WorldWideScience

Sample records for range diffusion jumps

  1. The Voter Model and Jump Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Majmudar, Jimit; Baumgaertner, Bert O; Tyson, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    Opinions, and subsequently opinion dynamics, depend not just on interactions among individuals, but also on external influences such as the mass media. The dependence on local interactions, however, has received considerably more attention. In this paper, we use the classical voter model as a basis, and extend it to include external influences. We show that this new model can be understood using the theory of jump diffusion processes. We derive results pertaining to fixation probability and expected consensus time of the process, and find that the contribution of an external influence significantly dwarfs the contribution of the node-to-node interactions in terms of driving the social network to eventual consensus. This result suggests the potential importance of ``macro-level'' phenomena such as the media influence as compared to the ``micro-level'' local interactions, in modelling opinion dynamics.

  2. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  3. Jump locations of jump-diffusion processes with state-dependent rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher E.; Keener, James P.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a general framework for studying statistics of jump-diffusion systems driven by both Brownian noise (diffusion) and a jump process with state-dependent intensity. Of particular natural interest in many physical systems are the jump locations: the system evaluated at the jump times. As an example, this could be the voltage at which a neuron fires, or the so-called ‘threshold voltage’. However, the state-dependence of the jump rate provides direct coupling between the diffusion and jump components, making it difficult to disentangle the two to study individually. In this work, we provide an iterative map formulation of the sequence of distributions of jump locations. The distributions computed by this map can be used to elucidate other interesting quantities about the process, including statistics of the interjump times. Ultimately, the limit of the map reveals that knowledge of the stationary distribution of the full process is sufficient to recover (but not necessarily equal to) the distribution of jump locations. We propose two biophysical examples to illustrate the use of this framework to provide insight about a system. We find that a sharp threshold voltage emerges robustly in a simple stochastic integrate-and-fire neuronal model. The interplay between the two sources of noise is also investigated in a stepping model of molecular motor in intracellular transport pulling a diffusive cargo.

  4. Asymptotic inference for jump diffusions with state-dependent intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, Gaia; Drost, Feico; Werker, Bas

    2016-01-01

    We establish the local asymptotic normality property for a class of ergodic parametric jump-diffusion processes with state-dependent intensity and known volatility function sampled at high frequency. We prove that the inference problem about the drift and jump parameters is adaptive with respect to

  5. Orthogonal Expansions for VIX Options Under Affine Jump Diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Andrea; Nicolato, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    In this work we derive new closed–form pricing formulas for VIX options in the jump-diffusion SVJJ model proposed by Duffie et al. (2000). Our approach is based on the classic methodology of approximating a density function with an orthogonal expansion of polynomials weighted by a kernel. Orthogo......In this work we derive new closed–form pricing formulas for VIX options in the jump-diffusion SVJJ model proposed by Duffie et al. (2000). Our approach is based on the classic methodology of approximating a density function with an orthogonal expansion of polynomials weighted by a kernel...

  6. Rate Theory for Correlated Processes: Double Jumps in Adatom Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Sethna, J.

    1997-01-01

    We study the rate of activated motion over multiple barriers, in particular the correlated double jump of an adatom diffusing on a missing-row reconstructed platinum (110) surface. We develop a transition path theory, showing that the activation energy is given by the minimum-energy trajectory wh...

  7. Estimation and prediction under local volatility jump-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhyoung; Lee, Younhee

    2018-02-01

    Volatility is an important factor in operating a company and managing risk. In the portfolio optimization and risk hedging using the option, the value of the option is evaluated using the volatility model. Various attempts have been made to predict option value. Recent studies have shown that stochastic volatility models and jump-diffusion models reflect stock price movements accurately. However, these models have practical limitations. Combining them with the local volatility model, which is widely used among practitioners, may lead to better performance. In this study, we propose a more effective and efficient method of estimating option prices by combining the local volatility model with the jump-diffusion model and apply it using both artificial and actual market data to evaluate its performance. The calibration process for estimating the jump parameters and local volatility surfaces is divided into three stages. We apply the local volatility model, stochastic volatility model, and local volatility jump-diffusion model estimated by the proposed method to KOSPI 200 index option pricing. The proposed method displays good estimation and prediction performance.

  8. Asymptotic Stability of Semi-Markov Modulated Jump Diffusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amogh Deshpande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the class of semi-Markov modulated jump diffusions (sMMJDs whose operator turns out to be an integro-partial differential operator. We find conditions under which the solutions of this class of switching jump-diffusion processes are almost surely exponentially stable and moment exponentially stable. We also provide conditions that imply almost sure convergence of the trivial solution when the moment exponential stability of the trivial solution is guaranteed. We further investigate and determine the conditions under which the trivial solution of the sMMJD-perturbed nonlinear system of differential equations /=( is almost surely exponentially stable. It is observed that for a one-dimensional state space, a linear unstable system of differential equations when stabilized just by the addition of the jump part of an sMMJD process does not get destabilized by any addition of a Brownian motion. However, in a state space of dimension at least two, we show that a corresponding nonlinear system of differential equations stabilized by jumps gets destabilized by addition of Brownian motion.

  9. A Robust Weak Taylor Approximation Scheme for Solutions of Jump-Diffusion Stochastic Delay Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic delay differential equations with jumps have a wide range of applications, particularly, in mathematical finance. Solution of the underlying initial value problems is important for the understanding and control of many phenomena and systems in the real world. In this paper, we construct a robust Taylor approximation scheme and then examine the convergence of the method in a weak sense. A convergence theorem for the scheme is established and proved. Our analysis and numerical examples show that the proposed scheme of high order is effective and efficient for Monte Carlo simulations for jump-diffusion stochastic delay differential equations.

  10. A jump diffusion model for spot electricity prices and market price of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramaprasad; Colwell, David B.; Xiao, Yuewen

    2013-08-01

    We construct a jump-diffusion model with seasonality, mean-reversion, time-dependent jump intensity and heteroskedastic disturbance for electricity spot prices, while keeping the analytical tractability of futures prices. We find that the jump component plays a considerably larger role than the diffusion component in the variance of spot prices. Moreover, the jump intensity is much higher during summer and winter. We also explore the seasonal market price of risk (MPR) with different maturities, from one month to five months. Our results show that the diffusion risk and the jump risk are priced quite differently.

  11. Multiscale integration schemes for jump-diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givon, D.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    2008-12-09

    We study a two-time-scale system of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations. We analyze a class of multiscale integration methods for these systems, which, in the spirit of [1], consist of a hybridization between a standard solver for the slow components and short runs for the fast dynamics, which are used to estimate the effect that the fast components have on the slow ones. We obtain explicit bounds for the discrepancy between the results of the multiscale integration method and the slow components of the original system.

  12. Fitting the CDO correlation skew: a tractable structural jump-diffusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemann, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We extend a well-known structural jump-diffusion model for credit risk to handle both correlations through diffusion of asset values and common jumps in asset value. Through a simplifying assumption on the default timing and efficient numerical techniques, we develop a semi-analytic framework all...

  13. A representation theorem and a sensitivity result for functionals of jump diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nunno, Giulia; Øksendal, Bernt

    2006-01-01

    We use white noise calculus for Lévy processes to obtain a representation formula for the functionals of a jump diffusion. Then we use this to find an explicit formula for the Donsker delta function of a jump diffusion and we suggest its application to sensitivity analysis in mathematical finance for the computation of the Greeks.

  14. A renewal jump-diffusion process with threshold dividend strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wu, Rong; Song, Min

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a jump-diffusion risk process with the threshold dividend strategy. Both the distributions of the inter-arrival times and the claims are assumed to be in the class of phase-type distributions. The expected discounted dividend function and the Laplace transform of the ruin time are discussed. Motivated by Asmussen [S. Asmussen, Stationary distributions for fluid flow models with or without Brownian noise, Stochastic Models 11 (1) (1995) 21-49], instead of studying the original process, we study the constructed fluid flow process and their closed-form formulas are obtained in terms of matrix expression. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the computation.

  15. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...... jumps in two ways: as exogenous sampling intervals, and through the interaction with volatility. We adopt a bivariate Ornstein-Ulenbeck process to model intraday volatility and conditional duration. We develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference on irregularly spaced multivariate processes with jumps....... The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, conditional duration, jump times, and jump sizes. We apply this model to IBM data and find that volatility and conditional duration are interdependent. We also find that jumps play an important role in return variation...

  16. Tracer diffusion in concentrated lattice gas models. Rectangular lattices with anisotropic jump rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutner, R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1987-01-01

    An approximate theory is developed for tracer diffusion in rectangular lattice gas models with anisotropic jump rates to neighboring unoccupied sites in different directions. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations on quadratic lattices with several ratios for the jump rates in orthogonal directions

  17. Optimal dividend policies with transaction costs for a class of jump-diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunting, Martin; Paulsen, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    his paper addresses the problem of finding an optimal dividend policy for a class of jump-diffusion processes. The jump component is a compound Poisson process with negative jumps, and the drift and diffusion components are assumed to satisfy some regularity and growth restrictions. Each dividend......-tailed distributions, the optimal policy is a simple lump sum policy, that is, when assets are equal to or larger than an upper barrier u¯∗, they are immediately reduced to a lower barrier u−∗ through a dividend payment. The case with K=0 is also investigated briefly, and the optimal policy is shown to be a reflecting...

  18. Aerodynamic Jump: A Short Range View for Long Rod Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bundy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that aerodynamic jump for a nonspinning kinetic energy penetrator is not – as conventional definitions may infer – a discontinuous change in the direction of motion at the origin of free flight, nor is it the converse, a cumulative redirection over a domain of infinite extent. Rather, with the aid of an alternative kinematical definition, it is shown that aerodynamic jump for such a projectile is a localized redirection of the center-of-gravity motion, caused by the force of lift due to yaw over the relatively short region from entry into free flight until the yaw reaches its first maximum. A rigorous proof of this statement is provided, but the primary objective of this paper is to provide answers to the questions: what is aerodynamic jump, what does it mean, and what aspects of the flight trajectory does it refer to, or account for.

  19. Structural estimation of jump-diffusion processes in macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how to solve and estimate a continuous-time dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with jumps. It also shows that a continuous-time formulation can make it simpler (relative to its discrete-time version) to compute and estimate the deep parameters using the likelihoo...

  20. Jump rates for surface diffusion of large molecules from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.shea@dal.ca; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2015-04-21

    We apply a recently developed stochastic model for the surface diffusion of large molecules to calculate jump rates for 9,10-dithioanthracene on a Cu(111) surface. The necessary input parameters for the stochastic model are calculated from first principles using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the inclusion of van der Waals corrections to the DFT energies is critical to obtain good agreement with experimental results for the adsorption geometry and energy barrier for diffusion. The predictions for jump rates in our model are in excellent agreement with measured values and show a marked improvement over transition state theory (TST). We find that the jump rate prefactor is reduced by an order of magnitude from the TST estimate due to frictional damping resulting from energy exchange with surface phonons, as well as a rotational mode of the diffusing molecule.

  1. Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion effects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kieran A; Wallace, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of variations in eccentric loading and knee joint range of motion on performance enhancement associated with the stretch-shortening cycle in vertical jumping. Seventeen male elite volleyball players performed three variations of the vertical jump which served as the research model: the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump from a height of 30 cm (DJ30). Knee joint angle (70 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion) at the commencement of the propulsive phase for each jump type was experimentally controlled, with the trunk kept as erect as possible. Force and motion data were recorded for each performance and used to compute a range of kinematic and kinetic variables, including hip, knee and ankle angles, angular velocities, work done, net joint moments and a number of temporal variables. The average of 12 trials for each participant was used in a series of repeated measures ANOVA's (jump xk nee, alpha=.05). From both knee joint angles, an increase in eccentric loading resulted in a significant increase in jump height (DJ30>CMJ>SJ; pjumping is dependent upon the interaction of the magnitude of eccentric loading and the range of motion used.

  2. Limiting experiments for panel-data and jump-diffusion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the theory of limiting experiments and its use in econometrics. In Chapter 2, we consider jump-diffusion models and we compare, by means of the limiting experiment, the statistical information contained in continuous-time observations with that contained in discrete-time

  3. Method of moments approach to pricing double barrier contracts in polynomial jump-diffusion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, B.; Pistorius, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: We present a method of moments approach to pricing double barrier contracts when the underlying is modelled by a polynomial jump-diffusion. By general principles the price is linked to certain infinite dimensional linear programming problems. Subsequently approximating these by finite

  4. Motoneuron membrane potentials follow a time inhomogeneous jump diffusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Patrick; Berg, Rune W; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    mechanism with a state dependent intensity. In addition, we suggest statistical methods to estimate all unknown quantities and apply these to analyze turtle motoneuron membrane potentials. Finally, simulated and real data are compared and discussed. We find that a square-root diffusion describes the data...

  5. Pricing European options on agriculture commodity prices using mean-reversion model with jump diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Komang

    2017-03-01

    It has been claimed in many literatures that the prices of some agriculture commodities tend to follow mean reversion. However, when dealing with the prices of agriculture commodities, is mean-reversion realistic enough without incorporating seasonality and jump diffusion? This research tries to answer the question. The combination between mean-reversion feature, jump and seasonal components are applied to model the behavior of agriculture commodity prices. A jump and seasonal components are added to the standard mean-reverting process in order to reproduce the spiky or jump behaviors. This model has been well applied on simulating the electricity prices but it has not been applied to investigate the behavior of agriculture commodity prices yet. This paper discusses the performance of the model when it is used to price European call options. First, the deterministic seasonality part is calibrated using the least square method. The second stage is to calibrate the stochastic part based on historical prices. The parameters are calibrated by discretizing the model. Hence, the discretized model allows us to perform Monte Carlo simulation on the commodity price under real-word probability. The analysis is conducted using 2 future price of Crude Palm Oil and Coffee Bean on standard payoff functions, a Basket, a Spread, Best of Call, and Worst of Call Options.

  6. Inflation Volatility and Growth in a Stochastic Small Open Economy: A Mixed Jump-Diffusion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Elizabeth Téllez-León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine how inflation volatility affects economic growth in a small open economy. To reach this goal, a stochastic macroeconomic model with a financial sector and incomplete financial markets (due to the inclusion of jumps is developed. It is assumed that the general price level is driven by mixed diffusion-jump process, that is, a Brownian motion governs inflation and a Poisson process guides unexpected and sudden jumps in the price index. The economic growth rate is endogenously determined, in the equilibrium, as a function of parameters of the inflation process.El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar cómo la volatilidad en la inflación afecta el crecimiento económico en una economía pequeña y abierta. Para alcanzar este objetivo, se desarrolla un modelo macroeconómico estocástico con un sector financiero y con mercados financieros incompletos (debido a la inclusión de saltos. Se supone que el nivel general de precios es conducido por un proceso estocástico que combina difusiones con saltos, es decir, la inflación es gobernada por un movimiento browniano y los saltos bruscos e inesperados en el índice de precios se rigen por un proceso de Poisson. La tasa de crecimiento económico se determina endógenamente, en el equilibrio, en función de los parámetros del proceso que conduce a la inflación.

  7. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  8. Tissue flossing on ankle range of motion, jump and sprint performance: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew; Mackay, Kelsi; Mills, Blair; Tavares, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    Previous results from our laboratory suggest that band flossing results in increased ankle range of motion (ROM) and jump performance 5-min following application. However, the time-course of such benefits is yet to be examined. Parallel group design. University laboratory. 69 recreational athletes (32 male/37 female). Participants performed a weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT), a counter-movement jump (CMJ) and a 15 m sprint test (SPRINT) pre and up to 45-min post application of a floss band to both ankles (FLOSS) or without flossing of the ankle joints (CON). There was a significant intervention × time interaction in favour of FLOSS when compared to CON for the WBLT (p  0.05) benefits were seen for FLOSS when compared to CON for CMJ force (mean ± 90%CI: 89 ± 101 N) and 15 m SPRINT times (-0.06 ± 0.04 s) at 45-min post. There is a trend towards a benefit for the use of floss bands applied to the ankle joint to improve ROM, jump and sprint performance in recreational athletes for up to 45-min following their application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From quantum mechanics to finance: Microfoundations for jumps, spikes and high volatility phases in diffusion price processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Christof

    2017-03-01

    We present an agent behavior based microscopic model that induces jumps, spikes and high volatility phases in the price process of a traded asset. We transfer dynamics of thermally activated jumps of an unexcited/excited two state system discussed in the context of quantum mechanics to agent socio-economic behavior and provide microfoundations. After we link the endogenous agent behavior to price dynamics we establish the circumstances under which the dynamics converge to an Itô-diffusion price processes in the large market limit.

  10. Pricing of Two Kinds of Power Options under Fractional Brownian Motion, Stochastic Rate, and Jump-Diffusion Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Option pricing is always one of the critical issues in financial mathematics and economics. Brownian motion is the basic hypothesis of option pricing model, which questions the fractional property of stock price. In this paper, under the assumption that the exchange rate follows the extended Vasicek model, we obtain the closed form of the pricing formulas for two kinds of power options under fractional Brownian Motion (FBM jump-diffusion models.

  11. Pricing of American Put Option under a Jump Diffusion Process with Stochastic Volatility in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the pricing of American options in an incomplete market in which the dynamics of the underlying risky asset is driven by a jump diffusion process with stochastic volatility. By employing a risk-minimization criterion, we obtain the Radon-Nikodym derivative for the minimal martingale measure and consequently a linear complementarity problem (LCP for American option price. An iterative method is then established to solve the LCP problem for American put option price. Our numerical results show that the model and numerical scheme are robust in capturing the feature of incomplete finance market, particularly the influence of market volatility on the price of American options.

  12. ABC of SV: Limited Information Likelihood Inference in Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creel, Michael; Kristensen, Dennis

    We develop novel methods for estimation and filtering of continuous-time models with stochastic volatility and jumps using so-called Approximate Bayesian Computation which build likelihoods based on limited information. The proposed estimators and filters are computationally attractive relative...... to standard likelihood-based versions since they rely on low-dimensional auxiliary statistics and so avoid computation of high-dimensional integrals. Despite their computational simplicity, we find that estimators and filters perform well in practice and lead to precise estimates of model parameters...... stochastic volatility model for the dynamics of the S&P 500 equity index. We find evidence of the presence of a dynamic jump rate and in favor of a structural break in parameters at the time of the recent financial crisis. We find evidence that possible measurement error in log price is small and has little...

  13. Jump Diffusion Modelling for the Brazilian Short-Term Interest Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nogueira Cavalcante Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to capture the informational effect of the Brazilian short-term interest rate (SELIC rate by Poisson jumps, we build on the tests condu cted by Das (2002 and Johannes (2004, which show the significance of such structures for U.S. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC announcements. As in the above researches, w e have found evidence that a relevant amount of the short-term volatility in the fixed in come market is captured by introducing jumps on the stochastic process of the short-term r ate. This structure also allows the verification of the information content of specific events, such as Brazilian monetary policy authority (COPOM meetings and public bond auctions.

  14. Bootstrapping integrated covariance matrix estimators in noisy jump-diffusion models with non-synchronous trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    to a gneral class of estimators of integrated covolatility. We then show the first-order asymptotic validity of this method in the multivariate context with a potential presence of jumps, dependent microsturcture noise, irregularly spaced and non-synchronous data. Due to our focus on non...... the finite sample properties of the existing first-order asymptotic theory. We illustrate its practical use on high-frequency equity data...

  15. Weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and sagittal plane kinematics during single leg drop jump landing in healthy male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Brittany; McPherson, April L; Paci, James M

    2017-06-21

    Passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) measures have been identified as a risk factor for injury during landings. However, passive measurements might not be indicative of dynamic ankle movement, whereas a weightbearing ROM might be a better tool when evaluating movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between weightbearing DROM and sagittal plane landing mechanics in a single leg drop jump task. 73 male athletes (22.1 ± 3.9 years old, height 186.2 ± 11 cm, and weight 100.2 ± 21.8 kg) performed bilateral modified-lunge tasks and bilateral single leg drop jump landings while 3D kinematic data were collected. Hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were calculated at initial contact (IC) maximum knee flexion (MKF), and total excursion (TE) during a single leg drop jump landing. No bilateral differences in DROM and single leg landing mechanics existed. Decreased ankle DROM was correlated to decreased ankle dorsiflexion at MKF (p=0.00) and TE (p=0.00) for both dominant and non-dominant limbs. Decreased ankle DROM was also correlated to decreased knee flexion at IC (p=0.00), MKF(p=0.00), and TE (p=0.1), for both dominant and non-dominant limbs. Ankle DROM correlated to hip flexion at MKF (r=0.25) and TE (r=0.30) in the dominant limb. Restrictions in DROM may contribute to a stiff landing with less flexion at the ankle and knee. These findings may be useful in designing training programs aimed at increasing DROM in order to improve an athlete's landing mechanics and decrease risk of injury.

  16. Model-based Estimation of High Frequency Jump Diffusions with Microstructure Noise and Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    When analysing the volatility related to high frequency financial data, mostly non-parametric approaches based on realised or bipower variation are applied. This article instead starts from a continuous time diffusion model and derives a parametric analog at high frequency for it, allowing

  17. Differences in End Range of Motion Vertical Jump Kinetic and Kinematic Strategies Between Trained Weightlifters and Elite Short Track Speed Skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, William B; Spratford, Wayne; Williams, Kym J; Chapman, Dale W; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify differences in end range of motion (ROM) kinetic and kinematic strategies between highly resistance and vertical jump-trained athletes and controls. Weightlifters (WL: n = 4), short track speed skaters (STSS: n = 5), and nonresistance-trained controls (C: n = 6) performed 6 standing vertical squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) without external resistance. Jump testing was performed using 3-dimensional marker trajectories captured with a 15-camera motion analysis system synchronized with 2 in-ground force plates. During SJ, there were large effects for the difference in time before toe off of peak vertical velocity between WL to STSS and C (ES: -1.43; ES: -1.73, respectively) and for the decrease between peak and toe off vertical velocity (ES: -1.28; ES: -1.71, respectively). During CMJ, there were large effects for the difference in time before toe off of peak vertical velocity between WL to STSS and C (ES: -1.28; ES: -1.53, respectively) and for decrease between peak and toe off vertical velocity (ES: -1.03; ES: -1.59, respectively). Accompanying these differences for both jump types were large effects for time of joint deceleration before toe off for all lower body joints between WL compared with C with large effects between WL and STSS at the hip and between STSS and C at the ankle. These findings suggest that the end ROM kinetic and kinematic strategy used during jumping is group-specific in power-trained athletes, with WL exhibiting superior strategies as compared with resistance- and jump-trained STSS.

  18. Investigation into the long-term effects of static and PNF stretching exercises on range of motion and jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuktasir, Bekir; Kaya, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of two different stretching techniques on the range of motion (ROM) and on drop jump (DJ). DJ scores were assessed by means of a contact mat connected to a digital timer. ROM was measured by use of a goniometer. The training was carried out four times a week for 6 weeks on 10 subjects as passive static stretching (SS), and on 9 subjects as contract-relax PNF (CRPNF) stretching. The remaining nine subjects did not perform any exercises (control group). One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the differences among groups on DJ were not statistically different (F(2,27)=.41, p>.05). ROM values were significantly higher for both stretching groups, while no change was observed for the control group. In conclusion, static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques improved the ROM, but neither of the stretching exercises had any statistically significant effect on the DJ scores.

  19. A Hull and White Formula for a General Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Model with Applications to the Study of the Short-Time Behavior of the Implied Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alòs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a Hull and White type formula for a general jump-diffusion stochastic volatility model, where the involved stochastic volatility process is correlated not only with the Brownian motion driving the asset price but also with the asset price jumps. Towards this end, we establish an anticipative Itô's formula, using Malliavin calculus techniques for Lévy processes on the canonical space. As an application, we show that the dependence of the volatility process on the asset price jumps has no effect on the short-time behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew.

  20. Jumping Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    paradigm the physical scale and henceforth also the massive spectrum of the theory jump at the lower boundary of the conformal window. In particular we propose that a theory can suddenly jump from a Quantum Chromodynamics type spectrum, at the lower boundary of the conformal window, to a conformal one...... without particle interpretation. The jumping scenario, therefore, does not support a near-conformal dynamics of walking type. We will also discuss the impact of jumping dynamics on the construction of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking....

  1. How coalescing droplets jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sprittles, James; Nolan, Kevin; Mitchell, Robert; Wang, Evelyn N

    2014-10-28

    Surface engineering at the nanoscale is a rapidly developing field that promises to impact a range of applications including energy production, water desalination, self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces, thermal management of electronics, microfluidic platforms, and environmental pollution control. As the area advances, more detailed insights of dynamic wetting interactions on these surfaces are needed. In particular, the coalescence of two or more droplets on ultra-low adhesion surfaces leads to droplet jumping. Here we show, through detailed measurements of jumping droplets during water condensation coupled with numerical simulations of binary droplet coalescence, that this process is fundamentally inefficient with only a small fraction of the available excess surface energy (≲ 6%) convertible into translational kinetic energy. These findings clarify the role of internal fluid dynamics during the jumping droplet coalescence process and underpin the development of systems that can harness jumping droplets for a wide range of applications.

