number.

  13. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Kazunari, E-mail: YAMAURA.Kazunari@nims.go.jp [Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO{sub 3}, LiOsO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal–insulator transition in NaOsO{sub 3}, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO{sub 3}, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca{sub 2}FeOsO{sub 6} may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices. - Graphical Abstract: Flux-grown crystals of NaOsO{sub 3} under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in a belt-type apparatus. The crystal shows a magnetically driven metal–insulator transition at a temperature of 410 K. - Highlights: • Short review of high-pressure crystal growth of solid-state osmium oxides. • Wide variety of magnetic properties of solid-state osmium oxides. • Perovskite and related dense structures stabilized at 3–17 GPa.

  14. Measurement of the non-thermal properties of a low pressure spraying plasma by electric and spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Ho

    2003-02-15

    For the case of an atmospheric plasma, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model can be applied to plasmas at a nozzle entrance and to those on the axis of the plasma flame, but it is not easy to justify applying the LTE model to off-center plasma and to a low-pressure spraying plasma. Although the energy distribution of the electrons is assumed to be Maxwellian for the most of spraying plasmas, the non-Maxwellian distribution is possible for the case of low-pressure spaying plasma and edge plasma of atmospheric spraying plasma. In this work, the non-Maxwellian distribution of electrons was measured by using an electric probe installed on the fast scanning probe system, and non-LTE effects were measured by using the optical emission spectroscopy system. Distribution of the electrons of a low-pressure spraying plasma is observed not as Maxwellian but as bi-Maxwellian by the measurement of the single probe. Bi-Maxwellian distribution appears in the edge of a low pressure spraying plasma and seems to be due to the reduction of the collisonality by the drastic variation of the plasma density. Non-LTE characteristics of a low-pressure spraying plasma can be deuced from the measured results of the optical emission spectroscopy and is analyzed by the collisional radiative equilibrium (CRE) model, where the Maxwellian and the non-Maxwellian distributions are assumed for comparison. For the electron temperature, the results from optical emission spectroscopy were similar to the results from the single probe (3{approx}5 % in error)

  15. Data and material of the Safe-Range-Inventory: An assistance tool helping to improve the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Gebauer, Fabian

    2017-10-01

    The Safe-Range-Inventory (SRI) was constructed in order to help public authorities to improve the charging infrastructures for electric vehicles [1; 10.1016/j.trf.2017.04.011]. Specifically, the impact of fast (vs slow) charging stations on people's range anxiety was examined. Ninety-seven electric vehicle users from Germany (81 male; Mage=46.3 years, SD=12.1) were recruited to participate in the experimental design. Statistical analyses were conducted using ANOVA for repeated measures to test for interaction effects of available charging stations and remaining range with the dependent variable range anxiety. The full data set is publicly available via https://osf.io/bveyw/ (Carbon and Gebauer, 2017) [2].

  16. Developing a Model of Care for Healing Pressure Ulcers With Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, D.; Houghton, P.E.; Kras-Dupuis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electrical stimulation therapy (EST) has been shown to be an effective therapy for managing pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is a lack of uptake of this therapy, and it is often not considered as a first-line treatment, particularly in the community. Objective: To develop a pressure ulcer model of care that is adapted to the local context by understanding the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing EST, and to describe key initial phases of the implementation process. Method: Guided by the Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) and National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) frameworks, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to complete key initial implementation processes including (a) defining the practice, (b) identifying the barriers and facilitators to EST implementation and organizing them into implementation drivers, and (c) developing a model of care that is adapted to the local environment. Results: A model of care for healing pressure ulcers with EST was developed for the local environment while taking into account key implementation barriers including lack of interdisciplinary collaboration and communication amongst providers between and across settings, inadequate training and education, and lack of resources, such as funding, time, and staff. Conclusions: Using established implementation science frameworks with structured planning and engaging local stakeholders are important exploratory steps to achieve a successful sustainable best practice implementation project.

  17. Investigation of Low-Pressure Bimetallic Cobalt-Iron Catalyst-Grown Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Electrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aniq Shazni Mohammad Haniff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bimetallic cobalt-iron catalyst was utilized to demonstrate the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs at low gas pressure through thermal chemical vapor deposition. The characteristics of multiwalled CNTs were investigated based on the effects of catalyst thickness and gas pressure variation. The results revealed that the average diameter of nanotubes increased with increasing catalyst thickness, which can be correlated to the increase in particle size. The growth rate of the nanotubes also increased significantly by ~2.5 times with further increment of gas pressure from 0.5 Torr to 1.0 Torr. Rapid growth rate of nanotubes was observed at a catalyst thickness of 6 nm, but it decreased with the increase in catalyst thickness. The higher composition of 50% cobalt in the cobalt-iron catalyst showed improvement in the growth rate of nanotubes and the quality of nanotube structures compared with that of 20% cobalt. For the electrical properties, the measured sheet resistance decreased with the increase in the height of nanotubes because of higher growth rate. This behavior is likely due to the larger contact area of nanotubes, which improved electron hopping from one localized tube to another.

  18. Muscle tissue oxygenation, pressure, electrical, and mechanical responses during dynamic and static voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic muscle contractions have been shown to cause greater energy turnover and fatigue than static contractions performed at a corresponding force level. Therefore, we hypothesized that: (1) electro- (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG), intramuscular pressure (IMP), and reduction in muscle oxygen...... similar in spite of major differences in the MMG and EMG responses of the muscle during contraction periods. This may relate to the surprisingly lower IMP in DYN than IST....

  19. Contactless measurement of electrical conductivity for bulk nanostructured silver prepared by high-pressure torsion: A study of the dissipation process of giant strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, Masaki; Shibayama, Keisuke; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuki; Tajiri, Takayuki; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji

    2017-09-01

    We measured the electrical conductivity of bulk nanostructured silver prepared by high-pressure torsion (HPT) in a contactless manner by observing the AC magnetic susceptibility resulting from the eddy current, so that we could quantitatively analyze the dissipation process of the residual strain with sufficient time resolution as a function of temperature T and initial shear strain γ. The HPT process was performed at room temperature under a pressure of 6 GPa for revolutions N = 0-5, and we targeted a wide range of residual shear strains. The contactless measurement without electrode preparation enabled us to investigate both the fast and slow dissipation processes of the residual strain with sufficient time resolution, so that a systematic study of these processes became possible. The changes in the electrical conductivity as a function of N at room temperature were indeed consistent with changes in the Vickers microhardness; furthermore, they were also related to changes in structural parameters such as the preferred orientation, the interplanar distance, and the crystallite size. The dissipation process at N = 1, corresponding to γ ≈ 30, was the largest and the fastest. For N = 5, corresponding to γ ≈ 140, we considered the effects of grain boundaries, as well as those of dislocations. The strain dissipation was quite slow below T = 290 K. According to the analytical results, it became successful to conduct the quantitative evaluation of the strain dissipation at arbitrary temperatures: For instance, the relaxation times at T = 280 and 260 K were estimated to be 3.6 and 37 days, respectively.

  20. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text

  1. Electric vehicle with or without range extender. Who is the driver - technology, customer or legislation?; Elektrofahrzeuge mit oder ohne Range Extender. Wer bestimmt den Weg - die Technik, der Kunde oder die Gesetzgebung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidl, Christian; Kluin, Matthias [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Hohenberg, Guenter; Bacher, Christian [IVD Prof. Hohenberg GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Let us begin with an analysis of the technical context of E-mobility. The starting point of any such investigation is the restricted range of this technology. Greater car sizes bring ever-greater problems, especially in terms of the growing influence of driving speed and surrounding conditions. The combination of an E-motor and combustion engine thus represents an expedient ''enabler'' of E-mobility. This combination enables a drive system solution which overcomes the restrictions of a purely electric vehicle in terms of flexibility of use and availability of mobility. This paper discusses the difference between parallel and serial drives using already realized concepts. It also seeks to present a new concept for a compact, cost-efficient solution (ICE Assist). The second section will compare the current legal framework, customer expectations and technical solutions. Of critical importance is the concept for which the government will opt and the ''incentives'' which it sets to achieve this end. OEMs are currently beset by a significant level of insecurity regarding the concept with the best future and as a result, those involved are currently seeking solutions which cover all possible variants. This invariably results in compromises, which further add to the time and effort involved and increases costs. Customers generally have a positive attitude towards electric driving, but at the same time, their expectations follow their prior experience. Range extender / plug-in / ICE-assist solutions thus have the potential to bring a significant increase in the amount of electric driving / the number of kilometers driven by electrical means. To achieve a breakthrough in E-mobility, it is first necessary to establish a clear definition of an ''electric vehicle''. This requires a clear response from the government. 32. Internationales (orig.)

  2. [Intracavernous pressure responses induced by electrical stimulation of penile dorsal nerves and intracavernosal drug injection in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jun-ping; Cui, Xian-feng; Sun, Jian-hua; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Shu-dong

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the application of intracavernous pressure (ICP) monitoring in the electrophysiologic and pharmacologic induction of penile erection. The penile dorsal nerves (DN) of 8 anesthetized adult male rats were isolated and the corpora cavernosa exposed. A heparinized 25-gauge angiocath (intravenous catheter) was inserted into the right corpus cavernosum to monitor the ICP and a 30-gauge needle was inserted into the left corpus cavernosum for intracavernosal drug administration. Penile erection was induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsal nerve (16 Hz frequency, 0.5 ms pulse width, 20 s duration, 4 volts) and intracavernous papaverine hydrochloride injection (0.4 mg). ICP was recorded with the SMUP-PC biological signal process system. In the anesthetized rats, the baseline level of ICP was (12.3 +/- 3.1) mm Hg and the electrical stimulation of the DN significantly increased ICP[(36.4 +/- 2.3) mm Hg, P stimulation. The intravavernosal administration of papaverine also induced a significant increase in ICP [(28.4 +/- 6.1) mm Hg, P penile erection in experimental rat models. It is of great significance for further studying the physiology of penile erection and the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction as well as for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapies for erectile dysfunction.

  3. The directed self-assembly of nanostructures: Electric pressure, dipole, double layer and cracking mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salac, David

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation presents investigations into the self-assembly of a wide number of material systems. This research introduces the concept that electric fields oriented in the plane of a thin polymer film will induce surface instabilities which grow to form structures. This experimental result indicates that large scale fabrication of nano- and micro-structures in a polymer film can be affectively achieved in an easy to construct and maintain setup. Electrostatic interactions have also been presented as a possible controlling mechanism in forming nanometer sized structure in molecularly thin film. A theoretical and computational investigation presented here indicates that the use of dipolar multilayer system combined with a substrate containing embedded electrodes is capable of fabricating patterns which would be difficult to obtain otherwise. It was observed that subsequent layers in a multilayer system will undergo layer-by-layer alignment and feature size reduction. The result has been applied to the ''molecular car'' concept, by which molecules are able to migrate on a surface due to externally controllable electric field patterns. The scaling and ordering of metallic nanoclusters on semiconductor substrates has been explored computationally. Numerical techniques were implemented to calculate the total electrostatic and van der Waals energies for systems containing multiple disks. Observations show that interactions in charge clouds beneath the metallic disks led to an electrostatic repulsive force. Attraction was observed by the van der Waals energy. An energy barrier past which disk coalescence will not occur was observed. This has applications in the development of large-scale nanodot systems which require precise control over both dot location and size. Finally, this dissertation presents results of systematic investigation of nanocracking in thin films using numerical techniques. Using a level-set method to describe an arbitrary crack in a heterogeneous

  4. Ozone sonde measurements aboard long-range boundary-layer pressurized balloons over the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Barret, Brice; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Durand, Pierre; Jambert, Corinne

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPBs) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electro-chemical cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (due to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPBs. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electro-chemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, the strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is left at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Therefore, the typical measurement sequence is composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a two-minute acquisition period. (Note that the time intervals given here are indicative. All can be adjusted before and during the flight.) Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 will be first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then, we will illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during the three summer field campaings of the coordinated project

  5. Effect of dispersive long-range corrections to the pressure tensor: The vapour-liquid interfacial properties of the Lennard-Jones system revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Mendiboure, B. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes et leurs Réservoirs, UMR5150, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, B. P. 1155, Pau Cedex 64014 (France); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Centro de Investigación de Física Teórica y Matemática, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-14

    We propose an extension of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janeček [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264–6269 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] to account for the intermolecular potential energy of spherical, rigid, and flexible molecular systems, to deal with the contributions to the microscopic components of the pressure tensor due to the dispersive long-range corrections. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of spherical Lennard-Jones molecules with different cutoff distances, r{sub c} = 2.5, 3, 4, and 5σ. In addition, we have also considered cutoff distances r{sub c} = 2.5 and 3σ in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections proposed in this work. The normal and tangential microscopic components of the pressure tensor are obtained using the mechanical or virial route in combination with the recipe of Irving and Kirkwood, while the macroscopic components are calculated using the Volume Perturbation thermodynamic route proposed by de Miguel and Jackson [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164109 (2006)]. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the Test-Area methodology. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressure, critical temperature and density, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying particular attention to the effect of the cutoff distance and the long-range corrections on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cutoff distance (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface, to decrease the vapour pressure, and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial

  6. High pressure phase equilibrium of ternary and multicomponent alkane mixtures in the temperature range from (283–473) K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Liu, Yiqun; Wibowo, Ahmad A.

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric multicomponent alkane mixtures can be used as model systems for reservoir fluids. We have prepared two ternary mixtures, methane/n-butane/n-decane and methane/n-butane/n-dodecane, and two multicomponent mixtures composed of methane/n-butane/n-octane/n-dodecane/n-hexadecane/n-eicosane a......Asymmetric multicomponent alkane mixtures can be used as model systems for reservoir fluids. We have prepared two ternary mixtures, methane/n-butane/n-decane and methane/n-butane/n-dodecane, and two multicomponent mixtures composed of methane......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), and Soave-Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR), have been used to predict phase equilibrium of the measured systems. PR and PC-SAFT give better results than others and Soave-BWR gives poor phase envelope predictions...... the fractions just below the saturation pressures are difficult to predict. Moreover GERG-2008 has also been tested with the measured methane/n-butane/n-decane system. It over predicts the saturation pressures but predicts low pressure liquid fractions quite accurately....

  7. An improved method for predicting permeability by combining electrical measurements and mercury injection capillary pressure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Chaomo

    2017-02-01

    The applicability of the representative elemental volume (REV) model is analyzed on the basis of the capillary pressure curves, resistivity, porosity and permeability, taken from the experimental measurement data of 83 sandstone core samples from three different blocks mined in China. The results show that the permeability error (the ratio of core permeability to the permeability calculated by the REV model) can be controlled from 0.5 to 2 when the core permeability is more than 3 mD. On the whole, the permeability error is more than 2, and the calculated permeability is lower than the core permeability when the core permeability is less than 3 mD. The reason for the poor calculation accuracy of the REV model in low permeability sandstone is analyzed, and the research suggests that the ∫dS v/(P c)2 in the REV model characterizes the pore-throat radius of the rock. In reality, the permeability is influenced by the throat radius rather than the pore radius. When the core permeability is large enough, there is no obvious difference between the pore radius and the throat radius. So, the error between the core permeability and the permeability calculated by the REV model is small. However, when the core permeability is small, the difference between the pore radius and the throat radius is apparent, and, in general, the pore radius is larger than the throat radius. In these conditions, the pore radius plays a leading role in ∫dS v/(P c)2, thus making the error between the core permeability and the permeability calculated by the REV model apparent. Based on the above, we have derived an improved REV model by introducing the pore-throat radius ratio on the basis of Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law. Using the same experimental data, we make a comparison analysis between the improved model, the REV model and the Swanson model. The results show that compared with the REV model and the Swanson model, the accuracy of the calculated permeability of the improved model is

  8. Expanding the range for predicting critical flow rates of gas wells producing from normally pressured waterdrive reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upchurch, E.R. (Thums Long Beach Co. (US))

    1989-08-01

    The critical flow rate of a gas well is the minimum flow rate required to prevent accumulation of liquids in the tubing. Theoretical models currently available for estimating critical flow rates are restricted to wells with water/gas ratios less than 150bbl/MMcf (0.84 X 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//m/sup 3/). For wells producing at higher water/gas ratios from normally pressured waterdrive reservoirs, a method of estimating critical flow rates is derived through use of an empirical multiphase-flow correlation.

  9. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  10. The challenge of measuring sulfuric acid aerosols: number concentration and size evaluation using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brachert, L.; Mertens, J.; Khakharia, P.M.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two different methods for the measurement of the sulfuric acid aerosol which is formed in wet flue gas cleaning processes have been investigated. The condensation particle counter (UFCPC, PALAS GmbH) provides information about the number concentration. With the electrical low pressure

  11. Simultaneous production of high-quality water and electrical power from aqueous feedstock’s and waste heat by high-pressure membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Brouwer, H.; Medevoort, J. van; Jansen, A.; Altena, F.; Vleuten, P. van der; Bak, H.

    2015-01-01

    A new membrane distillation (MD) concept (MemPower) has been developed for the simultaneous production of high-quality water from various aqueous feedstocks with cogeneration of mechanical power (electricity). Driven by low-grade heat (waste, solar, geothermal, etc.) a pressurized distillate can be

  12. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureja, A. K.; Sinha, S. K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R. K.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D. N.

    2011-05-01

    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  13. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  14. Pressure changes under the ischial tuberosities during gluteal neuromuscular stimulation in spinal cord injury: a comparison of sacral nerve root stimulation with surface functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang Qin; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To compare the magnitude of interface pressure changes during gluteal maximus contraction by stimulating sacral nerve roots with surface electrical stimulations in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Pilot interventional study. Spinal injury research laboratory. Adults (N=18) with suprasacral complete SCI. Sacral nerve root stimulation (SNRS) via a functional magnetic stimulator (FMS) or a sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS) implant; and surface functional electrical stimulation (FES). Interface pressure under the ischial tuberosity (IT) defined as peak pressure, gradient at peak pressure, and average pressure. With optimal FMS, a 29% average reduction of IT peak pressure was achieved during FMS (mean ± SD: 160.1±24.3mmHg at rest vs 114.7±18.0mmHg during FMS, t5=6.3, P=.002). A 30% average reduction of peak pressure during stimulation via an SARS implant (143.2±31.7mmHg at rest vs 98.5±21.5mmHg during SARS, t5=4.4, P=.007) and a 22% average decrease of IT peak pressure during FES stimulation (153.7±34.8mmHg at rest vs 120.5±26.1mmHg during FES, t5=5.3, P=.003) were obtained. In 4 participants who completed both the FMS and FES studies, the percentage of peak pressure reduction with FMS was slightly greater than with FES (mean difference, 7.8%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6%-14.0; P=.04). SNRS or surface FES can induce sufficient gluteus maximus contraction and significantly reduce ischial pressure. SNRS via an SARS implant may be more convenient and efficient for frequently activating the gluteus maximus. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential of a range extender concept for inner city scooters. An alternative to pure electric mobility?; Potenzial eines REX Konzeptes fuer Stadtscooter. Eine Alternative zur rein elektrischen Mobilitaet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchberger, Roland; Schacht, Hans-Juergen; Eichlseder, Helmut [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays the scooter market class L1e (<50cm{sup 3}, speed limited to 45km/h) is dominated by low-cost two-stroke carburetted engines. With the implementation of the new EURO 3 regulation, obligatory for new type approval by 2014 and for all newly licenced types by 2015, the market will suffer the loss of these low cost vehicles due to the requested durability of exhaust gas after treatment systems. More complex drive units, like lambda controlled 4-stroke engines or 2-stroke engines with direct injection will have to follow. Pure electric scooters pose a further possibility to fill the resulting gap. A significant cost increase is common to all of these approaches. Necessary additional system components will cause the increase for ICE variants, whereas battery costs are responsible for the electric variant. The goal is to find an alternative to be able to comply with the requirements of emission legislation and to keep the product price as low as possible at the same time. A technological comparison of different approaches revealed the serial hybrid variant as most promising. The evaluated system and the derived concept consist of a combination of an electric scooter with a halved battery size (cost reduction) and a Range Extender with the possibility to extend, if necessary, the range to the standard of conventional ICE variants. This alternative is able to offer electro-mobility and therewith local zero emissions without the immanent ''range anxiety'' usually caused by pure electric vehicles [8]. Having defined the system layout as plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) and checked the characteristics of single components in numerous preliminary investigations, a longitudinal backward simulation was carried out. It permits the testing of different operational strategies in combination with a subsequent evaluation of the fuel consumption reduction potential [16]. A packaging analysis could verify the constructive feasibility. Finally, the

  16. Thermal, high pressure, and electric field processing effects on plant cell membrane integrity and relevance to fruit and vegetable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    Advanced food processing methods that accomplish inactivation of microorganisms but minimize adverse thermal exposure are of great interest to the food industry. High pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing are commercially applied to produce high quality fruit and vegetable products in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Both microbial and plant cell membranes are significantly altered following exposure to heat, HP, or PEF. Our research group sought to quantify the degree of damage to plant cell membranes that occurs as a result of exposure to heat, HP, or PEF, using the same analytical methods. In order to evaluate whether new advanced processing methods are superior to traditional thermal processing methods, it is necessary to compare them. In this review, we describe the existing state of knowledge related to effects of heat, HP, and PEF on both microbial and plant cells. The importance and relevance of compartmentalization in plant cells as it relates to fruit and vegetable quality is described and various methods for quantification of plant cell membrane integrity are discussed. These include electrolyte leakage, cell viability, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR).

  17. Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henriette Boel; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Grunert, Klaus G; Banati, Diana; Pollák-Tóth, Annamária; Lakner, Zoltán; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Zontar, Tanja Pajk; Peterman, Marjana

    2009-02-01

    The success of new food processing technologies is highly dependent on consumers' acceptance. The purpose of this paper is to study consumers' perceptions of two new processing technologies and food products produced by means of these novel technologies. To accomplish this, a qualitative study on consumer attitudes towards high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of food was carried out. In all 97 adults between 20 and 71 years of age participated in 12 focus groups conducted in Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Norway and Denmark using a common guideline. Participants were introduced to the HPP and PEF technologies and then to the effect of the two new technologies on two specific product categories: juice and baby food. The transcribed data was content analysed and the coded data was transformed into diagrams using UCINET 5 and NETDRAW. The results show that consumers perceived the main advantages of HPP and PEF products to be the products' naturalness, improved taste and their high nutritional value, whereas the main disadvantage was the lack of information about the PEF and HPP products. The results of the participants' evaluation of the PEF and HPP processes showed that environmental friendliness and the more natural products were seen as the main advantages, while they were concerned about body and health, the higher price of the products, the lack of information about the technologies and a general scepticism. The study also shows that North European participants were a bit more sceptical towards PEF and HPP products than the East European participants.

  18. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  19. Measurements of the Atmospheric Electric Field through a Triangular Array and the Long-range Saharan Dust Electrification in Southern Portugal

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, H G; Pereira, S; Barbosa, S M; Nicoll, K; Pereira, M Collares; Harrison, R G

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric electric field (AEF) measurements were carried out in three different sites forming a triangular array in Southern Portugal. The campaign was performed during the summer characterized by Saharan dust outbreaks; the 16th-17th July 2014 desert dust event is considered here. Evidence of long-range dust electrification is attributed to the air-Earth electrical current creating a positive space-charge inside of the dust layer. An increase of ~23 V/m is observed in AEF on the day of the dust event corresponding to space-charges of ~20-2 pCm-3 (charge layer thicknesses ~10-100 m). A reduction of AEF is observed after the dust event.