  2. "Jumping" Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The term "jumping" Trojans is used to specify those asteroids that pass at time to time from the motion around one triangular libration point to another one. We explore the motion of "jumping" Trojans under the scope of the restricted planar elliptical three-body problem. Via double numerical averaging we construct evolutionary equations which allow to analyze the details of the transition between different regimes of the orbital motion.

  3. Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Kyung; Cha, Hyeongyun; Birbarah, Patrick; Chavan, Shreyas; Zhong, Chen; Xu, Yuehan; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-12-15

    Water vapor condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces has received much attention in recent years because of its ability to shed water droplets at length scales 3 decades smaller than the capillary length (∼1 mm) via coalescence-induced droplet jumping. Jumping-droplet condensation has been demonstrated to enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning efficiency and is governed by the theoretical inertial-capillary scaled jumping speed (U). When two droplets coalesce, the experimentally measured jumping speed (Uexp) is fundamentally limited by the internal fluid dynamics during the coalescence process (Uexp 2) coalescence as an avenue to break the two-droplet speed limit. Using side-view and top-view high-speed imaging to study more than 1000 jumping events on a copper oxide nanostructured superhydrophobic surface, we verify that droplet jumping occurs as a result of three fundamentally different mechanisms: (1) coalescence between two droplets, (2) coalescence among more than two droplets (multidroplet), and (3) coalescence between one or more droplets on the surface and a returning droplet that has already departed (multihop). We measured droplet-jumping speeds for a wide range of droplet radii (5-50 μm) and demonstrated that while the two-droplet capillary-to-inertial energy conversion mechanism is not identical to that of multidroplet jumping, speeds above the theoretical two-droplet limit (>0.23U) can be achieved. However, we discovered that multihop coalescence resulted in drastically reduced jumping speeds (≪0.23U) due to adverse momentum contributions from returning droplets. To quantify the impact of enhanced jumping speed on heat-transfer performance, we developed a condensation critical heat flux model to show that modest jumping speed enhancements of 50% using multidroplet jumping can enhance performance by up to 40%. Our results provide a starting point for the design of enhanced-performance jumping-droplet surfaces for industrial

  4. Long Jump

    CERN Document Server

    Dorobantu, V

    2012-01-01

    When the laws of Physics are taken seriously, the sports can benefit in getting better results, as was the case of the high jump in Flop style, so that the athlete sprints diagonally towards the bar,then curve and leap backwards over it. The jumper, in this case, has the center of mass under the bar, fact which allows improvement of the performance.

  5. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A

    2018-01-01

    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...... processes at pore scale, but they are much larger in amplitude and duration. Pressure jumps can result from transient redistribution of water potential in internal regions of soil and can be triggered during drainage by capillary displacements at the scale of structural pores....

  6. Supersonic Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    On October 14,2012, Felix Baumgartner, an Austrian sky-diver, set some new world records for his discipline. Jumping from a height of about 39 km, he reached a top speed of 1342 km/h, becoming the first human being to break the sound barrier in free fall. In order to understand some essential physics aspects of this remarkable feat, we wonder why…

  7. Jump Detection in the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2002-01-01

    It is well known in financial economics that stock market return data are often modelled by a diffusion process with some regular drift function. Occasionally, however, sudden changes or jumps occur in the return data. Wavelet scaling methods are used to detect jumps and cusps in stock market...

  8. Biexponential characterization of prostate tissue water diffusion decay curves over an extended b-factor range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkern, Robert V; Barnes, Agnieszka Szot; Haker, Steven J; Hung, Yin P; Rybicki, Frank J; Maier, Stephan E; Tempany, Clare M C

    2006-06-01

    Detailed measurements of water diffusion within the prostate over an extended b-factor range were performed to assess whether the standard assumption of monoexponential signal decay is appropriate in this organ. From nine men undergoing prostate MR staging examinations at 1.5 T, a single 10-mm-thick axial slice was scanned with a line scan diffusion imaging sequence in which 14 equally spaced b factors from 5 to 3,500 s/mm(2) were sampled along three orthogonal diffusion sensitization directions in 6 min. Due to the combination of long scan time and limited volume coverage associated with the multi-b-factor, multidirectional sampling, the slice was chosen online from the available T2-weighted axial images with the specific goal of enabling the sampling of presumed noncancerous regions of interest (ROIs) within the central gland (CG) and peripheral zone (PZ). Histology from prescan biopsy (n=9) and postsurgical resection (n=4) was subsequently employed to help confirm that the ROIs sampled were noncancerous. The CG ROIs were characterized from the T2-weighted images as primarily mixtures of glandular and stromal benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is prevalent in this population. The water signal decays with b factor from all ROIs were clearly non-monoexponential and better served with bi- vs. monoexponential fits, as tested using chi(2)-based F test analyses. Fits to biexponential decay functions yielded intersubject fast diffusion component fractions in the order of 0.73+/-0.08 for both CG and PZ ROIs, fast diffusion coefficients of 2.68+/-0.39 and 2.52+/-0.38 microm(2)/ms and slow diffusion coefficients of 0.44+/-0.16 and 0.23+/-0.16 um(2)/ms for CG and PZ ROIs, respectively. The difference between the slow diffusion coefficients within CG and PZ was statistically significant as assessed with a Mann-Whitney nonparametric test (P<.05). We conclude that a monoexponential model for water diffusion decay in prostate tissue is inadequate when a large range of b

  9. From micro to macro: access to long-range Li+ diffusion parameters in solids via microscopic (6, 7) Li spin-alignment echo NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Martin; Heitjans, Paul

    2012-01-16

    The development of highly conductive solids is a rapidly growing research area in materials science. In particular, the study of Li-ion conductors is driven by the ambitious effort to design powerful lithium-ion batteries. A deeper understanding of Li dynamics in solids requires the availability of a large set of complementary techniques to probe Li self-diffusion on different length and time-scales. We report on (7)Li as well as (6)Li spin-alignment echo (SAE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which is capable of probing long-range diffusion parameters from a microscopic, that is, atomic-scale, point of view. So far, variable-temperature SAE NMR spectroscopy has been applied to a number of polycrystalline and glassy Li-ion conductors. The materials investigated serve as model systems to unravel the interesting features of the technique in determining reliable Li jump rates and hopping activation energies. In particular, the latter are compared with those probed by macroscopic techniques such as dc-conductivity measurements that are sensitive to long-range translational motions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Diffusion and Home Range Parameters for Rodents: Peromyscus maniculatus in New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, G.; Giuggioli, L.; Kenkre, V. M.; Dragoo, J. W.; Parmenter, R. R.; Parmenter, C. A.; Yates, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from a long term field project in New Mexico, consisting of repeated sessions of mark-recaptures of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Muridae), the host and reservoir of Sin Nombre Virus (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus). The displacements of the recaptured animals provide a means to study their movement from a statistical point of view. We extract two parameters from the data with the help of a simple model: the diffusion constant of the rodents, and the size of their home range. Th...

  11. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  12. Long-range interactions in mammalian platelet aggregation. I. Evidence from kinetic studies in brownian diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, K.; Frojmovic, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Smoluchowski theory describing aggregation in suspensions of spherical colloidal particles due to Brownian diffusion-controlled two-body collisions, was used to obtain collision efficiencies, alpha B, for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from humans, dogs, and rabbits. For these diffusion studies, PRP was stirred with 10 microM ADP for 0.5 s, then kept nonstirred at 37 degrees C for varying times before fixation; the percent aggregation was computed from the decrease in particle concentration with time measured with a resistive particle counter. Up to 20% of rabbit platelets formed microaggregates within 60 s of ADP addition to such nonstirred suspensions, corresponding to mean alpha B values of approximately 0.9. However, human and dog platelets aggregated approximately 10 times and 2-3 times faster than rabbit platelets within the first 60 s of ADP addition, corresponding to alpha B approximately 8 and 2, respectively. These high alpha B (much greater than 1) for human platelets were independent of initial platelet count and were equally observed with the calcium ionophore A23187 as activator. In about one-third of human, dog, or rabbit PRP, comparable and lower values of alpha B (less than 0.5) were obtained for a slower second phase of aggregation seen for the nonstirred PRP over 60-300 s post ADP-addition. Platelet aggregability in continually stirred PRP was distinct from that observed in Brownian diffusion (nonstirred) because comparable aggregation was observed for all three species' stirred PRP, whereas greater than 3-8 times more ADP is required to yield 50% of maximal rates of aggregation for nonstirred than for stirred PRP. The above results point to the existence of long-range interactions mediating platelet aggregation in Brownian diffusion-controlled platelet collisions which varies according to human > dog > rabbit platelets. The roles for platelet pseudopods and adhesive sites in

  13. Observation of silicon self-diffusion enhanced by the strain originated from end-of-range defects using isotope multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoda, Taiga; Uematsu, Masashi; Itoh, Kohei M., E-mail: kitoh@appi.keio.ac.jp [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Si self-diffusion in the presence of end-of-range (EOR) defects is investigated using {sup nat}Si/{sup 28}Si isotope multilayers. The isotope multilayers were amorphized by Ge ion implantation, and then annealed at 800–950 °C. The behavior of Si self-interstitials is investigated through the {sup 30}Si self-diffusion. The experimental {sup 30}Si profiles show further enhancement of Si self-diffusion at the EOR defect region, in addition to the transient enhanced diffusion via excess Si self-interstitials by EOR defects. To explain this additional enhanced diffusion, we propose a model which takes into account enhanced diffusion by tensile strain originated from EOR defects. The calculation results based on this model have well reproduced the experimental {sup 30}Si profiles.

  14. Orbit-averaged quasilinear diffusion operator in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmondo, V.; Bilato, R.; Brambilla, M.; Maj, O.

    2010-11-01

    The absorption of radio-frequency waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) in fusion plasmas is adequately described in the frame of the quasilinear theory. A peculiarity of ICRF heating is to increase the fraction of trapped particles, whose the guiding-center trajectories are typically banana orbits with finite width. One possible way to properly account for the effects due to the finite-width orbits is provided by the orbit-averaged quasilinear theory. Here, we propose a routine for the evaluation of the orbit-averaged quasilinear diffusion tensor, given the the wave fields from the full wave code TORIC. Particular care is taken in the evaluation of the contribution of each wave-particle resonance as well as for the transition between the two regimes of correlated and uncorrelated resonances along the orbit. We discuss the quasilinear diffusion coefficient thus obtained and validate the result by comparing the power deposition profile computed from the orbit-averaged quasilinear operator with the one determined by TORIC. For future applications, a novel algorithm for the calculation of the corresponding Monte Carlo operators is also presented.

  15. Performance analysis of jump-gliding locomotion for miniature robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, A; Zufferey, Jean-Christohphe; Floreano, Dario; Kovač, M

    2015-03-26

    Recent work suggests that jumping locomotion in combination with a gliding phase can be used as an effective mobility principle in robotics. Compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase, the potential benefits of hybrid jump-gliding locomotion includes the ability to extend the distance travelled and reduce the potentially damaging impact forces upon landing. This publication evaluates the performance of jump-gliding locomotion and provides models for the analysis of the relevant dynamics of flight. It also defines a jump-gliding envelope that encompasses the range that can be achieved with jump-gliding robots and that can be used to evaluate the performance and improvement potential of jump-gliding robots. We present first a planar dynamic model and then a simplified closed form model, which allow for quantification of the distance travelled and the impact energy on landing. In order to validate the prediction of these models, we validate the model with experiments using a novel jump-gliding robot, named the 'EPFL jump-glider'. It has a mass of 16.5 g and is able to perform jumps from elevated positions, perform steered gliding flight, land safely and traverse on the ground by repetitive jumping. The experiments indicate that the developed jump-gliding model fits very well with the measured flight data using the EPFL jump-glider, confirming the benefits of jump-gliding locomotion to mobile robotics. The jump-glide envelope considerations indicate that the EPFL jump-glider, when traversing from a 2 m height, reaches 74.3% of optimal jump-gliding distance compared to pure jumping without a gliding phase which only reaches 33.4% of the optimal jump-gliding distance. Methods of further improving flight performance based on the models and inspiration from biological systems are presented providing mechanical design pathways to future jump-gliding robot designs.

  16. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. K.; Julai, N.; Jusoh, M.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Talib, M. F.; Zamhari, Nurdiani; Sahari, S. k.; Tamrin, K. F.; Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Zaidel, D. N. A.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Sharip, M. R. M.; Samat, Y. S.

    2017-11-01

    Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm) to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a) beam wander, (b) beam spreading and (c) scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit `1' and bit `0' and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr) and bit error rate (ber) where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  17. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A.K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a beam wander, (b beam spreading and (c scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr and bit error rate (ber where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  18. Portfolio Selection with Jumps under Regime Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a continuous-time version of the mean-variance portfolio selection model with jumps under regime switching. The portfolio selection is proposed and analyzed for a market consisting of one bank account and multiple stocks. The random regime switching is assumed to be independent of the underlying Brownian motion and jump processes. A Markov chain modulated diffusion formulation is employed to model the problem.

  19. Multi-phase-field analysis of short-range forces between diffuse interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Spatschek, R.; Karma, A.

    2010-05-01

    We characterize both analytically and numerically short-range forces between spatially diffuse interfaces in multi-phase-field models of polycrystalline materials. During late-stage solidification, crystal-melt interfaces may attract or repel each other depending on the degree of misorientation between impinging grains, temperature, composition, and stress. To characterize this interaction, we map the multiphase-field equations for stationary interfaces to a multidimensional classical mechanical scattering problem. From the solution of this problem, we derive asymptotic forms for short-range forces between interfaces for distances larger than the interface thickness. The results show that forces are always attractive for traditional models where each phase-field represents the phase fraction of a given grain. Those predictions are validated by numerical computations of forces for all distances. Based on insights from the scattering problem, we propose a multi-phase-field formulation that can describe both attractive and repulsive forces in real systems. This model is then used to investigate the influence of solute addition and a uniaxial stress perpendicular to the interface. Solute addition leads to bistability of different interfacial equilibrium states, with the temperature range of bistability increasing with strength of partitioning. Stress in turn, is shown to be equivalent to a temperature change through a standard Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The implications of those results for understanding grain boundary premelting are discussed.

  20. Modelling the effect of temperature on the range expansion of species by reaction-diffusion equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Otto; Moenickes, Sylvia; Suhling, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The spatial dynamics of range expansion is studied in dependence of temperature. The main elements population dynamics, competition and dispersal are combined in a coherent approach based on a system of coupled partial differential equations of the reaction-diffusion type. The nonlinear reaction terms comprise population dynamic models with temperature dependent reproduction rates subject to an Allee effect and mutual competition. The effect of temperature on travelling wave solutions is investigated for a one dimensional model version. One main result is the importance of the Allee effect for the crossing of regions with unsuitable habitats. The nonlinearities of the interaction terms give rise to a richness of spatio-temporal dynamic patterns. In two dimensions, the resulting non-linear initial boundary value problems are solved over geometries of heterogeneous landscapes. Geo referenced model parameters such as mean temperature and elevation are imported into the finite element tool COMSOL Multiphysics from a geographical information system. The model is applied to the range expansion of species at the scale of middle Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Jumping in Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we study a new relation between sentences: the jump relation. The idea of the jump relation is based on an analysis of Feferman's Theorem that the inconsistency of a theory U is interpretable over U. The jump relation is based on a converse of Feferman's Theorem: if a sentence is

  2. Jumping in Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a new relation between sentences: the jump relation. The idea of the jump relation is based on an analysis of Feferman's Theorem that the inconsistency of a theory U is interpretable over U. The jump relation is based on a converse of Feferman's Theorem: if a sentence is

  3. Study of atomic jumps in quasi-crystals; Etude des sauts atomiques dans les quasi-cristaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyonnard, S

    1997-05-07

    The terminology phason used in quasicrystals to refer to atomic jumps. The study of the hopping process is important for the understanding of many basic issues in quasi-crystallography: structure, stability, diffusion, phase transitions between quasicrystals and approximants, mechanical properties. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering allows to find the characteristics of each elementary jump: chemical species involves, relaxation times, activation energies, jump distances and orientations. We performed a series of experiments in the perfect icosahedral phases AlFeCu and AlMnPd, on both powders and single domain samples, using time-of-flight, backscattering and triple axis spectrometers. We evidenced the existence of very fast phason hopping, and studied about ten different atomic jumps. An unusual temperature dependence has been found systematically: each process is assisted by a thermally activated mechanism. The assistance process has to be determined case by case, but the more plausible explanation invokes assistance by phonons or phason clouds. Moreover, the dependence of the quasi elastic signal as a function of the momentum transfer shows that the jumps are local and do not give rise to any long-range diffusion. Phason hopping mainly corresponds to the atom moving forwards and backwards between two energetically equivalent sites. Finally, we have been able to show that the jumps occur along the various quasi-crystalline symmetry axes. (author) 91 refs.

  4. Mobile Jump Assessment (mJump): A Descriptive and Inferential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Angulo, Alvaro; Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-08-26

    Vertical jump tests are used in athletics and rehabilitation to measure physical performance in people of different age ranges and fitness. Jumping ability can be analyzed through different variables, and the most commonly used are fly time and jump height. They can be obtained by a variety of measuring devices, but most are limited to laboratory use only. The current generation of smartphones contains inertial sensors that are able to record kinematic variables for human motion analysis, since they are tools for easy access and portability for clinical use. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the kinematics characteristics using the inertial sensor incorporated in the iPhone 4S, the lower limbs strength through a manual dynamometer, and the jump variables obtained with a contact mat in the squat jump and countermovement jump tests (fly time and jump height) from a cohort of healthy people. A cross sectional study was conducted on a population of healthy young adults. Twenty-seven participants performed three trials (n=81 jumps) of squat jump and countermovement jump tests. Acceleration variables were measured through a smartphone's inertial sensor. Additionally, jump variables from a contact mat and lower limbs dynamometry were collected. In the present study, the kinematic variables derived from acceleration through the inertial sensor of a smartphone iPhone 4S, dynamometry of lower limbs with a handheld dynamometer, and the height and flight time with a contact mat have been described in vertical jump tests from a cohort of young healthy subjects. The development of the execution has been described, examined and identified in a squat jump test and countermovement jump test under acceleration variables that were obtained with the smartphone. The built-in iPhone 4S inertial sensor is able to measure acceleration variables while performing vertical jump tests for the squat jump and countermovement jump in healthy young adults. The acceleration

  5. Computer modeling of point defects and diffusion in ordered intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, Y.

    2003-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent progress in the understanding of diffusion mechanisms in ordered intermetallic compounds, particularly the structural aluminides TiAl and NiAl. The long-range order of the crystal structure imposes selection rules on possible diffusion mechanisms. It favors mechanisms that either do not affect the order or destroy it only locally and temporarily but recover it once the diffusion cycle is complete. Atomistic simulation tools for studying point defects and diffusion in ordered structures are discussed and their applications are demonstrated. The compositional disorder in TiAl is accommodated by antisite defects on both sides of the stoichiometry. Diffusion in TiAl involves sublattice vacancy jumps, inter-sublattice jumps, and three-jump vacancy cycles. NiAl contains antisites on the Al sublattice in Ni-rich compositions and constitutional vacancies on the Ni sublattice in Al-rich compositions. Diffusion in NiAl is governed by several mechanisms operating concurrently, including sublattice diffusion of Ni vacancies, six-jump vacancy cycles, and other processes. Many of the vacancy jumps are collective transitions involving two atoms. The dominant diffusion mechanism depends on the temperature and the degree of off-stoichiometry. The diffusion coefficients obtained by atomistic calculations compare well with experimental data.

  6. Nitrogen diffusion in near-surface range of ion doped molybdenum

    CERN Document Server

    Zamalin, E Y

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of change in nitrogen near-the-surface concentration in the Mo ion-alloyed monocrystalline foil is studied through the Auger-electron spectroscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The implantation dose constituted 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 ion/cm sup 2 and the implantation energy equaled 50 and 100 keV. The samples diffusion annealing was performed at the temperature of 800-900 deg C. The evaluation of the nitrogen diffusion coefficient indicates the values by 3-5 orders lesser than the diffusion coefficient in the nitrogen solid-state solution in the molybdenum. At the same time the molybdenum self-diffusion coefficient value is by 3-5 orders lesser as compared to the obtained value. The supposition is made, the the surplus nitrogen relative to the solubility limit is deposited on the radiation defects and in the process of the diffusion annealing it nitrates together with them

  7. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  8. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...... for straightforward filtering and estimation of the model. Our model belongs to the affine class enabling us to derive the conditional characteristic function so that option values can be computed rapidly without simulation. When estimated on S&P500 index options and returns the new model performs well compared...

  9. Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gierl, Heribert

    1995-01-01

    Diffusion. - In: Handwörterbuch des Marketing / hrsg. von Bruno Tietz ... - 2., völlig neu gestalt. Aufl. - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1995. - S. 469-477. - (Enzyklopädie der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ; 4)

  10. Long-range diffusion in beds of nanoporous particles: pitfalls and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenkov, Sergey; Kärger, Jörg

    2005-02-01

    Owing to the recent progress in the area of hardware and software of the pulsed field gradient NMR technique, molecular transport in real-life zeolite systems, such as zeolite beds and particles of formulated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts, can be investigated in detail. These studies have revealed a number of important features of molecular transport in zeolites, which are reviewed in the present paper. In particular, the anomalous character of intracrystalline diffusion in MFI-type zeolites, dependence of the tortuosity factor in zeolite beds on diffusion regime and the role of various modes of diffusion in transport limitations arising for catalytic reactions in FCC catalysts will be discussed.

  11. Fractional Diffusion Equations for Lattice and Continuum: Grünwald-Letnikov Differences and Derivatives Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-01-01

    Fractional diffusion equations for three-dimensional lattice models based on fractional-order differences of the Grünwald-Letnikov type are suggested. These lattice fractional diffusion equations contain difference operators that describe long-range jumps from one lattice site to another. In continuum limit, the suggested lattice diffusion equations with noninteger order differences give the diffusion equations with the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional derivatives for continuum. We propose a cons...

  12. Long-range interactions in mammalian platelet aggregation. I. Evidence from kinetic studies in brownian diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Longmire, K.; Frojmovic, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Smoluchowski theory describing aggregation in suspensions of spherical colloidal particles due to Brownian diffusion-controlled two-body collisions, was used to obtain collision efficiencies, alpha B, for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from humans, dogs, and rabbits. For these diffusion studies, PRP was stirred with 10 microM ADP for 0.5 s, then kept nonstirred at 37 degrees C for varying times before fixation; the percent a...

  13. On mimicking diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for tissue-like phantom design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debernardi, N.; Dunias, P.; El, B. van; Statham, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel methodology is presented to mimic diffuse reflectance spectra of arbitrary biological tissues in the visible and near-infrared ranges. The prerequisite for this method is that the spectral information of basic components is sufficient to mimic an arbitrary tissue. Using a sterile disposable

  14. Optimal Ski Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebilas, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Consider a skier who goes down a takeoff ramp, attains a speed "V", and jumps, attempting to land as far as possible down the hill below (Fig. 1). At the moment of takeoff the angle between the skier's velocity and the horizontal is [alpha]. What is the optimal angle [alpha] that makes the jump the longest possible for the fixed magnitude of the…

  15. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes...

  16. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.-F.; He, T.-H.

    2010-10-01

    The effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump is studied in high temperature superconducting slab. The magnetothermal diffusion equations based on the Kim model are presented in this paper to estimate the effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump inside the slab in the flux dynamics process. Numerical results obtained show that the flux-jump phenomenon could be suppressed by the magnetic relaxation and the dependence of the number of flux jumps on the relaxation time are obvious.

  17. A method of determination of the thermal diffusivity of refractory powders in the 400-1200 K range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litovskii, E.Ya.; Bondarenko, S.L.; Fedina, I.G.

    1986-09-01

    This paper describes a method of measurement of the thermal diffusivity of refractory powders at temperatures of 400-2100 K in different gaseous media in the p = 10/sup 2/-10/sup 5/ Pa pressure range. The method developed is based on the rules of steady heating of cylindrical specimens. The calculation equation has a form characteristic of regular conditions of the second order in an infinite cylinder with corrections for the deviation from quasisteadiness and for the nonuniformity of the temperature field in the specimen. Thermal diffusivities of magnesite powder and PIT-1 yttrium oxide powder are shown in different gaseous media. The method developed possesses satisfactory accuracy and makes it possible to obtain information on the thermal divusivity and conductivity of refractory powders in a broad temperature range and in the area of high temperature.

  18. Scaled Jump in Gravity-Reduced Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MyoungGon; Cho, Sunglk; Tran, Tanh Quang; Kim, Seong-Pil; Kwon, Ohung; Han, JungHyun

    2017-04-01

    The reduced gravity experienced in lunar or Martian surfaces can be simulated on the earth using a cable-driven system, where the cable lifts a person to reduce his or her weight. This paper presents a novel cable-driven system designed for the purpose. It is integrated with a head-mounted display and a motion capture system. Focusing on jump motion within the system, this paper proposes to scale the jump and reports the experiments made for quantifying the extent to which a jump can be scaled without the discrepancy between physical and virtual jumps being noticed by the user. With the tolerable range of scaling computed from these experiments, an application named retargeted jump is developed, where a user can jump up onto virtual objects while physically jumping in the real-world flat floor. The core techniques presented in this paper can be extended to develop extreme-sport simulators such as parasailing and skydiving.

  19. Enhancing jump ground reaction forces in children through jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMJ), continuous jump with bent legs (CJb) and drop jump (DJ). This study elicited significant (p≤0.05) improvements in jump height in all test jumps (CMJ, CJb and DJ) in the JUM, HOP and BOX. Furthermore, the JUM and HOP resulted in ...

  20. Impact of blood volume changes within the human skin on the diffuse reflectance measurements in visible and NIR spectral ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebtsov, Evgeny; Bykov, Alexander; Popov, Alexey; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We consider changes in the volume of blood and oxygen saturation caused by a pulse wave and their influence on the diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible/NIR spectral range. CUDA-based Monte-Carlo model was used for routine simulation of detector depth sensitivity (sampling volume) and skin spectra, and their variations associated with physiological changes in the human skin. The results presented in the form of animated graphs of sampling volume changes for scaling of the parameters of the main human skin layers related to the results of experimental measurements are of particular interest for pulse oximetry, photoplethysmography, Doppler flowmetry, reflectance spectroscopy.

  1. Diffusion in intermetallic compounds studied using short-lived radioisotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Diffusion – the long range movement of atoms – plays an important role in materials processing and in determining suitable applications for materials. Conventional radiotracer methods for measuring diffusion can determine readily how distributions of radioactive probe atoms in samples evolve under varying experimental conditions. It is possible to obtain limited information about atomic jump rates and pathways from these measurements; however, it is desirable to make more direct observations of the atomic jumps by using experimental methods that are sensitive to atomic scale processes. One such method is time-differential perturbed $\\gamma$–$\\gamma$-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). Two series of PAC experiments using $^{111m}$Cd are proposed to contribute to fundamental understanding of diffusion in intermetallic compounds. The goal of the first is to determine the dominant vacancy species in several Li$_{2}$-structured compounds and see if the previously observed change in diffusion mechanism th...

  2. A Range-Based Test for the Parametric Form of the Volatility in Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Ziggel, Daniel

    statistic. Under rather weak assumptions on the drift and volatility we prove weak convergence of the test statistic to a centered mixed Gaussian distribution. As a consequence we obtain a test, which is consistent for any fixed alternative. Moreover, we present a parametric bootstrap procedure which...... provides a better approximation of the distribution of the test statistic. Finally, it is demonstrated by means of Monte Carlo study that the range-based test is more powerful than the return-based test when comparing at the same sampling frequency....

  3. A Range-Based Test for the Parametric Form of the Volatility in Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Ziggel, Daniel

    statistic. Under rather weak assumptions on the drift and volatility we prove weak convergence of the test statistic to a centered mixed Gaussian distribution. As a consequence we obtain a test, which is consistent for any fixed alternative. We also provide a test for neighborhood hypotheses. Moreover, we...... present a parametric bootstrap procedure which provides a better approximation of the distribution of the test statistic. Finally, it is demonstrated by means of Monte Carlo study that the range-based test is more powerful than the return-based test when comparing at the same sampling frequency....

  4. Relationships Between Countermovement Jump Ground Reaction Forces and Jump Height, Reactive Strength Index, and Jump Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Leland A; Harry, John R; Mercer, John A

    2018-01-01

    Barker, LA, Harry, JR, and Mercer, JA. Relationships between countermovement jump ground reaction forces and jump height, reactive strength index, and jump time. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 248-254, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ground reaction force (GRF) variables to jump height, jump time, and the reactive strength index (RSI). Twenty-six, Division-I, male, soccer players performed 3 maximum effort countermovement jumps (CMJs) on a dual-force platform system that measured 3-dimensional kinetic data. The trial producing peak jump height was used for analysis. Vertical GRF (Fz) variables were divided into unloading, eccentric, amortization, and concentric phases and correlated with jump height, RSI (RSI = jump height/jump time), and jump time (from start to takeoff). Significant correlations were observed between jump height and RSI, concentric kinetic energy, peak power, concentric work, and concentric displacement. Significant correlations were observed between RSI and jump time, peak power, unload Fz, eccentric work, eccentric rate of force development (RFD), amortization Fz, amortization time, second Fz peak, average concentric Fz, and concentric displacement. Significant correlations were observed between jump time and unload Fz, eccentric work, eccentric RFD, amortization Fz, amortization time, average concentric Fz, and concentric work. In conclusion, jump height correlated with variables derived from the concentric phase only (work, power, and displacement), whereas Fz variables from the unloading, eccentric, amortization, and concentric phases correlated highly with RSI and jump time. These observations demonstrate the importance of countermovement Fz characteristics for time-sensitive CMJ performance measures. Researchers and practitioners should include RSI and jump time with jump height to improve their assessment of jump performance.

  5. Explaining the level of credit spreads: Option-implied jump risk premia in a firm value model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, K.J.M.; Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study whether option-implied jump risk premia can explain the high observed level of credit spreads. We use a structural jump-diffusion firm value model to assess the level of credit spreads generated by option-implied jump risk premia. Prices and returns of equity index and individual options

  6. Superficial white matter fiber systems impede detection of long-range cortical connections in diffusion MR tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Colin; Seth, Anil K; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Silva, Afonso C; Yu, David; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Ye, Frank Q

    2015-05-26

    In vivo tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has opened new doors to study structure-function relationships in the human brain. Initially developed to map the trajectory of major white matter tracts, dMRI is used increasingly to infer long-range anatomical connections of the cortex. Because axonal projections originate and terminate in the gray matter but travel mainly through the deep white matter, the success of tractography hinges on the capacity to follow fibers across this transition. Here we demonstrate that the complex arrangement of white matter fibers residing just under the cortical sheet poses severe challenges for long-range tractography over roughly half of the brain. We investigate this issue by comparing dMRI from very-high-resolution ex vivo macaque brain specimens with histological analysis of the same tissue. Using probabilistic tracking from pure gray and white matter seeds, we found that ∼50% of the cortical surface was effectively inaccessible for long-range diffusion tracking because of dense white matter zones just beneath the infragranular layers of the cortex. Analysis of the corresponding myelin-stained sections revealed that these zones colocalized with dense and uniform sheets of axons running mostly parallel to the cortical surface, most often in sulcal regions but also in many gyral crowns. Tracer injection into the sulcal cortex demonstrated that at least some axonal fibers pass directly through these fiber systems. Current and future high-resolution dMRI studies of the human brain will need to develop methods to overcome the challenges posed by superficial white matter systems to determine long-range anatomical connections accurately.

  7. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John S; Johnson, LuAnn; Tomkinson, Grant; Stein, Jesse; Roemmich, James N

    2018-05-01

    Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart. Participants performed two variations of the squat jump with squat depth self-selected and controlled using a goniometer to 80º knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was quantified as the systematic error (using effect size between jumps), random error (using coefficients of variation), and test-retest correlations (using intra-class correlation coefficients). Overall, jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, evidenced by small systematic errors (mean±95%CI: 0.2 ± 0.07), moderate random errors (mean±95%CI: 17.8 ± 3.7%), and very strong test-retest correlations (range: 0.73-0.97). Differences in random errors between controlled and self-selected protocols were negligible (mean±95%CI: 1.3 ± 2.3%). Jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, with no meaningful differences between the controlled and self-selected jump protocols. To simplify testing, a self-selected jump protocol can be used to assess force-time variables with negligible impact on measurement error.

  8. Drop Jumping as a Training Method for Jumping Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical jumping ability is of importance for good performance in sports such as basketball and volleyball. Coaches are in need of exercises that consume only little time and still help to improve their players’ jumping ability, without involving a high risk of injury. Drop jumping is assumed to

  9. Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Gerritsen, Karin G M; Litjens, Maria C A; Van Soest, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, it is well established that subjects are able to jump higher in a countermovement jump (CMJ) than in a squat jump (SJ). The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of the time available for force development and the storage and reutilization of elastic

  10. Jump into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  11. Jump Starting Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara De Araújo; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars

    -hanging opportunity seeking entrepreneurs”, and 3) the “jump-start entrepreneurs”. Whereas the two first categories could be expected, the third one shows that, despite hesitance to be self-employed, being uneasy with it, risk adverse and having strong identification to the previous organization, these entrepreneurs...

  12. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE VERSUS REPEATED PLYOMETRICS ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makaruk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of single and repeated jumps training on vertical landing force (VGRF and jump height in untrained men. The VGRF and jump height were compared after a six-week plyometric training programme containing single and repeated jumps, together with two additional parameters: landing time (LT and range of the knee flexion during landing (KF. Thirty-six untrained physical education students with a plyometric training background were randomly assigned to a single jump group (SJG, n =12, repeated jumps group (RJG, n =12, and control group (CON, n =12. The SJG performed only single jumps, the RJG executed repeated (consecutive jumps, whereas the CON did not perform any exercises at all. A countermovement jump (CMJ, repeated countermovement jumps (RCMJ, and a drop jump (DJ were tested before and after the training. Only the RJG showed a significantly reduced VGRF (p<0.05 in all tests. Both plyometric groups significantly improved (p<0.05 their jump height in all tests. The LT was significantly greater in the RJG, compared to the SJG, in all tests. The KF was also significantly (p<0.05 greater in the RJG than in the SJG for CMJ and RCMJ. The results suggest that repeated jumps are beneficial for simultaneous landing force reduction and jumping performance enhancement.

  14. Accuracy of Jump-Mat Systems for Measuring Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Lipinska, Patrycja; Jiménez-Olmedo, José M; Zmijewski, Piotr; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-08-01

    Vertical-jump tests are commonly used to evaluate lower-limb power of athletes and nonathletes. Several types of equipment are available for this purpose. To compare the error of measurement of 2 jump-mat systems (Chronojump-Boscosystem and Globus Ergo Tester) with that of a motion-capture system as a criterion and to determine the modifying effect of foot length on jump height. Thirty-one young adult men alternated 4 countermovement jumps with 4 squat jumps. Mean jump height and standard deviations representing technical error of measurement arising from each device and variability arising from the subjects themselves were estimated with a novel mixed model and evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inference. The jump-mat systems produced nearly identical measures of jump height (differences in means and in technical errors of measurement ≤1 mm). Countermovement and squat-jump height were both 13.6 cm higher with motion capture (90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm), but this very large difference was reduced to small unclear differences when adjusted to a foot length of zero. Variability in countermovement and squat-jump height arising from the subjects was small (1.1 and 1.5 cm, respectively, 90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm); technical error of motion capture was similar in magnitude (1.7 and 1.6 cm, ±0.3 and ±0.4 cm), and that of the jump mats was similar or smaller (1.2 and 0.3 cm, ±0.5 and ±0.9 cm). The jump-mat systems provide trustworthy measurements for monitoring changes in jump height. Foot length can explain the substantially higher jump height observed with motion capture.

  15. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  16. Jumping number in the droplet jumping by resonant AC electrowetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Kwang Hyoung

    2010-11-01

    The droplet jumping by resonant AC electrowetting (DJ-RACE) is recently introduced to transport droplets to vertical direction, whereby three-dimensional digital microfluidics are envisioned. In DJ-RACE, the central mechanism of the droplet jumping is the conversion of the surface energy stored by resonant AC electrowetting to the kinetic energy for jumping. Here, we newly introduce the jumping number (Ju=γ/ρgR^2), measuring the energy conversion in the jumping process and, thus, the feasibility of droplet jumping. Ju interprets that droplets having higher Ju can make higher and easier jumping, and smaller and lighter droplets with higher surface tension can have higher Ju. Practically, Ju should be greater than 1.5 for the droplet jumping, and active jumping was observed when Ju is greater than 5. In addition, Ju can predict the effect of diverse physicochemical changes in a system such as enzymatic additives or impurities on jumping, where it can also provide diverse strategies to compensate these changes. The newly introduced Ju could be the fundamental and useful parameter in the three-dimensional digital microfluidic devices based on DJ-RACE.

  17. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  18. Froghopper-inspired direction-changing concept for miniature jumping robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gwang-Pil; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2016-09-14

    To improve the maneuverability and agility of jumping robots, several researchers have studied steerable jumping mechanisms. This steering ability enables robots to reach a particular target by controlling their jumping direction. To this end, we propose a novel direction-changing concept for miniature jumping robots. The proposed concept allows robots to be steerable while exerting minimal effects on jumping performance. The key design principles were adopted from the froghopper's power-producing hind legs and the moment cancellation accomplished by synchronized leg operation. These principles were applied via a pair of symmetrically positioned legs and conventional gears, which were modeled on the froghopper's anatomy. Each leg has its own thrusting energy, which improves jumping performance by allowing the mechanism to thrust itself with both power-producing legs. Conventional gears were utilized to simultaneously operate the legs and cancel out the moments that they induce, which minimizes body spin. A prototype to verify the concept was built and tested by varying the initial jumping posture. Three jumping postures (synchronous, asynchronous, and single-legged) were tested to investigate how synchronization and moment cancelling affect jumping performance. The results show that synchronous jumping allows the mechanism to change direction from -40° to 40°, with an improved take-off speed. The proposed concept can only be steered in a limited range of directions, but it has potential for use in miniature jumping robots that can change jumping direction with a minimal drop in jumping performance.

  19. Choice of jumping strategy in two standard jumps, squat and countermovement jump--effect of training background or inherited preference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Voigt, M; Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    1999-01-01

    Six male subjects, three professional ballet dancers and three elite volleyball players, performed maximal vertical jumps from 1) a static preparatory position (squat jump), 2) starting with a countermovement (countermovement jump) and 3) a specific jump for ballet and for volleyball, respectively....... The jumps were recorded on highspeed film (500 Hz) combined with registration of ground reaction forces, and net joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The purpose was to investigate the choice of strategy in two standard jumps, squat jump and countermovement jump. The volleyball jump...

  20. Structural basis of asymmetric DNA methylation and ATP-triggered long-range diffusion by EcoP15I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogesh K.; Chan, Siu-Hong; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2015-06-01

    Type III R-M enzymes were identified >40 years ago and yet there is no structural information on these multisubunit enzymes. Here we report the structure of a Type III R-M system, consisting of the entire EcoP15I complex (Mod2Res1) bound to DNA. The structure suggests how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to long-range diffusion of a helicase on DNA, and how a dimeric methyltransferase functions to methylate only one of the two DNA strands. We show that the EcoP15I motor domains are specifically adapted to bind double-stranded DNA and to facilitate DNA sliding via a novel `Pin' domain. We also uncover unexpected `division of labour', where one Mod subunit recognizes DNA, while the other Mod subunit methylates the target adenine--a mechanism that may extend to adenine N6 RNA methylation in mammalian cells. Together the structure sheds new light on the mechanisms of both helicases and methyltransferases in DNA and RNA metabolism.

  1. and the CMJ jump height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.

  2. Atomistic study of multimechanism diffusion by self-interstitial defects in -Fe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anento, Napoleon [Universitat Politechnica de Catalunia; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive molecular dynamics study of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters containing up to 37 defects over a wide range of temperatures in iron. A long simulation time and high statistics of defect jumps allowed a detailed treatment of the data to be performed. Diffusion exhibits a change in mechanism from three-dimensional to one-dimensional for clusters of 4-7 SIAs. Stable sessile configurations present in the diffusion process are described and their influence on the diffusion parameters is discussed. Diffusion coefficients, correlation factors estimated, and mechanisms observed, are compared with previously published results, and the influence of the interatomic potential is considered.

  3. Kinematic analysis of volleyball spike jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Tilp, M; von Duvillard, S P; Mueller, E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of upper and lower extremity movements on the volleyball spike jump (SJ) and how this movement may differ from the standing vertical jumps due to its asymmetry. The 3-D kinematics of body segments were measured in 16 experienced volleyball players with a VICON motion capture system. The jump heights (JH) of counter-movement (CM) and SJ were determined utilizing a force platform. A significant correlation was found between the JH during the SPJ and the maximal horizontal velocity of the center of mass (CoM) (r=0.71, p=0.002), the minimum height of the CoM (r=-0.68, p=0.004), the JH during CMJ (r=0.66, p=0.006) and SJ (r=0.74, p=0.001), the range of movement of right knee flexion-extension (r=0.76, p=0.001) and the angular velocity of left shoulder hyperextension (r=0.72, p=0.002). The asymmetry of the SJ revealed differences in angles, angular velocities of the right and left legs and arms, and a significant difference (p=0.001) between the distances of the left and right foot center to the CoM. Results of our study suggest the importance of optimal approach technique to reach a maximal JH in the volleyball SJ. The SJ movement is influenced by general jumping ability. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  4. Influence of Compression and Stiffness Apparel on Vertical Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Madden, Ryan; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-04-01

    Compression apparel alters both compression of the soft tissues and the hip joint stiffness of athletes. It is not known whether it is the compression elements, the stiffness elements, or some combination that increases performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how systematically increasing upper leg compression and hip joint stiffness independently from one another affects vertical jumping performance. Ten male athletes performed countermovement vertical jumps in 8 concept apparel conditions and 1 control condition (loose fitting shorts). The 8 apparel conditions, 4 that specifically altered the amount of compression exerted on the thigh and 4 that altered the hip joint stiffness by means of elastic thermoplastic polyurethane bands, were tested on 2 separate testing sessions (one testing the compression apparel and the other testing the stiffness apparel). Maximum jump height was measured, while kinematic data of the hip, knee, and ankle joint were recorded with a high-speed camera (480 Hz). Both compression and stiffness apparel can have a positive influence on vertical jumping performance. The increase in jump height for the optimal compression was due to increased hip joint range of motion and a trend of increasing the jump time. Optimal stiffness also increased jump height and had the trend of decreasing the hip joint range of motion and hip joint angular velocity. The exact mechanisms by which apparel interventions alter performance is not clear, but it may be due to alterations to the force-length and force-velocity relationships of muscle.

  5. On the earliest jump unravelling of the spatial decoherence master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Gábor; Diósi, Lajos

    2017-10-01

    Solution of free particle quantum master equation with spatial decoherence can be unravelled into stochastic quantum trajectories in many ways. The first example (Diósi, 1985) proposed a piecewise deterministic jump process for the wave function. While alternative unravellings, diffusive ones in particular, proved to be tractable analytically, the jump process 1985, also called orthojump, allows for few analytic results, it needs numeric methods as well. Here we prove that, similarly to diffusive unravellings, it is localizing the quantum state.

  6. Time-resolved methods in biophysics. 9. Laser temperature-jump methods for investigating biomolecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubelka, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Many important biochemical processes occur on the time-scales of nanoseconds and microseconds. The introduction of the laser temperature-jump (T-jump) to biophysics more than a decade ago opened these previously inaccessible time regimes up to direct experimental observation. Since then, laser T-jump methodology has evolved into one of the most versatile and generally applicable methods for studying fast biomolecular kinetics. This perspective is a review of the principles and applications of the laser T-jump technique in biophysics. A brief overview of the T-jump relaxation kinetics and the historical development of laser T-jump methodology is presented. The physical principles and practical experimental considerations that are important for the design of the laser T-jump experiments are summarized. These include the Raman conversion for generating heating pulses, considerations of size, duration and uniformity of the temperature jump, as well as potential adverse effects due to photo-acoustic waves, cavitation and thermal lensing, and their elimination. The laser T-jump apparatus developed at the NIH Laboratory of Chemical Physics is described in detail along with a brief survey of other laser T-jump designs in use today. Finally, applications of the laser T-jump in biophysics are reviewed, with an emphasis on the broad range of problems where the laser T-jump methodology has provided important new results and insights into the dynamics of the biomolecular processes.

  7. Correlation between toe flexor strength and ankle dorsiflexion ROM during the countermovement jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Joon; Kim, Moon-Hwan; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Kim, Young; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationships between peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Each participant completed tests for peak toe flexor muscle strength, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and countermovement jump height. [Results] The results showed (1) a moderate correlation between ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and countermovement jump height and (2) a high correlation between peak first toe flexor muscle strength and countermovement jump height. Peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are the main contributors to countermovement jump performance. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that the measurement of peak first toe flexor muscle strength and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion may be useful in clinical practice for improving jump performance in athletes training for sports such as volleyball and basketball.

  8. The "how" and "why" of the ancient Greek long jump with weights: a five-fold symmetric jump in a row?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Matthieu; De Clercq, Dirk; Laporte, Willy

    2005-10-01

    A plausible explanation for the ancient long jump records from Greek antiquity is sought on the basis of pictorial and written sources, and corroborated with practical tests. Ancient sources report that athletes jumped more than 15 m with weights in their hands, which enabled them to jump further than without these weights. It is proposed that the ancient Greek long jump was a continuous succession of five standing broad jumps, in which the landing phase of one jump was also the countermovement for the next jump. Four trained athletes jumped further with (14.64 +/- 0.76 m, range 13.64-15.63 m) than without weights (13.88 +/- 0.70 m, range 12.60-14.75 m; P = 0.001). These results show that this technique is executable, fits with ancient written and pictorial sources, and allows trained modern athletes to jump distances well over 15 m. The extra distance jumped when using weights may be due to changes in the position of the jumper's centre of mass at take-off and at landing, and an increase in take-off velocity stemming from several biomechanical mechanisms.

  9. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  10. A Local Stable Bootstrap for Power Variations of Pure-Jump Semimartingales and Activity Index Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: β... and properties of the new bootstrap diffusion test using high-frequency data on three FX series, the S&P 500, and the VIX....

  11. Mechanics of jumping on water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Amauger, Juliette; Jeong, Han-Bi; Lee, Duck-Gyu; Yang, Eunjin; Jablonski, Piotr G.

    2017-10-01

    Some species of semiaquatic arthropods including water striders and springtails can jump from the water surface to avoid sudden dangers like predator attacks. It was reported recently that the jump of medium-sized water striders is a result of surface-tension-dominated interaction of thin cylindrical legs and water, with the leg movement speed nearly optimized to achieve the maximum takeoff velocity. Here we describe the mathematical theories to analyze this exquisite feat of nature by combining the review of existing models for floating and jumping and the introduction of the hitherto neglected capillary forces at the cylinder tips. The theoretically predicted dependence of body height on time is shown to match the observations of the jumps of the water striders and springtails regardless of the length of locomotory appendages. The theoretical framework can be used to understand the design principle of small jumping animals living on water and to develop biomimetic locomotion technology in semiaquatic environments.

  12. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...... for straightforward filtering and estimation of the model. Our model belongs to the affine class enabling us to derive the conditional characteristic function so that option values can be computed rapidly without simulation. When estimated on S&P500 index options and returns the new model performs well compared...

  13. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials(KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  14. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xu -Dong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.

  15. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  16. The Effect of Depth Jumps and Weight Training on Leg Strength and Vertical Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutch, David; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments examined the results of depth jumping programs to determine: (1) whether certain depth jumping routines, when combined with weight training, are better than others; and (2) the effect of depth jumping on athletes already in training. Results indicated that depth jumping is effective, but no more so than regular jumping routines.…

  17. Jumping for distance: control of the external force in squat jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderikhoff, Arne; Batelaan, J.H.; Bobbert, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: It was investigated whether control in jumps for distance is related to control in jumps for height. METHODS: Five male subjects performed maximum squat jumps in the following conditions: VJ (vertical jump), LJ (long jump), and two conditions with inclination angles of the body relative to

  18. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change).

  19. Temperature dependence of the thermal diffusivity of GaAs in the 100-305 K range measured by the pulsed photothermal displacement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanolkotabi, M.; Bennis, G. L.; Gupta, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the variation of the value of the thermal diffusivity of semi-insulating GaAs in the 100-305 K range. The method used is the pulsed photothermal displacement technique. This is a noncontact technique, and the value of the thermal diffusivity is derived from the temporal evolution of the signal rather than its amplitude. This makes the technique less susceptible to uncertainties. We find that the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of semi-insulating GaAs follows a power law as T-1.62, in disagreement with results obtained previously. Possible reasons for the deviation within this very important intermediate temperature range are discussed.