  20. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotar, Lokendra; Rohrauer, Greg L.; Filion, Ryan; MacDonald, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    The development of a dynamic thermal battery model for hybrid and electric vehicles is realized. A thermal equivalent circuit model is created which aims to capture and understand the heat propagation from the cells through the entire pack and to the environment using a production vehicle battery pack for model validation. The inclusion of production hardware and the liquid battery thermal management system components into the model considers physical and geometric properties to calculate thermal resistances of components (conduction, convection and radiation) along with their associated heat capacity. Various heat sources/sinks comprise the remaining model elements. Analog equivalent circuit simulations using PSpice are compared to experimental results to validate internal temperature nodes and heat rates measured through various elements, which are then employed to refine the model further. Agreement with experimental results indicates the proposed method allows for a comprehensive real-time battery pack analysis at little computational expense when compared to other types of computer based simulations. Elevated road and ambient conditions in Mesa, Arizona are simulated on a parked vehicle with varying quiescent cooling rates to examine the effect on the diurnal battery temperature for longer term static exposure. A typical daily driving schedule is also simulated and examined.

  1. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  2. The electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition Ga doped ZnO thin films depending on chemical bonding configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Doyoung; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-04-01

    The electrical and chemical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) Ga doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) films were systematically investigated using Hall measurement and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Diethylzinc (DEZ) and O2 gas were used as precursor and reactant gas, respectively, and trimethyl gallium (TMGa) was used as a Ga doping source. Initially, the electrical properties of undoped LP-CVD ZnO films depending on the partial pressure of DEZ and O2 ratio were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) by changing partial pressure of DEZ from 40 to 140 mTorr and that of O2 from 40 to 80 mTorr. The resistivity was reduced by Ga doping from 7.24 × 10-3 Ω cm for undoped ZnO to 2.05 × 10-3 Ω cm for Ga doped ZnO at the TMG pressure of 8 mTorr. The change of electric properties of Ga doped ZnO with varying the amount of Ga dopants was systematically discussed based on the structural crystallinity and chemical bonding configuration, analyzed by XRD and XPS, respectively.

  3. The electrical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition Ga doped ZnO thin films depending on chemical bonding configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hanearl [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doyoung [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ulsan College, 57 Daehak-ro, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun, E-mail: hyungjun@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Undoped and Ga doped ZnO thin films were deposited using DEZ and TMGa. • Effects of Ga doping using TMGa in Ga doped ZnO were investigated. • Degraded properties from excessive doping were analyzed using chemical bondings. - Abstract: The electrical and chemical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) Ga doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) films were systematically investigated using Hall measurement and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Diethylzinc (DEZ) and O{sub 2} gas were used as precursor and reactant gas, respectively, and trimethyl gallium (TMGa) was used as a Ga doping source. Initially, the electrical properties of undoped LP-CVD ZnO films depending on the partial pressure of DEZ and O{sub 2} ratio were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) by changing partial pressure of DEZ from 40 to 140 mTorr and that of O{sub 2} from 40 to 80 mTorr. The resistivity was reduced by Ga doping from 7.24 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for undoped ZnO to 2.05 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for Ga doped ZnO at the TMG pressure of 8 mTorr. The change of electric properties of Ga doped ZnO with varying the amount of Ga dopants was systematically discussed based on the structural crystallinity and chemical bonding configuration, analyzed by XRD and XPS, respectively.

  4. Muscle trigger points, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion in patients with high level of disability related to acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Antonio Manuel; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Mora-Sánchez, Aurora; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Sterling, Michele; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-07-01

    Cross sectional cohort study. To analyze the differences in the prevalence of trigger points (TrPs) between patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and healthy controls, and to determine if widespread pressure hypersensitivity and reduced cervical range of motion are related to the presence of TrPs in patients with acute WADs. The relationship between active TrPs and central sensitization is not well understood in patients with acute WADs. Twenty individuals with a high level of disability related to acute WAD and 20 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and scalene muscles were examined. TrPs are defined as hypersensitive spots in a palpable taut band, producing a local twitch response and referred pain when palpated. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was assessed bilaterally over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joints, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle. Active cervical range of motion, neck pain, and self-rated disability using the Neck Disability Index were also assessed. The mean ± SD number of TrPs for the patients with acute WAD was 7.3 ± 2.8 (3.4 ± 2.7 were latent TrPs; 3.9 ± 2.5 were active TrPs). In comparison, healthy controls had 1.7 ± 2.2 latent and no active TrPs (Pactive TrPs were the levator scapulae and upper trapezius muscles. The number of active TrPs increased with higher neck pain intensity (Pactive cervical range of motion than controls (Pactive TrPs and PPT over the C5-C6 joints and cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, and rotation in both directions: the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the bilateral PPT over the neck and the greater the cervical range of motion limitation. The local and referred pain elicited from active TrPs reproduced neck and shoulder pain patterns in individuals with acute WADs with higher levels of disability. Patients with acute WADs exhibited

  5. Reproducibility and repeatability of measuring the electrical impedance of the pregnant human cervix-the effect of probe size and applied pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Brian H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of cervical electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as a diagnostic tool is being investigated in clinical trials. We sought to assess the reliability of two different sizes of tetrapolar probes used in measuring cervical impedance. Methods Cervical transfer impedance was measured at 14 frequencies between 76 and 625 000 Hz from 11 pregnant subjects at term. Repeated measurements were taken with two probes (3 mm and 12 mm diameter applied softly (approximately 0.7 Newton of force, and firmly (approximately 2.2 Newton to the surface of the cervix by two observers. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV and repeatability standard deviations (SD were derived from these measurements and compared. Results Measurements taken by one observer were highly repeatable for both probes as demonstrated by high ICC and low CV values. Probe performance was improved further by firm application. Firm application of the 3 mm probe resulted in ICC values that ranged from 0.936 to 0.986 (p = 0.0001 and CV values between 1.0 and 3.4%. Firm pressure with the 12 mm probe resulted in ICC values that ranged between 0.914 and 0.988 (p = 0.0001 with CV values between 0.7 and 2.1%. In addition, the repeatability SD was low across all frequencies implying that there was low intra-observer variability. Measurements taken by 2 observers with firm application of the 12 mm probe demonstrated moderate reproducibility between 9.8 and 156 kHz, the frequency range in which previous clinical studies have shown predictive association between high cervical resistivity and vaginal delivery: ICC values ranged between 0.528 and 0.638 (p Conclusion Measuring cervical resistivity by a single observer with both the 3 and 12 mm probes is highly repeatable whilst inter-observer reproducibility is poor with the 3 mm probe but moderately good when the 12 mm probe is firmly applied to the cervix in the frequency range 9.8 to 156 k

  6. EURAMET.M.P-S9 / EURAMET 1170, LOOP2. Comparison in the negative gauge pressure range -950 to 0 hPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otal, P.; Boineau, F.; Medina, N.; Pražák, D.; Wüthrich, C.; Saxholm, S.; Sabuga, W.; Kocas, I.; Durgut, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This report gives the results of a comparison of pressure standards of seven European National Metrology institutes in the range of negative gauge pressure from -950 hPa to 0 hPa. This comparison was piloted by LNE and was carried out from January 2011 to March 2012. This work is a part of the EURAMET project 1170 and is registered as a supplementary comparison EURAMET.M.P-S9. The transfer standard used was a pressure monitor RPM4 A160Ks manufactured by DH Instruments Inc., with a resolution of 0.1 Pa. The reference values have been determined from the weighted mean of the deviations reported by the participants for each specified pressure. Seventy-three of the seventy-seven values (96%) reported by the laboratories agree with the reference values within the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Ionic conductivity measurements of zirconia under pressure using impedance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Takebe, H; Ohtaka, O; Fukui, H; Yoshiasa, A; Yamanaka, T; Ota, K; Kikegawa, T

    2002-01-01

    We have set up an electrical conductivity measurement system under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions with a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus using an AC complex impedance method. With this system, we have successfully measured the electrical conductivity of stabilized ZrO sub 2 (Y sub 2 O sub 3 -ZrO sub 2 solid solution) under pressures up to 5 GPa in the temperature range from 300 to 1200 K. The electrical conductivities obtained under pressure are compatible with those of previous results measured at ambient pressure.

  8. A comparison between electrical uterine monitor, tocodynamometer and intra uterine pressure catheter for uterine activity in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Eran; Biron-Shental, Tal; Gavish, Oz; Raban, Oded; Yogev, Yariv

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the performance of a non-invasive EMG electrical uterine monitor (EUM) versus tocodynamometry (TOCO) by comparing both to internal uterine pressure catheter (IUPC). Prospective observational trial. Uterine activity was recorded continuously and simultaneously, in women during active term labor, with TOCO, EUM and IUPC. Uterine activity tracings were analyzed by three blinded physicians. Overall, 385 tracings from 43 women were analyzed. A similar rate of interpretable tracings between physicians was demonstrated for EUM (87%; 95% CI 80.9-92.7%) and IUPC (94.8%; 95% CI 83.4-96.3%), with a significantly lower rate for TOCO (67.5%; 95% CI 59.4-76.8%, p contraction frequency for EUM versus IUPC (0.77 ± 2.3) compared to TOCO versus IUPC (-3.34 ± 4.97). There is a high variability between the timing of TOCO contractions as compared to IUPC (4.74 ± 10.03 seconds), while a gap of 8.46 ± 4.24 seconds was detected for EUM. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and false positive rate for individual contraction identification by TOCO and EUM are 54.0%, 84.4%, 15.6% and 94.2%, 87.6%, 12.4%, respectively. EUM is efficient as IUPC for uterine activity assessment and both techniques are superior in comparison to external tocodynamometry. Our results support the use of non-invasive EMG technology to monitor uterine activity.

  9. Validation of HITEMP-2010 for carbon dioxide and water vapour at high temperatures and atmospheric pressures in 450-7600cm-1 spectral range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is validation of HITEMP-2010 at atmospheric pressures and temperatures reaching 1770K. To this end, spectral transmissivities at 1cm-1 resolution and excellent signal-to-noise-ratio have been measured for 22 CO2/H2O/N2 mixtures. In this paper we consider the 450cm-1-7600...... absorption lines listed in HITEMP-2010 have not been observed in the measured spectra and/or are wrongly scaled with temperature. The complete (there are no missing bands) spectra spanning the 450-7600cm-1 range are appended as Supplementary Material....

  10. Effect of annealing time, weight pressure and cobalt doping on the electrical and magnetic behavior of barium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuvel, K., E-mail: kssamuvel@gmail.com; Ramachandran, K., E-mail: ramach76@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Vadapalani Campus, SRM University Chennai-600026, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    BaTi{sub 0.5}CO{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (BTCO) nanoparticles were prepared by the solid state reaction technique using different starting materials and the microstructure examined by XRD, FESEM, BDS and VSM. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction patterns showed that the nanoparticles were the tetragonal BTCO phase. The BTCO nanoparticles prepared from the starting materials of as prepared titanium-oxide, Cobalt -oxide and barium carbonate have spherical grain morphology, an average size of 65 nm and a fairly narrow size distribution. The nano-scale presence and the formation of the tetragonal perovskite phase as well as the crystallinity were detected using the mentioned techniques. Dielectric properties of the samples were measured at different frequencies. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is applied to investigate the electrical properties of disordered perovskite-like ceramics in a wide temperature range. The doped BTCO samples exhibited low loss factor at 1 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies respectively.

  11. Atomistic simulations of the equation of state and hybridization of liquid carbon at a temperature of 6000 K in the pressure range of 1-25 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozhdikov, V. S.; Basharin, A. Yu.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The equation of state and the structure of liquid carbon are studied by molecular simulation. Both classical and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) are used to calculate the equation of state and the distribution of chemical bonds at 6000 K in the pressure range 1-25 GPa. Our calculations and results of other authors show that liquid carbon has a fairly low density on the order of 1.2-1.35 g/cm3 at pressures about 1 GPa. Owing to the coordination number analysis, this fact can be attributed to the high content of sp1-bonded atoms (more than 50% according to our ab initio computations). Six empirical potentials have been tested in order to describe the density dependence of pressure and structure at 6000 K. As a result, only one potential, ReaxFF/lg, was able to reproduce the QMD simulations for both the equation of state and the fraction of sp1, sp2, sp3-bonded atoms.

  12. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dureja, A.K., E-mail: akdureja@barc.gov.in [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R.K. [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Materials' Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 76 (India)

    2011-05-01

    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 deg. C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  13. Creep- and fatigue-resistant, rapid piezoresistive responses of elastomeric graphene-coated carbon nanotube aerogels over a wide pressure range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Michelle N; Islam, Mohammad F

    2017-01-19

    Lightweight, flexible piezoresistive materials with wide operational pressure ranges are in demand for applications such as human physical activity and health monitoring, robotics, and for functional interfacing between living systems and wearable electronics. Piezoresistivity of many elastomeric foams of polymers and carbon allotropes satisfies much of the required characteristics for these applications except creep and fatigue resistance due to their viscoelasticity, critically limiting the reliability and lifetime of integrated devices. We report the piezoresistive responses from aerogels of graphene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), made using a facile and versatile sol-gel method. Graphene crosslinks the junctions of the underlying random network of SWCNTs, generating lightweight elastomeric aerogels with a mass density of ≈11 mg mL-1 (volume fraction ≈7.7 × 10-3) and a Young's modulus of ≈0.4 MPa. The piezoresistivity of these aerogels spans wide compressive pressures up to at least 120 kPa with sensitivity that exhibit ultrafast temporal responses of <27 ms and <3% delay ratio over 104 compressive loading-unloading cycles at rates between 0.1-10 Hz. Most importantly, the piezoresistive responses do not show any creep at least for 1 hour and 80 kPa of compressive static loading. We suggest that the fatigue- and creep-resistant, ultrafast piezoresistive responses of these elastomeric aerogels are highly attractive for use in dynamic and static lightweight, pressure sensing applications such as human activity monitoring and soft robotics.

  14. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  15. Solubility Measurements and Predictions of Gypsum, Anhydrite, and Calcite Over Wide Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Ionic Strength with Mixed Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoyi; Kan, Amy T.; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Fangfu; Yan, Fei; Bhandari, Narayan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ya; Ruan, Gedeng; Tomson, Mason B.

    2017-02-01

    Today's oil and gas production from deep reservoirs permits exploitation of more oil and gas reserves but increases risks due to conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Predicting mineral solubility under such extreme conditions is critical for mitigating scaling risks, a common and costly problem. Solubility predictions use solubility products and activity coefficients, commonly from Pitzer theory virial coefficients. However, inaccurate activity coefficients and solubility data have limited accurate mineral solubility predictions and applications of the Pitzer theory. This study measured gypsum solubility under its stable phase conditions up to 1400 bar; it also confirmed the anhydrite solubility reported in the literature. Using a novel method, the virial coefficients for Ca2+ and {{SO}}4^{2 - } (i.e., β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(0)} ,β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} ,C_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{φ }) were calculated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure (0-250 °C and 1-1400 bar). The determination of this set of virial coefficients widely extends the applicable temperature and pressure ranges of the Pitzer theory in Ca2+ and SO 4 2- systems. These coefficients can be applied to improve the prediction of calcite solubility in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO 4 2- ions. These new virial coefficients can also be used to predict the solubilities of gypsum and anhydrite accurately. Moreover, based on the derived β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} values in this study, the association constants of {{CaSO}}4^{( 0 )} at 1 bar and 25 °C can be estimated by K_{{assoc}} = - 2β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)}. These values match very well with those reported in the literature based on other methods.

  16. Power distribution of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet machine for fuel-based extended range electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingkang; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, power distribution between the inner and outer machines of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM) machine is investigated for fuel-based extended range electric vehicle (ER-EV). Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced, which consist of an inner FSPM machine used for high-speed, an outer FSPM machine for low-speed, and a magnetic isolation ring between them. Then, the magnetic field coupling of the inner and outer FSPM machines is analyzed with more attention paid to the optimization of the isolation ring thickness. Thirdly, the power-dimension (PD) equations of the inner and outer FSPM machines are derived, respectively, and thereafter, the PD equation of the whole CADMP-FSPM machine can be given. Finally, the PD equations are validated by finite element analysis, which supplies the guidance on the design of this type of machines.

  17. A multipurpose ultra-high vacuum-compatible chamber for in situ X-ray surface scattering studies over a wide range of temperature and pressure environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, P.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Heyman, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Castro, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A low/high temperature (60-1000K) and pressure (10-10-3x103 mbar) "baby chamber", specially adapted to the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering station, has been designed, developed and installed at the Spanish CRG BM25 SpLine beamline at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The chamber has a cylindrical form with 100 mm of diameter, built on a 360° beryllium nipple of 150 mm height. The UHV equipment and a turbo pump are located on the upper part of the chamber to leave a wide solid angle for exploring reciprocal space. The chamber features 4 CF16 and 5 CF40 ports for electrical feed through and leak valves, ion gun, etc. The heat exchanger is a customized compact LN2 (or LHe) continuous flow cryostat. The sample is mounted on a Mo support on the heat exchanger, which has in the back side a BORALECTRIC® Heater Elements. Experiments of surfaces/interfaces/ multilayer materials, thin films or single crystals in a huge variety of environments can be performed, also in situ studies of growth or evolution of the samples. Data measurement can be collected with a punctual and a bi-dimensional detector, being possible to simultaneously use them.

  18. Comparability of Icare Pro Rebound Tonometer with Goldmann Applanation and Noncontact Tonometer in a Wide Range of Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Cicik, Erdogan; Özkök, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the agreement between the reading values of the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), Icare Pro rebound tonometer (IRT) and noncontact tonometer (NCT) in glaucoma patients. This cross-sectional study comprised 292 eyes of 292 patients selected from a glaucoma outpatient clinic. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured sequentially, at a 10-min interval each, in the following order: NCT, IRT and GAT. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured using Pentacam HR before the IOP measurements. The mean IOPs measured by the GAT, NCT and IRT were 20.17 ± 6.73 mm Hg (range: 4-48), 19.77 ± 6.88 mm Hg (range: 3-46) and 19.30 ± 5.15 mm Hg (range: 7.30-44.5), respectively. The correlation coefficients of the GAT and IRT, NCT and IRT, and GAT and NCT measurements were r(2) = 0.673, r(2) = 0.663 and r(2) = 0.938 (all p measured IOPs, whereas it underestimates in high GAT-measured IOPs. The measurements of all 3 devices were also correlated with the CCT at a statistically significant level (GAT: r(2) = 0.063, NCT: r(2) = 0.063, IRT: r(2) = 0.058). The agreement between the IRT and GAT measurements is higher in the IOP range of 9-22 mm Hg, whereas significant discrepancies occur as the IOP deviates from normal values. The variability of the IRT and GAT measurements over a wide range of CCT is minimal. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Pressure controlled tunable magnetic, electrical and optical properties of (Cu, Li)-codoped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Lu, Bin; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Jianguo; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-09-01

    Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O thin films have been deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films deposited at 500 °C and the oxygen pressures (PO2) ranging from 0.04 to 40 Pa were of good crystallinity with a (0002) preferential orientation. Three conductivity regimes were observed for the films with varying the PO2. The n-type film obtained at 0.04 Pa had a low resistivity of 1.95×10-2 Ω cm, Hall mobility of 14.8 cm2 V-1 s-1, and carrier concentration of 2.16×1019 cm-3. The p-type Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O film could achieve when oxygen ambient reached as high as 40 Pa and with a hole concentration of 1.12×1018 cm-3. Films grown at PO2 between 0.4 and 4 Pa commonly exhibited insulating behavior. All the Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O films had a high transmittance above 80% in visible regions and the red-shift in optical band gap (Eg) happened as the PO2 increased. Magnetic measurements showed that only the film fabricated at 0.04 Pa with n-type conduction exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of 0.25μB/Cu while others obtained at higher PO2 were paramagnetic. Oxygen vacancies (VO) are speculated that would play a crucial role for the ferromagnetic behavior observed.

  20. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 – stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50 from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles.

    Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit.

    As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m−2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from −4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m−2 s−1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10−3 m

  1. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 - stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Klemm, O.

    2008-12-01

    During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50) from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles. Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit. As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m-2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from -4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m-2 s-1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10-3 m s-1 that appear temporary during noontime and in the evening hours.

  2. Prediction of the critical reduced electric field strength for carbon dioxide and its mixtures with copper vapor from Boltzmann analysis for a gas temperature range of 300 K to 4000 K at 0.4 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Guo, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Hu; Jia, Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2015-04-01

    The influence of copper vapor mixed in hot CO2 on dielectric breakdown properties of gas mixture at a fixed pressure of 0.4 MPa for a temperature range of 300 K-4000 K is numerically analyzed. First, the equilibrium composition of hot CO2 with different copper fractions is calculated using a method based on mass action law. The next stage is devoted to computing the electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) by solving the two-term Boltzmann equation. The reduced ionization coefficient, the reduced attachment coefficient, and the reduced effective ionization coefficient are then obtained based on the EEDF. Finally, the critical reduced electric field (E/N)cr is obtained. The results indicate that an increasing mole fraction of copper markedly reduces (E/N)cr of the CO2-Cu gas mixtures because of copper's low ionization potential and large ionization cross section. Additionally, the generation of O2 from the thermal dissociation of CO2 contributes to the increase of (E/N)cr of CO2-Cu hot gas mixtures from about 2000 K to 3500 K.

  3. Effect of using electric current during dentin bonding agent application on microleakage under simulated pulpal pressure condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Gharizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Results: The results showed that group I had less microleakage scores compared to group II (P = 0.047. Conclusion : Based on the result of this study, it could be concluded that using electric current for applying adhesive systems had a significant effect on reducing microleakage.

  4. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Janczak, Andrew M; Marchant-Forde, Ruth M; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Matthews, Donald L; Dowell, Carol A; Hogan, Daniel F; Freeman, Lynetta J; Lay, Donald C

    2011-05-03

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for assessing farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency domain analyses may provide a sensitive and reliable measure of affective states and stress-mediated changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tones. The aim of this research was to define low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power spectral ranges using pharmacological autonomic blockade, and to examine HRV and BPV parameter changes in response to atropine and propranolol in swine. Ten, 13-week old, barrows (n=6) and gilts (n=4) underwent surgery to place an intra-cardiac electrode and a blood pressure catheter attached to a biotelemetric transmitter; pigs had a 3-week recovery period prior to data collection. Each pig was subjected to administration of 4 intravenous (i.v.) drug treatments: a control treatment, 3 mL of saline, and 3 blockade treatments; 0.1 mg/kg of atropine, 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol, and .1 mg/kg of atropine together with 1.0 mg/kg of propranolol. All treatments were delivered by injection in the jugular vein with a minimum of 48 h between individual treatments. Behavior, ECG and blood pressure data were recorded continuously for a total of 1h, from 30 min pre-injection to 30 min post-injection. For data analyses, two 512-beat intervals were selected for each treatment while the pig was lying and inactive. The first interval was selected from the pre-injection period (baseline), and the second was selected between 10 and 30 min post-injection. Time and frequency domain (power spectral density) analyses were performed on each data interval. Subsequent, LF and HF bands from the power spectral densities were defined based on general linear and regression analyses. The HRV and BPV were computed with a covariate (baseline) factorial analysis of treatment by sex

  5. Power distribution of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet machine for fuel-based extended range electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingkang Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power distribution between the inner and outer machines of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM machine is investigated for fuel-based extended range electric vehicle (ER-EV. Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced, which consist of an inner FSPM machine used for high-speed, an outer FSPM machine for low-speed, and a magnetic isolation ring between them. Then, the magnetic field coupling of the inner and outer FSPM machines is analyzed with more attention paid to the optimization of the isolation ring thickness. Thirdly, the power-dimension (PD equations of the inner and outer FSPM machines are derived, respectively, and thereafter, the PD equation of the whole CADMP-FSPM machine can be given. Finally, the PD equations are validated by finite element analysis, which supplies the guidance on the design of this type of machines.

  6. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in resistant hypertensive individuals: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela-Martin, José Fernando; Giollo-Junior, Luiz Tadeu; Chiappa, Gaspar Rogério; Cipriano-Junior, Gerson; Vieira, Paulo José Cardoso; dos Santos Ricardi, Fábio; Paz-Landim, Manoel Ildefonso; de Andrade, Days Oliveira; Cestário, Elizabeth do Espírito Santo; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Cipullo, José Paulo

    2016-03-29

    Resistant hypertension (RH) treatment requires an adequate and intense therapeutic approach. However, the results are not always satisfactory despite intensive treatment. Of the different pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of RH, sympathetic overstimulation and therapies that block the sympathetic system have been widely studied. These approaches, however, are invasive and expensive. Another possible approach is by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a noninvasive method that modulates activity by using low-frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation to inhibit primary afferent pathways. Thus, the current study will evaluate the effect of applying TENS in the cervicothoracic region of subjects with RH and will seek to develop a new low-cost and readily available therapy to treat this group of hypertensive individuals. This is a randomized, single blind (subject), parallel-assignment study controlled with a sham group and including participants aged 40 to 70 years with resistant hypertension. The trial has two arms: the treatment and control (sham group). The treatment group will be submitted to the stimulation procedure (TENS). The sham group will not be submitted to stimulation. The primary outcomes will be a reduction in the peripheral blood pressure and adverse events. The secondary outcomes will be a reduction the central blood pressure. The study will last 30 days. The sample size was calculated assuming an alpha error of 5 % to reject the null hypothesis with a statistical power of 80 %, thereby resulting in 28 participants per group (intervention versus sham). In recent decades, RH has become very common and costly. Adequate control requires several drugs, and in many cases, treatment is not successful. Sympathetic nervous system inhibition by renal denervation and central inhibition have significant effects in reducing BP; however, these treatments are costly and invasive. Another type of sympathetic nervous

  7. A diaphragmatic electrical activity-based optimization strategy during pressure support ventilation improves synchronization but does not impact work of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloncle, Francois; Piquilloud, Lise; Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Sinderby, Christer; Rozé, Hadrien; Brochard, Laurent

    2017-01-31

    Poor patient-ventilator synchronization is often observed during pressure support ventilation (PSV) and has been associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and poor outcome. Diaphragmatic electrical activity (Eadi) recorded using specialized nasogastric tubes is a surrogate of respiratory brain stem output. This study aimed at testing whether adapting ventilator settings during PSV using a protocolized Eadi-based optimization strategy, or Eadi-triggered and -cycled assisted pressure ventilation (or PSVN) could (1) improve patient-ventilator interaction and (2) reduce or normalize patient respiratory effort as estimated by the work of breathing (WOB) and the pressure time product (PTP). This was a prospective cross-over study. Patients with a known chronic pulmonary obstructive or restrictive disease, asynchronies or suspected intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) who were ventilated using PSV were enrolled in the study. Four different ventilator settings were sequentially applied for 15 minutes (step 1: baseline PSV as set by the clinician, step 2: Eadi-optimized PSV to adjust PS level, inspiratory trigger, and cycling settings, step 3: step 2 + PEEP adjustment, step 4: PSVN). The same settings as step 3 were applied again after step 4 to rule out a potential effect of time. Breathing pattern, trigger delay (Td), inspiratory time in excess (Tiex), pressure-time product (PTP), and work of breathing (WOB) were measured at the end of each step. Eleven patients were enrolled in the study. Eadi-optimized PSV reduced Td without altering Tiex in comparison with baseline PSV. PSVN reduced Td and Tiex in comparison with baseline and Eadi-optimized PSV. Respiratory pattern did not change during the four steps. The improvement in patient-ventilator interaction did not lead to changes in WOB or PTP. Eadi-optimized PSV allows improving patient ventilator interaction but does not alter patient effort in patients with mild asynchrony

  8. The immediate effects of manual stretching and cervicothoracic junction manipulation on cervical range of motion and upper trapezius pressure pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, William J; Puentedura, Emilio J; Kolber, Morey J; Liu, Xinliang; Pabian, Patrick S; Cheatham, Scott W

    2017-09-22

    Myofascial pain is a common impairment treated with various manual interventions including spinal thrust manipulation and stretching; however, the comparative efficacy of each intervention is uncertain. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate thrust manipulation targeting the cervicothoracic junction compared to a manual stretch of the upper trapezius muscle on cervical range of motion and upper trapezius pressure pain thresholds (PPTs). Healthy participants with no significant history of neck pain were randomized into a thrust manipulation group, a stretching group, or a control group. Within group differences were evaluated via a dependent t-test, and group by time interactions were evaluated by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. One hundred and two participants were recruited to participate. Baseline demographics revealed no significant differences between groups. Significant group by time interactions were found for changes in PPTs for both the right and left upper trapezius. Also, significant differences were found for changes in cervical extension, as well as right and left cervical side bending favoring the treatment groups. This study demonstrates the potential independent effectiveness of spinal thrust manipulation or stretching for reducing PPTs at the upper trapezius. Future research should further evaluate the limitation of PPTs as a measure of muscle sensitivity as well as factors that may contribute to variability in the measurements among individuals seeking care.

  9. Electrical stimulation therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Deena; Spaulding, Sandi J; Burke, Shauna M; Houghton, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of electrical stimulation therapy (EST) on healing pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Nursing & Allied Health and Dissertation & Theses databases were searched for relevant English language articles from the date of inception to 31 January 2014. Separate searches were conducted in Google Scholar and academic journals specialised in wound care. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility. Studies were included if EST was used to treat pressure ulcers in individuals with SCI. A total of 599 articles were screened, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis with five studies demonstrated that EST significantly decreased the ulcer size by 1·32%/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 0·58-2·05, P < 0·001] compared to standard wound care (SWC) or sham EST. Another meta-analysis conducted with four studies showed that EST increased the risk of wound healing by 1·55 times compared with standard wound care or sham EST (95% CI: 1·12 to 2·15, P < 0·0001). Because of the wide array of outcome measures across studies, a single meta-analysis could not be conducted. EST appears to be an effective adjunctive therapy to accelerate and increase pressure ulcer closure in individuals with SCI. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Optimation Pressure Loss to Oil Production System with Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) at the Well A SW Field Bojonegoro, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmah, A. M.; Hendrajaya, L.

    2017-07-01

    Study about oil and gas well A and SW fields have been conducted in Bojonegoro area, East Java Province. From the research, it is known that one of the constrain in oil and gas production process is a pressure drop, so that is necessary to set Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) as an artificial lift pump at low pressure wells. It is needed to analyze the production well pressure as an effort to optimize the fluid production. It is in describe to relations between IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship ) curve with TPR (Tubing Performance Relationship), are getting down point cut TPR curve with IPR curve, fluid rate its optimal, so need tubing’s diameter variation and the number of stage pump ESP variation to can the most optimal fluid rate. Produced that to tubing variation are 2,441 ID is 876,729 bpd, 2,991 is 961,197 bpd, 3,476 id is 996, 26 Bpd, while on the number of stage pump esp variation The most high is stage 400 with fluid rate 961,197 by comparison stage 338 it has value fluid rate 921,165 bpd, stage 200 it has fluid rate 827,889 bpd, and stage 169 has fluid rate 774,646 bpd. Of some variation tubing and stage pumps that has the most influence to fluid rate optimalize is the change number of stage pump.

  11. An investigation into the effects of frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on experimentally-induced pressure pain in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chung; Johnson, Mark I

    2009-10-01

    Frequency-modulated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivers currents that fluctuate between preset boundaries over a fixed period of time. This study compared the effects of constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS on blunt pressure pain in healthy human volunteers. Thirty-six participants received constant-frequency TENS (80 pps), frequency-modulated TENS (20 to 100 pps), and placebo (no current) TENS at a strong nonpainful intensity in a randomized cross-over manner. Pain threshold was taken from the forearm using pressure algometry. There were no statistical differences between constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS after 20 minutes (OR = 1.54; CI, 0.29, 8.23, P = 1.0). Both constant-frequency TENS and frequency-modulated TENS were superior to placebo TENS (OR = 59.5, P TENS does not influence hypoalgesia to any greater extent than constant-frequency TENS when currents generate a strong nonpainful paraesthesia at the site of pain. The finding that frequency-modulated TENS and constant-frequency TENS were superior to placebo TENS provides further evidence that a strong yet nonpainful TENS intensity is a prerequisite for hypoalgesia. This study provides evidence that TENS, delivered at a strong nonpainful intensity, increases pain threshold to pressure algometry in healthy participants over and above that seen with placebo (no current) TENS. Frequency-modulated TENS does not increase hypoalgesia to any appreciable extent to that seen with constant-frequency TENS.

  12. Investigation of the effect of alumina and compaction pressure on physical, electrical and tribological properties of Al–Fe–Cr–Al2O3 powder composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohammad; Mohd, Aas; Suhaib, M.; Arif, Sajjad; Arif Siddiqui, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this experimental work, aluminium Al–20Fe–5Cr (in wt.%) matrix reinforced with varying wt.% Al2O3 (0, 10, 20 and 30) and compaction pressure (470, 550 and 600 MPa) were prepared by powder metallurgy technique. The characterization of composites were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and elemental mapping. Uniform distribution of Al2O3 in aluminium matrix were observed by elemental mapping. The composites showed an increase in density and hardness by increasing both alumina and compaction pressure. While, electrical conductivity decreased by the addition of alumina. The tribological study of the composites were performed on pin-on-disc apparatus at sliding conditions (applied load 40 N, sliding speed 1.5 m s‑1, sliding distance 300 m). The tribological properties of the composites were improved by increasing alumina and compaction pressure. SEM analysis were also carried out to understand wear mechanism of the worn surfaces of various fabricated composites and aluminium matrix.

  13. Determination of the Thermal Diffusivity of Electrically Non-Conductive Solids in the Temperature Range from 80 K to 300 K by Laser-Flash Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, F.; Göbel, A.; Ebert, H.-P.

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of the popular laser-flash method at temperatures far below 300 K is restricted by the weak signal-to-noise ratio and the limited spectral bandwidth of the commonly used mercury cadmium tellurite (MCT) infrared (IR) detector used as a non-contacting temperature probe. In this work, a different approach to measure the temperature rise in pulse heating experiments is described and evaluated. This method utilizes the change of the temperature-dependent electrical resistance of a thin strip of sputtered gold for the detection of a temperature rise as it was proposed by Kogure et al. The main advantage of this method at lower temperatures is the significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to the commonly used IR detectors. A newly developed laser-flash apparatus using this detection method for the determination of the thermal diffusivity in the temperature range from 80 K to 300 K is presented. To test the accuracy of the new detection method, the thermal diffusivity of a borosilicate crown glass (BK7) specimen at 300 K was determined and compared to results derived with a MCT detector. Good agreement of the derived thermal diffusivity values within 3 % was found. The thermal diffusivity of BK7 and polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) was measured at temperatures between 80 K and 300 K by a laser-flash method to test the functionality of the apparatus. Finally, the thermal conductivity was calculated using values for the specific heat capacity determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Comparisons with literature data confirm the reliability of the experimental setup.

  14. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  15. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lex D.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Gerritsen, Johan; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Postema, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Question: Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? Design: Multicentre randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding,

  16. Phase diagram of the selenium-sulfur system in the pressure range 1 × 10-5-1 × 10-1 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.; Ersaiynova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The partial pressures of the components in the saturated vapor of the Se-S system were determined and presented as the temperature-concentration dependences. Based on these data, the boundaries of the melt-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum (1350, 100, and 10 Pa) were calculated. A complete phase diagram was constructed, which included the vapor-liquid equilibrium fields at atmospheric and low pressures, whose boundaries allowed us to determine the behavior of sulfur and selenium during distillation separation.

  17. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  18. Comparison of a Vibrating Foam Roller and a Non-vibrating Foam Roller Intervention on Knee Range of Motion and Pressure Pain Threshold: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Stull, Kyle R; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-08-08

    The use of foam rollers to provide soft-tissue massage has become a common intervention among health and fitness professionals. Recently, manufacturers have merged the science of vibration therapy and foam rolling with the development of vibrating foam rollers. To date, no peer reviewed investigations have been published on this technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a vibrating roller and non-vibrating roller intervention on prone knee flexion passive range of motion (ROM) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of the quadriceps musculature. Forty-five recreationally active adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups: vibrating roller, non-vibrating roller, and control. Each roll intervention lasted a total of 2 minutes. The control group did not roll. Dependent variables included prone knee flexion ROM and PPT measures. Statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests to measure changes among groups. The vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in PPT (180kPa, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (112kPa, p< 0.001), and control (61kPa, p<0.001). For knee ROM, the vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in ROM (7 degrees, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (5 degrees, p< 0.001), and control (2 degrees, p<0.001). Between groups, there was significant difference in PPT between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.03) and vibrating roller and control (p<.001). There was also a significant difference between the non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). For knee ROM, there was no significant difference between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.31). A significant difference was found between the vibrating roller and control group (p<.001) and non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). The results suggest that a vibrating roller may increase an individual's tolerance to pain greater than a non-vibrating roller. This investigation should be considered

  19. Combined arm stretch positioning and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during rehabilitation does not improve range of motion, shoulder pain or function in patients after stroke: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gerritsen; K. Postema; L.D. de Jong; A.C. Geurts; P.U. Dijkstra

    2013-01-01

    doi: 10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70201-7 QUESTION: Does static stretch positioning combined with simultaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in the subacute phase after stroke have beneficial effects on basic arm body functions and activities? DESIGN: Multicentre randomised trial with

  20. Establishing conditions for simulating hydrophobic solutes in electric fields by molecular dynamics Effects of the long-range van der Waals treatment on the apparent particle mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milicevic, Zoran; Marrink, Siewert J.; Smith, Ana-Suncana; Smith, David M.

    Despite considerable effort over the last decade, the interactions between solutes and solvents in the presence of electric fields have not yet been fully understood. A very useful manner in which to study these systems is through the application of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. However, a

  1. Normal pressure tests on unstiffened flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Richard M; Sechler, Ernest J

    1944-01-01

    Flat sheet panels of aluminum alloy (all 17S-T except for two specimens of 24S-T) were tested under normal pressures with clamped edge supports in the structures laboratory of the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The thicknesses used ranged from 0.010 to 0.080 inch; the panel sizes ranged from 10 by 10 inches to 10 by 40 inches; and the pressure range was from 0 to 60-pounds-per-square-inch gage. Deflection patterns were measured and maximum tensile strains in the center of the panel were determined by electric strain gages. The experimental data are presented by pressure-strain, pressure-maximum-deflection, and pressure-deflection curves. The results of these tests have been compared with the corresponding strains and deflections as calculated by the simple membrane theory and by large deflection theories.

  2. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  3. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen ...

  4. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jialin Song; Binbin Sun; Shen Liu; Wei Chen; Yuanzheng Zhang; Chunyang Wang; Xiumei Mo; Junyi Che; Yuanming Ouyang; Weien Yuan; Cunyi Fan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites c...

  5. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Pneck pain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.

  6. Electrical conductivity and capacitance spectra of Bi1.37Sm0.13Zn0.92Nb1.50O6.92 pyrochlore ceramic in the range of 0-3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Bzour, Faten M.; Nazzal, Eman O.; Mergen, A.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the electrical properties of samarium-doped bismuth niobium zinc oxide (Sm-doped BZN) pyrochlore ceramics are investigated by means of temperature dependent electrical conductivity and capacitance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 0-3 GHz. It was observed that the novel dielectric Sm-BZN ceramic exhibits a temperature and electric field dependent dielectric breakdown. When measured at 300 K, the breakdown electric field is 1.12 kV/cm and when heated the breakdown temperature is 420 K. The pyrochlore is thermally active above 440 K with conductivity activation energy of 1.37 eV. In addition, the room temperature capacitance spectra reflected a resonance-antiresonance switching property at 53 MHz when subjected to an AC signal of low power of 5 dBm. Furthermore, when the Sm-BZN ceramics are used as microwave cavity and tested in the frequency range of 1.0-3.0 GHz, the cavity behaves as low pass filter with wide tunability up to a frequency of 1.91 GHz. At this frequency it behaves as a band rejection filter that blocks waves of 1.91 GHz and 2.57 GHz frequencies. These properties of the Sm-doped BZN are promising as they indicate the usability of the ceramics in digital electronic circuits as resonant microwave cavities suitable for the production of low pass/rejection band filters.

  7. Detection of H2S, SO2 and NO2 in CO2 at pressures ranging from 1-40 bar by using broadband absorption spectroscopy in the UV/VIS range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Vincent; Visser, Pieter; Ahmad, Mohammad; Mokhov, Anatoli; Sepman, Alexey; Alberts, Ramon; Douma, Arno; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to quantitatively measure H2S, SO2 and NO2 fractions in gaseous CO2 by using broadband absorption spectroscopy at 1 and 40 bar. The mole fractions of binary- and 3-component mixtures of H2S, SO2 and NO2 in CO2 with known fractions ranging from 35-250 ppm are

  8. Electrical impedance tomography measured at two thoracic levels can visualize the ventilation distribution changes at the bedside during a decremental positive end-expiratory lung pressure trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Ido G; Preis, Carsten; Egal, Mahamud; Bakker, Jan; Gommers, Diederik

    2011-08-11

    Computed tomography of the lung has shown that ventilation shifts from dependent to nondependent lung regions. In this study, we investigated whether, at the bedside, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the cranial and caudal thoracic levels can be used to visualize changes in ventilation distribution during a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial and the relation of these changes to global compliance in mechanically ventilated patients. Ventilation distribution was calculated on the basis of EIT results from 12 mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery at a cardiothoracic ICU. Measurements were taken at four PEEP levels (15, 10, 5 and 0 cm H2O) at both the cranial and caudal lung levels, which were divided into four ventral-to-dorsal regions. Regional compliance was calculated using impedance and driving pressure data. We found that tidal impedance variation divided by tidal volume significantly decreased on caudal EIT slices, whereas this measurement increased on the cranial EIT slices. The dorsal-to-ventral impedance distribution, expressed according to the center of gravity index, decreased during the decremental PEEP trial at both EIT levels. Optimal regional compliance differed at different PEEP levels: 10 and 5 cm H2O at the cranial level and 15 and 10 cm H2O at the caudal level for the dependent and nondependent lung regions, respectively. At the bedside, EIT measured at two thoracic levels showed different behavior between the caudal and cranial lung levels during a decremental PEEP trial. These results indicate that there is probably no single optimal PEEP level for all lung regions.

  9. Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jennifer; Bruyninckx, Frans; Neuhauser, Duncan V

    2017-07-01

    Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months. Outcome measures include BP: systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure and pulse/heart rate, pre-session/immediate-post-session summed differences (SDPPP index), and pain reduction. His results were compared with that of two other patients and one normal control. Each individual represented the following maximal elicitable twitch forces (TWF) graded 1-5: maximum TWF2: control subject; maximum TWF3: CRPS patient with suspected ANS dysfunction; and maximum TWF4 and TWF5: two patients with respective slow-fatigue and fast-fatigue twitches who during ETOIMS had autonomous twitching at local and remote myotomes simultaneously from denervation supersensitivity. ETOIMS results between TWFs were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. The patients showed immediate significant pain reduction, BP and pulse/heart rate changes/reduction(s) except for diastolic BP in the TWF5 patient. TWF2 control subject had diastolic BP reduction with ETOIMS but not with rest. Linear regression showed TWF grade to be the most significant variable in pain reduction, more so than the number of treatments, session duration and treatment interval. TWF grade was the most important variable in significantly reducing outcome measures, especially pulse/heart rate. Unlike others, the TWF3 patient had distinctive reductions in SDPPP index. Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke

  10. Thermobarometry for 4‧-n-Octylbiphenyl-4-carbonitrile in Metal Tube Berthelot Method and Polymorphism in Crystalline Phase of 4‧-n-Octylbiphenyl-4-carbonitrile Found through Cooling Paths in Negative-Pressure Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Yoshihito; Tanzawa, Yasutoshi; Motoshita, Kaname; Hiro, Kazuki

    2008-07-01

    The Berthelot method has been used for generating negative pressure in a liquid sealed in a container by a temperature cycle. We introduce its thermodynamic principles and experimental procedures for observing the first-order phase transitions between the condensed phases of a thermotropic liquid crystal. In order to check the methodology, we measure the pressure (P) versus temperature (T) relations of 4‧-n-octylbiphenyl-4-carbonitrile (8CB) sealed in a metal tube at various densities using the Berthelot method. Two results are reported: (i) the P-T phase diagram of 8CB is drawn in a triangular region bounded by three points, namely, (0.5 °C, 0 bar), (55 °C, +730 bar), and (75 °C, 0 bar) and (ii) the polymorphism of 8CB's crystalline phase is detected only by cooling paths in the negative-pressure range; two melting points immediately below 10.5 and 15.8 °C, are measured for crystals formed upon cavitation in “super-expanded” smectic phase between -50 and -110 bar, while the reported melting point, 21 °C, is measured for crystals formed in the supercooled smectic phase under positive pressures. The thermobarometry of thermotropic liquid crystals is feasible by the metal tube Berthelot method, and its extension in the negative-pressure range will be interesting for the study of organic compounds.