  20. Birth of a hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump, i.e., the sharp transition between a supercritical and a subcritical free-surface flow, has been extensively studied in the past centuries. However, ever since Leonardo da Vinci asked it for the first time, an important question has been left unanswered: How does a hydraulic jump form? We present an experimental and theoretical study of the formation of stationary hydraulic jumps in centimeter wide channels. Two starting situations are considered: The channel is, respectively, empty or filled with liquid, the liquid level being fixed by the wetting properties and the boundary conditions. We then change the flow-rate abruptly from zero to a constant value. In an empty channel, we observe the formation of a stationary hydraulic jump in a two-stage process: First, the channel fills by the advancing liquid front, which undergoes a transition from supercritical to subcritical at some position in the channel. Later the influence of the downstream boundary conditions makes the jump move slowly upstream to its final position. In the pre-filled channel, the hydraulic jump forms at the injector edge and then moves downstream to its final position.

  1. Deuterium short-range order in Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 by diffuse neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschko, O.; Klemencic, R.; Fratzl, P.

    1983-01-01

    By diffuse neutron scattering the D short-range order in a Pd0.975Ag0.025D0.685 crystal was investigated at 50 and 70K. The results are compared with the D ordering in the PdDx system previously investigated, and it is shown that the isointensity contours around the (1/2,1,0) point are similar to...

  2. Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The countermovement jump (CMJ is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH, reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79. Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power, 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase, and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off.

  3. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  4. Energy barriers for diffusion on heterogeneous stepped metal surfaces: Ag/Cu(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaai, K. [Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université Chouaib Doukkali, Faculté des sciences, El Jadida (Morocco); Boughaleb, Y., E-mail: yboughaleb@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université Chouaib Doukkali, Faculté des sciences, El Jadida (Morocco); Academy Hassan II of Sciences and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Hassan II, Ain Chock, Casablanca (Morocco); Mazroui, M., E-mail: mazroui.m@gmail.com [Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée (URAC 10), Université Hassan II Mohammedia, Faculté des Sciences Ben M' Sick, Casablanca (Morocco); Hajjaji, A. [Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquée, Université Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida (Morocco); Kara, A. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida (United States)

    2013-12-02

    In this paper we investigated the diffusion of Ag adatom by computing the energy barriers for many elementary diffusive processes which are likely to happen near to the step edge on Cu (110). The barriers are calculated by means of molecular dynamics simulation by using embedded atom potentials. The proximity to steps alters these barriers considerably, and very different results may be expected. In fact, our numerical calculations show that the diffusion via jump process along step edge is predominant for Ag/Cu(110) and the diffusion over the step occurs sometimes, but only via exchange mechanisms. The adatom diffusion across channels is difficult due to the high value of activation energy required (around 1 eV). Furthermore, we found the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier for diffusion around 120 meV in order to descend via exchange process and of the order of 170 meV via hopping mode. This aspect may have a strong influence on the growth character. In general our results suggest that, for our metal system, diffusion mechanism may be important for mass transport across the steps. Implications of these findings are discussed. - Highlights: • Study of adatom diffusion near the step edge • The diffusion along channel is enhanced through jump process. • Arrhenius law is satisfied for a wide range of temperature (310–600 K)

  5. Relation of short-range and long-range lithium ion dynamics in glass-ceramics: Insights from 7Li NMR field-cycling and field-gradient studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaks, Michael; Martin, Steve W.; Vogel, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We use various 7Li NMR methods to investigate lithium ion dynamics in 70Li 2S-30 P 2S5 glass and glass-ceramic obtained from this glass after heat treatment. We employ 7Li spin-lattice relaxometry, including field-cycling measurements, and line-shape analysis to investigate short-range ion jumps as well as 7Li field-gradient approaches to characterize long-range ion diffusion. The results show that ceramization substantially enhances the lithium ion mobility on all length scales. For the 70Li 2S-30 P 2S5 glass-ceramic, no evidence is found that bimodal dynamics result from different ion mobilities in glassy and crystalline regions of this sample. Rather, 7Li field-cycling relaxometry shows that dynamic susceptibilities in broad frequency and temperature ranges can be described by thermally activated jumps governed by a Gaussian distribution of activation energies g (Ea) with temperature-independent mean value Em=0.43 eV and standard deviation σ =0.07 eV . Moreover, use of this distribution allows us to rationalize 7Li line-shape results for the local ion jumps. In addition, this information about short-range ion dynamics further explains 7Li field-gradient results for long-range ion diffusion. In particular, we quantitatively show that, consistent with our experimental results, the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient D is not described by the mean activation energy Em of the local ion jumps, but by a significantly smaller apparent value whenever the distribution of correlation times G (logτ ) of the jump motion derives from an invariant distribution of activation energies and, hence, continuously broadens upon cooling. This effect occurs because the harmonic mean, which determines the results of diffusivity or also conductivity studies, continuously separates from the peak position of G (logτ ) when the width of this distribution increases.

  6. Jumping without using legs: the jump of the click-beetles (Elateridae) is morphologically constrained

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    .... While the functional morphology of the jumping mechanism is well known, the level of control that the beetle has over this jumping technique and the mechanical constraints governing the jumps are not entirely clear...

  7. Acetylene diffusion in Na-Y zeolite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elastic neu- tron scattering (QENS) measurements at temperatures of 300, 325 and 350 K is reported. A model in which the acetylene molecules undergo random-walk diffusion characterized by a Gaussian distribution of jump lengths inside zeolite ...

  8. Giant flux jumps through a thin superconducting Nb film in a vortex free region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsindlekht, M.I., E-mail: mtsindl@vms.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Genkin, V.M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Gazi, Š.; Chromik, Š. [The Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: Giant magnetic flux jumps into thin-walled cylinder were measured using peak up coil method in a swept magnetic field. Magnetic moment jumps were observed in magnetic fields lower and above Hc1. - Abstract: We measure the dynamics of magnetic field penetration into thin-walled superconducting niobium cylinders. It is shown that magnetic field penetrates through the wall of a cylinder in a series of giant jumps with amplitude 1 - 2 mT and duration of less than a microsecond in a wide range of magnetic fields, including the vortex free region. Surprisingly, the jumps take place when the total current in the wall, not the current density, exceeds a critical value. In addition, there are small jumps and/or smooth penetration, but their contribution reaches only ≃ 20 % of the total penetrating flux. The number of jumps decreases with increased temperature. Thermomagnetic instabilities cannot explain the experimental observations.

  9. How far can Tarzan jump?

    CERN Document Server

    Shima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The tree-based rope swing is a popular recreation facility, often installed in outdoor areas, giving pleasure to thrill-seekers. In the setting, one drops down from a high platform, hanging from a rope, then swings at a great speed like "Tarzan", and finally jumps ahead to land on the ground. The question now arises: How far can Tarzan jump by the swing? In this article, I present an introductory analysis of the Tarzan swing mechanics, a big pendulum-like swing with Tarzan himself attached as weight. The analysis enables determination of how farther forward Tarzan can jump using a given swing apparatus. The discussion is based on elementary mechanics and, therefore, expected to provide rich opportunities for investigations using analytic and numerical methods.

  10. The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A

    2016-12-08

    The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of lumbar spine extension on vertical jump height during maximal squat jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Monteil, Karine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of lumbar spine extension and erector spinae muscle activation on vertical jump height during maximal squat jumping. Eight male athletes performed maximal squat jumps. Electromyograms of the erector spinae were recorded during these jumps. A simulation model of the musculoskeletal system was used to simulate maximal squat jumping with and without spine extension. The effect on vertical jump height of changing erector spinae strength was also tested through the simulated jumps. Concerning the participant jumps, the kinematics indicated a spine extension and erector spinae activation. Concerning the simulated jumps, vertical jump height was about 5.4 cm lower during squat jump without trunk extension compared to squat jump. These results were explained by greater total muscle work during squat jump, more especially by the erector spinae work (+119.5 J). The erector spinae may contribute to spine extension during maximal squat jumping. The simulated jumps confirmed this hypothesis showing that vertical jumping was decreased if this muscle was not taken into consideration in the model. Therefore it is concluded that the erector spinae should be considered as a trunk extensor, which enables to enhance total muscle work and consequently vertical jump height.

  12. Determination of the Thermal Diffusivity of Electrically Non-Conductive Solids in the Temperature Range from 80 K to 300 K by Laser-Flash Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, F.; Göbel, A.; Ebert, H.-P.

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of the popular laser-flash method at temperatures far below 300 K is restricted by the weak signal-to-noise ratio and the limited spectral bandwidth of the commonly used mercury cadmium tellurite (MCT) infrared (IR) detector used as a non-contacting temperature probe. In this work, a different approach to measure the temperature rise in pulse heating experiments is described and evaluated. This method utilizes the change of the temperature-dependent electrical resistance of a thin strip of sputtered gold for the detection of a temperature rise as it was proposed by Kogure et al. The main advantage of this method at lower temperatures is the significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to the commonly used IR detectors. A newly developed laser-flash apparatus using this detection method for the determination of the thermal diffusivity in the temperature range from 80 K to 300 K is presented. To test the accuracy of the new detection method, the thermal diffusivity of a borosilicate crown glass (BK7) specimen at 300 K was determined and compared to results derived with a MCT detector. Good agreement of the derived thermal diffusivity values within 3 % was found. The thermal diffusivity of BK7 and polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) was measured at temperatures between 80 K and 300 K by a laser-flash method to test the functionality of the apparatus. Finally, the thermal conductivity was calculated using values for the specific heat capacity determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Comparisons with literature data confirm the reliability of the experimental setup.

  13. Alzheimer's Deaths Jump 55 Percent: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165941.html Alzheimer's Deaths Jump 55 Percent: CDC More patients also ... News) -- As more baby boomers age, deaths from Alzheimer's disease have jumped 55 percent, and in a ...

  14. Spinal shrinkage in unloaded and loaded drop-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N E; Lees, A; Reilly, T

    1994-01-01

    Plyometric activities, engaging the muscle in a stretch-shortening cycle, are widely used in athletic training. One such plyometric exercise is drop-jumping, where the athlete drops from a raised platform and immediately on landing performs a maximal vertical jump. These actions are also performed with the athlete externally loaded by the addition of weights to provide greater resistance. Exercises which involve repeated impacts have been shown to give rise to a loss of stature (shrinkage) which can be measured by means of a sensitive stadiometer. This study examined the shrinkage induced by unloaded and loaded drop-jumping from a height of 26 cm. Eight male subjects, aged 20-24 years, performed the test protocol three times, at the same time of day on each occasion. Fifty drop-jumps from a height of 26 cm were performed with no additional load and with a load of 8.5 kg carried in a weighted vest. The third condition was a standing trial where the subject stood for 10 min (the time taken to perform the jumps) wearing the weighted vest. Stature was measured before exercise, immediately after exercise and after a 20 min standing recovery. On a separate occasion the regimen was performed and the vertical reaction force was measured using a Kistler force platform. The mean change in stature for the two jump conditions showed shrinkages of 0.62 (+/- 0.43) mm for unloaded and 2.14 (+/- 1.56) mm for the loaded (p < 0.05). The variance in shrinkage was greater in the loaded case compared to the unloaded condition (p < 0.05) indicating a wider range of jumping strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Strawberry Shortcake and Other Jumping Rope Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Polly K.; Taylor, Michaell K.

    Information, guidelines, and activities for jumping rope are given. A short history of jumping rope explains how it evolved from a spring ritual for men to a play activity involving mostly young girls. Physical and cultural reasons are given as to why jumping rope has been more a sport for girls than for boys. Research studies are noted which show…

  16. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  17. A jump forwards with mathematics and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; Uylings, P.; Joubert, M.; Clark-Wilson, A.; McCabe, M.

    2011-01-01

    We jump on human body motions such as bouncing on a jumping stick, hopping, and making kangaroo jumps. Students can record the movements with a digital camera and use their video clips to investigate the motions with suitable video analysis and modelling software. We discuss some mathematical models

  18. Maximum height and minimum time vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2015-08-20

    The performance criterion in maximum vertical jumping has typically been assumed to simply raise the center of mass as high as possible. In many sporting activities minimizing movement time during the jump is likely also critical to successful performance. The purpose of this study was to examine maximum height jumps performed while minimizing jump time. A direct dynamics model was used to examine squat jump performance, with dual performance criteria: maximize jump height and minimize jump time. The muscle model had activation dynamics, force-length, force-velocity properties, and a series of elastic component representing the tendon. The simulations were run in two modes. In Mode 1 the model was placed in a fixed initial position. In Mode 2 the simulation model selected the initial squat configuration as well as the sequence of muscle activations. The inclusion of time as a factor in Mode 1 simulations resulted in a small decrease in jump height and moderate time savings. The improvement in time was mostly accomplished by taking off from a less extended position. In Mode 2 simulations, more substantial time savings could be achieved by beginning the jump in a more upright posture. However, when time was weighted more heavily in these simulations, there was a more substantial reduction in jump height. Future work is needed to examine the implications for countermovement jumping and to examine the possibility of minimizing movement time as part of the control scheme even when the task is to jump maximally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatalities in wingsuit BASE jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Omer; Monasterio, Erik; Carmont, Michael; Westman, Anton

    2013-12-01

    To analyze fatality data associated with wingsuit use in an international case series of fixed-object sport parachuting (BASE jumping) to identify incident and injury mechanisms and to form a basis for potential prevention measures and future safety recommendations. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed of fatal injury events occurring in wingsuit BASE jumping. Fatalities (n = 180) were sequentially analyzed assessing human, equipment, and environmental factors from 1981 to 2011. Main outcome measures included descriptions of typical fatal incident and injury mechanisms. Of the 180 fatal events, 39 (22%) were related to use of wingsuits; 38 (97%) launched from cliffs and 1 (3%) from a building. Of the 39 fatalities, 19 (49%) were caused from cliff strikes, 18 (46%) from ground impact, and 1 (3%) from a building strike. Thirty-eight (97%) of the fatalities were male. During 2002 to 2007 there was a total of 61 BASE jumping deaths, 10 (16%) of which were related to the use of wingsuits, whereas during 2008 to 2011 there was a total 59 fatal events, of which 29 (49%) were related to the use of wingsuits. Seventeen fatalities (39%) were attributed to wingsuit path miscalculation. In the first 8 months of 2013, 17 of 19 (90%) fatalities were wingsuit related. Most fatalities occurred between April and October, reflecting a seasonal increase in activity in the northern hemisphere summer. Wingsuit-related BASE jump fatalities appear to be increasing as wingsuit BASE jumping increases in popularity. Most fatalities are attributed to cliff or ground impact, and are mostly the result of flying path miscalculation. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesopause jumps at Antarctic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, Franz-Josef; Höffner, Josef; Becker, Erich; Latteck, Ralph; Murphy, Damian

    2016-04-01

    Recent high resolution temperature measurements by resonance lidar at Davis (69°S) occasionally showed a sudden mesopause altitude increase by ˜5 km and an associated mesopause temperature decrease by ˜10 K. We present further observations which are closely related to this 'mesopause jump', namely the increase of mean height of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) observed by a VHF radar, very strong westward winds in the upper mesosphere measured by an MF radar, and relatively large eastward winds in the stratosphere taken from reanalysis. We compare to similar observations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely at ALOMAR (69°N) where such mesopause jumps have never been observed. We present a detailed explanation of mesopause jumps. They occur only when stratospheric winds are moderately eastward and mesospheric winds are very large (westward). Under these conditions, gravity waves with comparatively large eastward phase Speeds can pass the stratosphere and propagate to the lower thermosphere because their vertical wavelengths in the mesosphere are rather large which implies reduced dynamical stability. When finally breaking in the lower thermosphere, these waves drive an enhanced residual circulation that causes a cold and high-altitude mesopause. The conditions for a mesopause jump occur only in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and are associated with the late breakdown of the polar vortex. Mesopause jumps are primarily, but not only, observed prior and close to solstice. We also show that during the onset of PMSE in the SH, stratospheric zonal winds are still eastward (up to 30 m/s), and that the onset is not closely related to the Transition of the stratospheric circulation.

  1. Effects of timing of signal indicating jump directions on knee biomechanics in jump-landing-jump tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mitchell L; Hinshaw, Taylour J; Wadley, Haley A; Zhu, Qin; Wilson, Margaret A; Byra, Mark; Dai, Boyi

    2018-03-01

    A variety of the available time to react (ATR) has been utilised to study knee biomechanics during reactive jump-landing tasks. The purpose was to quantify knee kinematics and kinetics during a jump-land-jump task of three possible directions as the ATR was reduced. Thirty-four recreational athletes performed 45 trials of a jump-land-jump task, during which the direction of the second jump (lateral, medial or vertical) was indicated before they initiated the first jump, the instant they initiated the first jump, 300 ms before landing, 150 ms before landing or at the instant of landing. Knee joint angles and moments close to the instant of landing were significantly different when the ATR was equal to or more than 300 ms before landing, but became similar when the ATR was 150 ms or 0 ms before landing. As the ATR was decreased, knee moments decreased for the medial jump direction, but increased for the lateral jump direction. When the ATR is shorter than an individual's reaction time, the movement pattern cannot be pre-planned before landing. Knee biomechanics are dependent on the timing of the signal and the subsequent jump direction. Precise control of timing and screening athletes with low ATR are suggested.

  2. Minimizing downstream scour due to submerged hydraulic jump using corrugated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mohamed Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local scour downstream of hydraulic structures due to hydraulic jump is considered one of the tedious and complicated problems facing their stability. Throughout this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the effect of using different spaced corrugated aprons on the downstream local scour due to submerged jump. Sixty runs were carried out in a horizontal rectangular flume to determine the optimal corrugation wavelength which minimizing the scour. A case of flat apron included to estimate the influence of corrugated aprons on scour holes dimensions. Two types of non-cohesive soil were used. Experiments were performed for a range of Froude numbers between 1.68 and 9.29. The results showed that using spaced triangular corrugated aprons minimize the scour depth and length of fine sand by average percentage of 63.4% and 30.2%, respectively and for coarse sand by 44.2% and 20.6% in comparing with classical jump.

  3. AGS tune jump power supply design and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Glenn, J.W.; Huang, H.; Marneris, I.; Rosas, P.; Sandberg, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    A horizontal tune jump system has been installed to overcome the horizontal intrinsic spin resonances, which requires jumping the horizontal tune 0.04 units 82 times, 41 up and 41 down. Two quadruple magnets have been installed in AGS ring to perform this. The pulsed magnet current ranges from about 140A near injection to about 1400A later. The current pulse rise and fall time are around 100uS and flat tops time is around 4mS. These quadruples have separated supplies. This tune jump pulse power supply employees all semiconductor parts as well as the main switches. During dummy load and magnet testing, the test results showed that the power supply could meet the specification. This article will describe some details of power supply simulation, design and testing. Some test waveforms and pictures are presented in this paper.

  4. First-principles analysis of solute diffusion in dilute bcc Fe-X alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteylen, C. D.; van Dijk, N. H.; Sluiter, M. H. F.

    2017-09-01

    The diffusivities of substitutional impurity elements in iron have been computed with ab inito electronic density functional techniques, using exchange-correlation functional PW91. Excess entropies and the attempt frequency for a jump were determined by calculating phonon frequencies in the harmonic approximation. The influence of the degree of spontaneous magnetization on diffusivity is taken into account by means of the Girifalco model. The activation energy for diffusion has been determined by computing the vacancy formation energy, impurity-vacancy binding energies, migration barrier energies, and the effective energy associated with correlation of vacancy-mediated jump. For each type of impurity atom these contributions have been evaluated and analyzed up to and including the fifth nearest-neighbor shell of the impurity atom. It is found that impurities that have a low migration energy tend to have high effective energy associated with vacancy migration correlation, and vice versa, so that the total diffusion activation energies for all impurities are surprisingly close to each other. The strong effect of vacancy migration correlation is found to be associated with the high migration energy for iron self-diffusion, so that movement of vacancies through the iron bulk is in all cases, except cobalt, the limiting factor for impurity diffusion. The diffusivities calculated with the PW91 functional show good agreement with most of the experimental data for a wide range of elements.

  5. Kinetic and kinematic compensations in amputee vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Marlene; Diss, Ceri E; Strike, Siobhan C

    2012-08-01

    A unilateral transtibial amputation causes a disruption to the musculoskeletal system, which results in asymmetrical biomechanics. The current study aimed to assess the movement asymmetry and compensations that occur as a consequence of an amputation when performing a countermovement vertical jump. Six unilateral transtibial amputees and 10 able-bodied (AB) participants completed 10 maximal vertical jumps, and the highest jump was analyzed further. Three-dimensional lower limb kinematics and normalized (body mass) kinetic variables were quantified for the intact and prosthetic sides. Symmetry was assessed through the symmetry index (SI) for each individual and statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test between the intact and prosthetic sides for the amputee group. A descriptive analysis between the amputee and AB participants was conducted to explore the mechanisms of amputee jumping. The amputee jump height ranged from 0.09 to 0.24 m. In the countermovement, all ankle variables were asymmetrical (SI > 10%) and statistically different (p amputees. At the knee and hip, there was no statistical difference between the intact and prosthetic sides range of motion, although there was evidence of individual asymmetry. The knees remained more extended compared with the AB participants to prevent collapse. In propulsion, the prosthesis did not contribute to the work done and the ankle variables were asymmetrical (p < .05). The knee and hip variables were not statistically different between the intact and prosthetic sides, although there was evidence of functional asymmetry and the contribution tended to be greater on the intact compared with the prosthetic side. The lack of kinetic involvement of the prosthetic ankle and both knees due to the limitation of the prosthesis and the altered musculoskeletal mechanics of the joints were the reason for the reduced height jumped.

  6. CONDITIONAL JUMP DYNAMICS IN THE STOCK PRICES OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsien Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the abnormal information in the WilderHill Clean Energy Index (ECO and NYSE Arca Technology Index (PSE by using an autoregressive conditional jump intensity model in Skew Generalized Error Distribution (ARJI-SGED. The research period is from 3 January 2001 to 31 January 2011. We also test the diffusion-jump variance on the PSE and ECO. The empirical result indicates that there are jump phenomena in clean energy and technology companies. The oil price impacts on clean energy and technology companies. Moreover, the PSE has higher levels of volatility clustering than the ECO. These results show that the distributions of PSE return are skewed slightly to the left and fat-tailed. These also mean that jump variance plays a crucial role in market volatility indices.

  7. Designing, Building, Measuring and Testing a Constant Equivalent Fall Height Terrain Park Jump

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Nicola; McNeil, James A; Hubbard, Mont

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has presented both a theoretical foundation for designing terrain park jumps that control landing impact and computer software to accomplish this task. US ski resorts have been reluctant to adopt this more engineered approach to jump design, in part due to questions of feasibility. The present study demonstrates this feasibility. It describes the design, construction, measurement and experimental testing of such a jump. It improves on previous efforts with more complete instrumentation, a larger range of jump distances, and a new method for combining jumper- and board-mounted accelerometer data to estimate equivalent fall height, a measure of impact severity. It unequivocally demonstrates the efficacy of the engineering design approach, namely that it is possible and practical to design and build free style terrain park jumps with landing surface shapes that control for landing impact as predicted by the theory.

  8. Anomalous diffusion in correlated continuous time random walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Metzler, Ralf, E-mail: metz@ph.tum.d [Physics Department T30 g, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2010-02-26

    We demonstrate that continuous time random walks in which successive waiting times are correlated by Gaussian statistics lead to anomalous diffusion with the mean squared displacement (r{sup 2}(t)) {approx_equal} t{sup 2/3}. Long-ranged correlations of the waiting times with a power-law exponent alpha (0 < alpha <= 2) give rise to subdiffusion of the form (r{sup 2}(t)) {approx_equal} t{sup {alpha}/(1+{alpha})}. In contrast, correlations in the jump lengths are shown to produce superdiffusion. We show that in both cases weak ergodicity breaking occurs. Our results are in excellent agreement with simulations. (fast track communication)

  9. Training specificity of hurdle vs. countermovement jump training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Dario F; Behm, David G

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare bilateral and unilateral hurdle jumps with traditional countermovement jumps (CMJs). Thirteen athletes were tested during continuous forward bilateral and unilateral hurdle jumps and single CMJ. Countermovement jump height was used to establish the hurdle height. Subjects jumped forward over 4 hurdles with the force plate positioned after the second hurdle to measure vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), contact time (CT), and rate of force development (RFD). For bilateral jumps, hurdle height was established at maximal (100%) CMJ height and at 120, 140, and 160% of the CMJ height. The athletes were instructed to jump as fast as possible to mimic a training session drill. For unilateral jumps, hurdle height was set at 70, 80, and 90% of the CMJ height. Bilateral 160% jumps showed a significantly longer CT than bilateral 100, 120, and 140% jumps. The bilateral 100, 120, and 140% jumps had significantly shorter CT than the unilateral jumps and CMJ. The VGRF during bilateral jumps was higher than unilateral jumps and CMJ. Bilateral 160% jump RFD was significantly higher than CMJ and unilateral jumps but significantly lower than the other bilateral jumps. In conclusion, the characteristics of the bilateral jumps were substantially different from those of the CMJ and unilateral hurdle jumps. As bilateral hurdle jumps with a height between 100 and 140% of the CMJ provide similar CTs and VGRF as many reported sprint or jump actions, they may be considered a more training-specific power training drill than the CMJ.