  11. Crystal structure, magnetic and electrical properties of compounds in the RCrMnO{sub 5} family (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho and Er) synthesized under high oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomiro, Fernando; Miner, Elisa V.P.; Carbonio, Raul E. [INFIQC (CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Cordoba), Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Lohr, Javier; Sanchez, Rodolfo D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Nassif, Vivian [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    RCrMnO{sub 5} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) were synthesized at high O{sub 2} pressures and 900-950 C. Crystal structures were refined by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and powder neutron diffraction (PND) for Tb, Ho, and Er compounds and PXRD for Sm, Eu and Gd compounds. All compounds were isostructural with RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. By using the bond-valence model we found that (Cr/Mn){sup 4+} mainly occupy the octahedral sites and (Cr/Mn){sup 3+} occupy the pyramidal sites. Antisite disorder between octahedral and pyramidal sites was found in the three samples analyzed by PND. From the values obtained for the occupancies of Cr and Mn in the pyramidal and octahedral sites and from the approximate average oxidation states for each crystallographic site obtained by the bond-valence calculations, an estimated ionic distribution model was proposed. The μ{sub eff} value for RCrMnO{sub 5} could be explained by considering the contribution of all the paramagnetic species and by using the ionic distribution model. No magnetic long-range order was observed by PND in R = Er, Ho, and Tb compounds. All the Curie-Weiss temperatures obtained from the magnetic susceptibility were negative (θ < 0), indicating antiferromagnetic correlations. For the compounds with Eu and Sm, θ close to -200 K were obtained for the Cr-Mn sublattice. The semiconducting properties could be described by a variable range hopping mechanism associated with antisite disorder of Cr/Mn. No dielectric transitions were observed in the electric permittivity in the measured temperature range. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. A simple electrical lumped-element model simulates intra-cochlear sound pressures and cochlear impedance below 2 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Torsten; Hensel, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Low-frequency sounds displace large parts of the basilar membrane (BM) and can have a modulating and possibly disturbing effect on hearing at other frequencies. A better understanding of the transfer of such sounds onto the BM is therefore desirable. Lumped-element models have previously been employed to determine the low-frequency acoustic properties of the cochlea. Although helpful in illustrating schematically the role of the helicotrema, BM compliance, and the round window on low-frequency hearing, these models, when applied quantitatively, have not been able to explain experimental data in detail. Building on these models, an extended electrical analog requires just 13 lumped elements to capture, in surprising detail, the physiologically determined frequency-dependence of intra-cochlear pressure and cochlear impedance between 10 Hz and 2 kHz. The model's verification is based on data from cat, guinea pig, and humans, who differ principally in their low-frequency cochlear acoustics. The modeling data suggest that damping within the helicotrema plays a less prominent role than previously assumed. A resonance feature, which is often observed experimentally near 150 Hz in these animals and near 50 Hz in humans, is presumably a phenomenon local to the apex and not the result of a standing wave between stapes and helicotrema.

  13. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation through acupoints of Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Jen-Chien; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) through acupoints on the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. A single-blinded, randomized experimental design study was conducted. Patients from the North of Taipei Ophthalmology outpatient department diagnosed with intraocular hypertension were selected and were further enrolled if they met the research subject criteria. The patients who met all criteria, and who met no exclusion criteria became the participants. Participants were randomly assigned into the treated group, wherein the TENS electrodes (Qing Ming Medical Device Co., Ltd., New Taipei City, China) were applied with direct current (DC) on the acupoints Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) for 20 min. The control group received no TENS electrode treatments. Measurements of IOP were taken four times using a pneumotonometer (Clinico Co., Ltd., New Taipei City, China), before, immediately after, 30 min after, and 60 min after TENS electrode treatments. Eighty-two participants completed the experiment. IOP decreased more in the group treated with DC (P IOPs were not affected by the age of the patients and their usage of medications. TENS of acupoints of Pucan (BL 61) and Shenmai (BL 62) could significantly reduce the IOP in patients with glaucoma.

  14. 700-MW coal fired sliding pressure operation boiler with improving operational characteristics. ; Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, J.; Kiyama, K. (Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    In response to requirements of improvements of efficiency and operability to provide demand control and environmental preservation in coal fired boilers, Babcock-Hitachi has endeavored to develop a large capacity coal fired boiler. As a result, Babcock-Hitachi has installed a 700MW supercritical sliding pressure operation coal fired once through boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Station Unit No.2 of Chubu Electric Power Co. For this coal fired boiler, spiral water wall construction was adopted to stabilize the furnace outlet water temperature via uniform heat absorption at the furnace. A three-stage spray-type attemperator was also applied to the main steam temperature control to improve load controllability and to correspond to a fluctuation of heat absorption at the furnace and the convection pass zone. Moreover, gas recirculation system, parallel gas damper, and intermediate spray attemperator were used to control the reheat steam temperature. The present article describes design summary and results of trial operation of this large capacity coal fired boiler. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Photo-ionization cross-section of donor-related in (In,Ga)N/GaN core/shell under hydrostatic pressure and electric field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; John Peter, A.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogenic-like donor-impurity related self and induced polarizations, bending energy and photo-ionization cross section in spherical core/shell zinc blende (In,Ga)N/GaN are computed. Based on the variational approach and within effective-mass and one parabolic approximations, the calculations are made under finite potential barrier taking into account of the discontinuity of the effective-mass and the constant dielectric. The photo-ionization cross section is studied according to the photon incident energy considering the effects of hydrostatic pressure, applied electric field, structure's radius, impurity's position and indium composition in the core. It is obtained that the influences mentioned above lead to either blue shifts or redshifts of the resonant peak of the photo-ionization cross section spectrum. The unusual behavior related to the structure radius is discussed which is as a consequence of the finite potential confinement. We have shown that the photo-ionization cross section can be controlled with adjusting the internal and external factors. These properties can be useful for producing some device applications such as quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

  16. Short- and medium-term effects of manual therapy on cervical active range of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campelo, Natália M; de Melo, Cristina A; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Machado, Jorge P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of different manual techniques on cervical ranges of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in subjects with latent trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle. One hundred seventeen volunteers, with a unilateral latent trigger point on upper trapezius due to computer work, were randomly divided into 5 groups: ischemic compression (IC) group (n=24); passive stretching group (n=23); muscle energy technique group (n=23); and 2 control groups, wait-and-see group (n=25) and placebo group (n=22). Cervical spine range of movement was measured using a cervical range of motion instrument as well as pressure pain sensitivity by means of an algometer and a visual analog scale. Outcomes were assessed pretreatment, immediately, and 24 hours after the intervention and 1 week later by a blind researcher. A 4×5 mixed repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of the intervention and Cohen d coefficient was used. A group-by-time interaction was detected in all variables (Pupper trapezius with latent trigger point seemed to improve the cervical range of motion and the pressure pain sensitivity. These effects persist after 1 week in the IC group. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short- and medium-term effects of manual therapy on cervical active range of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campelo, Natália; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Albuquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Machado, Jorge P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of different manual techniques on cervical ranges of 17 motion and pressure pain sensitivity in subjects with latent trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle. 18 Methods: One hundred seventeen volunteers, with a unilateral latent trigger point on upper trapezius due to computer 19 work, were randomly divided into 5 groups: ischemic compression (IC) group (n = 24); passive stretching group (n = 20 23); muscle energy...

  18. Impurity-related optical properties in rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wires: Hydrostatic pressure and electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.W.; Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, S.Y. [Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Rodriguez, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2007-01-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the influence of an applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the shallow-impurity-related optical properties in a rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wire. The electric field is applied in the plane of the transverse section of the wire and different angular directions have been considered. The results presented are for the impurity binding energy, its corresponding density of impurity states, and impurity-related transition energy and polarizability. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Pressure activated stability-bypass-control valves to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 40 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. The inlet stable airflow range provided by various stability-bypass entrance configurations in alternate combination with several stability-bypass exit controls was determined for both steady-state conditions and internal transient pulses. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit. Instart angles of attack were determined for the various stability-bypass entrance configurations. The response of the inlet-coldpipe system to internal and external oscillating disturbances was determined. Poppet valves at the stability-bypass exit provided an inlet stable airflow range of 28 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  20. Piezometric level and electrical conductivity spatiotemporal monitoring as an instrument to design further managed aquifer recharge strategies in a complex estuarial system under anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Victor Hugo R; Bertrand, Guillaume F; Montenegro, Suzana M G L; Paiva, Anderson L R; Almeida, Cristiano N; Galvão, Carlos O; Barbosa, Luís Romero; Batista, Larissa F D R; Ferreira, Eduardo L G A

    2018-03-01

    Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR, NE Brazil) lies over a multi-layered aquifer system located in an estuarial area. The region has experienced fast population growth and repeated droughts in the last three decades, which led to unprecedented anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources because of intense water pumping. Accordingly, scientific and stakeholder communities have been challenged to ensure the maintenance of sustainable groundwater resource by managing all water cycle. Because controlling pumping rates is difficult due to the large number of illegal wells, the Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies are now under consideration. The RMR presents a tropical climate and an annual average rainfall rate of approximately 2450 mm year-1, providing great potential volumes of water to be used for piezometric level recovery. However, MAR implementation requires a detailed and in-depth knowledge of the human-impact on the hydrogeological behavior of the resource over the long-term, in order to find out the most appropriate recharge strategy. Therefore, the present study illustrates how routine data monitoring, i.e., piezometric level and electrical conductivity (EC), in combination with the geological knowledge, may allow proposing further MAR strategies. Two contrasted behaviors were observed in RMR: (i) groundwater level decrease and stable EC in the North and Southernmost areas of Recife; and (ii) stable groundwater level and high/varying EC values next to the estuarial zone. Although aquifers are undergoing over-abstraction, this spatiotemporal heterogeneity suggests that a recharge is possibly locally favored next to the estuarial area of the RMR thanks to hydraulic connections between surface and deep aquifers throughout extended paleo-channels. Thus, based on this typology, MAR implementation through controlled infiltration close to the estuarial area seems to be more appropriated, whereas the direct deep injection appears to be more relevant in more

  1. Measuring diesel soot with a scanning mobility particle sizer and an electrical low-pressure impactor: performance assessment with a model for fractal-like agglomerates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulijk, C.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.; Schmidt-Ott, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). DelftChemTech

    2004-05-01

    The scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) are frequently used to measure particle size distributions of combustion aerosols. The instruments are especially popular for diesel exhaust measurements since the emission of ''particulate matter'' is restricted by legislation. A problem is that the interpretation of the results that these instruments give is not straightforward: fractal-like diesel soot agglomerates in the exhaust have a complex interaction with their carrier gas. This paper focuses on this complex interaction in order to assess its effect on the instruments' output. A theoretical model for the aerodynamic behavior of fractal-like agglomerates is used as a tool to assess the performance of the ELPI and the SMPS for the measurement of diesel soot particles. The model couples the aerodynamic diameter and the mobility diameter for fractal-like soot agglomerates. Visual analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) aids model development and instrument performance assessment. It is concluded that the performance of both instruments is affected by the fractal-like structure of diesel soot. The ELPI, if it is set to measure the aerodynamic diameter, gives an underestimation of the apparent size of particles due to their fractal-like structure. As a result, the number of particles is overestimated. The model presented in this paper helps interpretation of the ELPI's response. The SMPS is affected by multiple charging of soot agglomerates, larger than 1000 nm, which are abundantly present in diesel exhaust gas and are not removed by the impaction stage at the input due to their small effective density. The diesel engine in this paper emits many of such particles. Multiple charging leads to an underestimation of the size of the agglomerates and hampers size classification in the instrument. (author)

  2. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  4. Polymerizing Pyrrole Coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) Conductive Nanofibrous Conduit Combined with Electric Stimulation for Long-Range Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialin; Sun, Binbin; Liu, Shen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanzheng; Wang, Chunyang; Mo, Xiumei; Che, Junyi; Ouyang, Yuanming; Yuan, Weien; Fan, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES) are both promising methods to support neuron adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few work on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PPY/PLCL) in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microscope. Rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15 mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1 h per day at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits' combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  5. Polymerizing pyrrole coated Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL conductive nanofibrous conduit combined with electric stimulation for long-range peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning and electric stimulation (ES are both promising methods to support neurons adhesion and guide extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, all studies focus on either electrospinning for conduits material or ES in vitro study to accelerate nerve regeneration; few works on the combined use of these two strategies or ES in vivo study. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the abilities of direct current ES through electrospinning conductive polymer composites composed of polypyrrole and Poly (l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone (PPY/PLCL in peripheral nerve regeneration. PPY/PLCL composite conduits were synthesized by polymerizing pyrrole coated electrospun PLCL scaffolds. Morphologies and chemical compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscope and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR. Rat pheochromyctoma (PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells cultured on PPY/PLCL scaffolds were stimulated with 100 mV/cm for 4 h per day. The median neurite length and cell viability were measured in PC-12 cells. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 were analyzed in DRG cells. In rats, 15-mm gaps of sciatic nerves were bridged using an autograft, non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit and PPY/PLCL conduit stimulated with 100 mV potential, respectively. A 100 mV potential direct current ES was applied for 1h per day at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-implantation. The PPY/PLCL conduits with ES showed a similar performance compared with the autograft group, and significantly better than the non-stimulated PPY/PLCL conduit group. These promising results show that the PPY/PLCL conductive conduits combined use with ES has great potential for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  6. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, J. J.; Estupiñán, E. G.; Lapatovich, W. P.; Henins, A.; Shastri, S. D.; Hardis, J. E.

    2012-02-01

    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI3/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI3/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  7. Accurate and stable equal-pressure measurements of water vapor transmission rate reaching the 10-6 g m-2 day-1 range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoichiro; Yanase, Takashi; Nagahama, Taro; Yoshida, Hajime; Shimada, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a gas barrier coating is a critically important parameter for flexible organic device packaging, but its accurate measurement without mechanical stress to ultrathin films has been a significant challenge in instrumental analysis. At the current stage, no reliable results have been reported in the range of 10-6 g m-2 day-1 that is required for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, we describe a solution for this difficult, but important measurement, involving enhanced sensitivity by a cold trap, stabilized temperature system, pumped sealing and calibration by a standard conductance element.

  8. Dielectric and Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Response of Lead-Free Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramics at High Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Reyes-Montero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.18 solid solutions were synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. A perovskite-type structure was determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. The addition of Ca2+ reduced the grain size (22.6, 17.9 and 13.3 μm, respectively for all well-sintered ceramics (≈98%. Moreover, the stability temperature ranges for the tetragonal phase were promoted by displacing the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase’s transition temperatures while TC was maintained (86 °C. The electrical performance of the material improved as the stoichiometric composition was positioned near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.15: εr ≈ 16,500 (TC at 1 kHz. For T > TC, a thermally activated relaxation process occurred. In addition, the bulk and grain boundary processes were responsible for the conduction mechanisms. The composition x = 0.15 showed an activation energy of Ea = 1.49 eV with a maximum conductivity of σmax = 2.48 × 10−2 S·cm−1 at 580 °C. Systematic studies at high temperature for dielectric properties were accomplished for analyzing electrical inhomogeneities associated with the grain, grain boundaries or surfaces, which are important for device design and a fundamental electrical characterization.

  9. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  10. Electrical resistivity of YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and EuT{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (T=Co,Cu) at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionicio, G.A.

    2006-07-01

    This investigation addresses the effect that pressure, p, and temperature, T, have on 4f states of the rare-earth elements in the isostructural YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, EuCo{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, and EuCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds. Upon applying pressure the volume of the unit cell reduces, enforcing either the enhancement of the hybridization of the 4f localized electrons with the ligand or a change in the valence state of the rare-earth ions. Here, we probe the effect of a pressure-induced lattice contraction on these system by means of electrical-resistivity measurements, {rho}(T), from room temperature down to 100 mK. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of soil thickness in a zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range using a soil probe and electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael S.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.; Revil, André; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the soil thickness distribution in steepland drainage basins is essential for understanding ecosystem and subsurface response to infiltration. One important aspect of this characterization is assessing the heavy and antecedent rainfall conditions that lead to shallow landsliding. In this paper, we investigate the direct current (DC) resistivity method as a tool for quickly estimating soil thickness over a steep (33–40°) zero-order basin in the Oregon Coast Range, a landslide prone region. Point measurements throughout the basin showed bedrock depths between 0.55 and 3.2 m. Resistivity of soil and bedrock samples collected from the site was measured for degrees of saturation between 40 and 92%. Resistivity of the soil was typically higher than that of the bedrock for degrees of saturation lower than 70%. Results from the laboratory measurements and point-depth measurements were used in a numerical model to evaluate the resistivity contrast at the soil-bedrock interface. A decreasing-with-depth resistivity contrast was apparent at the interface in the modeling results. At the field site, three transects were surveyed where coincident ground truth measurements of bedrock depth were available, to test the accuracy of the method. The same decreasing-with-depth resistivity trend that was apparent in the model was also present in the survey data. The resistivity contour of between 1,000 and 2,000 Ωm that marked the top of the contrast was our interpreted bedrock depth in the survey data. Kriged depth-to-bedrock maps were created from both the field-measured ground truth obtained with a soil probe and interpreted depths from the resistivity tomography, and these were compared for accuracy graphically. Depths were interpolated as far as 16.5 m laterally from the resistivity survey lines with root mean squared error (RMSE) = 27 cm between the measured and interpreted depth at those locations. Using several transects and analysis of the subsurface

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood pressure returns to your normal baseline range. Blood pressure normally rises with age and body ... 160 or higher OR 100 or higher The ranges in the table are blood pressure guides for ...

  13. Modelling and simulation of the steam line, the high and low pressure turbines and the pressure regulator for the SUN-RAH nucleo electric university simulator; Modelado y simulacion de la linea de vapor, las turbinas de alta y de baja presion y el regulador de presion para el simulador universitario de nucleo electricas SUN RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos, UNAM (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the following article the development of a simulator that allows to represent the dynamics of the following systems: steam line, nozzle, vapor separator, reheater, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, power generator and the pressure regulator of a nucleo electric power station. We start from the supposition that this plant will be modeled from a nuclear reactor type BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), using models of reduced order that represent the more important dynamic variables of the physical processes that happen along the steam line until the one generator. To be able to carry out the simulation in real time the Mat lab mathematical modeling software is used, as well as the specific simulation tool Simulink. It is necessary to point out that the platform on which the one is executed the simulator is the Windows operating system, to allow the intuitive use that only this operating system offers. The above-mentioned obeys to that the objective of the simulator it is to help the user to understand some of the dynamic phenomena that are present in the systems of a nuclear plant, and to provide a tool of analysis and measurement of variables to predict the desirable behavior of the same ones. The model of a pressure controller for the steam lines, the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine is also presented that it will be the one in charge of regulating the demand of the system according to the characteristics and critic restrictions of safety and control, assigned according to those wanted parameters of performance of this system inside the nucleo electric plant. This simulator is totally well defined and it is part of the University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH), an integral project and of greater capacity. (Author)

  14. Fundamentals of CPC. Pt. 4. Pressure transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podio, A.L.

    1973-05-01

    Among the many types of pressure transducers available, the most common in terms of industrial and process control application are bonded strain gage, generally used for gage pressure readings; and variable reluctance, commonly used for differential pressure measurement. The strain gage technique is well developed, covers a wide range of pressure levels, yields rugged transducers, and provides simple signal conditioning and calibration techniques. A line drawing is shown of a typical strain gage. A change in resistance is proportional to the deformation. A cut-away drawing shows a bonded strain gage diaphragm pressure transducer with conditioning electronics. Tabular data give the characteristics of typical transducers used in oil-field automation. It should be pointed out that the environmental specifications such as temperature, vibration, explosive environment, corrosion problems, mounting, and connection types should be considered with equal importance and thoroughness as electric specifications.

  15. Compressibility measurements of gases using externally heated pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnall, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    Most of the data collected under conditions of high temperature and pressure have been determined using a thick-walled bomb of carefully measured and fixed volume which is externally heated by an electric furnace or a thermostatically controlled bath. There are numerous variations on the basic method depending on the pressure-temperature range of interest, and the particular gas or gas mixture being studied. The construction and calibration of the apparatus is discussed, giving attention to the pressure vessel, the volume of the bomb, the measurement of pressure, the control and measurement of temperature, and the measurement of the amount and composition of gas in the bomb.

  16. Electric field induced short range to long range structural ordering and its influence on the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence in the lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaskar, Abhijeet; Rao, Badari Narayana; Ranjan, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560012 (India); Thomas, Tiju, E-mail: tijuthomas@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-28

    Eu{sup +3} was incorporated into the lattice of a lead-free ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) as per the nominal formula Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5−x}Eu{sub x}TiO{sub 3}. This system was investigated with regard to the Eu{sup +3} photoluminescence (PL) and structural behaviour as a function of composition and electric field. Electric field was found to irreversibly change the features in the PL spectra and also in the x-ray diffraction patterns below the critical composition x = 0.025. Detailed analysis revealed that below the critical composition, electric field irreversibly suppresses the structural heterogeneity inherent of the host matrix NBT and brings about a long range ferroelectric state with rhombohedral (R3c) distortion. It is shown that the structural disorder on the nano-scale opens a new channel for radiative transition which manifests as a new emission line branching off from the main {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} line along with a concomitant change in the relative intensity of the other crystal field induced Stark lines with different J values. The study suggests that Eu{sup +3} luminescence can be used to probe the relative degree of field induced structural ordering in relaxor ferroelectrics and also in high performance piezoelectric alloys where electric field couples very strongly with the lattice and structural degrees of freedom.

  17. The effect of oxygen pressure on structure, electrical conductivity and oxygen permeability of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Daneshmandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF thin films were deposited on single crystal SrTiO3 (STO (100 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique at different pressures of oxygen. Crystal structure of bulk and thin film samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD. The XRD results indicate that both bulk and thin film samples have cubic structures. AFM micrographs showed an increase in RMS roughness by oxygen pressure. The electrical resistance was measured at room temperature up to 600 and 800 °C in air using four probe method for bulk and thin films, respectively. A sharp drop in resistance was observed by increasing temperature up to 400 °C, that was explained with the small polaron hopping model. Polaron activation energy was calculated by Arrhenius relation. It was decreased over increasing oxygen pressure. The surface exchange coefficient (Kchem of the 300 mTorr sample was measured by electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR technique. The results suggested a linear relationship between Kchem and reciprocal of absolute temperature.

  18. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic pressure and applied electric field on the impurity-related self-polarization in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L.; Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque_echeverri@yahoo.e [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    A detailed theoretical study of the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and in-growth direction applied electric field on the binding energy and self-polarization of a donor impurity in a system of GaAs-(Ga,Al)As coupled square quantum wells is presented. The study is performed in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electron effective mass, the dielectric constant, the barrier height, the well sizes, all them varying with the hydrostatic pressure are taken into account within the study. The results obtained show that the impurity binding energy and its self-polarization bear strong dependencies with the hydrostatic pressure, the strength of the applied electric field, the width of the confining potential barriers, and the impurity position. - Research highlights: {yields} Impurity binding energy and self-polarization have a conjugate behavior in MQWs. {yields} Binding energy (self-polarization) is an increasing (decreasing) function of HP. {yields} For on-center impurity, the binding energy decreases with EF. {yields} For on-center impurity the self-polarization increases with EF.

  19. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-15

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  20. Trying for longer ranges. The lithium ion battery may get electric cars out of their niche market; Kampf um mehr Reichweite. Der Lithium-Ionen-Akku koennte das Elektroauto aus seiner Marktnische holen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, J.

    2000-10-01

    Electric cars fuelled with eco-current have the best energy efficiency of all drive systems, including fuel cell drives. There are no pollutant emissions, no climate-relevant gaseous emissions, no noise, and a high driving comfort. The only drawback is their short range, but this may change with the lithium ion battery. [German] Ein Elektroauto, das Oekostrom tankt, ist an Energieeffizienz nicht zu uebertreffen - auch nicht vom Brennstoffzellenantrieb. Es verursacht weder Schadstoffemissionen noch Treibhausgase, macht kaum Laerm und beschert ein angenehmes Fahrgefuehl. Nur mit der Reichweite hapert es: Leichtelektromobile mit Blei-Saeure- oder Nickel-Cadmium-Akkus sind reine Nischenfahrzeuge fuer den Nahverkehr. Allerdings eroeffnet der Lithium-Ionen-Akku neue Perspektiven. (orig.)

  1. The role of dopant concentration, A-site deficiency and processing on the electrical properties of strontium- and titanium-doped lanthanum scandate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatchwell, C.; Bonanos, N.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2004-01-01

    Strontium- and titanium-doped lanthanum scandates (La1-xSrxSc1-yTiyO3-delta) have been prepared and their electrical properties studied over the temperature range 170-1000 degreesC and in varied oxygen partial pressures. The electrical conductivity was measured by four-point de technique in atmos......Strontium- and titanium-doped lanthanum scandates (La1-xSrxSc1-yTiyO3-delta) have been prepared and their electrical properties studied over the temperature range 170-1000 degreesC and in varied oxygen partial pressures. The electrical conductivity was measured by four-point de technique...

  2. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant; Implementacion digital, simulacion y pruebas en MATLAB de los modelos de la linea de vapor, las turbinas y el regulador de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, A. [UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: andyskamx@yahoo.com.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  3. Electrical impedance tomography measured at two thoracic levels can visualize the ventilation distribution changes at the bedside during a decremental positive end-expiratory lung pressure trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G. Bikker (Ido); C. Preis (Carsten); M. Egal (Mohamud); J. Bakker (Jan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Computed tomography of the lung has shown that ventilation shifts from dependent to nondependent lung regions. In this study, we investigated whether, at the bedside, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the cranial and caudal thoracic levels can be used to visualize

  4. Managing parking pressure concerns related to charging stations for electric vehicles : data analysis on the case of daytime charging in The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbertus, R.; van den Hoed, R.

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of the number of electric vehicles, the installment of public charging infrastructure is becoming more prominent. In urban areas in which EV users rely on on-street parking facilities, the demand for public charging stations is high. Cities take on the role of implementing public

  5. Modelling flow and work hardening behaviour of cold worked Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material in the temperature range of 30–600 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dureja, A.K., E-mail: akdureja@barc.gov.in [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Sinha, S.K. [Reactor Design and Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Pawaskar, D.N.; Seshu, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Sinha, R.K. [Department of Atomic Energy, Anushakti-Bhavan, Near Gateway of India, Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-01

    Under a postulated accident scenario of loss of cooling medium in an Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR), temperature of the pressure tubes can rise and lead to large deformations. In order to investigate the modes of deformation of pressure tube – calandria tube assembly, material property data defining the flow behaviour over a temperature range from room temperature (RT) to 800 {sup o}C are needed. It is of practical importance to formulate mathematical equations to describe the stress–strain relationships of a material for a variety of reasons, such as the analysis of forming operations and the assessment of component's performance in service. A number of constitutive relations of empirical nature have been proposed and they have been found very suitable to describe the behaviour of a material. Although these relations are of empirical nature, various metallurgical factors appear to decide applicability of each of these relations. For example, grain size influences mainly the friction stress while the strain hardening is governed by dislocation density. In a recent work, tensile deformation behaviour of pressure tube material of IPHWR has been carried out over a range of temperature and strain rates (Dureja et al., 2011). It has been found that the strength parameters (yield and ultimate tensile strength) vary along the length of the tube with higher strength at the trailing end as compared to the leading end. This stems from cooling of the billet during the extrusion process which results in the variation of microstructure, texture and dislocation density from the leading to the trailing end. In addition, the variation in metallurgical parameters is also expected to influence the work hardening behaviour, which is known to control the plastic instability (related to uniform strain). In the present investigation, the tensile flow and work-hardening behaviour of a cold worked Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material of IPHWRs has been studied over

  6. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  7. Measurements of capillary pressure and electric permittivity of gas-water systems in porous media at elevated pressures : Application to geological storage of CO2 in aquifers and wetting behavior in coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in aquifers and coal layers is a promising technique to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the reservoir properties, e.g. wettability, heterogeneity and the caprocks sealing capacity, the capillary pressure is an important measure to evaluate the efficiency, the

  8. A comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX(®)) on experimentally induced blunt pressure pain using healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Nicola; Walsh, Deirdre M; Johnson, Mark I

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX(®)) delivers high amplitude electrical pulsed currents at points of low impedance on the skin. This study compared the hypoalgesic effect of non-invasive interactive neurostimulation with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). A repeated measures parallel group study on healthy human volunteers randomized to receive strong non-painful TENS or non-invasive interactive neurostimulation for 21 min on the forearm (N= 10/group). Pressure algometry was used to determine blunt pressure pain threshold at baseline, 10, and 20 min during stimulation, and 5 min post stimulation. Low impedance sites were found in half of the participants receiving non-invasive interactive neurostimulation. ANOVA found no effects for intervention (p= 0.923), time × intervention interaction (p= 0.21), or time (p= 0.094). Given the limited power of this study, we show that there were no significant differences in hypoalgesia between non-invasive interactive neurostimulation and TENS. Unlike our previous studies we also failed to detect a change pain threshold during TENS. Nevertheless, our findings can be used to inform the design of an appropriately powered study on pain patients. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  9. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Risk Factors for Developing Pressure Ulcers in People with a Spinal Cord Injury : A Focused Review of Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christof A. J.; de Groot, Sonja; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common and serious problem for wheelchair users, such as individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), resulting in great discomfort, loss of quality of life, and significant medical care costs. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to prevent PUs. In this literature

  10. Densities and volume properties of (water + tert-butanol) over the temperature range of (274.15 to 348.15) K at pressure of 0.1 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Gennadiy I., E-mail: gie@isc-ras.r [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Makarov, Dmitriy M. [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The densities of {l_brace}water (1) + tert-butanol (2){r_brace} binary mixture were measured over the temperature range (274.15 to 348.15) K at atmospheric pressure using 'Anton Paar' digital vibrating-tube densimeter. Density measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at (308.15 to 348.15) K. The following volume parameters were calculated: excess molar volumes and thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture, partial molar volumes and partial molar thermal isobaric expansivities of the components. Concentration dependences of excess molar volumes were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The results of partial molar volume calculations using four equations were compared. It was established that for low alcohol concentrations at T {<=} 208 K the inflection points at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.02 were observed at concentration dependences of specific volume. The concentration dependences of partial molar volumes of both water and tert-butanol had extremes at low alcohol content. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of water had some inversion at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.65. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of tert-butanol at infinite dilution had minimum at {approx}288 K. It was discovered that concentration dependences of thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture at small alcohol content and low temperatures passed through minimum.

  11. Non-contact electric potential measurements of electrode components in an operating polymer electrolyte fuel cell by near ambient pressure XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liwei; Takagi, Yasumasa; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sekizawa, Oki; Sakata, Tomohiro; Uruga, Tomoya; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro; Samjeské, Gabor; Yokoyama, Toshihiko

    2017-11-22

    Photoelectron spectroscopy has the advantage of providing electric potentials by non-contact measurements based on the kinetic energy shift in component potential. We performed operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements with an 8 keV excitation source to measure the shift in electron kinetic energies as a function of the voltages of all the components at the anode and cathode electrodes of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). At the cathode electrode, when we increase the voltage between the cathode and anode from 0.2 to 1.2 V, the O 1s and F 1s peaks shift to a lower binding energy and the magnitude of the energy shift is equal to the voltage. The Pt 3d and C 1s peaks do not shift with the voltage since platinum nanoparticles and carbon supports at the cathode electrode have ground contact. In contrast to the cathode electrode, the peak shifts of all the components at the anode electrode show the same amount of shift as the voltages. It is clear that the change in the potential difference occurs only in an electrical double layer at the interface between the cathode electrode (Pt/C) and the electrolyte (Nafion and water), and that the anode electrode is in equilibrium as a pseudo-hydrogen electrode. Moreover, the electric potential variation of the cathode electrode in a PEFC under a power generation condition was also directly detected by operando HAXPES.

  12. Hole burning with pressure and electric field: A window on the electronic structure and energy transfer dynamics of bacterial antenna complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.M.

    1999-02-12

    Light-harvesting (LH) complexes of cyclic (C{sub n}) symmetry from photosynthetic bacteria are studied using absorption and high pressure- and Stark-hole burning spectroscopies. The B800 absorption band of LH2 is inhomogeneously broadened while the B850 band of LH2 and the B875 band of the LH1 complex exhibit significant homogeneous broadening due to ultra-fast inter-exciton level relaxation. The B800{r_arrow}B850 energy transfer rate of ({approximately}2 ps){sup {minus}1} as determined by hole burning and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopies, is weakly dependent on pressure and temperature, both of which significantly affect the B800-B850 energy gap. The resilience is theoretically explained in terms of a modified Foerster theory with the spectral overlap provided by the B800 fluorescence origin band and weak vibronic absorption bands of B850. Possible explanations for the additional sub-picosecond relaxation channel of B800 observed with excitation on the blue side of B800 are given. Data from pressure and temperature dependent studies show that the B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are weakly and strongly excitonically coupled, respectively, which is consistent with the X-ray structure of LH2. The B875 BChl a molecules are also strongly coupled. It is concluded that electron-exchange, in addition to electrostatic interactions, is important for understanding the strong coupling of the B850 and B875 rings. The large linear pressure shifts of {approximately}{minus}0.6 cm{sup {minus}1}/MPa associated with B850 and B875 can serve as important benchmarks for electronic structure calculations.

  13. Electrical properties and transport mechanisms of Au/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode at high temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2016-05-01

    The electrical and transport mechanisms of a fabricated Au/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode have been studied in the temperature range of 280-430 K by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The barrier heights (BHs) of the Au/BST/GaN MIS diode are found to be 0.85 eV ( I- V)/1.35 ( C- V) at 280 K and 1.14 eV ( I- V)/1.17 ( C- V) at 430 K. The series resistance ( R S) values determined by Cheung's functions are in good agreement with each other. The difference between BHs estimated by I- V and C- V methods are also discussed. Results show that the estimated interface state density ( N SS) of MIS diode decreases with an increase in temperature. Observations have indicated that the BH increases whereas ideality factor R S and N SS decreases with increasing temperature. Results have demonstrated that the reverse leakage current is dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission at temperatures of 280-340 K and by Schottky emission at temperatures of 370-430 K. It is also noted that there is a transition of the conduction mechanism in Au/BST/GaN MIS diode from Poole-Frenkel to Schottky emission at temperatures of 340-370 K.

  14. A comparison between electric field strengths similarly generated and measured in the open air, in a shielded enclosure and in a large aircraft hangar, over frequency range 10 to 110 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M.; Harrison, F.

    1980-02-01

    Field strength measurements over 10 to 110 MHz were made using a tracking generator counter, a spectrum analyzer, and a biconal antenna. The dimensions of the shielded enclosure were 6.1 x 3.66 x 3.0 m, and the concrete floored, metal hangar 80 x 40 x 10 m. It was found that in each polarization the hangar performance deviated much less from that in the open air than did the shielded enclosure performance. The latter shows deviations with modulus as great as 38 dB (certical pol) and 26 dB (horizontal pol). For any electric field strength measured in the shielded enclosure (in 10 kHz bandwidth in the range 10 to 110 MHz) the probability that the result would be at least 6 dB different from that similary obtained in the open air was 38% or 43.5% according to polarization and that when similarly measured in the hangar the corresponding probabilities were 0% and 1%. Hangar results were shown to lie much closer to the open air results than do the shielded enclosure results. This is further demonstrated by the rms deviations of the shielded enclosure and hangar readings from those of the open air.

  15. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  16. Final report of key comparison AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5: primary pressure calibration of LS1P microphones according to IEC 61094-2, over the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, R.; Avison, J.; Harris, P.; Blabla, M.; Hämäläinen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The degrees of equivalence of the AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 regional key comparison are reported here as the final report. The scope of the comparison covered the complex pressure sensitivities of two LS1P microphones over the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz in accordance with IEC 61094-2: 2009. Four national metrology institutes from two different regional metrology organisations participated in the comparison. Two LS1P microphones were circulated simultaneously to all the participants in a circular configuration. One of the microphones sensitivity shifted and all results associated with this microphone were subsequently excluded from further analysis and linking. The AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 comparison results were linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 comparison results via dual participation in the CCAUV.A-K5 and AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 comparisons. The degrees of equivalence, linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 comparison, were calculated for all participants of this comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Additions to generating capacity 1978--1987 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-15

    Comparison of the 1978 projections of the Reliability Councils with those made the previous year indicates three major changes in electric utility planning: (1) a reduction in total capacity additions for the 10-year planning period, (2) a significant decrease in nuclear additions, and (3) a shift from oil and gas to coal as a source of primary energy. Nuclear capacity continues to far overshadow fossil-fuel capacity in the unit-size range 1000 MW and up, with the reverse true for unit sizes less than 1000 MW. Although the total 10-year new-unit capacity drops from 326,624 MW (1977 to 1986) to 308,017 (1978 to 1987), new capacity planned that would use coal as a primary energy source increases from 136,763 MW to 146,206 MW. Nuclear capacity, in terms of total new units projected for the two 10-year periods, decreases from 130,532 MW to 116,177 MW, and capacity with oil as the primary source drops from 32,837 MW to 21,072 MW. For 1977 to 1986, no capacity was planned with oil as a primary source and coal as an alternate fuel but for 1978 to 1987, 1220 MW of such capacity is projected. Therefore, the total new capacity projected that could use coal as a fuel (primary or alternate) is 147,426 MW. In addition, one 700-MW unit is planned for which the primary fuel will be a blend of coal and refuse. There is a decrease in the capacity planned that would use natural gas a a primary source, from 2,089 MW in 1977 to 1986 to 502 MW in 1978 to 1987.

  18. PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES: Diagnosis of Methane Plasma Generated in an Atmospheric Pressure DBD Micro-Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Bian, Xin-Chao; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fu-Ping; Liu, Zhong-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Diagnosis of methane plasma, generated in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma jet with a quartz tube as dielectric material by a 25 kHz sinusoidal ac power source, is conducted by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The reactive radicals in methane plasma such as CH, C2, and Hα are detected insitu by OES. The possible dissociation mechanism of methane in diluted Ar plasma is deduced from spectra. In addition, the density of CH radical, which is considered as one of the precursors in diamond-like (DLC) film formation, affected by the parameters of input voltage and the feed gas flow rate, is emphasized. With the Boltzmann plots, four Ar atomic spectral lines (located at 675.28nm, 687.13nm, 738.40nm and 794.82nm, respectively) are chosen to calculate the electron temperature, and the dependence of electron temperature on discharge parameters is also investigated.

  19. Effect of oxygen partial pressure during preparation of rutile-type FeNbTiO6 on electrical and dielectric properties, thermopower and Mössbauer spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Hochleitner, R.; Lohringer, H.; Schmidbauer, E.; Schöttler-Himmel, A.; Volk, M.

    2017-05-01

    Electrical and dielectric properties were measured on rutile-type FeNbTiO6, sintered in air, CO2 or 5%H2/CO2 atmosphere between temperatures of 1423 and 1573 K. The individual samples show characteristic differences in DC and AC conductivity, dielectric constant ε(ω) (ω is angular frequency), dielectric loss and dissipation factor. Attempts were made to distinguish between bulk, grain boundary (GB) and sample-electrode (SE) processes. Samples show very high relaxor-like ε(ω) peaks at 500-600 K using Ag-paint contacts as expected from previous studies during preparation in air that is of interest for industrial application; utilizing Pt-paint and using slightly reducing sintering conditions, a clear variation was observed. These findings point to a notable influence of GB and/or SE effects on the experimental ε(ω), in addition to the intrinsic origin by polar nanoregions, as suggested earlier. Complex plane impedance plots are characterized by semicircular arcs due to bulk, GB and/or SE charge transport. The derived DC conductivity σDC shows Arrhenius behavior with activation energy of EA≈0.27-0.37 eV and σDC(300 K) ≈1×10-6-3×10-4 Ω-1cm-1 for the bulk, EA≈0.7-0.9 eV and σDC(300 K)≈5×10-10-1×10-4 Ω-1cm-1 for GB and/or SE processes, depending on the preparation conditions. The thermopower is small and negative, hence n-type conduction occurs and the charge carriers are electrons or electron polarons. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy enabled to gain knowledge of local nonstoichiometry in the environment of Fe cations, presumably affecting electrical conduction in the bulk and GBs; after sample preparation in reducing conditions, apart from Fe3+ also the presence of Fe2+ ions was established.

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W R; Matthews, J. N.; O'Sullivan, J J; WREN, C.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in adults is proving to be useful. The aim of this study was to determine if ABPM is accurate in the lower blood pressure range encountered in children and, equally important, whether it is acceptable to children. Thirty one children, between the ages of 6 and 18 years, were assessed using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor that uses an auscultatory method. Blood pressure was measured in the contralateral arm with a mercury sphygmomanometer and an...

  1. Aspirated High Pressure Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    suggested by the General Electric Company based on an advanced military engine concept intended for high speed flight. The resultant high flight...section, consisting of the two rotors, each on an computed points. The peak pressure ratio is 3.08 and the peak independent, electric motor-driven...instrumentation along Moto . .. ,oto2 with the test error analysis were given by Onnee [14). SFlywheel 2 BLOWDOWN OPERATION T--’..Exit-t-rottle

  2. Hydrostatic Pressure and Built-In Electric Field Effects on the Donor Impurity States in Cylindrical Wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1−xN Quantum Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, the ground-state binding energy of a hydrogenic impurity is investigated in cylindrical wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1-xN strained quantum ring (QR by means of a variational approach, considering the influence of the applied hydrostatic pressure along the QR growth direction and the strong built-in electric field (BEF due to the piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization. Numerical results show that the donor binding energy for a central impurity increases inchmeal firstly as the QR radial thickness (ΔR decreases gradually and then begins to drop quickly. In addition, the donor binding energy is an increasing (a decreasing function of the inner radius (height. It is also found that the donor binding energy increases almost linearly with the increment of the applied hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, we also found that impurity positions have an important influence on the donor binding energy. The physical reasons have been analyzed in detail.

  3. The effect of annealing time in oxygen flux on the electric properties of the Ru(Sr{sub 2-x}Ca {sub x})GdCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{+-}}{sub z} system with 0.0 < x < 2.0, prepared at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatal, M. [IIM-UNAM, AP 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chavira, E. [IIM-UNAM, AP 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: chavira@servidor.unam.mx; Filippini, C. [LEPES-CNRS, 25 Ave. des Martyrs, BP 166, 38048 Grenoble (France); Garcia-Vazquez, V. [IF-LRT, BUAP, AP J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Perez, J.C. [IF-LRT, BUAP, AP J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tholence, J.L. [LEPES-CNRS, 25 Ave. des Martyrs, BP 166, 38048 Grenoble (France); Noel, H. [LCSIM, Ave. General Leclerc, 35042 Renne (France)

    2005-08-01

    A solid-state reaction method for synthesis of Ru(Sr{sub 2-x}Ca {sub x})GdCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{+-}}{sub z} system within the composition range of 0.0 < x < 2.0, at ambient pressure and within the range of 960-1070 deg, C is reported. The temperature interval for the preparation of the solid solution is determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) in air. A solid solution is shown to exist up to x = 0.1, with a crystalline structure that is isomorphous to RuSr{sub 2}GdCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ru-1212) compound observed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The studies by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique gives a particle size around 1-6 {mu}m. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the tetragonal unit cell of Ru(Sr{sub 2-x}Ca {sub x})GdCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{+-}}{sub z} system. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of the samples annealed in oxygen flux for 12 and 41 h, respectively at T = 960 deg, C shows a semiconductor behavior.

  4. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  5. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure); Etude par diffusion de neutrons du chlorure de calcium et de betaine dihydrate sous champ externe applique (temperature, champ electrique et pression hydrostatique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O

    1997-11-17

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil`s staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of {delta}(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the `X-rays` structural model is found more harmonic than the `neutron` one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with {delta} = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a `complete` Devil`s air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between `coexisting` phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results

  6. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  7. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  8. An Inter-digital Capacitive Electrode Modified as a Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. GINSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-digital capacitive electrodes working as electric field sensors have been developed for touch panel applications. Evaluation circuits to convert variations in electric fields in such sensors into computer compatible data are commercially available. We report development of an Interdigital capacitive electrode working as a sensitive pressure sensor in the range 0-120 kPa. Essentially it is a touch/proximity sensor converted into a pressure sensor with a suitable elastomer buffer medium acting as the pressure transmitter. The performance of the sensor has been evaluated and reported. Such sensors can be made very economical in comparison to existing pressure sensors. Moreover, they are very convenient to be fabricated into sensor arrays involving a number of sensors for distributed pressure sensing applications such as in biomedical systems.

  9. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THERMAL DRIFT ON RELIABILITY OF PRESSURE SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELAZIZ BEDDIAF; FOUAD KERROUR

    2017-01-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensors, using a Wheatstone bridge with the piezoresistors, are typically supplied with a voltage ranging from 3 to 10 V involve thermal drift caused by Joule heating. In this paper, an accurate numerical model for optimization and predicting the thermal drift in piezoresistive pressure sensors due to the electric heater in its piezoresistors is adopted. In this case, by using the solution of 2D heat transfer equation considering Joule heating in Cartesian coordinates ...

  10. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  11. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  12. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  13. Regulation of microbial growth by turgor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique R; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2017-11-07

    Rapid changes in environmental osmolarity are a natural aspect of microbial lifestyles. The change in turgor pressure resulting from an osmotic shock alters the mechanical forces within the cell envelope, and can impact cell growth across a range of timescales, through a variety of mechanical mechanisms. Here, we first summarize measurements of turgor pressure in various organisms. We then review how the combination of microfluidic flow cells and quantitative image analysis has driven discovery of the diverse ways in which turgor pressure mechanically regulates bacterial growth, independent of the effect of cytoplasmic crowding. In Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, reductions in turgor pressure cause decreased growth rate. Moreover, a hypoosmotic shock, which increases turgor pressure and membrane tension, leads to transient inhibition of cell-wall growth via electrical depolarization. By contrast, Gram-negative Escherichia coli is remarkably insensitive to changes in turgor. We discuss the extent to which turgor pressure impacts processes such as cell division that alter cell shape, in particular that turgor facilitates millisecond-scale daughter-cell separation in many Actinobacteria and eukaryotic fission yeast. This diverse set of responses showcases the potential for using osmotic shocks to interrogate how mechanical perturbations affect cellular processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Superconductivity under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takeda, K.; Tateiwa, N.; Muramatsu, T.; Ishizuka, M.; Kobayashi, T.C

    2003-05-01

    In part 1, we review techniques developed in our laboratory for producing the complex extreme condition of very low temperature and ultra-high pressure and those for measuring electrical resistance and magnetization of the sample confined in the extremely small space of the used pressure cell. In part 2, we review our experimental results in search for pressure-induced superconductivity, which have been obtained by the use of developed techniques. Typical examples are shown in the case of simple inorganic and organic molecular crystals, ionic crystals, and magnetic metals.