  10. Acetylene diffusion in Na-Y zeolite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of diffusivity of acetylene adsorbed in Na-Y zeolite by quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements at temperatures of 300, 325 and 350 K is reported. A model in which the acetylene molecules undergo random-walk diffusion characterized by a Gaussian distribution of jump lengths inside zeolite cages ...

  11. Spatially constrained propulsion in jumping archer fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    Archer fish jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture with impressive accuracy. Their remarkable aim is facilitated by jumping from a stationary position directly below the free surface. As a result of this starting position, rapid acceleration to a velocity sufficient for reaching the target occurs with only a body length to travel before the fish leaves the water. Three-dimensional measurements of jumping kinematics and volumetric velocimetry using Synthetic Aperture PIV highlight multiple strategies for such spatially constrained acceleration. Archer fish rapidly extend fins at jump onset to increase added mass forces and modulate their swimming kinematics to minimize wasted energy when the body is partially out of the water. Volumetric measurements also enable assessment of efficiency during a jump, which is crucial to understanding jumping's role as an energetically viable hunting strategy for the fish.

  12. Influence of dorsiflexion shoes on jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Juan J; González-Millán, Cristina; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Del Coso Garrigós, Juan

    2014-04-01

    The goal of dorsiflexion sports shoes is to increase jumping capacity by means of a lower position of the heel in relation to the forefoot which results in additional stretching of the ankle plantar flexors. The aim of this study was to compare a dorsiflexion sports shoe model with two conventional sports shoe models in a countermovement jump test. The sample consisted of 35 participants who performed a countermovement jump test on a force platform wearing the three models of shoes. There were significant differences in the way force was manifested (Psports shoe model. The drop of the center of gravity was increased in CS1 in contrast to the dorsiflexion sports shoe model (Psports shoes were not effective for improving either peak power or jump height (P>.05). Although force manifestation and jump kinetics differ between dorsiflexion shoes and conventional sports shoes, jump performance was similar.

  13. You Say Jump, I Say How High?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterhold, Martin; Pichlmair, Martin; Holmgård, Christoffer

    This paper explores the design of jumping in 2D platform games. Through creating a method for measuring existing games, applying this method to a selection of different platformer games, and analysing the results, the paper arrives at a comprehensive data model for jumping. The model supports...... the exploration, design and development of new jump implementations. The underlying framework and toolset can be used by game designers to measure, model and analyse movement in platform games...

  14. Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, Jan; Lenarcic, Jadran

    2007-01-01

    By building an efficient biorobotic model which includes an elastic model of the biarticular muscle gastrocnemius and by simulation of the vertical jump we have demonstrated that biarticular links contribute a great deal to the performance of the vertical jump. Besides, we have shown that timing of the biarticular link activation and stiffness of the biarticular link considerably influence the height of the jump. Methodology and results of our study offer an effective tool for the design of t...

  15. Psychophysiological response in parachute jumps, the effect of experience and type of jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyse the effect of experience and type of parachute jump on the psychophysiological responses of jumpers. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, self-confidence and cognition, and somatic and state anxiety, before and after four different parachute jumps: a sport parachute jump, a manual tactical parachute jump, tandem pilots, and tandem passengers. Independently of the parachute jump, the psychophysiological responses of experienced paratroopers were not affected by the jumps, except for an increase in anaerobic metabolism. Novice parachute jumpers presented a higher psychophysiological stress response than the experienced jumpers, together with a large anticipatory anxiety response before the jump; however, this decreased after the jump, although the high physiological activation was maintained. This information could be used by civil and military paratroopers' instructors to improve their training programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Successful Are Wavelets in Detecting Jumps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Alparslan Eroğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the performances of wavelet jump detection tests by using simulated high-frequency data, in which jumps and some other non-standard features are present. Wavelet-based jump detection tests have a clear advantage over the alternatives, as they are capable of stating the exact timing and number of jumps. The results indicate that, in addition to those advantages, these detection tests also preserve desirable power and size properties even in non-standard data environments, whereas their alternatives fail to sustain their desirable properties beyond standard data features.

  17. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...

  18. The effect of assisted jumping on vertical jump height in high-performance volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Dingley, Andrew A; Janssen, Ina; Spratford, Wayne; Chapman, Dale W; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    Assisted jumping may be useful in training higher concentric movement speed in jumping, thereby potentially increasing the jumping abilities of athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of assisted jump training on counter-movement vertical jump (CMVJ) and spike jump (SPJ) ability in a group of elite male volleyball players. Seven junior national team volleyball players (18.0±1.0 yrs, 200.4±6.7 cm, and 84.0±7.2 kg) participated in this within-subjects cross-over counter-balanced training study. Assisted training involved 3 sessions per week of CMVJ training with 10 kg of assistance, applied through use of a bungee system, whilst normal jump training involved equated volume of unassisted counter-movement vertical jumps. Training periods were 5 weeks duration, with a 3-week wash-out separating them. Prior to and at the conclusion of each training period jump testing for CMVJ and SPJ height was conducted. Assisted jump training resulted in gains of 2.7±0.7 cm (p<0.01, ES=0.21) and 4.6±2.6 cm (p<0.01, ES=0.32) for the CMVJ and SPJ respectively, whilst normal jump training did not result in significant gains for either CMVJ or SPJ (p=0.09 and p=0.51 respectively). The changes associated with normal jump training and assisted jump training revealed significant differences in both CMVJ and SPJ (p=<0.03) in favour of the assisted jump condition, with large effect (CMVJ, ES=1.22; SPJ, ES=1.31). Assisted jumping may promote the leg extensor musculature to undergo a more rapid rate of shortening, and chronic exposure appears to improve jumping ability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  19. Program algebra with a jump-shift instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study sequential programs that are instruction sequences with jump-shift instructions in the setting of PGA (ProGram Algebra). Jump-shift instructions preceding a jump instruction increase the position to jump to. The jump-shift instruction is not found in programming practice. Its merit is that

  20. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    's mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... for a supercritical one-dimensional boundary layer flow, but we find that the surface slope is up to an order of magnitude larger than expected and independent of flow rate. We explain this as an effect of turbulent fluctuations creating an enhanced eddy viscosity, and we model the results in terms of Prandtl...

  1. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35-40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD-RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD-RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-(13)C,(15)N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD-RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD-RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD-RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD-RFDR experiment is beneficial in a broad range of conditions

  2. Hydrogen diffusion in tungsten: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Nan [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Tiefeng [Shanghai Aircraft Design and Research Institute, Shanghai 201210 (China); Yu, Yi [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Xiao-Chun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Shu, Xiaolin, E-mail: shuxlin@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Guang-Hong, E-mail: lgh@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The diffusion behavior of hydrogen (H) in tungsten (W) has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The diffusivities from 200 K to 3000 K are calculated and the diffusion equation is fitted to D = 5.13 × 10{sup −8}exp(−0.21 eV/kT) m{sup 2}/s. The diffusion equations in different temperature ranges of 200–500 K, 500–2400 K and 2400–3000 K are also given separately and the results imply different H diffusion modes in different temperature ranges, which is proved by analyzing equilibrium H positions at low and high temperatures. The H atom jumps between different tetrahedral interstitial sites (TISs) at lower temperatures, but the transition to octahedral interstitial sites (OISs) is also observed at high temperatures. Moreover, with a vacancy present in the W system, vacancy trapping of H is observed, and it is shown that the vacancy trapping reduces with the increasing temperature. The H binding energy to monovacancy is obtained using three different methods including NEB and fitting both H diffusivity and time for H to detrap from the vacancy, which provides more information of the H behaviors with the existence of defects.

  3. Kinematics and Kinetics of Squats, Drop Jumps and Imitation Jumps of Ski Jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carole A; Keller, Melanie; Ammann, Fabian; Hübner, Klaus; Lindorfer, Julia; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps are commonly used training exercises in ski jumping to enhance maximum force, explosive force, and sport-specific skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and kinematics of training exercises in ski jumping and to find objective parameters in training exercises that most correlate with the competition performance of ski jumpers. To this end, barbell squats, drop jumps, and imitation jumps were measured in a laboratory environment for 10 elite ski jumpers. Force and motion data were captured, and the influence of maximum vertical force, force difference, vertical take-off velocity, knee moments, knee joint power, and a knee valgus/varus index was evaluated and correlated with their season jump performance. The results indicate that, especially for the imitation jumps, a good correlation exists between the vertical take-off velocity and the personal jump performance on the hill (R = 0.718). Importantly, however, the more the athletes tended toward a valgus knee alignment during the measured movements, the worse their performance (R = 0.729 imitation jumps; R = 0.685 squats). Although an evaluation of the athletes' lower limb alignment during competitive jumping on the hill is still required, these preliminary data suggest that performance training should additionally concentrate on improving knee alignment to increase ski jumping performance.

  4. Relationship between long jump and triple jump distances and the performance in running, jumping and strength tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Aidar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of test batteries is the most common procedure to assess the specific preparation status of athletes. This procedure is also observed in the case of horizontal jumpers (long and triple jump. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between the performance in the long jump and in the triple jump and the performance in running, jumping and strength tests. Forty-five male physical education students performed competitions in long jump and triple jump after a month of technique learning. A week later, they were submitted to the following tests: 1 20 m maximum-speed running (20m; 2 standing long jump; 3 standing triple jump with alternate legs (TS; 4 maximum and mean isometric strength; 5 Squat Jump; 6 Counter Movement Jump; 7 Drop Jump. The 20m and the TS were the tests that showed a larger association with the competitive performance in the horizontal jumps and, altogether, they were able to explain about 50% of the variance of the results in the long jump and in the triple jump. We conclude that the 20m and the TS can be used to predict the performance of novices in the long jump and in the triple jump with an acceptable error (»6% e »4%, respectively. The results also suggest that running and horizontal jumping field tests are preferable than laboratory tests to assess the jumper’s fitness. ABSTRACT A aplicação de baterias de testes é o meio mais usual para avaliar o estado de forma de atletas de diversas especialidades. Assim sucede com os especialistas de saltos horizontais (salto em comprimento e triplo salto. O objectivo do presente estudo foi investigar a relação entre a prestação no Salto em Comprimento e no Triplo Salto e o desempenho em testes de corrida, impulsão e força isométrica. Quarenta e cinco estudantes de educação física do sexo masculino realizaram duas competições, uma de salto em comprimento e outra de triplo salto. Na semana seguinte foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: 1

  5. Assessment of a CFD model for short-range plume dispersion: Applications to the Fusion Field Trial 2007 (FFT-07) diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Ngae, Pierre; Feiz, Amir-Ali; Turbelin, Grégory

    2017-11-01

    Simulations of the short-range plume dispersion under different atmospheric conditions can provide essential information for the development of source reconstruction methodologies that allows to retrieve the location and intensity of an unknown hazardous pollutant source. This process required a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric dispersion models with tracer diffusion experiments in various stability conditions. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of a CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE is performed with the observations from available seven trials of single releases conducted in the Fusion Field Trail 2007 (FFT-07) tracer experiment. The CFD simulations are performed for each trial and it was observed that the CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE provides good agreement of the predicted concentrations with the observations in both stable and convective atmospheric conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the simulated results is performed by computing the statistical performance measures for the dispersion model evaluation. The CFD model predicts 65.4% of the overall concentration points within a factor of two to the observations. It was observed that the CFD model is predicting better in convective stability conditions in comparison to the trials conducted in stable stability. In convective conditions, 74.6% points were predicted within a factor of two to the observations which are higher than 59.3% concentration points predicted within a factor of two in the trials in stable atmospheric conditions.

  6. Structural estimation of jump-diffusion processes in macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    Understanding the process of economic growth involves comparing competing theoretical models and evaluating their empirical relevance. Our approach is to take the neoclassical stochastic growth model directly to the data and make inferences about the model parameters of interest. In this paper, o...

  7. The Phase Shift in the Jumping Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2008-01-01

    The popular physics demonstration experiment known as Thomson's Jumping Ring (JR) has been variously explained as a simple example of Lenz's law, or as the result of a phase shift of the ring current relative to the induced emf. The failure of the first-quadrant Lenz's law explanation is shown by the time the ring takes to jump and by levitation.…

  8. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe

    1998-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure appe...

  9. Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M. F.; Mackay, M.T.; Schinkelshoek, D.; Huijing, P. A.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.

    For 13 subjects the performance of drop jumps from a height of 40 cm (DJ) and of countermovement jumps (CMJ) was analysed and compared. From force plate and cine data biomechanical variables including forces, moments, power output and amount of work done were calculated for hip, knee and ankle

  10. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...

  11. Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Two Unequal-Sized Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Fang; Lu, Gui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Bing-Bing

    2018-02-12

    Coalescence-induced self-propelled jumping of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces has potential applications for condensation heat transfer enhancement, anti-icing, self-cleaning, antidew, and so forth. However, most of the previous studies focused on two identical droplets which are not commonly encountered in the nature. In this work, coalescence-induced jumping phenomena of two unequal-sized droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated theoretically and numerically. First, by introducing modified inertial-capillary velocity (u ic * ) and Ohnesorge number (Oh*) with consideration of radius ratio (r*) of two coalescing droplets, we proposed a generalized inertial-capillary scaling law for the jumping velocity of coalesced droplets, which is expected to be applicable for both two identical droplets and two unequal-sized droplets coalescing on superhydrophobic surfaces. Subsequently, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the coalescence-induced jumping process of two unequal-sized nanodroplets. Our simulations showed that the dimensionless jumping velocity (v j /u ic * ) well follows the generalized inertial-capillary scaling law with v j /u ic * ≈ 0.127 in a specific Oh* range; however, it rapidly reduces and finally vanishes when the radius ratio of large droplet to small droplet is larger than a certain threshold value. Our simulations also revealed that nonjumping of two unequal-sized droplets with a very large radius ratio is due to that the larger droplet swallows the small one, so that the liquid bridge has no chance to impact the solid surface, and hence the "liquid bridge impacting substrate" mechanism fails in this circumstance.

  12. Jump frequency may contribute to risk of jumper's knee: a study of interindividual and sex differences in a total of 11,943 jumps video recorded during training and matches in young elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Martin A; Bahr, Roald

    2014-09-01

    Male sex, total training volume (number of hours per week) and match exposure (number of sets played per week) are risk factors for jumper's knee among young elite volleyball players. However, it is not known whether jump frequency differs among players on the same squad. To examine interindividual and sex differences in jump frequency during training and matches in young elite volleyball players. Observational study. Norwegian elite volleyball boarding school training programme. Student-athletes (26 boys and 18 girls, 16-18 years). Individual jump counts were recorded based on visual analysis of video recordings obtained from 1 week of volleyball training (9 training sessions for boys and 10 for girls, 14.1 h and 17.8 h of training, respectively) and 10 matches (5.9 h for boys (16 sets) and 7.7 h for girls (21 sets). A total of 11,943 jumps were recorded, 4138 during matches and 7805 during training. As training attendance and jump frequency varied substantially between players, the total exposure in training ranged from 50 to 666 jumps/week among boys and from 11 to 251 jumps/week among girls. On average, this corresponded to 35.7 jumps/h for boys and 13.7 jumps/h for girls (Student t test, p=0.002). Total jump exposure during matches ranged between 1 and 339 jumps among boys and between 0 and 379 jumps among girls, corresponding to an average jump frequency of 62.2 jumps/h for boys and 41.9 jumps/h for girls (Student t test, pvolleyball players. Total jump volume may represent a more important risk factor for jumper's knee than total training volume, warranting further research attention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Usefulness of the jump-and-reach test in assessment of vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Hans-Joachim; Chagas, Mauro H; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Araujo, Silvia R; Campos, Carlos E; Giannetti, Marcus R

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to estimate the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test for the assessment of squat, countermovement, and drop jump performance of 32 male Brazilian professional volleyball players. Performance of squat, countermovement, and drop jumps with different dropping heights was assessed on the Jump-and-Reach Test and the measurement of flight time, then compared across different jump trials. The very high reliability coefficients of both assessment methods and the lower correlation coefficients between scores on the assessments indicate a very high consistency of each method but only moderate covariation, which means that they measure partly different items. As a consequence, the Jump-and-Reach Test has good ecological validity in situations when reaching height during the flight phase is critical for performance (e.g., basketball and volleyball) but only limited accuracy for the assessment of vertical impulse production with different jump techniques and conditions.

  14. A review on the basketball jump shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N

    2015-06-01

    The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and (c) additional variables that influence shooting.

  15. Kinematic and Microphysical Significance of Lightning Jumps versus Non-Jump Increases in Total Flash Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J; Carey, Lawrence D; Schultz, Elise V; Blakeslee, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Thirty-nine thunderstorms are examined using multiple-Doppler, polarimetric and total lightning observations to understand the role of mixed phase kinematics and microphysics in the development of lightning jumps. This sample size is larger than those of previous studies on this topic. The principal result of this study is that lightning jumps are a result of mixed phase updraft intensification. Larger increases in intense updraft volume (≥ 10 m s-1) and larger changes in peak updraft speed are observed prior to lightning jump occurrence when compared to other non-jump increases in total flash rate. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Rank Sum testing yields p-values ≤0.05, indicating statistical independence between lightning jump and non-jump distributions for these two parameters. Similar changes in mixed phase graupel mass magnitude are observed prior to lightning jumps and non-jump increases in total flash rate. The p-value for graupel mass change is p=0.096, so jump and non-jump distributions for graupel mass change are not found statistically independent using the p=0.05 significance level. Timing of updraft volume, speed and graupel mass increases are found to be 4 to 13 minutes in advance of lightning jump occurrence. Also, severe storms without lightning jumps lack robust mixed phase updrafts, demonstrating that mixed phase updrafts are not always a requirement for severe weather occurrence. Therefore, the results of this study show that lightning jump occurrences are coincident with larger increases in intense mixed phase updraft volume and peak updraft speed than smaller non-jump increases in total flash rate.

  16. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Legg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10 aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post. Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6–8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season, the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2–4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8–22%CV in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.

  17. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  18. Countermovement strategy changes with vertical jump height to accommodate feasible force constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung; Choi, Sangkyu

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we developed a curve-fit model of countermovement dynamics and examined whether the characteristics of a countermovement jump can be quantified using the model parameter and its scaling; we expected that the model-based analysis would facilitate an understanding of the basic mechanisms of force reduction and propulsion with a simplified framework of the center of mass (CoM) mechanics. Ten healthy young subjects jumped straight up to five different levels ranging from approximately 10% to 35% of their body heights. The kinematic and kinetic data on the CoM were measured using a force plate system synchronized with motion capture cameras. All subjects generated larger vertical forces compared with their body weights from the countermovement and sufficiently lowered their CoM position to support the work performed by push-off as the vertical elevations became more challenging. The model simulation reasonably reproduced the trajectories of vertical force during the countermovement, and the model parameters were replaced by linear and polynomial regression functions in terms of the vertical jump height. Gradual scaling trends of the individual model parameters were observed as a function of the vertical jump height with different degrees of scaling, depending on the subject. The results imply that the subjects may be aware of the jumping dynamics when subjected to various vertical jump heights and may select their countermovement strategies to effectively accommodate biomechanical constraints, i.e., limited force generation for the standing vertical jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON THE DEVELOPMENT THE VERTICAL JUMP IN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundara rajan R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The present study investigated the effect of plyometric training on development of the vertical jump of volleyball players. The study consisted of 30 male volleyball players from PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore, their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. Participants articipants were randomly assigned Group I underwent plyometric training group and Group II control group. The plyometric training group carried out a set of plyometric exercises also designed by the researcher twice a week for six weeks. The control group was allowed to play their game, but they were not given any treatments. For the purpose of this research, two tests forthe evaluation of the volleyball vertical jump were validated: the block jump and spike jump. The data was analysed using Paired t-tests which were used to test the effect of treatment groups individually between pre and post –tests, of all the groups, on variables used in the present study. The analysis of covariance was used toanalsze the collected data. The result of the study reveals that there was significant difference in 0.05 levels.Based on the findings of the research and the discussion, one could conclude that the exercise model for the development of the vertical jump that had been used, as the fundamental factor of the experimental group, has contributed to the statistically significant difference in the increase of the vertical jump in comparison to thecontrol group, which had used technically tactical contents to develop the vertical jump.

  20. Weak convergence of marked point processes generated by crossings of multivariate jump processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Sacerdote, Laura; Jacobsen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the multivariate point process determined by the crossing times of the components of a multivariate jump process through a multivariate boundary, assuming to reset each component to an initial value after its boundary crossing. We prove that this point process converges weakly...... process converging to a multivariate Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process is discussed as a guideline for applying diffusion limits for jump processes. We apply our theoretical findings to neural network modeling. The proposed model gives a mathematical foundation to the generalization of the class of Leaky...

  1. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Richter, F. M.; Watson, E. B.; Chaussidon, M.

    2014-12-01

    Systematic lithium isotope variations along concentration gradients found in olivine and pyroxene grains from terrestrial, lunar and martian rocks have been attributed to diffusive isotopic fractionation [Beck et al., 2006; Tang et al., 2007]. In some cases, these isotopic excursions are so large that a single grain may display isotopic variability that spans almost the entire range of documented terrestrial values [Jeffcoate et al., 2007]. In this study, we present the results of experiments to examine diffusive isotopic fractionation of lithium in olivine. The experiments comprised crystallographically oriented slabs of San Carlos olivine juxtaposed with either spodumene powder or a lithium rich pyroxene crystal. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa and 0.1MPa over a temperature range of 1000 to 1125⁰C. Oxygen fugacity in the 0.1MPa experiments was controlled using the wustite-magnetite and nickel-nickel oxide solid buffer assemblages. Lithium concentrations generally decrease smoothly away from the edges of the grains; however, experiments involving diffusion parallel to the a-axis consistently show peculiar wavy or segmented concentration profiles. Lithium diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is on the order of 1E-14m2/s at 1100⁰C. The diffusivity parallel to the c-axis is more than an order of magnitude faster than diffusion parallel to the b-axis and correlates positively with oxygen fugacity. The lithium isotopic composition, δ7Li = 1000‰ * ((δ7Lisample- δ7Ligrain center)/ δ7Ligrain center), shows a decrease away from the edge of the grain to a minimum value (up to 70‰ lighter) and then an abrupt increase back to the initial isotopic composition of the olivine grain. This isotopic profile is similar to those found in natural grains and an experimental study on diffusive fractionation of lithium isotopes in pyroxene [Richter et al., 2014]. Results from the present study are modeled using the approach of Dohmen et al. [2010], which assumes lithium

  2. Joint derivation method for determining optical properties based on steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement at small source-detector separations and large reduced albedo range: theory and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2012-06-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties (the absorption coefficient μ(a) and the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s) (')) of tissues is very important in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Optical diffusion theory is frequently used as the forward model for describing the photon transfer in media with large reduced albedos (a(')) and in large source-detector separations (SDS). Several other methods (PN approximation, hybrid diffusion-P3 approximation) have also been published that describe photon transfer in media with low a(') or small SDSs. We studied the theoretical models for the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement to accurately determine μ(a) and μ(s) (') at large a(') range but small SDSs. Instead of using a single model, a joint derivation method is proposed. The developed method uses one of the best aforementioned theoretical methods separately in five ranges of a(') determined from several forward models. In the region of small SDSs (the range between 0.4 and 8 mm) and large a(') range (between 0.5 and 0.99), the best theoretical derivation model was determined. The results indicate that the joint derivation method can improve the derivation accuracy and that a(') range can be determined by the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

  3. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  4. Biomechanics of jumping in the flea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Gregory P; Burrows, Malcolm

    2011-03-01

    It has long been established that fleas jump by storing and releasing energy in a cuticular spring, but it is not known how forces from that spring are transmitted to the ground. One hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring pushes the trochanter onto the ground, thereby generating the jump. A second hypothesis is that the recoil of the spring acts through a lever system to push the tibia and tarsus onto the ground. To decide which of these two hypotheses is correct, we built a kinetic model to simulate the different possible velocities and accelerations produced by each proposed process and compared those simulations with the kinematics measured from high-speed images of natural jumping. The in vivo velocity and acceleration kinematics are consistent with the model that directs ground forces through the tibia and tarsus. Moreover, in some natural jumps there was no contact between the trochanter and the ground. There were also no observable differences between the kinematics of jumps that began with the trochanter on the ground and jumps that did not. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the tibia and tarsus have spines appropriate for applying forces to the ground, whereas no such structures were seen on the trochanter. Based on these observations, we discount the hypothesis that fleas use their trochantera to apply forces to the ground and conclude that fleas jump by applying forces to the ground through the end of the tibiae.