  15. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  16. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  17. Skin perfusion pressure on the legs measured as the external pressure required for skin reddening after blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Nielsen, P.E.; Lund, P

    1980-01-01

    The skin perfusion on the calf was measured photo-electrically and by isotope washout technique using external counter pressure by a blood pressure cuff. By the photocell the skin blanching threshold external pressure (BTEP) was recorded on histamine flared red skin. By isotope washout technique......-187) compared to 80.8 mmHg (range 18-158) (P > 0.1). A normal material was obtained from twenty-four subjects measured on the thigh, calf and ankle; the average gradients between the auscultatory brachial mean blood pressure and the BTEP were: thigh 10.7 mmHg (SD 12.7); calf 4.0 mmHg (SD 12.1); ankle 5.1 mm......Hg (SD 8.7). As compared to the intra-arterial blood pressure the BTEP was found to lie close to the mean blood pressure in normal subjects as well as in hypertensive subjects. The present data indicate that the skin perfusion pressure on the legs can be measured by the rapid photo-electric technique...

  18. The increase in T sub c for MgB sub 2 superconductor under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z X; You, J Y; Li, S C; Zhu, J L; Yu, R C; Li, F Y; Su, S K

    2002-01-01

    We report in situ high-pressure studies up to 1.0 GPa on MgB sub 2 superconductor which had been synthesized at high pressure. The as-prepared sample is of high quality as regards having a sharp superconducting transition (T sub c) at 39 K. The in situ high-pressure measurements were carried out using a Be-Cu piston-cylinder-type instrument with a mixed oil as the pressure-transmitting medium, which provides a quasi-hydrostatic pressure environment at low temperature. The superconducting transitions were measured using the electrical conductance method. It is found that T sub c increases with pressure in the initial pressure range, leading to a parabolic-like T sub c -P evolution.

  19. Network-independent electrification ranging from the Solar Home System via Alps Association Houses up to electric power supply of a whole village; Netzferne Elektrifizierung vom Solar Home System ueber Alpenvereinshaeuser bis hin zur Dorfstromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Holz, F.; Sauer, D.U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    According to assessment of the European Union approximately two billion people live worldwide without having a connection to a public electric power grid, half of them even live in areas without any access to electricity at all. In the medium term, high investment costs along with a simultaneously low electric power demand (smaller than 1 KWh/day) will impede grid connection of these isolated, scattered populated areas for economic reasons. Photovoltaic plants are one of the most interesting technical options for the solution of this energy supply task. However, a lot painful experience gained in pilot projects, has shown, that various frame conditions must be taken into consideration for planning these plants. Apart from technical aspects, cultural, social, economic and financial aspects must be taken into account. While the pure electric power supply is improved, other central areas of living like food and water supply, the health system, education system and infrastructure measures must be improved as well in order to achieve lasting improvement of the living standard of the people living away from grid supply. (orig.)

  20. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type; Sistema simplificado para el control de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  1. Thermo-electric valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, R. R.; Stanland, A. J.

    1985-02-01

    A thermo-electric valve is described for scuttling floating devices comprising, a cylindrical sleeve affixed to and passing through a bulkhead separating a pressurized medium on one side from a lower pressure space on the other side, a piston moveably mounted within the sleeve bore and exposed to the pressurized medium having a portion thereof blocking the sleeve bore, an O-ring sealing the gap between the piston head and the sleeve bore, a fully compressed spring pressing against the piston, a rigid dielectric washer and a low power resistor holding the piston against the spring. In operation a low current is passed through the resistor, disintegrating it and releasing the spring's stored energy. This actuates the valve by expelling the piston which allows the pressurized fluid or gas to enter the lower pressure space.

  2. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic l...

  3. Prototype of an electric 'integral-ecomotor' for the power range up to 1 kW; Funktionsmuster eines Integral-Sparmotors im Leistungsbereich kleiner 1 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2006-11-15

    Numerous electric motors of our daily use, with power ratings of about 1 kW operate at rather low efficiencies. Their share in the overall electric consumption is considerable. The aim of the research project consisted in the development of an efficient electric motor with incorporated electronic control ('integral-ecomotor'), which may serve as a substitute for usual variable speed squirrel cage three-phase motor. It was shown that the cost of these new motors of 1 kW power output, built with normalised casings, remain similar to those of squirrel cage three phase motors with inverters. Since 2004, the cost of raw materials as copper or aluminium increased considerably, whereas the cost of Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets remained rather stable. These facts advocate for energy saving motors making use of permanent magnets, requiring much less copper or aluminium than squirrel cage three phase motors. With integral ecomotors, higher efficiencies are achieved at lower masses as compared to usual squirrel cage three-phase motors. In 2004, a first prototype of this ecomotor using permanent magnets, was built. The advantages of improved performances at lower weight were confirmed. During 2005 and 2006, the technology was then improved and matured in a joint research project with 3 industrial partners. (author)

  4. Virtual Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Based Multifunctional MEMS Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar PATANKAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to combine absolute and differential pressure sensor on single silicon substrate for measuring the pressure in 0 – 1 MPa range. In this work, the sensor makes use a of silicon nitride square diaphragm supported by a thick silicon rim. Piezoresistors below the diaphragms are defined by the p+ etch stop technique and structured by the anisotropic etching in Wheatstone bridge configuration. In event of pressure, mechanical deformation occurs in the diaphragm and induces the stress in it which can be translated into electrical signal accordingly. This sensor shows the sensitivity of 142 mV/V.KPa. The pressure sensor has been designed, simulated and virtually fabricated using Intellisuite MEMS software tool. Simulation results shows that the good agreement with the analytical solutions.

  5. WPC's Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin. The Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin describes the expected locations of high and low pressure centers, surface frontal...

  6. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  7. High-pressure and pulsed electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2010-01-01

    New products and new processing techniques are continuously developed within the food industry. While food scientists may focus on the technical novelty and applaud the progress of science, consumers are often conservative and skeptical towards changes. As learned from earlier experiences with gene...

  8. Final report on the key comparison, CCM.P-K15 in the pressure range from 1.0 × 10-4 Pa to 1.0 Pa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Christian; Arai, Kenta; Bergoglio, Mercede; Fedchak, James A; Jousten, Karl; Hong, Seung Soo; Guzman, Jorge Torres

    2017-01-01

    The comparison CCM.P-K15 is a key comparison in pressure involving six laboratories in three regional metrological organizations (RMO). The measurand of the comparison is the accommodation coefficient of two spinning rotating gauge characterized in nitrogen from 0.1 mPa up to 1.0 Pa. The two transfer standards were circulated from November 2009 until March 2011. The circulation consisted of three loops, one for each RMO, and a new calibration by the pilot between each loop. The stability of one of the transfer standards was poor and was worse than expected based on the previous history of the transfer standard while the other transfer standard demonstrated good stability while circulated in Europe and America and a fair stability while circulated in Asia. All the participants demonstrated equivalence to the definition of pressure in their respective primary standards.

  9. Final report on the key comparison, CCM.P-K15 in the pressure range from 1.0 × 10−4 Pa to 1.0 Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Christian; Arai, Kenta; Bergoglio, Mercede; Fedchak, James A.; Jousten, Karl; Hong, Seung Soo; Guzman, Jorge Torres

    2017-01-01

    The comparison CCM.P-K15 is a key comparison in pressure involving six laboratories in three regional metrological organizations (RMO). The measurand of the comparison is the accommodation coefficient of two spinning rotating gauge characterized in nitrogen from 0.1 mPa up to 1.0 Pa. The two transfer standards were circulated from November 2009 until March 2011. The circulation consisted of three loops, one for each RMO, and a new calibration by the pilot between each loop. The stability of one of the transfer standards was poor and was worse than expected based on the previous history of the transfer standard while the other transfer standard demonstrated good stability while circulated in Europe and America and a fair stability while circulated in Asia. All the participants demonstrated equivalence to the definition of pressure in their respective primary standards. PMID:28736459

  10. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  11. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  12. Development of two-dimensional interdigitated center of pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional (2D) flexible patch sensor to detect and monitor the center of pressure (CoP) location and the total magnitude of a spatially distributed pressure to the specific surface areas of engineering structures. The CoP sensor with the contact mode induced by a pressure distribution was formulated by force sensitive resistor technology and was mainly composed of a thin conductive polymer layer, adhesive spacers, and two interdigitated patterned electrode films with unique sensing aperture shadings. By properly mapping the interdigitated electrode patterns to the top and bottom surfaces of the conductive polymer, the proposed sensor ideally enables to measure an overall applied pressure level and its centroid location within a predetermined sensing region in real-time. The CoP sensor containing 36 sensing sections within a dimension of around 3 × 3 inches was prototyped and experimentally investigated to verify its capability to identify the CoP location and magnitude due to the presence of a permanent magnet-based local pressure distribution. Only five electric wires connected to the CoP sensor to inspect the pressure-sensing positions of 36 segments. The evaluation results of the measured sensor data demonstrate good agreements with the actual test parameters such as the total pressure and its centroid position with about 5% locational error. However, to provide accurate information on the overall pressure range, the compensation factors must be determined and applied to the individual sensing sections of the sensor.

  13. A pressure-driven capillary electrophoretic system with injection valve sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Sun, Jiannan; Liu, Jinhua; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-07

    To improve repeatability and efficiency and to simplify the operation procedure of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a pressurized CE system (p-CE) with injection valve sampling was developed. It consisted of one high-pressure pump, a six-port injection valve, a PEEK cross, a separation and back pressure capillary, an ultraviolet-visible detector and a high voltage power supply. The pressure-driven flow ranging from 4.5 nL min(-1) to 0.81 μL min(-1) in the separation capillary was produced by splitting to the flow from the high-pressure pumps (0.005-0.4 mL min(-1)). Nano-volume sample injection (system, the new commercial capillary could be directly used without any wash, and the capillary-flush process between runs was also eliminated. In this case, the analytes were driven toward the outlet of the separation capillary by the pressurized flow, the electric field force and minute electroosmotic flow, and they were separated owing to the electrophoretic mobility. The p-CE system allows for the independent variation of the pressurized flow rate and electrical field and electrophoretic separation of good repeatability (below 3%) under high electrical fields (500-1000 V cm(-1)) and flow rate gradient modes. The feasibility of the p-CE system in real analysis was demonstrated by iodate quantification in iodized table salts. The separation of iodide and iodate was realized within 0.3 min, proving its high analytical speed.

  14. Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production using pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Wind and solar power is troubled by large fluctuations in delivery due to changing weather. The surplus electricity can be used in a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) to split CO2 + H2O into CO + H2 (+O2). The synthesis gas (CO + H2) can subsequently be catalyzed into various types of synthetic...... fuels using a suitable catalyst. As the catalyst operates at elevated pressure the fuel production system can be simplified by operating the SOEC at elevated pressure. Here we present the results of a cell test with pressures ranging from 0.4 bar to 10 bar. The cell was tested both as an SOEC...

  15. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  16. Final report on the key comparison, CCM.P-K15 in the pressure range from 1.0 × 10-4 Pa to 1.0 Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Christian; Arai, Kenta; Bergoglio, Mercede; Fedchak, James A.; Jousten, Karl; Hong, Seung Soo; Torres Guzman, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The comparison CCM.P-K15 is a key comparison in pressure involving six laboratories in three regional metrological organizations (RMO). The measurand of the comparison is the accommodation coefficient of two spinning rotating gauge characterized in nitrogen from 0.1 mPa up to 1.0 Pa. The two transfer standards were circulated from November 2009 until March 2011. The circulation consisted of three loops, one for each RMO, and a new calibration by the pilot be-tween each loop. The stability of one of the transfer standards was poor and was worse than expected based on the previous history of the transfer standard while the other transfer standard demonstrated good stability while circulated in Europe and America and a fair stability while circulated in Asia. All the participants demonstrated equivalence to the definition of pressure in their respective primary standards. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Recognition and measurement gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical concentric annulus at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.

  18. Pressure ulcers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2011-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...

  19. Prediction of the critical reduced electric field strength for carbon dioxide and its mixtures with 50% O2 and 50% H2 from Boltzmann analysis for gas temperatures up to 3500 K at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides theoretical calculations that predict the dielectric breakdown properties of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its mixtures with 50% O2 and 50% H2 for a gas temperature range of 300-3500 K at 0.1 MPa. CO2 is one of the most likely candidates for an environment-friendly arc-quenching medium to replace SF6 in high-voltage circuit breakers. Initially, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is derived by solving the Boltzmann equation under the zero-dimensional two-term spherical harmonic approximation. Then the reduced ionization and attachment coefficients are obtained, based on the calculated EEDF. Finally, the critical reduced electric field strength (E/N)cr, which is defined as the value for which total ionization reactions are equal to total attachment reactions, is obtained and analysed. The results demonstrate the superior breakdown properties of a 50% CO2-50% O2 mixture to those of both pure CO2 and 50% CO2-50% H2. Nearly no deviation in (E/N)cr is found in a 50% CO2-50% O2 mixture for gas temperatures up to 2500 K, and although there is clear reduction as the gas temperature is increased further to 3500 K, the value remains higher than that of pure CO2.

  20. Barometric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of alterations in barometric pressure on human beings are described. Human tolerances for gaseous environments and low and high barometric pressure are discussed, including effects on specific areas, such as the ear, lungs, teeth, and sinuses. Problems due to trapped gas within the body, high dynamic pressures on the body, and blasts are also considered.

  1. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  2. Qualification of black electrically conductive paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.; Clatterbuck, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    A paint having low electrical resistance has been developed. Using a low outgassing polyurethane resin, specific amounts of conductive carbon particles were added to produce paint compositions having a range of electrical resistance. Methods of testing for electrical resistance are discussed. The adhesion of these paints has been tested successfully over the temperature range from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 80 C (176 F).

  3. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  4. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  5. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-25

    cosm =0.6 it is necessary to lower the load of generator approximately/exemplarily to 140/0 (according to the data of plant "electric power"). As a...cooling gas: the less gai density, that is less than loss. with hydrogen cooling with overpressure 0.035-0.05 Atm(gage) the density of the cooling gas is...under creation condition in machine frame of the overpressure of DOC = 79134822 PAGE gas on the order of 5-6 atm( gaye ) L42-5]. However, at such pressures

  6. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  7. Rate dependence of electrical and mechanical properties of conductive polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. R.; Stilson, C. L.; Smith, K. K. G.; McKinion, C. M.; Chen, C.; Ganguli, S.; Roy, A. K.

    2015-09-01

    Conductive polymer nanocomposites with enhanced electrical and thermal properties show promise as an alternative solution for electronic materials. For example, electronic interconnect materials will have comparable electrical and thermal conductivity to solder with an increased operating range of strain and temperature. This paper documents the fabrication and experimental evaluation of a prototype conductive polymer nanocomposite. Material selection, fabrication processes, and initial characterization of a low Tg polymer with a high fill ratio of carbon nanotubes is presented. The electrical and thermal properties of the composite are measured and compared with predictions. The mechanical properties are measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) over a wide temperature range. The mechanical and electrical responses of the conductive polymer composite are simultaneously measured at higher strain rates using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. The dynamic stress-strain response is obtained using traditional analytic methods (e.g., two- and three-wave analysis). The electrical response is observed using constant current excitation with high bandwidth (>500 kHz) instrumentation. The dynamic compression data implies the change in electrical resistance is solely a function of the material deformation, i.e., the material exhibits constant electrical conductivity and is insensitive to the applied loads. DMA and SHPB dynamic data are used to estimate the parameters in a Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model, and the resulting behavior is critically evaluated. Finally, progress towards improving the polymer composite's mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties are discussed.

  8. Pressure-enabled phonon engineering in metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Thomas, Jay B; Watson, Bruce; Washington, Morris; Nayak, Saroj K

    2014-06-17

    We present a combined first-principles and experimental study of the electrical resistivity in aluminum and copper samples under pressures up to 2 GPa. The calculations are based on first-principles density functional perturbation theory, whereas the experimental setup uses a solid media piston-cylinder apparatus at room temperature. We find that upon pressurizing each metal, the phonon spectra are blue-shifted and the net electron-phonon interaction is suppressed relative to the unstrained crystal. This reduction in electron-phonon scattering results in a decrease in the electrical resistivity under pressure, which is more pronounced for aluminum than for copper. We show that density functional perturbation theory can be used to accurately predict the pressure response of the electrical resistivity in these metals. This work demonstrates how the phonon spectra in metals can be engineered through pressure to achieve more attractive electrical properties.

  9. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. Electrical Switching of Perovskite Thin-Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Electronic devices that exploit electrical switching of physical properties of thin films of perovskite materials (especially colossal magnetoresistive materials) have been invented. Unlike some related prior devices, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. Devices of this type can be designed to function as sensors (exhibiting varying electrical resistance in response to varying temperature, magnetic field, electric field, and/or mechanical pressure) and as elements of electronic memories. The underlying principle is that the application of one or more short electrical pulse(s) can induce a reversible, irreversible, or partly reversible change in the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of a thin perovskite film. The energy in the pulse must be large enough to induce the desired change but not so large as to destroy the film. Depending on the requirements of a specific application, the pulse(s) can have any of a large variety of waveforms (e.g., square, triangular, or sine) and be of positive, negative, or alternating polarity. In some applications, it could be necessary to use multiple pulses to induce successive incremental physical changes. In one class of applications, electrical pulses of suitable shapes, sizes, and polarities are applied to vary the detection sensitivities of sensors. Another class of applications arises in electronic circuits in which certain resistance values are required to be variable: Incorporating the affected resistors into devices of the present type makes it possible to control their resistances electrically over wide ranges, and the lifetimes of electrically variable resistors exceed those of conventional mechanically variable resistors. Another and potentially the most important class of applications is that of resistance-based nonvolatile-memory devices, such as a resistance random access memory (RRAM) described in the immediately following article

  11. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  12. Dielectric and Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Response of Lead-Free Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramics at High Temperature Range

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Reyes-Montero; Paola Ramos-Alvarez; Amador M. González; Rigoberto López-Juárez; María Elena Villafuerte-Castrejón

    2017-01-01

    Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.18) solid solutions were synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. A perovskite-type structure was determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The addition of Ca2+ reduced the grain size (22.6, 17.9 and 13.3 μm, respectively) for all well-sintered ceramics (≈98%). Moreover, the stability temperature ranges for the tetragonal phase were promoted by displacing the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase’s transition temperatures while TC w...

  13. Recent studies on nanosecond-timescale pressurized gas discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, S.; Shlapakovski, A.; Beilin, L.; Stambulchik, E.; Tskhai, S.; Krasik, Ya E.

    2016-12-01

    The results of recent experimental and numerical studies of nanosecond high-voltage discharges in pressurized gases are reviewed. The discharges were ignited in a diode filled by different gases within a wide range of pressures by an applied pulsed voltage or by a laser pulse in the gas-filled charged resonant microwave cavity. Fast-framing imaging of light emission, optical emission spectroscopy, x-ray foil spectrometry and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering were used to study temporal and spatial evolution of the discharge plasma density and temperature, energy distribution function of runaway electrons and dynamics of the electric field in the plasma channel. The results obtained allow a deeper understanding of discharge dynamical properties in the nanosecond timescale, which is important for various applications of these types of discharges in pressurized gases.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2004-12-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays.

  15. Two-phase pressure drop during CO{sub 2} vaporization in horizontal smooth minichannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, A.S.; Choi, Kwang-Il [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Hoo-Kyu [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Pukyong National University, 100, Yongdang-dong, Nam-Ku, Busan 608-739 (Korea)

    2008-12-15

    Pressure drop experiments for a natural refrigerant vaporization of CO{sub 2} were performed in horizontal minichannels. The test section was made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm and with lengths of 2000 and 3000 mm. This test section was uniformly heated by applying electric current directly to the tubes. Experiments were performed at inlet saturation temperatures of -10, -5 and 10 C, mass flux ranges from 200 to 600 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and heat flux ranges from 10 to 30 kW m{sup -2}. The current study showed the significant effect of mass flux, tube diameter, and saturation temperature on the pressure drop. The experimental results were compared against 13 existing two-phase pressure drop prediction methods. A new pressure drop prediction method based on the Lockhart-Martinelli method was developed with 9.41% mean deviation. (author)

  16. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  17. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  18. Compact Range Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures electrical properties and characteristics of antenna systems and performs radar cross section (RCS) measurements of objects. These data are used...

  19. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  20. Micro-fabricated all optical pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Østergaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Optical pressure sensors can operate in certain harsh application areas where the electrical pressure sensors cannot. However, the sensitivity is often not as good for the optical sensors. This work presents an all optical pressure sensor, which is fabricated by micro fabrication techniques, where...... the sensitivity can be tuned in the fabrication process. The developed sensor design, simplifies the fabrication process leading to a lower fabrication cost, which can make the all optical pressure sensors more competitive towards their electrical counterpart. The sensor has shown promising results and a linear...

  1. Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by

  2. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  3. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  4. Electrical properties of the electroceramic composite in the microwave frequency range: Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PFN)-Cr0.75Fe1.25O3 (CRFO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. R. P.; Freire, F. N. A.; Sohn, R. S. T. M.; Almeida, J. S.; Sancho, E. O.; Costa, A. D. S. B.; Medeiros, A. M. L.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new electroceramic composite [Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 (PFN)]Z [Cr0.75Fe1.25O3 (CRFO)]100-Z (Z = 0, 10) is investigated in the microwave (MW) frequency range. The dielectric permittivity and loss in the region of 4-8 GHz (G and H MW bands) were studied. The performance of cylindrical resonator antennas based on CRFO100 and on PFN10 was examined. The experimental and theoretical results of the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) such as return loss, bandwidth, input impedance and radiation patterns are in good agreement for both composites: PFN10 (10% PFN + 90% CRFO) and CRFO100 (100% CRFO). A numerical validation was made considering an air gap between the dielectric resonator and the metallic conductors. The PFN10 matrix composite PFN10 (10% PFN + 90% CRFO) presents the highest dielectric permittivity (9.9 at 4.44 GHz) and the lowest bandwidth (9.9%). The CRFO100 phase (100% CRFO) presents a dielectric permittivity of 8.35 at 4.67 GHz and a bandwidth of 11.8%. The Hakki-Coleman procedure was also used in this study. The dielectric permittivity of 8.35 (tan δ = 1 × 10-3) at 7.94 GHz was obtained for CRFO100. The PFN10 presents a dielectric permittivity of 10.17 (tan δ = 4.9 × 10-3) at 7.05 GHz. These measurements confirm the possible use of such material for small DRAs.

  5. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor.

  7. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Mohamadou, Youssoufa; Lee, Kyounghun; Wi, Hun; Oh, Tong In; Woo, Eung Je; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Seo, Jin Keun

    2014-01-01

    When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor. PMID:24892493

  8. Electrically conductive proppant and methods for detecting, locating and characterizing the electrically conductive proppant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannan, Chad; Bartel, Lewis; Palisch, Terrence; Aldridge, David

    2015-01-13

    Electrically conductive proppants and methods for detecting, locating, and characterizing same are provided. The electrically conductive proppant can include a substantially uniform coating of an electrically conductive material having a thickness of at least 500 nm. The method can include injecting a hydraulic fluid into a wellbore extending into a subterranean formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to open a fracture therein, injecting into the fracture a fluid containing the electrically conductive proppant, electrically energizing the earth at or near the fracture, and measuring three dimensional (x, y, and z) components of electric and magnetic field responses at a surface of the earth or in an adjacent wellbore.

  9. Detecting rapid mass movements using electrical self-potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Limbrock, Jonas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Rapid mass movements are a latent danger for lives and infrastructure in almost any part of the world. Often such mass movements are caused by increasing pore pressure, for example, landslides after heavy rainfall or dam breaking after intrusion of water in the dam. Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing and for earthquake prediction. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than the pressure diffusion. We will present results of laboratory experiments under drained and undrained conditions with fluid triggered as well as manually triggered mass movements, monitored with self-potential measurements. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. We will discuss results of numerical simulations reproducing the observed effect. Our

  10. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  11. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  12. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  13. Demonstration of a Packaged Capacitive Pressure Sensor System Suitable for Jet Turbofan Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Meredith, Roger D.; Harsh, Kevin; Pilant, Evan; Usrey, Michael W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the development and characterization of a packaged pressure sensor system suitable for jet engine health monitoring is demonstrated. The sensing system operates from 97 to 117 MHz over a pressure range from 0 to 350 psi and a temperature range from 25 to 500 deg. The sensing system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator that is fabricated on an alumina substrate and is comprised of a Cree SiC MESFET, MIM capacitors, a wire-wound inductor, chip resistors and a SiCN capacitive pressure sensor. The pressure sensor is located in the LC tank circuit of the oscillator so that a change in pressure causes a change in capacitance, thus changing the resonant frequency of the sensing system. The chip resistors, wire-wound inductors and MIM capacitors have all been characterized at temperature and operational frequency, and perform with less than 5% variance in electrical performance. The measured capacitive pressure sensing system agrees very well with simulated results. The packaged pressure sensing system is specifically designed to measure the pressure on a jet turbofan engine. The packaged system can be installed by way of borescope plug adaptor fitted to a borescope port exposed to the gas path of a turbofan engine.

  14. Pressure calibration in solid pressure transmitting medium in large volume press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Ren, Xiangting; He, Duanwei

    2016-12-01

    The pressure limit in the large-volume-press (LVP) is increasing, but the in situ pressure calibration in LVP is still not a well resolved problem. The variation of the electrical resistance of the manganin with pressure in a hydrostatic condition is well known and is widely used in the pressure calibration in LVP. However, the hydrostatic pressure condition is hard to be maintained for the unavoidable solidification of the pressure transmitting medium (PTM) with pressure increasing. Moreover, our understanding about the relationship between pressure and manganin's resistance in a solid transmitting medium is still limited. Therefore, it is difficult to calibrate higher pressure using manganin. We measured the electrical resistance of manganin under pressure in pyrophyllite, MgO, and NaCl, respectively. The results show a linear relationship between the resistance and pressure in the same PTM with good reproducibility. In addition, the resistance-pressure relationships of manganin in different PTM are obviously different. So the resistance of manganin in a given solid PTM can be satisfactorily used as a pressure gauge only in the same PTM but cannot be used in other pressure media. Our results make it possible to calibrate higher pressure in a solid pressure transmitting medium in LVP.

  15. Brief communication "Modeling tornado dynamics and the generation of infrasound, electric and magnetic fields"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Schmitter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations endorse earlier measurements of time varying electric and magnetic fields generated by tornadoes and dust devils. These signals may provide a means for early warning but together with a proper modeling approach can also provide insight into geometry and dynamics of the vortices. Our model calculations show the existence of pressure resonances characterized as acoustic duct modes with well defined frequencies. These resonances not only generate infrasound but also modulate the charge density and the velocity field and in this way lead to electric and magnetic field oscillations in the 0.5–20-Hz range that can be monitored from a distance of several kilometers.

  16. Blood pressure and the contractility of a human leg muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    These studies investigate the relationships between perfusion pressure, force output and pressor responses for the contracting human tibialis anterior muscle. Eight healthy adults were studied. Changing the height of tibialis anterior relative to the heart was used to control local perfusion pressure. Electrically stimulated tetanic force output was highly sensitive to physiological variations in perfusion pressure showing a proportionate change in force output of 6.5% per 10 mmHg. This perfusion-dependent change in contractility begins within seconds and is reversible with a 53 s time constant, demonstrating a steady-state equilibrium between contractility and perfusion pressure. These stimulated contractions did not produce significant cardiovascular responses, indicating that the muscle pressor response does not play a major role in cardiovascular regulation at these workloads. Voluntary contractions at forces that would require constant motor drive if perfusion pressure had remained constant generated a central pressor response when perfusion pressure was lowered. This is consistent with a larger cortical drive being required to compensate for the lost contractility with lower perfusion pressure. The relationship between contractility and perfusion for this large postural muscle was not different from that of a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis) and it responded similarly to passive peripheral and active central changes in arterial pressure, but extended over a wider operating range of pressures. If we consider that, in a goal-oriented motor task, muscle contractility determines central motor output and the central pressor response, these results indicate that muscle would fatigue twice as fast without a pressor response. From its extent, timing and reversibility we propose a testable hypothesis that this change in contractility arises through contraction- and perfusion-dependent changes in interstitial K+ concentration. PMID:24018946

  17. Fabrication and electrical characterisation of strontium and titanium-doped lanthanum scandate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatchwell, C.; Bonanos, N.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2003-01-01

    The perovskite La0.7Sr0.3Sc0.8Ti0.2O2.95 has been prepared and its transport properties studied over the temperature range 170–1000 °C in varied oxygen partial pressures. The electrical conductivity was measured by impedance spectroscopy and the four-point dc technique in atmospheres of N2/H2/H2O...

  18. Fabrication and study of the electrical properties of PbO/Fe based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead Oxide and Iron based composite resistors of constant diameter (0.6cm) and varying lengths ranging from 0.37 to 1.17cm were fabricated. The resistors were fabricated by the use of a moulder with the application of an average pressure of 1.5×106 Nm-2. The research is aimed at fabrication and study of the electrical ...

  19. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  20. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  1. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  2. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  3. Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.

  4. Transport Properties of Heusler Compound Ru2-xFexCrSi under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masakazu; Hisamatsu, Toru; Nakashima, Shingo; Shigeta, Iduru; Matsubayashi, Kazuyosi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Hiroi, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated transport properties of the full-Heusler compound Ru2-xFexCrSi (x = 0.1), which is an insulator, under pressure P up to 8 GPa. The temperature dependence of electric resistance R(T) for Ru1.9Fe0.1CrSi is insensitive to pressure. R(T) is not described by the simple activation-type but -logT in the wide T and all P range we measured. This might be due to atomic disorder in the crystalline.

  5. Bedside measurement of changes in lung impedance to monitor alveolar ventilation in dependent and non-dependent parts by electrical impedance tomography during a positive end-expiratory pressure trial in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G. Bikker (Ido); S. Leonhardt (Steffen); D. dos Reis Miranda; J. Bakker (Jan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: As it becomes clear that mechanical ventilation can exaggerate lung injury, individual titration of ventilator settings is of special interest. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been proposed as a bedside, regional monitoring tool to guide these settings. In the

  6. Particularidades de la medición de presión sonora y vibraciones en grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B // Distinctive features for sound pressure level and vibration measurements over engine generator sets type MAN 18 v48/60 b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanexi Cepero‐Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de las líneas de investigación del Centro de Estudios en Ingeniería de Mantenimiento, sedesarrolla un proyecto de investigación encaminado a establecer las pautas para la evaluación de lacondición de grupos electrógenos. El presente artículo muestra las particularidades de la mediciónde sonido y vibraciones sobre un Grupo Electrógeno MAN 18 V48/60 B. Se analiza lo indicado en elestándar ISO 3744 concluyéndose con la imposibilidad práctica de su aplicación en el entornoindustrial y para grandes máquinas como lo es el caso de los grupos electrógenos MAN 18 V48/60 B.El interés de esta investigación se enfoca al generador del grupo electrógeno y por ello no obstante,se efectuaron mediciones de presión sonora orientando el micrófono hacia los cojinetes de este,sobre los cuales también se registraron sus vibraciones siguiendo lo indicado en el estándar ISO8528-9. El análisis comparativo de los registros espectrales de presión sonora y de vibracionesobligó a convertir los espectros FFT en espectros de ancho de banda proporcional constante. Comoresultado fundamental se obtiene la no correlación de las frecuencias espectrales de presión sonoracon las de vibraciones y una evaluación preliminar del generador exhibiendo una condición normal.Palabras claves: nivel de presión sonora, medición de vibraciones, ancho de banda proporcionalconstante, grupos electrógenos._________________________________________________________________AbstractA research project for condition monitoring of engine generator sets is developed as part of mainresearches at Maintenance Engineering Research Center. Sound pressure level and vibrationmeasurements over an engine generator set MAN 18 V48/60 B are made with the goal of identifythose frequencies present in both, sound pressure level and vibration spectra which could give thepossibility to use sound pressure level as a symptom parameter because of the continuous feature ofthis kind of

  7. Electrical conductivity of Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Ti{sub 0.65}Fe{sub 0.35}O{sub 3-{delta}}, x = 0, 0.5 and 1, polycrystalline compounds in the 300-500 K range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccillo, R., E-mail: muccillo@usp.br [Center of Science and Technology of Materials, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, Travessa R 400, Cidade Universitaria, S. Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Carmo, J.R. [Center of Science and Technology of Materials, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, Travessa R 400, Cidade Universitaria, S. Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-doped Sr and Ca titanates were synthesized by chemical and solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPM images show striking differences in samples prepared by the two routes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impedance spectroscopy measurements show different electrical behaviors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlations between the two macroscopic observations are shown. -- Abstract: Bulk and grain boundary electrical conductivity of oxygen deficient Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub 0.65}Fe{sub 0.35}O{sub 3-{delta}}, x = 0, 0.5 and 1.0, polycrystalline specimens were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy measurements in the 5 Hz-13 MHz frequency range from 300 to 500 K. The ceramic powders were synthesized by solid state reaction and by a chemical route, the polymeric precursor technique. The X-ray diffraction of the samples at room temperature shows the following perovskite crystalline structures: cubic for x = 0 and orthorhombic for x = 0.5 and 1.0. The impedance plots are composed of two semicircles ascribed to grains (bulk) and interfaces (grain boundaries) contributions. The impedance data show that sintered pellets using powders prepared by solid state synthesis present higher intergranular and intragranular resistivity values than pellets prepared by the chemical route. Observations of scanning probe microscopy topographic images of the surfaces of the sintered pellets show evident differences between the grain morphology of the pellets prepared with powders synthesized by the two routes.

  8. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m-1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m-1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  10. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  12. Diagnostic technique for electrical power equipment using fluorescent fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Sawa, Takeshi; Sawada, Hisashi; Tanaka, Akira; Wakatsuki, Noboru

    1991-03-01

    We studied a fiberoptic electrical sensor to detect electrical discharge light in a gas insulated system using a plastic optical fiber doped with an organic fluorescent compound which can absorb and emit light. We measured the spectrum of SFs gas by spectroscope using needle electrodes in a sealed glass tube. The spectrum is bluish and dis continuous and in the range of about 330 nm to 600 nm. The wavelength corresponding to the maximum emitted optical strength is 429 nm. The spectrum does not change when the electrode gap and the gas pressure are varied. Fiber doped with fluorescence which is the most useful for sensing the discharge light in SFs gas has been developed. The conversion efficiency was determined using monochromatic light produced by a xenon lamp with color filters. The conversion efficiency of the improved fiber doped with BBOT is on the order of 0. 01 for incident light of 406 nm.

  13. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A; Hjelle, Ingri B; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. A paired crossover study. Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Laboratory experiment at research center. Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18-31 y). Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Pressure evolution during HBC fuse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochette, D; Bussiere, W [Laboratoire Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques (LAEPT)-CNRS UMR 6069, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, F 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of the silica sand grains on pressure during the energy release in a high breaking capacity (HBC) fuse. During the HBC fuse operation, the pressure evolution is the result of two opposite trends: the pressure increase due to the interaction of the silica plasma with the surrounding granular sand, and the pressure decrease due to the propagation of the pressure waves toward the porous medium. Due to the complex phenomena occurring during the current extinction by a fuse, two kinds of pressure are distinguished: the pressure inside the silica plasma and the pressure in the silica sand. From the simulations we show that the Forchheimer flow resistance is stronger than the Darcy flow resistance once the electric power is over 30% of the maximum value. A comparison of the calculated and measured pressures is made at various positions from the fuse element axis. Two different pressures are obtained experimentally: the pressure P{sub SAND} exerted on the sand grains due to the plasma pressure, and the pressure P{sub GAS} of the gas flowing through the interstices of the silica sand. We show that the experimental and calculated trends are similar and they both depend on the electric power level and the silica sand mean granulometry. The maximum pressures are observed at the same time as the maximum electric power levels. The ratio P{sub SAND}/P{sub GAS} is about 8 with P{sub GAS} values not exceeding 1.5 x 10{sup 5} Pa.

  15. A High-Performance LC Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor Fabricated Using Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An LC resonant pressure sensor with improved performance is presented in this paper. The sensor is designed with a buried structure, which protects the electrical components from contact with harsh environments and reduces the resonant-frequency drift of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The pressure-sensitive membrane of the sensor is optimized according to small-deflection-plate theory, which allows the sensor to operate in high-pressure environments. The sensor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology, and a fugitive film is used to create a completed sealed embedded cavity without an evacuation channel. The experimental results show that the frequency drift of the sensor versus the temperature is approximately 0.75 kHz/°C, and the responsivity of the sensor can be up to 31 kHz/bar within the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 60 bar.

  16. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  17. Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavasi, Massimo [Itea SpA, Gallarate, VA (Italy); Landegger, Gregory [ThermoEnergy Corporation, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Pressurized OxyECombustion is one of the most promising technologies for utility-scale power generation plants. Benefits include the ability to burn low rank coal and capture CO2. By increasing the flue gas pressure during this process, greater efficiencies are derived from increased quantity and quality of thermal energy recovery. UPA with modeling support from MIT and testing and data verification by Georgia Tech’s Research Center designed and built a 100 kW system capable of demonstrating pressurized oxyEcombustion using a flameless combustor. Wyoming PRB coal was run at 15 and 32 bar. Additional tests were not completed but sampled data demonstrated the viability of the technology over a broader range of operating pressures, Modeling results illustrated a flat efficiency curve over 20 bar, with optimum efficiency achieved at 29 bar. This resulted in a 33% (HHV) efficiency, a 5 points increase in efficiency versus atmospheric oxy-combustion, and a competitive cost of electricity plus greater CO2 avoidance costs then prior study’s presented. UPA’s operation of the bench-scale system provided evidence that key performance targets were achieved: flue gas sampled at the combustor outlet had non-detectable residual fly ashes, and low levels of SO3 and heavy-metal. These results correspond to prior pressurized oxy-combustion testing completed by IteaEEnel.

  18. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  19. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  20. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  1. Polyamorphism in Yb-based metallic glass induced by pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Luo, Qiang; Li, Renfeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe

    2017-04-01

    The Yb62.5Zn15Mg17.5Cu5 metallic glass is investigated using synchrotron x-ray total scattering method up to 38.4 GPa. The polyamorphic transformation from low density to high density with a transition region between 14.1 and 25.2 GPa is observed, accompanying with a volume collapse reflected by a discontinuousness of isothermal bulk modulus. This collapse is caused by that distortional icosahedron short range order precedes to perfect icosahedron, which might link to Yb 4f electron delocalization upon compression, and match the result of in situ electrical resistance measurement under high pressure conditions. This discovery in Yb-based metallic glass, combined with the previous reports on other metallic glass systems, demonstrates that pressure induced polyamorphism is the general behavior for typical lanthanide based metallic glasses.

  2. Electric response in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  3. Joining and Performance of Alkali Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min-Soo; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Woo, Sang-Kuk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The alkali-Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC) is one of the promising static energy conversion technologies for the direct conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy. The advantages over a conventional energy converter are its high theoretical conversion efficiency of 40% and power density of 500 W/kg. The working principle of an AMTEC battery is the electrochemical reaction of the sodium through an ion conducting electrolyte. Sodium ion pass through the hot side of the beta”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) primarily as a result of the pressure difference. This pressure difference across the BASE has a significant effect on the overall performance of the AMTEC system. In order to build the high pressure difference across the BASE, hermeticity is required for each joined components for high temperature range of 900°C. The AMTEC battery was manufactured by utilizing robust joining technology of BASE/insulator/metal flange interfaces of the system for both structural and electrical stability. The electrical potential difference between the anode and cathode sides, where the electrons emitted from sodium ionization and recombined into sodium, was characterized as the open-circuit voltage. The efforts of technological improvement were concentrated on a high-power output and conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about the joining and performance of the AMTEC systems.

  4. Simple device to determine the pressure applied by pressure clips for the treatment of earlobe keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Sasidharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids of the ear are common problems. Various treatment modalities are available for the treatment of ear keloids. Surgical excision with intralesional steroid injection along with compression therapy has the least recurrence rate. Various types of devices are available for pressure therapy. Pressure applied by these devices is uncontrolled and is associated with the risk of pressure necrosis. We describe here a simple and easy to use device to measure pressure applied by these clips for better outcome. Objectives: To devise a simple method to measure the pressure applied by various pressure clips used in ear keloid pressure therapy. Materials and Methods: By using a force sensitive resistor (FSR, the pressure applied gets converted into voltage using electrical wires, resistors, capacitors, converter, amplifier, diode, nine-volt (9V cadmium battery and the voltage is measured using a multimeter. The measured voltage is then converted into pressure using pressure voltage graph that depicts the actual pressure applied by the pressure clip. Results: The pressure applied by different clips was variable. The spring clips were adjustable by slight variation in the design whereas the pressure applied by binder clips and magnet discs was not adjustable. Conclusion: The uncontrolled/suboptimal pressure applied by certain pressure clips can be monitored to provide optimal pressure therapy in ear keloid for better outcome.

  5. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV or Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV? —Deciding Between Different Alternative Drives Based on Measured Individual Operational Profiles Véhicule électrique à batteries (BEV ou véhicule électrique à prolongateur d’autonomie (REEV ? — Choisir entre différents entraînements alternatifs sur la base de profils opérationnels individuels mesurés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marker S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large number of concepts for drive train electrification and a corresponding broad variety of available drive train configurations were presented to the public. They all have their pros and cons for the customer. This paper discusses a tool enabling the customer to select the drive train which is best suited to his individual purposes. The presented approach focuses on BEV and REEV and is characterized by a three-step procedure: the customer’s individual driving behaviour is measured: individualized driving cycles and operational habits including the daily kilometrage are derived; numerical models of the alternative drive train concepts are run to simulate the energy consumption by applying these individualized cycles. The study reveals that battery sizing is the most important component. It would be more efficient to use a REEV with a smaller battery instead of a BEV: at a given range of 50 km the BEV covers 50% of the kilometers (corresponding to 90% of all daily distances while the REEV covers 100% of all daily distances, out of it 70% on electric driving. This leads to less CO2 emission compared to the combined use of BEV and conventional cars. The REEV with the smallest battery is amortized first referred to conventional cars. The influence of the individual usage pattern can be translated to operational costs. The REEV urban driver covers 85% by electric driving and has thus lower operational costs than the REEV inter-urban driver with 64% electric driving. Récemment, un grand nombre de concepts d’électrification des groupes motopropulseurs et une large variété correspondante de configurations disponibles ont été présentés au public. Tous possèdent des avantages et des inconvénients pour le client. Cet article traite d’un outil permettant au client de sélectionner le groupe motopropulseur le plus adapté à ses besoins individuels. L’approche présentée se focalise sur les véhicules BEV (Battery

  6. Effect of Potential Range in Pressure-Temperature Behavior in Isotropic-Nematic Transition of 4-4´-Bis(EthyloxyAzoxybenzene (P-Azoxyphenetole, Pap, 4-Pentyl-4´-Cyanobiphenyl (5cb, P-Methoxybenzydidene-P-N-Butylaniline (Mbba and P–Ethoxybenzylidene–P–N-Butylaniline (Ebba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sánchez E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we employed the Density Functional Theory (IPCM model to calculate molecular volume and k, and the perturbation theory proposed by García-Sánchez et al. (2002 to predict phase diagram and experimental behavior pressure-temperature for isotropic-nematic transition of 4-4´-bis(ethyloxyazoxybenzene (p-azoxyphenetole, PAP, 4-pentyl-4´-cyanobiphenyl (5CB, p-methoxybenzydidene-p-n-butylaniline (MBBA and p–ethoxybenzylidene–p–n-butylaniline (EBBA at 1 atm. If during the theoretical prediction bigger potential values of potential range of square well (l > k are considered in the theoretical model, it is possible to get better prediction of the experimental behavior. The above mentioned is according with the theoretical formulation of the Second Order Perturbation Theory since Ponce-Renon approximation is included.

  7. Electrical actuators applications and performance

    CERN Document Server

    De Fornel, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This helpful resource covers a large range of information regarding electrical actuators. In particular, robustness, a very problematic issue, is fully explored in a dedicated chapter. The text also deals with he estimate of non-measurable mechanical variables by examining the estimate of load moment, then observation of the positioning of a command without mechanical sensor. Finally, it examines the conditions needed to measure variables and real implementation of numerical algorithms. This is a key working resource for electrical engineers.

  8. Electrical aspects of rainout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  9. Transient pressure signals in mechanical heart valve cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z J; Slonin, J H; Hwang, N H

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish a correlation between mechanical heart valve (MHV) cavitation and transient pressure (TP) signals at MHV closure. This correlation may suggest a possible method to detect in vivo MHV cavitation. In a pulsatile mock flow loop, a study was performed to measure TP and observe cavitation bubble inception at MHV closure under simulated physiologic ventricular and aortic pressures at heart rates of 70, 90, 120, and 140 beats/min with corresponding cardiac outputs of 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5 L/min, respectively. The experimental study included two bileaflet MHV prostheses: 1) St. Jude Medical 31 mm and 2) Carbomedics 31 mm. High fidelity piezo-electric pressure transducers were used to measure TP immediately before and after the valve leaflet/housing impact. A stroboscopic lighting imaging technique was developed to capture cavitation bubbles on the MHV inflow surfaces at selected time delays ranging from 25 microseconds to 1 ms after the leaflet/housing impact. The TP traces measured 10 mm away from the valve leaflet tip showed a large pressure reduction peak at the leaflet/housing impact, and subsequent high frequency pressure oscillations (HPOs) while the cavitation bubbles were observed. The occurrence of cavitation bubbles and HPO bursts were found to be random on a beat by beat basis. However, the amplitude of the TP reduction, the intensity of the cavitation bubble (size and number), and the intensity of HPO were found to increase with the test heart rate. A correlation between the MHV cavitation bubbles and the HPO burst was positively established. Power spectrum analysis of the TP signals further showed that the frequency of the HPO (cavitation bubble collapse pressures) ranged from 100 to 450 kHz.