  5. Volatility jumps and their economic determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    predictive power on expected jump moves, thus confirming the common interpretation that sudden and large increases in equity volatility can be anticipated by credit deterioration of the US bank sector as well as changes in the market expectations of future risks. Finally, the model is extended to incorporate...... that there is a positive probability of jumps in volatility. A common factor in the volatility jumps is shown to be related to a set of financial covariates (such as variance risk premium, S&P500 volume, credit-default swap, and federal fund rates). The credit-default swap on US banks and variance risk premium have...

  6. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  7. Analytical solution to problems of hydraulic jump in horizontal triangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.H. Rashwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic jump is formed in a channel whenever supercritical flow changes to subcritical flow in a short distance. It can be used in triangular ditch irrigation to raise the downstream water surface. The basic elements and characteristics of the hydraulic jump are provided to aid designers in selecting more practical basins. In the present study, the slope side, discharge and the energy loss in hydraulic jump in horizontal triangular section are known whereas one has to obtain the sequent depths. The specific force and specific energy equations in a horizontal triangular open channel are made dimensionless, writing it for the sequent depths as a function of discharge and head loss. The proposed modes for hydraulic jump elements are of high accuracy and applicable to a wide range of discharge intensity values and initial conditions without any limitations for the assumptions under consideration.

  8. Insights into the Impact of Surface Hydrophobicity on Droplet Coalescence and Jumping Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Yang, Weilin; Aili, Abulimiti; Zhang, TieJun

    2017-08-29

    Droplet coalescence jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces attracts much research attention owing to its capability in enhancing condensation for energy and water applications. In this work, we reveal the impact of the finite surface adhesion to explain velocity discrepancies observed in recent droplet jumping studies, particularly when droplet sizes are a few micrometers (1-10 μm). Surface adhesion, which is usually neglected, can significantly affect both droplet coalescence and departure dynamics. It causes oscillations on velocity and contact area in the droplet coalescence process, as observed numerically and experimentally. Comparing the increasing rate of jumping velocity with contact angle for three different droplet sizes, we show that smaller droplets exhibit higher sensitivity to the change of surface hydrophobicity. We also specify the range of surface superhydrophobicity where the jumping velocity monotonically decreases (θ ≳ 170°), increases (θ ≲ 160°), or changes non-monotonically in transition (160° ≲ θ ≲170°) with droplet size. As a result, there exists a broad jumping velocity range for micrometer-sized droplets on a superhydrophobic surface with a slight contact angle variation. This work offers an extended understanding of the droplet coalescence and jumping dynamics to resolve the discrepancies in recent experimental observations.

  9. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  10. Human Long Jump — A Deductive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Jovanović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a useful application of a generalized approach to the modelling of human and humanoid motion using the deductive approach. It starts with formulating a completely general problem and deriving different real situations as special cases. The concept and the software realization are verified by comparing the results with the ones obtained using “classical” software for one well-known particular problem – biped walking. New applicability and potentials of the proposed method are demonstrated by simulation of a selected example – the long jump. The simulated motion included jumping and landing on the feet (after a jump. Additional analysis is done in the paper regarding the joint torque and joint angle during the jumping. Separate stages of the simulation are defined and explained.

  11. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%. There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075% and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%. Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  12. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-10-22

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  13. A Correction Equation for Jump Height Measured Using the Just Jump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John J; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2016-05-01

    To determine the concurrent validity and reliability of the popular Just Jump system (JJS) for determining jump height and, if necessary, provide a correction equation for future reference. Eighteen male college athletes performed 3 bilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs) on 2 JJSs (alternative method) that were placed on top of a force platform (criterion method). Two JJSs were used to establish consistency between systems. Jump height was calculated from flight time obtained from the JJS and force platform. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) demonstrated excellent within-session reliability of the CMJ height measurement derived from both the JJS (ICC = .96, P jump height (0.46 ± 0.09 m vs 0.33 ± 0.08 m) than the force platform (P jump height = (0.8747 × alternative jump height) - 0.0666. The JJS provides a reliable but overestimated measure of jump height. It is suggested, therefore, that practitioners who use the JJS as part of future work apply the correction equation presented in this study to resultant jump-height values.

  14. Jump spillover between oil prices and exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Chun-Yang; Wu, Chong-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the jump spillover effects between oil prices and exchange rates. To identify the latent historical jumps for exchange rates and oil prices, we use a Bayesian MCMC approach to estimate the stochastic volatility model with correlated jumps in both returns and volatilities for each. We examine the simultaneous jump intensities and the conditional jump spillover probabilities between oil prices and exchange rates, finding strong evidence of jump spillover effects. Further analysis shows that the jump spillovers are mainly due to exogenous events such as financial crises and geopolitical events. Thus, the findings have important implications for financial risk management.

  15. Multilevel preconditioners for discontinuous, Galerkin approximations of elliptic problems, with jump coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ayuso Dios, Blanca

    2013-10-30

    We introduce and analyze two-level and multilevel preconditioners for a family of Interior Penalty (IP) discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations of second order elliptic problems with large jumps in the diffusion coefficient. Our approach to IPDG-type methods is based on a splitting of the DG space into two components that are orthogonal in the energy inner product naturally induced by the methods. As a result, the methods and their analysis depend in a crucial way on the diffusion coefficient of the problem. The analysis of the proposed preconditioners is presented for both symmetric and non-symmetric IP schemes; dealing simultaneously with the jump in the diffusion coefficient and the non-nested character of the relevant discrete spaces presents additional difficulties in the analysis, which precludes a simple extension of existing results. However, we are able to establish robustness (with respect to the diffusion coefficient) and near-optimality (up to a logarithmic term depending on the mesh size) for both two-level and BPX-type preconditioners, by using a more refined Conjugate Gradient theory. Useful by-products of the analysis are the supporting results on the construction and analysis of simple, efficient and robust two-level and multilevel preconditioners for non-conforming Crouzeix-Raviart discretizations of elliptic problems with jump coefficients. Following the analysis, we present a sequence of detailed numerical results which verify the theory and illustrate the performance of the methods. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  16. Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: Benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nachabé (Rami); B.H.W. Hendriks (Benno); M. van der Voort (Marjolein); A.E. Desjardins (Adrien); H.J.C.M. Sterenborg (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith an optical fiber probe, we acquired spectra from swine tissue between 500 and 1600 nm by combining a silicon and an InGaAs spectrometer. The concentrations of the biological chromophores were estimated by fitting a mathematical model derived from diffusion theory. The advantage of

  17. Might as well jump: sound affects muscle activation in skateboarding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cesari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal the role of sound in action anticipation and performance, and to test whether the level of precision in action planning and execution is related to the level of sensorimotor skills and experience that listeners possess about a specific action. Individuals ranging from 18 to 75 years of age--some of them without any skills in skateboarding and others experts in this sport--were compared in their ability to anticipate and simulate a skateboarding jump by listening to the sound it produces. Only skaters were able to modulate the forces underfoot and to apply muscle synergies that closely resembled the ones that a skater would use if actually jumping on a skateboard. More importantly we showed that only skaters were able to plan the action by activating anticipatory postural adjustments about 200 ms after the jump event. We conclude that expert patterns are guided by auditory events that trigger proper anticipations of the corresponding patterns of movements.

  18. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  19. Elemental and cooperative diffusion in a liquid, supercooled liquid and glass resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Daniel R.; Lancelotti, Ricardo F.; Nuernberg, Rafael; Nascimento, Marcio L. F.; Rodrigues, Alisson M.; Diz, Luiza T.; Zanotto, Edgar D.

    2017-07-01

    The diffusion mechanisms controlling viscous flow, structural relaxation, liquid-liquid phase separation, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in multicomponent glass-forming liquids are of great interest and relevance in physics, chemistry, materials, and glass science. However, the diffusing entities that control each of these important dynamic processes are still unknown. The main objective of this work is to shed some light on this mystery, advancing the knowledge on this phenomenon. For that matter, we measured the crystal growth rates, the viscosity, and lead diffusivities in PbSiO3 liquid and glass in a wide temperature range. We compared our measured values with published data covering 16 orders of magnitude. We suggest that above a certain temperature range Td (1.2Tg-1.3Tg), crystal growth and viscous flow are controlled by the diffusion of silicon and lead. Below this temperature, crystal growth and viscous flow are more sluggish than the diffusion of silicon and lead. Therefore, Td marks the temperature where decoupling between the (measured) cationic diffusivity and the effective diffusivities calculated from viscosity and crystal growth rates occurs. We reasonably propose that the nature or size of the diffusional entities controlling viscous flow and crystal growth below Td is quite different; the slowest is the one controlling viscous flow, but both processes require cooperative movements of some larger structural units rather than jumps of only one or a few isolated atoms.

  20. Coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces: Effects of droplet mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, Joram; Figueiredo, Patric; Kneer, Reinhold; Rohlfs, Wilko; Pischke, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    On low-adhesion surfaces, coalescing droplets can spontaneously jump off, known as coalescence-induced droplet jumping. It is observed on a variety of synthetic and natural superhydrophobic surfaces, and gives rise to a range of applications, such as self-cleaning condensers, anti-icing coatings, and thermal diodes. Through three-dimensional simulations, this paper demonstrates the fluid dynamics of droplet jumping upon binary unequal-sized-droplet coalescence. Parametric studies show the influence of droplet mismatch, viscosity, and contact angle on jumping velocities, where liftoff regimes are defined on the basis of Ohnesorge number and droplet size ratio. Because of the strong asymmetric flow behavior, the well-known small conversion efficiency for equal-sized-droplet jumping, where around 6 % of the released surface energy is convertible into translational kinetic energy, is further reduced for unequal-sized-droplet jumping. The findings offer insights into their fluid dynamics and give a starting point for further modeling of dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Peak versus mean propulsive power outputs: which is more closely related to jump squat performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pai, Chi N

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the predictive value of muscle power (peak power, mean power until the peak-velocity or mean propulsive power) in relation to the jump height achieved during the jump squat performed at different loads. One hundred and ninety-four elite athletes performed jump squats against loads corresponding to 40%, 60%, and 80% of their respective body mass. A linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between muscle power expressions and jump squat height. The coefficient of determination (R2) in the different linear regression models between muscle power-related variables and jump squat height, for the different load ranges, varied from 0.50 to 0.57 (for absolute power values) and from 0.72 to 0.78 (for relative power values [W/kg]). The mean propulsive power presented similar capacity to predict the jump squat height as the peak power-related values. For all analyzed variables, this prediction power was increased when the absolute power values were normalized by the individuals' body mass. Selection of the values related to the mean propulsive phase to assess top-level athletes might be considered as an advantageous alternative, due to its adequacy to properly reflect the neuromuscular potential of the subjects in both ballistic and traditional exercises.

  2. Effect of a Compressive Garment on Kinematics of Jump-Landing Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto, Morgana A; Lemos, Andressa L; Dos Santos, Christielen S; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-09-01

    de Britto, MA, Lemos, AL, dos Santos, CS, Stefanyshyn, DJ, and Carpes, FP. Effect of a compressive garment on kinematics of jump-landing tasks. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2480-2488, 2017-During jump-landing tasks, knee kinematics such as excessive valgus have been linked to knee injury in females. We determine the influence of a compressive garment on knee valgus during landing. Physically active women (n = 27, mean age 23 years) performed 4 different jump-landing tasks with 2 apparel conditions (compressive garment and regular sports shorts). Kinematic data were collected to determine knee flexion and valgus angles and the maximum jump height. Results showed that the compressive garment decreased knee flexion and knee valgus range of motion, without significant changes in the maximum jump height. As a practical application, we suggest that compression could be a strategy to reduce dynamic valgus without influencing jump performance, which motivates further study of its potential for knee injury prevention.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Multidroplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Initial Droplet Arrangement Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liang, Qianqing; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Lan, Zhong; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-06-27

    The coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted considerable attention over the past several years. Most of the studies on droplet jumping mainly focus on two-droplet coalescence events whereas the coalescence of three or more droplets is actually more frequent and still remains poorly understood. In this work, a 3D lattice Boltzmann simulation is carried out to investigate the effect of initial droplet arrangements on the coalescence-induced jumping of three equally sized droplets. Depending on the initial position of droplets on the surface, the droplet coalescence behaviors can be generally classified into two types: one is that all droplets coalesce together instantaneously (concentrated configuration), and the other is that the initial coalesced droplet sweeps up the third droplet in its moving path (spaced configuration). The critical Ohnesorge number, Oh, for the transition of inertial-capillary-dominated coalescence to inertially limited-viscous coalescence is found to be 0.10 for droplet coalescence on SHSs with a contact angle of 160°. The jumping droplet velocity for concentrated multidroplet coalescence at Oh ⩽ 0.10 still follows the inertial-capillary scaling with an increased prefactor, which indicates a viable jumping droplet velocity enhancement scheme. However, the droplet jumping velocity is drastically reduced for the spaced configuration compared to that for the aforementioned concentrated configuration. Because Oh exceeds 0.10, the effects of initial droplet arrangements on multidroplet jumping become weaker as viscosity plays a key role in the merging process. This work will provide effective guidelines for the design of functional SHSs with enhanced droplet jumping for a wide range of industrial applications.

  4. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes for functional deficits that reduce physical performance. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the tes...

  5. A biomechanical comparison of the vertical jump, power clean, and jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Sasho James; Lavers, Robert J; Wallace, Brendan B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetics, kinematics, and muscle activation patterns of the countermovement jump, the power clean, and the jump squat with the expectation of gaining a better understanding of the mechanism of transfer from the power clean to the vertical jump. Ground reaction forces, electromyography, and joint angle data were collected from 20 trained participants while they performed the three movements. Relative to the power clean, the kinematics of the jump squat were more similar to those of the countermovement jump. The order in which the ankle, knee, and hip began extending, as well as the subsequent pattern of extension, was different between the power clean and countermovement jump. The electromyography data demonstrated significant differences in the relative timing of peak activations in all muscles, the maximum activation of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris, and in the activation/deactivation patterns of the vastus medialis and rectus femoris. The greatest rate of force development during the upward phase of these exercises was generated during the power clean (17,254 [Formula: see text]), which was significantly greater than both the countermovement jump (3836 [Formula: see text]) and jump squat (3517 [Formula: see text]) conditions (P < .001, [Formula: see text]).

  6. Determination of the best pre-jump height for improvement of two-legged vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahsa; Zolaktaf, Vahid; Marandi, Sayyed M

    2013-04-01

    Athletic performance in many sports depends on two-legged vertical jump. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different pre-jump height exercises on two-legged vertical jump and to determine the best pre-jump height(s). Subjects included 35 females and 42 males. By matched randomized sampling, subjects of each sex were assigned into four groups, namely, control, 10-cm hurdle, 20-cm hurdle, and 30-cm hurdle. They participated in the same training program for 6 weeks. Statistical analyses were based on one-way and repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis of the data showed that practice over hurdles of 10 cm was better than no hurdle and hurdles of >10 cm. Also, jump attempts over hurdles were efficient for trained athletes, but not for untrained athletes. For both sexes, the rate of spike improvement was much better in the experimental groups than in the control groups; it was independent from the rate of progress in jump, which was relatively less evident. It is likely that rather than increasing jump height, training over hurdle enabled the players to use a higher percent of their jump potentials.

  7. Comparing Fast Pressure Jump and Temperature Jump Protein Folding Experiments and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Anna Jean; Liu, Yanxin; Prigozhin, Maxim B; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-06-10

    The unimolecular folding reaction of small proteins is now amenable to a very direct mechanistic comparison between experiment and simulation. We present such a comparison of microsecond pressure and temperature jump refolding kinetics of the engineered WW domain FiP35, a model system for β-sheet folding. Both perturbations produce experimentally a faster and a slower kinetic phase, and the "slow" microsecond phase is activated. The fast phase shows differences between perturbation methods and is closer to the downhill limit by temperature jump, but closer to the transiently populated intermediate limit by pressure jump. These observations make more demands on simulations of the folding process than just a rough comparison of time scales. To complement experiments, we carried out several pressure jump and temperature jump all-atom molecular dynamics trajectories in explicit solvent, where FiP35 folded in five of the six simulations. We analyzed our pressure jump simulations by kinetic modeling and found that the pressure jump experiments and MD simulations are most consistent with a 4-state kinetic mechanism. Together, our experimental and computational data highlight FiP35's position at the boundary where activated intermediates and downhill folding meet, and we show that this model protein is an excellent candidate for further pressure jump molecular dynamics studies to compare experiment and modeling at the folding mechanism level.

  8. Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    In the literature, athletes preparing for explosive activities are recommended to include drop jumping in their training programs. For the execution of drop jumps, different techniques and different dropping heights can be used. This study was designed to investigate for the performance of bounce

  9. Increase in Jumping Height Associated with Maximal Effort Vertical Depth Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, John F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess if there existed a statistically significant increase in jumping performance when dropping from different heights, 32 males, aged 19 to 26, performed a series of maximal effort vertical jumps after dropping from eight heights onto a force plate. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  10. Experimental study of the hydraulic jump in a hydraulic jump in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydraulic jump in a sloped rectangular channel is theoretically and experimentally examined. The study aims to determine the effect of the channel's slope on the sequent depth ratio of the jump. A theoretical relation is proposed for the inflow Froude number as function of the sequent depth ratio and the channel slope.

  11. Autoregulating Jump Performance to Induce Functional Overreaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João G; Cronin, John B; Mezêncio, Bruno; Pinho, João P; Pereira, Conrado; Mochizuki, Luis; Amadio, Alberto C; Serrão, Julio C

    2016-08-01

    Claudino, JG, Cronin, JB, Mezêncio, B, Pinho, JP, Pereira, C, Mochizuki, L, Amadio, AC, and Serrão, JC. Autoregulating jump performance to induce functional overreaching. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2242-2249, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoregulating jump performance using the minimal individual difference (MID) associated with countermovement jump (CMJ) height could be used to regulate and monitor a training phase that elicited functional overreaching and tapering in team sport athletes. The participants were familiarized with the jump and then the CMJ height reliability was quantified to determine the MID. Countermovement jump height was assessed in the pretesting session (T0), at the end of 4 weeks of intensified training (T1), and after 2 weeks of tapering (T2). Eighteen national level U17 male futsal players were randomly allocated into the regulated group (RG; n = 9) and the control group (CG; n = 9). The RG performed 6 weeks of training with the training load regulated by mean height of CMJ with MID, whereas the CG performed the preplanned training. The differences between groups and across time points were compared by a 2-way analysis of variance. In the RG, the MID loading was increased in weeks 3 and 4 (8.2 and 14.5%, respectively; p jump results, the RG significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced CMJ height during T1 (effect size [ES] = -0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.58 to -0.02); however, there were no significant changes in the CG jump height at T1 and T2. At T2, the RG significantly increased CMJ height above baseline (ES = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.51). Researchers and practitioners could use this autoregulating method to regulate and monitor training load to achieve functional overreaching in youth futsal players.

  12. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  13. Jumps and Betas: A New Framework for Disentangling and Estimating Systematic Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todorov, Viktor; Bollerslev, Tim

    We provide a new theoretical framework for disentangling and estimating sensitivity towards systematic diffusive and jump risks in the context of factor pricing models. Our estimates of the sensitivities towards systematic risks, or betas, are based on the notion of increasingly finer sampled...... returns over fixed time intervals. In addition to establish- ing consistency of our estimators, we also derive Central Limit Theorems characterizing their asymptotic distributions. In an empirical application of the new procedures using high-frequency data for forty individual stocks and an aggregate...... market portfolio, we find the estimated diffusive and jump betas with respect to the market to be quite dif- ferent for many of the stocks. Our findings have direct and important implications for empirical asset pricing finance and practical portfolio and risk management decisions....

  14. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  15. Translational diffusion of water and its dependence on temperature in charged and uncharged clays: A neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Jurányi, Fanni; Gimmi, Thomas; Van Loon, Luc; Unruh, Tobias; Diamond, Larryn W

    2008-11-07

    The water diffusion in four different, highly compacted clays [montmorillonite in the Na- and Ca-forms, illite in the Na- and Ca-forms, kaolinite, and pyrophyllite (bulk dry density rho(b)=1.85+/-0.05 gcm(3))] was studied at the atomic level by means of quasielastic neutron scattering. The experiments were performed on two time-of-flight spectrometers and at three different energy resolutions [FOCUS at SINQ, PSI (3.65 and 5.75 A), and TOFTOF at FRM II (10 A)] for reliable data analysis and at temperatures between 27 and 95 degrees C. Two different jump diffusion models were used to describe the translational motion. Both models describe the data equally well and give the following ranking of diffusion coefficients: Na-montmorilloniteclays had slightly larger diffusion coefficients than that of bulk water due to their hydrophobic surfaces. The time between jumps, tau(t), follows the sequence: Ca-montmorillonite>or=Na-montmorillonite>Ca-illite>Na-illite>or=kaolinite>pyrophyllite>or=water, in both jump diffusion models. For clays with a permanent layer charge (montmorillonite and illite) a reduction in the water content by a factor of 2 resulted in a decrease in the self-diffusion coefficients and an increase in the time between jumps as compared to the full saturation. The uncharged clay kaolinite exhibited no change in the water mobility between the two hydration states. The rotational relaxation time of water was affected by the charged clay surfaces, especially in the case of montmorillonite; the uncharged clays presented a waterlike behavior. The activation energies for translational diffusion were calculated from the Arrhenius law, which adequately describes the systems in the studied temperature range. Na- and Ca-montmorillonite (approximately 11-12 kJmol), Na-illite (approximately 13 kJmol), kaolinite and pyrophyllite (approximately 14 kJmol), and Ca-illite (approximately 15 kJmol) all had lower activation energies than bulk water (approximately 17 kJmol in

  16. Diffusion on (110) Surface of Molecular Crystal Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Golfinopoulos, T; Gee, R H; Huang, H

    2007-01-25

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the diffusion mechanisms of admolecules on the (110) surface of molecular crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Our results show that (1) admolecules are stable at off lattice sites, (2) admolecules diffuse along close-packed [1{bar 1}1] and [{bar 1}11] directions, and (3) admolecules detach from the surface at 350K and above. Based on the number of diffusion jumps as a function of temperature, we estimate the jump frequency to be v=1.14 x 10{sup 12} e{sup -0.08eV/kT} per second.

  17. Broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectrometer for clinical diagnostics: characterization and in-vivo measurements in the 600-1350 nm spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Farina, Andrea; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Durduran, Turgut; Pagliazzi, Marco; Lindner, Claus; Farzam, Parisa; Mora, Mireia; Squarcia, Mattia; Urbano-Ispizua, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the design, performance assessment, and first in vivo measurement of a Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical system for broadband (600-1350 nm) nm measurement of absorption and scattering spectra of biological tissues for non-invasive clinical diagnostics. Two strategies to reduce drift and enhance responsivity are adopted. The system was enrolled in a first in vivo test phase on healthy volunteers, carrying out non-invasive, in vivo quantification of key tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, collagen) and tissue micro-structure (scatterer size and density).

  18. Popcorn: critical temperature, jump and sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ponomarenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-06

    Popcorn bursts open, jumps and emits a 'pop' sound in some hundredths of a second. The physical origin of these three observations remains unclear in the literature. We show that the critical temperature 180°C at which almost all of popcorn pops is consistent with an elementary pressure vessel scenario. We observe that popcorn jumps with a 'leg' of starch which is compressed on the ground. As a result, popcorn is midway between two categories of moving systems: explosive plants using fracture mechanisms and jumping animals using muscles. By synchronizing video recordings with acoustic recordings, we propose that the familiar 'pop' sound of the popcorn is caused by the release of water vapour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Clustered continuous-time random walks: diffusion and relaxation consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weron, Karina; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Meerschaert, Mark M; Scheffler, Hans-Peter

    2012-06-08

    We present a class of continuous-time random walks (CTRWs), in which random jumps are separated by random waiting times. The novel feature of these CTRWs is that the jumps are clustered. This introduces a coupled effect, with longer waiting times separating larger jump clusters. We show that the CTRW scaling limits are time-changed processes. Their densities solve two different fractional diffusion equations, depending on whether the waiting time is coupled to the preceding jump, or the following one. These fractional diffusion equations can be used to model all types of experimentally observed two power-law relaxation patterns. The parameters of the scaling limit process determine the power-law exponents and loss peak frequencies.