  10. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  11. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  12. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  13. Atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais e amplitude de movimento da coluna cervical em indivíduos com e sem DTM Electrical activity of cervical muscles and range of movement of cervical column in individuals with and without DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana de Moura Milanesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade elétrica e a dor à palpação dos músculos cervicais, a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna cervical e a relação entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical em indivíduos com e sem desordem temporomandibular (DTM. Participaram do estudo 53 voluntários, sendo 24 com DTM e 29 sem, de ambos os gêneros, com 18 a 32 anos de idade. A DTM foi diagnosticada pelo critério de diagnóstico em pesquisa para DTM (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. A eletromiografia dos músculos esternocleidomastoídeo (ECOM e trapézio superior foi realizada bilateralmente, na situação de repouso, com frequência de 2 KHz e filtro passa-faixa de 10-1000 Hz. As medidas de ADM de flexão, extensão, lateroflexão e rotação foram realizadas com um flexímetro e a comparação entre os grupos contou com o teste de Mann Whitney. O teste de Spearman foi aplicado para a correlação entre as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foi verificada nenhuma diferença na ADM cervical entre os grupos. A atividade elétrica demonstrou-se significativamente maior nos músculos ECOM direito (p=0,0130, trapézio superior direito (p=0,0334 e esquerdo (p=0,0335 no grupo DTM em relação ao grupo controle. Não houve correlação significante entre atividade elétrica e ADM cervical. A dor nos músculos cervicais apresentou-se significativamente maior apenas no músculo ECOM direito (p=0,0055. Conclui-se que os grupos estudados registraram diferença na atividade elétrica dos músculos cervicais, sendo esta maior em indivíduos com DTM.The aim of the research was to evaluate the electrical activity and pain on palpation of the cervical muscles, the cervical range of motion (ROM and the relationship between electrical activity and ROM in individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD. Fifty three volunteers took part in the study, being 24 with TMD and 29 without, both genders

  14. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  15. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  16. Middle infrared (wavelength range: 8 μm-14 μm) 2-dimensional spectroscopy (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7 kg, total cost: less than 10,000 USD) so-called hyperspectral camera for unmanned air vehicles like drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ogawa, Satoru; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We developed the palm size (optical unit: 73[mm]×102[mm]×66[mm]) and light weight (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7[kg]) middle infrared (wavelength range: 8[μm]-14[μm]) 2-dimensional spectroscopy for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) like drone. And we successfully demonstrated the flights with the developed hyperspectral camera mounted on the multi-copter so-called drone in 15/Sep./2015 at Kagawa prefecture in Japan. We had proposed 2 dimensional imaging type Fourier spectroscopy that was the near-common path temporal phase-shift interferometer. We install the variable phase shifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected imaging optical systems. The variable phase shifter was configured with a movable mirror and a fixed mirror. The movable mirror was actuated by the impact drive piezo-electric device (stroke: 4.5[mm], resolution: 0.01[μm], maker: Technohands Co.,Ltd., type:XDT50-45, price: around 1,000USD). We realized the wavefront division type and near common path interferometry that has strong robustness against mechanical vibrations. Without anti-mechanical vibration systems, the palm-size Fourier spectroscopy was realized. And we were able to utilize the small and low-cost middle infrared camera that was the micro borometer array (un-cooled VOxMicroborometer, pixel array: 336×256, pixel pitch: 17[μm], frame rate 60[Hz], maker: FLIR, type: Quark 336, price: around 5,000USD). And this apparatus was able to be operated by single board computer (Raspberry Pi.). Thus, total cost was less than 10,000 USD. We joined with KAMOME-PJ (Kanagawa Advanced MOdule for Material Evaluation Project) with DRONE FACTORY Corp., KUUSATSU Corp., Fuji Imvac Inc. And we successfully obtained the middle infrared spectroscopic imaging with multi-copter drone.

  17. Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Pritchett

    2008-09-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open

  18. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  19. Medium- and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Nenci, Fabio; Cinquepalmi, Massimo; Chita, Giuseppe

    1998-07-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For the other ones, operating to high pressure range, generally the two components of the transducers are both threaded only and threaded and then circularly welded by micro TIG for the other higher range, till to 1000 bar. In this work the products, operating on the approximately equals 30 divided by 200 bar, are considered. These, when assembled on industrial plants, as an outcome of a non-correct operating sequence, give a 'shifted' electrical signal. This is due to a shift of the 'zero electrical signal' that unbalances the electrical bridge - thin layer sensor - that is the sensitive part of the product. Moreover, for the same problem, often some mechanical settlings of the transducer happen during the first pressure semi-components, with an increasing of the product manufacturing costs. In light of all this, the above referred, in this work the whole transducer has been re-designed according to the specific laser welding technology requirements. On the new product no threaded parts exist but only a circular laser welding with a full penetration depth about 2.5 divided by 3 mm high. Three different alloys have been tested according to the applications and the mechanical properties requested to the transducer. By using a 1.5 KW CO2 laser system many different working parameters have been evaluated for correlating laser parameters to the penetration depths, crown wides, interaction laser-materia times, mechanical and metallurgical properties. Moreover during the laser welding process the measurements of the maximum temperature, reached by the transducer top, has been

  20. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  1. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  2. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  3. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  4. Electrical impedance tomography: so close to touching the holy grail

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Jean-Michel; Perbet, Sebastien; Delmas, Julie; Futier, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a new technology giving us lung imaging that may allow lung function to be monitored at the bedside. Several applications have been studied to guide mechanical ventilation at the bedside with electrical impedance tomography. Positive end-expiratory pressure trials guided by electrical impedance tomography are relevant in terms of recruited volume or homogeneity of the lung. Tidal impedance variation is a new parameter of electrical impedance tomography that ...

  5. Carbon nanotube vacuum gauges with wide-dynamic range and processes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature thermal conductivity gauge employs a carbon single-walled-nanotube. The gauge operates on the principle of thermal exchange between the voltage-biased nanotube and the surrounding gas at low levels of power and low temperatures to measure vacuum across a wide dynamic range. The gauge includes two terminals, a source of constant voltage to the terminals, a single-walled carbon nanotube between the terminals, a calibration of measured conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of surrounding vacuum and a current meter in electrical communication with the source of constant voltage. Employment of the nanotube for measuring vacuum includes calibrating the electrical conductance of the nanotube to magnitudes of vacuum, exposing the nanotube to a vacuum, applying a constant voltage across the nanotube, measuring the electrical conductance of the nanotube in the vacuum with the constant voltage applied and converting the measured electrical conductance to the corresponding calibrated magnitude of vacuum using the calibration. The nanotube may be suspended to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate, increasing sensitivity at even tower pressures.

  6. How to consider Electric and Hybrid Electric vehicles in CNOSSOS-EU predicting method?

    OpenAIRE

    PALLAS, Marie-Agnès; Berengier, Michel; MUIRHEAD, Matthew; MORGAN, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are often referred to as quiet vehicles, comparatively to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. At first, these new vehicle types were mainly developed for urban situations for their qualities concerning air pollution reduction, but due to the improvement of their electric range, they can also be encountered on national road networks. The electric and hybrid powertrain technologies are mostly employed on light vehicles, but a more recent break...

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  8. Depth Gauge for Liquids Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Piezoelectric element mounted in hole drilled in high-pressure plug. Transducer used to measure depth of liquid when pressure in vessel high. New configuration transmits ultrasonic vibration directly into liquid, enhancing signal strength, accuracy, and range, yet piezoelectric element protected from high-pressure liquid.

  9. Highly Stable Liquid Metal-Based Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Microfluidic Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekeon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure measurement is considered one of the key parameters in microfluidic systems. It has been widely used in various fields, such as in biology and biomedical fields. The electrical measurement method is the most widely investigated; however, it is unsuitable for microfluidic systems because of a complicated fabrication process and difficult integration. Moreover, it is generally damaged by large deflection. This paper proposes a thin-film-based pressure sensor that is free from these limitations, using a liquid metal called galinstan. The proposed pressure sensor is easily integrated into a microfluidic system using soft lithography because galinstan exists in a liquid phase at room temperature. We investigated the characteristics of the proposed pressure sensor by calibrating for a pressure range from 0 to 230 kPa (R2 > 0.98 using deionized water. Furthermore, the viscosity of various fluid samples was measured for a shear-rate range of 30–1000 s−1. The results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were evaluated using a commercial viscometer and normalized difference was found to be less than 5.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The galinstan-based pressure sensor can be used in various microfluidic systems for long-term monitoring with high linearity, repeatability, and long-term stability.

  10. Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: an educational review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuhfried, Othmar; Crevenna, Richard; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    ...) functional electrical stimulation. Therapeutic electrical stimulation improves neuromuscular functional condition by strengthening muscles, increasing motor control, reducing spasticity, decreasing pain and increasing range of motion...

  11. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  12. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  13. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A.; Hjelle, Ingri B.; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. Design: A paired crossover study. Intervention: Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Setting: Laboratory experiment at research center. Participants: Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18–31 y). Measurements and Results: Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. Citation: Matre D, Hu L, Viken LA, Hjelle IB, Wigemyr M, Knardahl S, Sand T, Nilsen KB. Experimental sleep restriction facilitates pain and electrically induced cortical responses. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1607–1617. PMID:26194577

  14. Transport Properties of Heusler Compound Ru{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}CrSi under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Masakazu; Hisamatsu, Toru; Nakashima, Shingo; Shigeta, Iduru; Hiroi, Masahiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-35, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Matsubayashi, Kazuyosi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya, E-mail: showa@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    We investigated transport properties of the full-Heusler compound Ru{sub 2-x}Fe{sub x}CrSi (x = 0.1), which is an insulator, under pressure P up to 8 GPa. The temperature dependence of electric resistance R(T) for Ru{sub 1.9}Fe{sub 0.1}CrSi is insensitive to pressure. R(T) is not described by the simple activation-type but -logT in the wide T and all P range we measured. This might be due to atomic disorder in the crystalline.

  15. Non-Invasive measurement of blood pressure - Why we should look at BP traces rather than listen to Korotkoff sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celler, Branko G; Basilakis, Jim; Goozee, Kathryn; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby

    2015-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive measurement of blood pressure in unsupervised environments continues to be a challenge, particularly in the presence of movement artefact, electrical noise and most importantly cardiac arrhythmia which are common in those aged over 65 suffering from a range of chronic conditions. Large intra personal variability in signal morphometry and amplitudes further complicates the development of reliable signal processing algorithms for NIBP measurement. In this paper we demonstrate the effect of this variability and propose that the traditional methods of human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry should no longer be considered a gold standard for the calibration of NIBP devices.

  16. Thermodynamic equilibrium at heterogeneous pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in metamorphic petrology point out the importance of grain-scale pressure variations in high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Pressures derived from chemical zonation using unconventional geobarometry based on equal chemical potentials fit mechanically feasible pressure variations. Here a thermodynamic equilibrium method is presented that predicts chemical zoning as a result of pressure variations by Gibbs energy minimization. Equilibrium thermodynamic prediction of the chemical zoning in the case of pressure heterogeneity is done by constraint Gibbs minimization using linear programming techniques. Compositions of phases considered in the calculation are discretized into 'pseudo-compounds' spanning the entire compositional space. Gibbs energies of these discrete compounds are generated for a given range and resolution of pressures for example derived by barometry or from mechanical model predictions. Gibbs energy minimization is subsequently performed considering all compounds of different composition and pressure. In addition to constraining the system composition a certain proportion of the system is constraint at a specified pressure. Input pressure variations need to be discretized and each discrete pressure defines an additional constraint for the minimization. The proportion of the system at each different pressure is equally distributed over the number of input pressures. For example if two input pressures P1 and P2 are specified, two constraints are added: 50 percent of the system is constraint at P1 while the remaining 50 percent is constraint at P2. The method has been tested for a set of 10 input pressures obtained by Tajčmanová et al. (2014) using their unconventional geobarometry method in a plagioclase rim around kyanite. Each input pressure is added as constraint to the minimization (1/10 percent of the system for each discrete pressure). Constraining the system composition to the average composition of the plagioclase rim

  17. The effect of hyperbaric air on the electric activity of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Marco; Nissen, Matthias; Schroeder, Jessica; Gimsa, Jan

    2015-11-15

    Breathing hyperbaric air or gas mixtures, for example during diving or when working underwater is known to alter the electrophysiological behavior of neuronal cells, which may lead to restricted cognition. During the last few decades, only very few studies into hyperbaric effects have been published, especially for the most relevant pressure range of up to 10 bar. We designed a pressurized measuring chamber to record pressure effects on the electrical activity of neuronal networks formed by primary cells of the frontal cortex of NMRI mice. Electrical activity was recorded with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) of glass neuro chips while subjected to a step-by-step pressure increase from atmospheric pressure (1 bar) to 2 and 4 bar, followed by a decompression to 1 bar, in order to record recovery effects. The effects of pressure on the total spike rates (TSRs), which were averaged from at least 45 chips, were detected in two cell culture media with different compositions. In a DMEM medium with 6% horse serum, the TSR was increased by 19% after a pressure increase to 2 bar and remained stable at 4 bar. In NMEM medium with 2% B27, the TSR was not altered by a pressure increase to 2 bar but increased by 9% at 4 bar. After decompression to 1 bar, the activities decreased to 76% and 101% of their respective control levels in the two media. MEA recordings from neuronal networks in miniaturized hyperbaric measuring chambers provide new access for exploring the neuronal effects of hyperbaric breathing gases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrical transport properties of single-crystal CaB6,SrB6 , and BaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Rosa, Priscila F. S.; Schlottmann, Pedro; Fisk, Zachary

    2016-09-01

    The electrical resistivity and Hall effect of alkaline-earth-metal hexaboride single crystals are measured as a function of temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and magnetic field. The transport properties vary weakly with the external parameters and are modeled in terms of intrinsic variable-valence defects. These defects can stay either in (1) delocalized shallow levels or in (2) localized levels resonant with the conduction band, which can be neutral or negatively charged. Satisfactory agreement is obtained for electronic transport properties in a broad temperature and pressure range, although fitting the magnetoresistance is less straightforward and a combination of various mechanisms is needed to explain the field and temperature dependences.

  19. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  20. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  1. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  2. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  3. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  4. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  5. Detrusor and blood pressure responses to dorsal penile nerve stimulation during hyperreflexic contraction of the bladder in patients with cervical cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Creasey, Graham H; Lim, Hyunkyo; Song, Jaemann; Song, Kihak; Kim, Jinweon

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of dorsal penile nerve (DPN) stimulation on detrusor pressure (P(det)) and blood pressure during hyperreflexic contractions of the bladder in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Blood pressure and P(det) monitoring during cystometry with and without DPN stimulation. Urodynamic laboratory in a university hospital in Korea. Eight men (age range, 20-55y) with cervical SCI that was incurred from 4 months to 10 years before this study. During water cystometry, blood pressure was monitored with an intra-arterial catheter introduced percutaneously into the radial artery and was recorded simultaneously with the P(det). Blood pressure was also measured manually with an electronic blood pressure cuff. Electric stimulation was applied to the DPN by using surface electrodes each time a bladder contraction was detected. Stimulation intensity was twice the threshold of the pudendal-anal reflex. P(det), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. As P(det) increased, the blood pressure increased in all cases. All the reflex contractions of the bladder were effectively suppressed by DPN stimulation, and as the P(det) decreased during stimulation, radial arterial pressure also decreased immediately and significantly. DPN stimulation can decrease P(det) and the increased blood pressure associated with it. Copyright 2003 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  6. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  7. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress–strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic–plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  8. External cardiac compression may be harmful in some scenarios of pulseless electrical activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, T S

    2012-10-01

    Pulseless electrical activity occurs when organised or semi-organised electrical activity of the heart persists but the product of systemic vascular resistance and the increase in systemic arterial flow generated by the ejection of the left venticular stroke volume is not sufficient to produce a clinically detectable pulse. Pulseless electrical activity encompasses a very heterogeneous variety of severe circulatory shock states ranging in severity from pseudo-cardiac arrest to effective cardiac arrest. Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are generally poor. Impairment of cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output in many scenarios of pulseless electrical activity, including extreme vasodilatory shock states. There is no evidence that external cardiac compression can increase cardiac output when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. If impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output and the heart is effectively ejecting all the blood returning to it, then external cardiac compression can only increase cardiac output if it increases venous return and cardiac filling. Repeated cardiac compression asynchronous with the patient\\'s cardiac cycle and raised mean intrathoracic pressure due to chest compression can be expected to reduce rather than to increase cardiac filling and therefore to reduce rather than to increase cardiac output in such circumstances. The hypothesis is proposed that the performance of external cardiac compression will have zero or negative effect on cardiac output in pulseless electrical activity when impaired cardiac filling is the limiting factor to cardiac output. External cardiac compression may be both directly and indirectly harmful to significant sub-groups of patients with pulseless electrical activity. We have neither evidence nor theory to provide comfort that external cardiac compression is not harmful in many scenarios of pulseless

  9. Can a gearbox be of use in an electric vehicle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Baulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A share of vehicles with electric powertrains, including pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, is growing intensively nowadays. It is well known that electric motor can maintain its maximum torque in a wide speed range. One can say that this fact implies no need of reduction gears while using an electric motor for propulsion. On the other hand, power curve of electric motor is very similar to that of IC engines with its maximum power values lying in relatively narrow speed range. This, on the contrary, leads to conclusion that using reduction gears in an electric drive makes some sense. In this paper, an analysis carried out in order to reveal benefits of placing reduction gears between electric motor and driving wheels of a vehicle. Some conclusions were made about selecting a gearbox matching with electric motor and choosing its gear number and ratios. These decisions depend strongly on vehicle’s purpose and characteristics of an electric motor.

  10. The long-range electromobility; Die Langstrecken-Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The recent advances in the fuel cell technology prompted the automotive developers to bring to design hybrid electric vehicles with a fuel cell and a lithium-ion battery. Thus, the long-range electric mobility is possible at a short refueling time simultaneously. In addition, the lithium battery is suitable for preconditioning of the hydrogen fuel cell.

  11. Hydraulic pressure variations of groundwater in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory during Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw. For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain.

  12. Pressure-induced Td to 1T' structural phase transition in WTe2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yonghui; Chen, Xuliang; Li, Nana; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xuefei; An, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Xingchen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Baigeng; Yang, Wenge; Yang, Zhaorong; Zhang, Yuheng (CIW); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (CHPSTAR- China); (Nanjing)

    2016-11-21

    WTe2 is provoking immense interest owing to its extraordinary properties, such as large positive magnetoresistance, pressure-driven superconductivity and possible type-II Weyl semimetal state. Here we report results of high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and electrical transport measurements on WTe2. Both the XRD and Raman results reveal a structural transition upon compression, starting at 6.0 GPa and completing above 15.5 GPa. We have determined that the high-pressure lattice symmetry is monoclinic 1T' with space group of P21/m. This transition is related to a lateral sliding of adjacent Te-W-Te layers and results in a collapse of the unit cell volume by ~20.5%. The structural transition also casts a pressure range with the broadened superconducting transition, where the zero resistance disappears.

  13. The thermoelectric properties of CoSb3 compound doped with Te and Sn synthesized at different pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiping; Jia, Xiaopeng; Ma, Hongan

    2017-10-01

    The skutterudite CoSb2.75Te0.20Sn0.05 compound was synthesized successfully by high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) method using Co, Sb, Te and Sn powder as raw materials. The effects of pressure on its structure and the thermoelectric properties are investigated systematically from 300 K to 800 K. The electrical resistivity and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient for the sample increases with rising synthetic pressure. The thermal conductivity of the sample decreases with synthetic pressure and temperature rising in the range of 300-800 K. In this study, the maximum dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) value of 1.17 has been achieved at 793 K, 3 GPa for this thermoelectric material.

  14. Measurement of ionization, attachment, detachment and charge transfer rate coefficients in dry air around the critical electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösl, A.; Häfliger, P.; Franck, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    We obtain pressure-dependent rate coefficients in dry synthetic air (79% N2 , 21% O2 ) by fitting Pulsed Townsend measurements over a pressure range from 10 to 100 kPa, around the critical density-reduced electric field from 86 to 104 Td. The physical processes are reviewed and set in relation to a suitable kinetic model. A procedure for fitting kinetic reaction rates, based on finite-volume simulations of charge carrier drift, is described. Rate coefficients are obtained for electron attachment, ionization and detachment, as well as for ion conversion. We find a quadratic pressure dependency in the conversion rate, consistent with three-body collisions, and observe a pressure dependency in the onset of electron avalanche growth in dry air.

  15. Pressure effect on transport property of YbMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan) and Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8570 (Japan)]. E-mail: y-saiga@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, T. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8570 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kurita, N. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8570 (Japan); Hedo, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8570 (Japan); Kosaka, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8570 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Electrical resistivities of YbMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} were measured at several pressures in a temperature range from 2K to room temperature. In low temperature region below 100K, temperature dependence of the resistivity shows significant change between 2.0 and 4.0GPa. Under 4.0GPa, anomalies of the resistivity were observed at (T{sub t3}{approx}) 21.6K and (T{sub t4}{approx}) 7.1K. There is a fair possible that they originated from novel magnetic phase transitions of Yb or Mn sublattice. With increasing pressure, T{sub t4} increases linearly. In contrast to the pressure dependence of T{sub t4}, T{sub t3} decreases linearly.

  16. Effect of sputtering pressure on some properties of chromium thin films obliquely deposited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besnard, A; Martin, N; Millot, C; Gavoille, J; Salut, R, E-mail: aurelien.besnard@ens2m.fr [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Franche-Comte, ENSMM, UTBM, 32 avenue de l' observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-06-15

    Oriented columnar thin films provide a wide range of new properties linked to the large panel of available microstructures. The efficiency of the technique and thus the resulting structure, based on an incident flux of particles impinging on the substrate, depends on the distribution of the vapour source. The deposition pressure, which acts on the sputtered particles mean free path, is an important parameter, especially for sputtering processes. This study reports on the effect of different deposition pressures combined to a systematic change of the incidence angle of the sputtered particles, on the structural properties and electrical behaviours of obliquely sputtered chromium thin films. The results revealed higher performances and an enhanced control of the process at low sputtering pressure.

  17. Generation and control of wide area, homogenous atmospheric pressure discharges for industrial coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Alan; Walter, Castagna; Carr, Kieran; O'Shea, Sean; Herbert, Tony

    2004-09-01

    Dow Corning Plasma Solutions use diffuse atmospheric pressure plasma technology combined with a unique precursor delivery system for a new coatings approach: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition. Operating at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature this process allows the use of a wide range of liquid precursors delivering high chemical functionality onto flexible substrates. Patented APPLD equipment enables plasma deposition onto wide area substrates up to 1.6m width in true reel-to-reel conditions at industrial line speeds up to 30m/min. Substrates can be either electrically insulating or conducting. Recent engineering developments addressing issues in electrode design, liquid delivery and gas retention and distribution, have significantly enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the plasma chemistry and coating performance. The process is controlled through monitoring and control of key plasma chemistry and process parameters. The process hardware and process control package will be described in detail with particular emphasis on plasma chemistry and process control tools.

  18. Theoretical study of some electrical parameters of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Roy, S.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-10-01

    Graphene, due to its numerous unique properties, is addressed as miraculous material by Novoselov et al. [Nature 490 (2012) 192]. It has ultrahigh heat and thermal conductivity. Several researchers over the globe are working on electrical properties of graphene like electrical resistance, electrical conductivity etc. In this paper, we estimate electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity and Lorenz number for graphene within the temperature range from 300 K to 500 K. Variation of these parameters with respect to temperature and sample size is also reported.

  19. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

  20. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.