  20. Recent Advancements in Lightning Jump Algorithm Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    In the past year, the primary objectives were to show the usefulness of total lightning as compared to traditional cloud-to-ground (CG) networks, test the lightning jump algorithm configurations in other regions of the country, increase the number of thunderstorms within our thunderstorm database, and to pinpoint environments that could prove difficult for any lightning jump configuration. A total of 561 thunderstorms have been examined in the past year (409 non-severe, 152 severe) from four regions of the country (North Alabama, Washington D.C., High Plains of CO/KS, and Oklahoma). Results continue to indicate that the 2 lightning jump algorithm configuration holds the most promise in terms of prospective operational lightning jump algorithms, with a probability of detection (POD) at 81%, a false alarm rate (FAR) of 45%, a critical success index (CSI) of 49% and a Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of 0.66. The second best performing algorithm configuration was the Threshold 4 algorithm, which had a POD of 72%, FAR of 51%, a CSI of 41% and an HSS of 0.58. Because a more complex algorithm configuration shows the most promise in terms of prospective operational lightning jump algorithms, accurate thunderstorm cell tracking work must be undertaken to track lightning trends on an individual thunderstorm basis over time. While these numbers for the 2 configuration are impressive, the algorithm does have its weaknesses. Specifically, low-topped and tropical cyclone thunderstorm environments are present issues for the 2 lightning jump algorithm, because of the suppressed vertical depth impact on overall flash counts (i.e., a relative dearth in lightning). For example, in a sample of 120 thunderstorms from northern Alabama that contained 72 missed events by the 2 algorithm 36% of the misses were associated with these two environments (17 storms).

  1. Validity of a Jump Mat for assessing Countermovement Jump Performance in Elite Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig

    2017-02-01

    This study determined the validity of the Just Jump System® (JJS) for measuring flight time, jump height and peak power output (PPO) in elite rugby league players. 37 elite rugby league players performed 6 countermovement jumps (CMJ; 3 with and 3 without arms) on a jump mat and force platform. A sub-sample (n=28) was used to cross-validate the equations for flight time, jump height and PPO. The JJS systematically overestimated flight time and jump height compared to the force platform (Pjump height (with R2=0.945; without R2=0.987). Our equations revealed no systematic difference between corrected and force platform scores and an improved the agreement for flight time (Ratio limits of agreement: with 1.00 vs. 1.36; without 1.00 vs. 1.16) and jump height (with 1.01 vs. 1.34; without 1.01 vs. 1.15), meaning that our equations can be used to correct JJS scores for elite rugby players. While our equation improved the estimation of PPO (with 1.02; without 1.01) compared to existing equations (Harman: 1.20; Sayers: 1.04), this only accounted for 64 and 69% of PPO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effect of cation structure on the oxygen solubility and diffusivity in a range of bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide anion based ionic liquids for lithium-air battery electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Alex R; Li, Peilin; Jacquemin, Johan; Goodrich, Peter; Ball, Sarah C; Compton, Richard G; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-04-28

    This paper reports on the solubility and diffusivity of dissolved oxygen in a series of ionic liquids (ILs) based on the bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide anion with a range of related alkyl and ether functionalised cyclic alkylammonium cations. Cyclic voltammetry has been used to observe the reduction of oxygen in ILs at a microdisk electrode and chronoamperometric measurements have then been applied to simultaneously determine both the concentration and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in different ILs. The viscosity of the ILs and the calculated molar volume and free volume are also reported. It is found that, within this class of ILs, the oxygen diffusivity generally increases with decreasing viscosity of the neat IL. An inverse relationship between oxygen solubility and IL free volume is reported for the two IL families implying that oxygen is not simply occupying the available empty space. In addition, it is reported that the introduction of an ether-group into the IL cation structure promotes the diffusivity of dissolved oxygen but reduces the solubility of the gas.

  3. Popcorn: critical temperature, jump and sound

    OpenAIRE

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ponomarenko, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Popcorn bursts open, jumps and emits a ‘pop’ sound in some hundredths of a second. The physical origin of these three observations remains unclear in the literature. We show that the critical temperature 180°C at which almost all of popcorn pops is consistent with an elementary pressure vessel scenario. We observe that popcorn jumps with a ‘leg’ of starch which is compressed on the ground. As a result, popcorn is midway between two categories of moving systems: explosive plants using fracture...

  4. Inverse dynamic modelling of jumping in the red-legged running frog,Kassina maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura B; Collings, Amber J; Eberhard, Enrico A; Chadwick, Kyle P; Richards, Christopher T

    2017-05-15

    Although the red-legged running frog, Kassina maculata , is secondarily a walker/runner, it retains the capacity for multiple locomotor modes, including jumping at a wide range of angles (nearly 70 deg). Using simultaneous hind limb kinematics and single-foot ground reaction forces, we performed inverse dynamics analyses to calculate moment arms and torques about the hind limb joints during jumping at different angles in K. maculata. We show that forward thrust is generated primarily at the hip and ankle, while body elevation is primarily driven by the ankle. Steeper jumps are achieved by increased thrust at the hip and ankle and greater downward rotation of the distal limb segments. Because of its proximity to the GRF vector, knee posture appears to be important in controlling torque directions about this joint and, potentially, torque magnitudes at more distal joints. Other factors correlated with higher jump angles include increased body angle in the preparatory phase, faster joint openings and increased joint excursion, higher ventrally directed force, and greater acceleration and velocity. Finally, we demonstrate that jumping performance in K. maculata does not appear to be compromised by presumed adaptation to walking/running. Our results provide new insights into how frogs engage in a wide range of locomotor behaviours and the multi-functionality of anuran limbs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Intra and inter-tester reliability of the tuck jump assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Myer, Gregory D; Munro, Allan

    2013-08-01

    To assess the inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of the tuck jump test. Repeated measures. University Human Performance laboratory. Five male and 5 female athletes undertook the Tuck jump test which was then assessed by two independent assessors. Score from the video assessment of the tuck jump test by two independent assessors on two separate occasions. Average percentage of exact agreement (PEA) between the two testers across all scoring criteria for all subjects was 93% (range 80-100%). Both testers were in absolute 100% agreement in 5 out of 10 subjects for all of the scoring criteria. The kappa measure of agreement was k = 0.88 which is very good/excellent. The intra-tester PEA ranged 87.2%-100%, with kappa values of k = 0.86-1.0. The study showed very good-excellent intra-tester and inter-tester reliability for both examiners when comparing their individual scores of the tuck jump test across two analysis sessions. These findings indicate that the proposed tuck jump assessment is reliable to identify abnormal landing mechanics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Biomechanical Comparison Among Three Kinds of Rebound-Type Jumps in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, Miki; Yoshida, Naruto; Imai, Atsushi; Ae, Kazumichi; Ogaki, Ryo; Suhara, Hirokazu; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Single-legged drop jumps (SDJ), single-legged repetitive jumps (SRJ), and single-legged side hops (SSH) are often used as plyometric training and functional performance tests. Differences in the kinetics and kinematic characteristics of lower extremity joints during these jumps are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint motion and mechanical work of the takeoff leg from foot contact to foot-off during SDJ, SRJ, and SSH in the sagittal and frontal planes in female athletes. It was hypothesized that the joint motion and mechanical work of the lower extremity joints during the SDJ and SRJ would be larger than the SSH in the sagittal plane, those during the SSH would be larger than the SDJ and SRJ in the frontal plane, and during SRJ would be larger than SDJ. Cross-sectional study. Seventeen female collegiate athletes participated and performed the SDJ (0.15-m box height), and SRJ and SSH (by crossing two lines 0.3 m apart). Three-dimensional coordinate data and ground reaction forces were collected. Contact time, jump height, jump index (i.e., the jump height divided by the contact time) of the SDJ and SRJ, and the total times of the SSH were calculated. Range of motion (ROM) from touchdown to the lowest center of mass, and the positive and negative (mechanical) work from touchdown to foot-off were analyzed. There were no significant differences in jump performance variables. Compared to the SSH, the SDJ and SRJ had significantly larger ankle and knee ROM and positive and negative work at the lower extremity joints, except for positive work at the hip joint, in the sagittal plane (p SSH had a significantly larger ankle ROM and positive work at the knee joint in the frontal plane (p < 0.05). Compared to the SDJ, the SRJ had a significantly larger ROM and negative work at each lower extremity joint in the frontal plane (p < 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in the jump performance variables, different

  7. Influence of Knee-to-Feet Jump Training on Vertical Jump and Hang Clean Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura; Pickett, Karla; Bird, Michael; King, Adam C

    2016-11-01

    Stark, L, Pickett, K, Bird, M, and King, AC. Influence of knee-to-feet jump training on vertical jump and hang clean performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3084-3089, 2016-From a motor learning perspective, the practice/training environment can result in positive, negative, or neutral transfer to the testing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the training effect of a novel movement (knee-to-feet [K2F] jumps) and whether a 6-week training program induced a positive transfer effect to other power-related movements (vertical jump and hang clean [HC]). Twenty-six intercollegiate athletes from power-emphasized sports were paired and counter-balanced into a control (i.e., maintained their respective sport-specific lifting regimen) or an experimental group (i.e., completed a 6-week progressive training program of K2F jumps in addition to respective lifting regimen). A pre- and posttest design was used to investigate the effect of training on K2F jump height and transfer effect to vertical jump height (VJH) and 2-repetition maximum (RM) HC performance. A significant increase in K2F jump height was found for the experimental group. Vertical jump height significantly increased from pre- to posttest but no group or interaction (group × time) effect was found, and there were nonsignificant differences for HC. Posttest data showed significant correlations between all pairs of the selected exercises with the highest correlation between K2F jump height and VJ H (R = 0.40) followed by VJH and 2RM HC (R = 0.38) and 2RM HC and K2F jump height (R = 0.23). The results suggest that K2F jump training induced the desired learning effect but was specific to the movement in that no effect of transfer occurred to the other power-related movements. This finding is value for strength and condition professionals who design training programs to enhance athletic performance.

  8. High-Resolution Height-Profile Analysis and Laser-Ionization Characterization of a Wide Range of Fullerenes in Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmann, K.; Hepp, H.; Sattler, K.

    Neutral fullerenes are detected online in laminar, atmospheric pressure methane diffusion flames using time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with laser ionization. The intensity of the C60 signal shows a quadratic dependence of the laser-pulse energy, which is consistent with two-photon ionization. Poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are also found in these flames. Height profiles of fullerenes are compared with height profiles of PAH and it is found that the concentration of fullerenes most strongly at a height where the concentration of PAH decreases the most. This height in the flame probably marks the burnout of the available hydrogen. Since all fullerenes, independent of their number of carbons, peak at the same height above burner, we conclude that fullerenes in flames do not grow by the addition of small molecules.

  9. Factors affecting jump performance in professional Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M A; Watsford, M L; Cavanagh, B P; Pruyn, E C

    2015-10-01

    This study examined factors contributing to jump performance in professional Australian Rules Football (ARF) players. Thirty-two ARF players performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and were divided into groups based on jump performance: high calibre (HC) or low calibre (LC). During CMJ assessment, force, rate of force development, movement velocity and power were measured. Physical measures included mass, height, age, lower body strength, eccentric utilization ratio and leg stiffness (Kleg). HC and LC groups were compared to determine the variables contributing to jump performance and correlation and regression analyses also aided in identifying such variables. CMJ height was higher in the HC group (Pjump height and strength, velocity and power, while the regression analysis revealed velocity was the sole predictive variable of jump performance. Jumping performance clearly differs within a group of professional ARF athletes. Movement velocity appears to be an important factor contributing to jump performance; however, lower body power and Kleg are also important for jump performance.

  10. Do Bilateral Vertical Jumps With Reactive Jump Landings Achieve Osteogenic Thresholds With and Without Instruction in Premenopausal Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissold, Tracey L; Winwood, Paul W; Cronin, John B; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2017-11-01

    Jumps have been investigated as a stimulus for bone development, however effects of instruction, jump type and jump-landing techniques need investigation. This study sought to identify whether ground reaction forces (GRF's) for bilateral vertical jumps (countermovement jumps and drop jumps) with reactive jump-landings (i.e. jumping immediately after initial jump-landing), with instruction and with instruction withdrawn, achieve magnitudes and rates of strain previously shown to improve bone mass among premenopausal women. Twenty-one women (Mean±SD: 43.3±5.9 years; 69.4±9.6kg; 167±5.5cm; 27.5±8.7% body fat) performed a testing session 'with instruction' followed by a testing session performed one week later with 'instruction withdrawn'. The magnitudes (4.59 to 5.49 BW's) and rates of strain (263 to 359 BW∙s-1) for the jump-landings, performed on an AMTI force plate, exceeded previously determined thresholds (>3BW's and >43BW∙s-1). Interestingly, significantly larger peak resultant forces, (↑10%; p=.002) and peak rates of force development (↑20%; pjump-landing (post-reactive jump). Small increases (ES=0.22 to 0.42) in all landing forces were observed in the second jump-landing with 'instruction withdrawn'. These jumps represent a unique training stimulus for premenopausal women and achieve osteogenic thresholds thought pre-requisite for bone growth.

  11. Particle diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringuier, E, E-mail: eric.bringuier@upmc.fr [UFR de Physique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-07-15

    This paper is an elementary introduction to particle diffusion in a medium where the coefficient of diffusion varies with position. The introduction is aimed at third-year university courses. We start from a simple model of particles hopping on a discrete lattice, in one or more dimensions, and then take the continuous-space limit so as to obtain the differential equation of diffusion. The discrete-step model is next adapted to investigate diffusion by continuous-length steps; the coefficient of diffusion is related to the mean free path. In both the discrete- and continuous-step models, the diffusion law has the Fokker-Planck (instead of Fick) pattern if the jumps are not biased and occur equally likely in all directions. Lastly, three experimental examples of diffusion in inhomogeneous media are examined; the observed law can be of a Fokker-Planck, Fick or hybrid type.

  12. Comparison of selected parameters of long jump disabled athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Čutková, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Title: Comparison of selected parameters of long jump disabled athletes. Goals: The main goal of this work is to evaluate the selected characteristics in the long jump persons with various disabilities. Method: Data were obtained by analyzing long jump. I focused on four variables in the long jump, which we evaluated in the program Kinovea. The resulting data were first compared with those of healthy jumpers and then within each of class. Results: The values that we created after analysis, we...

  13. The Effects of Arms and Countermovement on Vertical Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-28

    Vertical jumping is an integral part of the high jump track-and-field event and sports such as volleyball , diving and basketball. Some form of...arms to assist in vertical jumping . A player might be precluded from swinging the arms because they are occupied in throwing or manipulating a ball...is)(is not) attached. Title The Effects of Arms and Countermovement on Vertical Jumping Author(s) Everett A. Harman, Michael T. Rosenstein, Peter N

  14. (Araneae: Palpimanidae) on jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  15. Safety assessment of jumps in ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelwig, K; Reichl, W; Kaps, P; Mössner, M; Nachbauer, W

    2015-12-01

    The influence of important parameters on the flight trajectory for jumps in downhill World Cup races was investigated. To quantify the impact injury risk at landing, the parameter equivalent landing height (ELH) was introduced, which considered a variable slope inclination during the landing movement. Altogether, 145 runs at four different jumps in World Cup races and trainings were recorded and analyzed. A simulation model was developed to predict the flight phase of the skier. Drag and lift areas were selected by parameter identification to fit the simulation trajectory to the two-dimensional data from the video analysis. The maximum values of the ELH which can be absorbed with muscle force was taken from the study of Minetti et al. for elite female and male ski racers. A sensitivity analysis based on the four jumps showed that ELH is mainly influenced by takeoff angle, takeoff speed, and the steepness of the landing surface. With the help of the developed simulation software, it should be possible to predict the ELH for jumps in advance. In case of an excessive ELH, improvements can be made by changing the takeoff inclination or the approach speed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Jumping Mechanism of Self-Propelled Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Chen, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The self-propelled behavior of coalesced droplets can be utilized to enhance heat transfer performance of dropwise condensation. It has been recognized that the droplet self-propelling is the combined result of the conversion of surface energy to kinetic energy and the unsymmetrical boundary conditions imposed on the droplets. However, the roles of boundary conditions, which largely determine the conversion ratio of surface energy to the effective jumping kinetic energy, are not well understood. In this paper we use a numerical approach to investigate the boundary condition effect on the self-propelling behavior. A Navier-Stokes equation solver for multiphase flows is used to describe the flow field. The moment of fluid interface reconstruction technique is applied to resolute the interfaces. A direction splitting method is applied to advect the interface. And an approximate projection method is used to decouple the calculation of velocity and pressure. Comparisons are made with experimental results and show the simulation can accurately capture self-propelling behavior. Our simulation show the vertical flow velocity inside the coalesced droplet can increase the normalized jumping velocity but the contact area between droplets and substrate can decrease jumping velocity. High viscous dissipation is observed at the beginning of the coalescence which reduces jumping velocity.

  17. Understanding the physics of bungee jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.; Uylings, P.; Kędzierska, E.

    2010-01-01

    Changing mass phenomena like the motion of a falling chain, the behaviour of a falling elastic bar or spring, and the motion of a bungee jumper surprise many a physicist. In this article we discuss the first phase of bungee jumping, when the bungee jumper falls, but the bungee rope is still slack.

  18. Jumping on the Social Media Bandwagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Should a school district jump on the social media bandwagon? Yes! Social media provide a low-cost way to communicate school district priorities, influence decision makers, and tell its story without filters. Equally important, social media are where constituents are spending a lot of their time. With more than 800 million members, Facebook is an…

  19. A memory diffusion model for molecular anisotropic diffusion in siliceous β-zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfei; An, Zhuanzhuan; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    A memory diffusion model of molecules on β-zeolite is proposed. In the model, molecular diffusion in β-zeolites is treated as jumping from one adsorption site to its neighbors and the jumping probability is a compound probability which includes that provided by the transitional state theory as well as that derived from the information about which direction the target molecule comes from. The proposed approach reveals that the diffusivities along two crystal axes on β-zeolite are correlated. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations on diffusion of benzene and other simple molecules in β-zeolites. The results show that the molecules with larger diameters fit the prediction much better and that the "memory effects" are important in all cases.

  20. Vorticity determination in a hydraulic jump by application of method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method of characteristics for solving systems of partial differential equations coupled with jump conditions is used in analysing flow downstream of a hydraulic jump instead of the normal analytical approach adopted in Hornung [1]. It is shown that the method of characteristics together with the jump conditions can ...

  1. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Norms for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David D.; Peterson, D. Fred

    2004-01-01

    Medical students and their spouses (N = 724) served as participants to create norm-referenced vertical jump values for active, healthy people ages 21-30. All tests were conducted and measured by the same individual during a campus fitness evaluation using a Vertec[TM] apparatus. Jump height was measured to the nearest 0.5 in. Mean jump height was…

  2. Explanation of the bilateral deficit in human vertical squat jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; de Graaf, W.W.; Jonk, J.N.; Casius, L.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, it has been reported that the mechanical output per leg is less in two-leg jumps than in one-leg jumps. This so-called bilateral deficit has been attributed to a reduced neural drive to muscles in two-leg jumps. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible

  3. Effects of Isometric Scaling on Vertical Jumping Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Jump height, defined as vertical displacement in the airborne phase, depends on vertical takeoff velocity. For centuries, researchers have speculated on how jump height is affected by body size and many have adhered to what has come to be known as Borelli's law, which states that jump height does

  4. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Normative Data for Colombian Schoolchildren Aged 9-17.9 Years: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Cadore, EL, Alonso-Martinez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Vertical jump and leg power normative data for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 990-998, 2017-The aims of the present study were to generate normative vertical jump height and predicted peak power (Ppeak) data for 9- to 17.9-year-olds and to investigate between-sex and age group differences in these measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 7,614 healthy schoolchildren (boys n = 3,258 and girls n = 4,356, mean [SD] age 12.8 [2.3] years). Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps; jump height was calculated using a Takei 5414 Jump-DF Digital Vertical (Takei Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd.). The highest jump was used for analysis and in the calculation of predicted Ppeak. Centile smoothed curves, percentiles, and tables for the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated using Cole's LMS (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) method. The 2-way analysis of variance tests showed that maximum jump height (in centimeters) and predicted Ppeak (in watts) were higher in boys than in girls (p jump height and Ppeak in all ages. In boys, the maximum jump height and predicted Ppeak 50th percentile ranged from 24.0 to 38.0 cm and from 845.5 to 3061.6 W, respectively. In girls, the 50th percentile for jump height ranged from 22.3 to 27.0 cm, and the predicted Ppeak was 710.1-2036.4 W. For girls, jump height increased yearly from 9 to 17.9 years old. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific vertical jump height and predicted Ppeak reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  5. Commentary on “The influence of lung airways branching structure and diffusion time on measurements and models of short-range 3He gas MR diffusion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Conradi, Mark S.

    2014-02-01

    In a recently published paper by Parra-Robles and Wild [1], the authors challenge the in vivo lung morphometry technique (based on hyperpolarized gas diffusion MRI) developed by our Washington University research group. In this Commentary we demonstrate that the main conclusion of Parra-Robles and Wild, that our MRI-based lung morphometry technique “produces inaccurate estimates of the airway dimensions”, does not have any scientific basis and is not in agreement with the considerable body of peer-reviewed scientific reports as well as with Parra-Robles and Wild's own data. On the contrary, our technique has a strong theoretical background, is validated, and provides accurate 3D tomographic information on lung microstructural parameters previously available only from invasive biopsy specimens. This technique has already produced a number of results related to lung morphology and function that were not previously available. In our Commentary we also discuss a number of other incorrect statements in and shortcomings of Parra-Robles and Wild's paper.

  6. Measurement errors when estimating the vertical jump height with flight time using photocell devices: the example of Optojump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A; Dhahbi, W; Chaouachi, A; Padulo, J; Wong, D P; Chamari, K

    2017-03-01

    Common methods to estimate vertical jump height (VJH) are based on the measurements of flight time (FT) or vertical reaction force. This study aimed to assess the measurement errors when estimating the VJH with flight time using photocell devices in comparison with the gold standard jump height measured by a force plate (FP). The second purpose was to determine the intrinsic reliability of the Optojump photoelectric cells in estimating VJH. For this aim, 20 subjects (age: 22.50±1.24 years) performed maximal vertical jumps in three modalities in randomized order: the squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), and CMJ with arm swing (CMJarm). Each trial was simultaneously recorded by the FP and Optojump devices. High intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for validity (0.98-0.99) and low limits of agreement (less than 1.4 cm) were found; even a systematic difference in jump height was consistently observed between FT and double integration of force methods (-31% to -27%; p1.2). Intra-session reliability of Optojump was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.98 to 0.99, low coefficients of variation (3.98%), and low standard errors of measurement (0.8 cm). It was concluded that there was a high correlation between the two methods to estimate the vertical jump height, but the FT method cannot replace the gold standard, due to the large systematic bias. According to our results, the equations of each of the three jump modalities were presented in order to obtain a better estimation of the jump height.

  7. Measurement errors when estimating the vertical jump height with flight time using photocell devices: the example of Optojump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A; Chaouachi, A; Padulo, J; Wong, DP; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    Common methods to estimate vertical jump height (VJH) are based on the measurements of flight time (FT) or vertical reaction force. This study aimed to assess the measurement errors when estimating the VJH with flight time using photocell devices in comparison with the gold standard jump height measured by a force plate (FP). The second purpose was to determine the intrinsic reliability of the Optojump photoelectric cells in estimating VJH. For this aim, 20 subjects (age: 22.50±1.24 years) performed maximal vertical jumps in three modalities in randomized order: the squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), and CMJ with arm swing (CMJarm). Each trial was simultaneously recorded by the FP and Optojump devices. High intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for validity (0.98-0.99) and low limits of agreement (less than 1.4 cm) were found; even a systematic difference in jump height was consistently observed between FT and double integration of force methods (-31% to -27%; p1.2). Intra-session reliability of Optojump was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.98 to 0.99, low coefficients of variation (3.98%), and low standard errors of measurement (0.8 cm). It was concluded that there was a high correlation between the two methods to estimate the vertical jump height, but the FT method cannot replace the gold standard, due to the large systematic bias. According to our results, the equations of each of the three jump modalities were presented in order to obtain a better estimation of the jump height. PMID:28416900

  8. BIOMECHANICS OF FLIGHT PHASE WHEN RUNNING LONG JUMP FROM PLACE OF DIFFERENT QUALIFICATION SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Razuvanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical features of flight phase when running long jump from place of different qualification sportsmen were investigated by method of Motion Tracking. The obtained results showed that the effective control of body position during the phase of flight can improve the effectiveness of jump actions.. This control is performed by moving parts of the body – bending legs at the knee, extension in the hip joints, the joints of the spine, shoulder joints and, as a consequence, any additional torque, contributing to increase the range of the jumping. In untrained persons the effectiveness of the management body in flight is reduced due to weak coordination and a predominance of actions aimed at safe. All the patterns can be viewed as the result of formation of a particular movement pattern, based on the interaction of vestibular and statokinetic reflexes. 

  9. Jump conditions for Maxwell equations and their consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikhanda Satapathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We derived the jump conditions for Faraday's induction law at the interface of two contacting bodies in both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions. An algorithm to implement the jump conditions in the potential formulation of Maxwell equation is presented. Calculations show that the use of the correct jump conditions leads to good agreement with experimental data, whereas the use of incorrect jump conditions can lead to severe inaccuracies in the computational results. Our derivation resolves the jump condition discrepancy found in the literature and is validated with experimental results.

  10. Effect of theoretical biomechanics on open jump the platform jumps performance using jumps (vault) in artistic gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Haider Saud; Hanna, Sura Jamil; Ameen, Ferdous Majeed

    2015-01-01

    The biomechanics is an important science the physical education, thereby sports analyzed and thereafter correct the technical errors. Gymnastics is more related with biomechanics than other sports, this science contribute in the analysis, illustration, understanding, and improvement of sports technique. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of theoretical information on the Platform Jumps (Vault) Performance, and to identify the difference of the performance level between pre-test an...

  11. Jumping and Landing Techniques in Elite Women's Volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J; Brunt, Denis; Bennett, Gregg R

    2004-03-01

    Volleyball has become one of the most widely played participant sports in the world. Participation requires expertise in many physical skills and performance is often dependent on an individual's ability to jump and land. The incidence of injury in volleyball is similar to the rates reported for sports that are considered more physical contact sports. Though the most common source of injury in volleyball is the jump landing sequence, little research exists regarding the prevalence of jumping and landing techniques. The purpose of this study was to quantify the number of jumps performed by female volleyball players in competitive matches and to determine the relative frequency of different jump-landing techniques. Videotape recordings of two matches among four volleyball teams were analyzed for this study. Each activity was categorized by jump type (offensive spike or defensive block) and phase (jump or landing). Phase was subcategorized by foot use patterns (right, left, or both). Each of the players averaged nearly 22 jump-landings per game. Foot use patterns occurred in unequal amounts (p ice hockey and soccer.Most injuries in volleyball occur during the jump landing sequence, but few data exist regarding jump landing techniques for elite female players.Our data indicate that the vast majority of jumps utilize two feet, but approximately half of landings occur with only one foot.Coaches, physical educators, and recreation providers may utilize the findings of this inquiry to prevent possible injuries in athletes, students, or those who participate in volleyball for recreational purposes.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of the jump shot in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2014-09-29

    Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player's jumping ability.

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of the Jump Shot in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability

  14. A hybrid continuous-discrete method for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Cheong; Zheng, Likun; Nie, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic fluctuations in reaction-diffusion processes often have substantial effect on spatial and temporal dynamics of signal transductions in complex biological systems. One popular approach for simulating these processes is to divide the system into small spatial compartments assuming that molecules react only within the same compartment and jump between adjacent compartments driven by the diffusion. While the approach is convenient in terms of its implementation, its computational cost may become prohibitive when diffusive jumps occur significantly more frequently than reactions, as in the case of rapid diffusion. Here, we present a hybrid continuous-discrete method in which diffusion is simulated using continuous approximation while reactions are based on the Gillespie algorithm. Specifically, the diffusive jumps are approximated as continuous Gaussian random vectors with time-dependent means and covariances, allowing use of a large time step, even for rapid diffusion. By considering the correlation among diffusive jumps, the approximation is accurate for the second moment of the diffusion process. In addition, a criterion is obtained for identifying the region in which such diffusion approximation is required to enable adaptive calculations for better accuracy. Applications to a linear diffusion system and two nonlinear systems of morphogens demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the new hybrid method.

  15. Detection of confinement and jumps in single-molecule membrane trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilhac, N.; Le Guyader, L.; Salomé, L.; Destainville, N.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a variant of the algorithm by [R. Simson, E. D. Sheets, and K. Jacobson, Biophys. 69, 989 (1995)]. Their algorithm was developed to detect transient confinement zones in experimental single-particle tracking trajectories of diffusing membrane proteins or lipids. We show that our algorithm is able to detect confinement in a wider class of confining potential shapes than that of Simson Furthermore, it enables to detect not only temporary confinement but also jumps between confinement zones. Jumps are predicted by membrane skeleton fence and picket models. In the case of experimental trajectories of μ -opioid receptors, which belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors involved in a signal transduction pathway, this algorithm confirms that confinement cannot be explained solely by rigid fences.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF MUSICAL CADENCE INTO AQUATIC JUMPING JACKS KINEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário J. Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface. Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min-1, 135 b·min-1, 150 b·min-1, 165 b·min-1 and 180 b·min-1 with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands, lower limbs' (i.e. feet and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence.

  17. Frequency jump in an ion linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Duperrier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Frequency jumps in an ion linac use to be made in order to provide a large transverse acceptance in the low-energy part and a high accelerating gradient in the high-energy part. This frequency jump may induce a discontinuity in the average longitudinal force per focusing period and shrink the longitudinal acceptance of the linac if this transition is not performed carefully. In this paper, three techniques are developed which produce a “certain” continuity of the channel at the transition between. The continuity type is discussed. It is demonstrated that the longitudinal acceptance can be preserved whatever the frequencies of the cavities in the linac. This point is very important when comparisons between different cavity types are made (spoke and elliptical cavities for, instance. A few examples are shown to illustrate the performances of the three techniques.

  18. Potential for Non-Contact ACL Injury Between Step-Close-Jump and Hop-Jump Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-I; Gu, Chin-Yi; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Mu-San

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury. Key pointsThe different landing techniques required for these two stop-jump tasks do not necessarily affect the jump height.Hop-jump decreased the hip joint angular velocity at initial foot contact with ground, which could lead to an increasing peak posterior GRF during the landing phase.Hop-jump decreased hip and knee joint angular flexion displacement during the landing, which could increase the peak vertical loading rate during the landing phase.

  19. The effect of short-term VertiMax vs. depth jump training on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenton, Lakeysha S; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Kersey, Robert D

    2008-03-01

    The ability to generate lower body explosive power is considered an important factor in many athletic activities. Thirty-one men and women, recreationally trained volunteers, were randomly assigned to 3 different groups (control, n = 10; VertiMax, n = 11; and depth jump, n = 10). A Vertec measuring device was used to test vertical jump height pre- and post-training. All subjects trained twice weekly for 6 weeks, performing approximately 140 jumps. The VertiMax group increased elastic resistance and decreased volume each week, while the depth jump group increased both box height and volume each week. The depth jump group significantly increased their vertical jump height (pre: 20.5 +/- 3.98; post: 22.65 +/- 4.09), while the VertiMax (pre: 22.18 +/- 4.31; post: 23.36 +/- 4.06) and control groups (pre: 15.65 +/- 4.51; post: 15.85 +/- 4.17) did not change. These findings suggest that, within the volume and intensity constraints of this study, depth jump training twice weekly for 6 weeks is more beneficial than VertiMax jump training for increasing vertical jump height. Strength professionals should focus on depth jump exercises in the short term over commercially available devices to improve vertical jump performance.

  20. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  1. POTENTIAL FOR NON-CONTACT ACL INJURY BETWEEN STEP-CLOSE-JUMP AND HOP-JUMP TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-I Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the kinematics and kinetics during the landing of hop-jump and step-close-jump movements in order to provide further inferring that the potential risk of ACL injuries. Eleven elite male volleyball players were recruited to perform hop-jump and step-close-jump tasks. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during landing in stop-jump tasks were recorded. Lower extremity kinetics was calculated by using an inverse dynamic process. Step-close-jump tasks demonstrated smaller peak proximal tibia anterior shear forces during the landing phase. In step-close-jump tasks, increasing hip joint angular velocity during initial foot-ground contact decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during the landing phase, which theoretically could reduce the risk of ACL injury

  2. Validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test in Subelite Adolescent Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pabst, Jan; Granacher, Urs; Büsch, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Muehlbauer, T, Pabst, J, Granacher, U, and Büsch, D. Validity of the jump-and-reach test in subelite adolescent handball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1282-1289, 2017-The primary purpose of this study was to examine concurrent validity of the jump-and-reach (JaR) test using the Vertec system and a criterion device (i.e., Optojump system). In separate subanalyses, we investigated the influence of gym floor condition and athletes' sex on the validity of vertical jump height. Four hundred forty subelite adolescent female (n = 222, mean age: 14 ± 1 year, age range: 13-15 years) and male (n = 218, mean age: 15 ± 1 year, age range: 14-16 years) handball players performed the JaR test in gyms with region or point elastic floors. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously assessed using the Vertec and the Optojump systems. In general, significantly higher jump heights were obtained for the Vertec compared with the Optojump system (11.2 cm, Δ31%, Cohen's d = 2.58). The subanalyses revealed significantly larger jump heights for the Vertec compared with the Optojump system irrespective of gym floor condition and players' sex. The association between Optojump- and Vertec-derived vertical jump heights amounted to rP = 0.84, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.71. The subanalyses indicated significantly larger correlations in males (rP = 0.75, R = 0.56) than in females (rP = 0.63, R = 0.40). Yet, correlations were not significantly different between region (rP = 0.83, R = 0.69) as opposed to point elastic floor (rP = 0.87, R = 0.76). Our findings indicate that the 2 apparatuses cannot be used interchangeably. Consequently, gym floor and sex-specific regression equations were provided to estimate true (Optojump system) vertical jump height from Vertec-derived data.

  3. Quantum jumps of a fluxonium qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vool, U.; Pop, I. M.; Sliwa, K.; Abdo, B.; Brecht, T.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Glazman, L.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-03-01

    The fluxonium qubit has recently been shown to have energy relaxation time (T1) of the order of 1 ms, limited by quasiparticle dissipation. With the addition of a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC) to the experiment, trajectories corresponding to quantum jumps between the ground and 1st excited state can be measured, thus allowing the observation of the qubit decay in real time instead of that of an ensemble average. Our measurement fidelity with the JPC is in excess of 98% for an acquisition time of 5 us and we can thus continuously monitor the quantum jumps of the qubit in equilibrium with its environment in a time much shorter than its average relaxation time. We observe in our sample a jump statistics that varies from being completely Poissonian with a long (500 us) mean time in the ground state to being highly non-Poissonian with short (100 us) mean time in the ground state. The changes between these regimes occur on time scales of seconds, minutes and even hours. We have studied this effect and its relation to quasiparticle dynamics by injecting quasiparticles with a short intense microwave pulse and by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices with magnetic field. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  4. Collective concerted motion in a molecular adlayer visualized through the surface diffusion of isolated vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Christian; Otero, Roberto; Écija, David; Trelka, Marta; Martín, Nazario; Gallego, José M.; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2016-10-01

    We have measured STM movies to study the diffusion of individual vacancies in a self-assembled layer of a tetrathiafulvalene derivative (exTTF) on Au(111) at room temperature. The diffusion is anisotropic, being faster along the compact direction of the molecular lattice. A detailed analysis of the anisotropic displacement distribution of the single vacancies shows that the relative abundance of double jumps (that is, the collective motion of molecular dimers) with respect to single jumps is rather large, the number of double jumps being more than 20% of the diffusion events. We conjecture that the relative abundances of long jumps might be related to the strength of the intermolecular bonding and the misfit of the molecular overlayer with the substrate lattice.

  5. Jump Shrug Height and Landing Forces Across Various Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Taber, Christopher B; Wright, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that load has on the mechanics of the jump shrug. Fifteen track and field and club/intramural athletes (age 21.7 ± 1.3 y, height 180.9 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 84.7 ± 13.2 kg, 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) hang power clean 109.1 ± 17.2 kg) performed repetitions of the jump shrug at 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their 1RM hang power clean. Jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex were compared between loads using a series of 1-way repeated-measures ANOVAs. Statistical differences in jump height (P .05). The greatest magnitudes of jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at the apex of the jump shrug occurred at 30% 1RM hang power clean and decreased as the external load increased from 45% to 80% 1RM hang power clean. Relationships between peak landing force and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex indicate that the landing forces produced during the jump shrug may be due to the landing strategy used by the athletes, especially at lighter loads. Practitioners may prescribe heavier loads during the jump-shrug exercise without viewing landing force as a potential limitation.

  6. Can jumping capacity of adult show jumping horses be predicted on the basis of submaximal free jumps at foal age? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Santamaria, S.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.; Barneveld, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify performance characteristics of good jumping horses, and to determine whether these were already detectable at foal age. Kinematic data were collected of horses performing free jumps over a 0.60 m high fence at six months of age and of these same horses

  7. Li diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2010-09-01

    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  8. Relationship of leg strength and power to ground reaction forces in both experienced and novice jump trained personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J R; Liebermann, D; Gusis, A

    1997-08-01

    There were 14 male soldiers who participated in this study examining the relationship of leg strength and power on landing performance. Subjects were separated into two groups. The first group (E, n = 7) were parachute training instructors and highly experienced in parachute jumping. The second group of subjects (N, n = 7) had no prior parachute training experience and were considered novice jumpers. All subjects were tested for one-repetition maximum (1 RM) squat strength and maximal jump power. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and the time to peak force (TPF) at landing were measured from jumps at four different heights (95 cm, 120 cm, 145 cm, and 170 cm). All jumps were performed from a customized jump platform onto a force plate. No differences were seen between E and N in either IRM squat strength or in MJP. In addition, no differences were seen between the groups for time to peak force at any jump height. However, significantly greater GRF were observed in E compared to N. Moderate to high correlations between maximal jump power and GRF (r values ranging from 0.62-0.93) were observed in E. Although maximal jump power and the TPF was significantly correlated (r = -0.89) at only 120 cm for E, it was interesting to note that the correlations between MJP and the time to peak force in E were all negative and that the correlations between these variables in N were all positive. These results suggest that experienced parachutists may use a different landing strategy than novice jumpers. This difference may be reflected by differences in GRF generated during impact and a more efficient utilization of muscle power during the impact phase of the landing.

  9. A-jump in horizontal inverted semicircular open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.H. Rashwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic jump is a transitional state from supercritical to subcritical flow. The phenomenon of the hydraulic jump has been widely studied because of its frequent occurrence in nature and because of its uses in many practical applications. In the present study the momentum principle is used to derive an equation expressed the hydraulic jump (A-jump occurred in a short horizontal reach of an inverted semicircular open channel. The derived equation indicates that the initial water depth and the tail water depth (conjugate depths are functions of the critical water depth. Various elements of the hydraulic jump are expressed in dimensionless case. The procedure of dimensionless ratios described in the present paper can be used to determine various elements of A-jump in an inverted semicircular channel when either the discharge and the relative initial depth (or tail water depth is known or the discharge and the relative dissipated energy are known.

  10. Jump Tails, Extreme Dependencies, and the Distribution of Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Viktor

    We provide a new framework for estimating the systematic and idiosyncratic jump tail risks in financial asset prices. The theory underlying our estimates are based on in-fill asymptotic arguments for directly identifying the systematic and idiosyncratic jumps, together with conventional long...... market portfolio, we find that the distributions of the systematic and idiosyncratic jumps are both generally heavy-tailed and not necessarily symmetric. Our estimates also point to the existence of strong dependencies between the market-wide jumps and the corresponding systematic jump tails for all...... of the stocks in the sample. We also show how the jump tail dependencies deduced from the high-frequency data together with the day-to-day temporal variation in the volatility are able to explain the “extreme” dependencies vis-a-vis the market portfolio....

  11. Manifestations of Proprioception During Vertical Jumps to Specific Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Winiarski, Sławomir; Juras, Grzegorz; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Artur, S, Bogdan, P, Kawczyński, A, Winiarski, S, Grzegorz, J, and Andrzej, R. Manifestations of proprioception during vertical jumps to specific heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1694–1701, 2017—Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared with their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8 ± 0.9 years, body height: 181.8 ± 8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8 ± 11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8 ± 1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1 ± 0.8 years, body height: 170.5 ± 6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3 ± 9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7 ± 1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, sex, and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately 2 times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads. PMID:28538322

  12. Development of a Minimally Actuated Jumping-Rolling Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanhtam Ho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents development of a hybrid mobile robot in order to take advantage of both rolling and jumping locomotion on the ground. According to the unique design of the mechanism, the robot is able to execute both jumping and rolling skilfully by using only one DC motor. Changing the centre of gravity enables rolling of the robot and storage of energy is utilized for jumping. Mechanism design and control logic are validated by computer simulation. Simulation results show that the robot can jump nearly 1.3 times its diameter and roll at the speed of 3.3 times its diameter per second.

  13. pH jump induced α-helix folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donten M. L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available pH can be used to impact the folding equilibrium of peptides and proteins. This fact is utilized, similarly to temperature jumps, in pH jump experiments employing laser time-resolved spectroscopy to study the function and structural dynamics of these molecules. Here the application of pH jumps in folding experiments was investigated. Experiments with poly-L-glutamic acid alpha-helix formation shown the critical aspects of pH jump experiments and yielded direct information about the folding kinetics monitored with the amide I IR band.

  14. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Juras, Grzegorz; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Rokita, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI) for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs) and bounce drop jumps (BDJs). The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  15. Jump Testing and the Speed of Market Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben B.

    Asymptotic properties of jump tests rely on the property that any jump occurs within a single time interval no matter what the observation frequency is. Market microstructure effects in relation to news-induced revaluation of the underlying variable is likely to make this an unrealistic assumption...... for high-frequency transaction data. To capture these microstructure effects, this paper suggests a model in which market prices adjust gradually to jumps in the underlying effcient price. A case study illustrates the empirical relevance of the model, and the performance of different jump tests...

  16. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs and bounce drop jumps (BDJs. The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p < 0.05 between RSI values for CDJs and BDJs were recorded for jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the values recorded for BDJs. Times of contact, amortization and take-off during BDJs were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 than the respective values obtained for CDJs. Therefore, the use of the RSI to monitor plyometric training should be based on the drop jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  17. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  18. Multiobjective Optimization Methodology A Jumping Gene Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, KS

    2012-01-01

    Complex design problems are often governed by a number of performance merits. These markers gauge how good the design is going to be, but can conflict with the performance requirements that must be met. The challenge is reconciling these two requirements. This book introduces a newly developed jumping gene algorithm, designed to address the multi-functional objectives problem and supplies a viably adequate solution in speed. The text presents various multi-objective optimization techniques and provides the technical know-how for obtaining trade-off solutions between solution spread and converg

  19. Optimum Drop Jump Height in Division III Athletes: Under 75% of Vertical Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Khuat, Cong Toai; Kernozek, Thomas W; Wallace, Brian J; Lo, Shin-Liang; Song, Chen-Yi

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the vertical ground reaction force, impulse, moments and powers of hip, knee and ankle joints, contact time, and jump height when performing a drop jump from different drop heights based on the percentage of a performer's maximum vertical jump height (MVJH). Fifteen male Division III athletes participated voluntarily. Eleven synchronized cameras and two force platforms were used to collect data. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance tests were used to examine the differences between drop heights. The maximum hip, knee and ankle power absorption during 125%MVJH and 150%MVJH were greater than those during 75%MVJH. The impulse during landing at 100%MVJH, 125%MVJH and 150%MVJH were greater than 75%MVJH. The vertical ground reaction force during 150%MVJH was greater than 50%MVJH, 75%MVJH and 100%MVJH. Drop height below 75%MVJH had the most merits for increasing joint power output while having a lower impact force, impulse and joint power absorption. Drop height of 150%MVJH may not be desirable as a high-intensity stimulus due to the much greater impact force, increasing the risk of injury, without increasing jump height performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The jumping mechanism of Xenopsylla cheopis. III. Execution of the jump and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M; Schlein, J; Parker, K; Neville, C; Sternberg, S

    1975-10-30

    The flea's hind legs are the chief source of jumping power, but in species which execute large jumps, take-off is accelerated by elastic energy released from a resilin pad (homologous with the wing hinge ligaments of flying insects) situated in the pleural arch. A central click mechanism, operated by a rapid twitch of the trochanteral depressor (the starter muscle), synchronizes the separate sources of energy which power the jump. Ciné photos confirm the morphological evidence that the flea takes off from the trochanters, not the tarsi. The loss of wings, associated with lateral compression of the body and the shortening of the pleural ridge (which thus lowers the position of the pleural arch) together with modifications of the direct and indirect flight muscles, are some of the main morphological features associated with the change from a flying to a saltatorial mode of progression. The flea's take-off basically resembles that of other Panorpoid insects (Diptera, Mecoptera, etc.). The release of elastic energy from the pleural arch is a system by which the force used to move the wings of flying insects is rapidly fed back into the legs and adds power to the jump.

  1. Mechanical output about the ankle in countermovement jumps and jumps with extended knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J. B.; Bobbert, M. F.; Tetteroo, W. E.; van Ingen Schenau, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the mechanical output (e.g., force, contraction velocity, instantaneous power) about the ankle was measured during a jump with and without occurrence of transportation of power and pre-stretch potentiation. To examine this, a model of the m. triceps surae was used. Eleven subjects

  2. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Ma, Xuehu; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-12-27

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.

  3. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Ma, Xuehu [Liaoning; Yang, Ronggui [Buildings

    2017-12-13

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.

  4. Magnetic moment jumps in flat and nanopatterned Nb thin-walled cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsindlekht, M.I., E-mail: mtsindl@vms.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Genkin, V.M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Gazi, Š.; Chromik, Š. [The Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dobrovolskiy, O.V. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Physics Department, V. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Sachser, R.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Magnetization curves of as-prepared and patterned thin-walled cylinders were measured in magnetic fields applied parallel to cylinders axis. • Magnetic moment jumps were observed in magnetic fields lower and above Hc1. • Critical current density in isthmus between two antidots is higher than in a film itself. - Abstract: Penetration of magnetic flux into hollow superconducting cylinders is investigated by magnetic moment measurements. The magnetization curves of a flat and a nanopatterned thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross section are reported for the axial field geometry. In the nanopatterned sample, a row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was milled in the film along the cylinder axis. Magnetic moment jumps are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H{sub c1}, but also in fields lower than H{sub c1}, i. e., in the vortex-free regime. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H{sub c1}. At temperatures above 0.66T{sub c} and 0.78T{sub c} the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared sample, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference flat Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures.

  5. Determinant Factors of the Squat Jump in Sprinting and Jumping Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Badillo, Juan José; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Ramírez-Lechuga, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between strength variables and maximum velocity (Vmax) in the squat jump (SJ) in sprinting and jumping athletes. Thirty-two sprinting and jumping athletes of national level (25.4 ± 4.5 years; 79.4 ± 6.9 kg and 180.4 ± 6.0 cm) participated in the study. Vmax in the SJ showed significant relationships with peak force 1 (PF1) (r = 0.82, p ≤ 0.001), peak force 2 (PF2) (r = 0.68, p ≤ 0.001), PF2 by controlling for PF1 (r = 0.30, non-significant), the maximum rate of force development at peak force 1 (RFDmax1) (r = 0.62, p ≤ 0.001), mean RFD 1 (RFDmean1) (r = 0.48, p ≤ 0.01), mean RFD 2 (RFDmean2) (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.001), force at RFDmax1 (r = 0.36, p ≤ 0.05), force at RFDmax2 (r = 0.83, p ≤ 0.001) and force at RFDmax2 by controlling for PF1 (r = 0.40, p ≤ 0.05). However, Vmax in the SJ was associated negatively with the ratio PF2/PF1 (r = -0.54, p ≤ 0.01), time at peak force 2 (Tp2) (r = -0.64, p ≤ 0.001) and maximum rate of force development at peak force 2 (RFDmax2) (r = -0.71, p ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that the peak force achieved at the beginning of the movement (PF1) is the main predictor of performance in jumping, although the RFDmax values and the ratio PF2/PF1 are also variables to be taken into account when analyzing the determinant factors of vertical jumping. PMID:28828074

  6. Manifestations of Proprioception During Vertical Jumps to Specific Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Kawczyński, Adam; Winiarski, Sławomir; Juras, Grzegorz; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Jumping and proprioception are important abilities in many sports. The efficiency of the proprioceptive system is indirectly related to jumps performed at specified heights. Therefore, this study recorded the ability of young athletes who play team sports to jump to a specific height compared with their maximum ability. A total of 154 male (age: 14.8 ± 0.9 years, body height: 181.8 ± 8.9 cm, body weight: 69.8 ± 11.8 kg, training experience: 3.8 ± 1.7 years) and 151 female (age: 14.1 ± 0.8 years, body height: 170.5 ± 6.5 cm, body weight: 60.3 ± 9.4 kg, training experience: 3.7 ± 1.4 years) team games players were recruited for this study. Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps with arm swing to 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum height. Measurements were performed using a force plate. Jump height and its accuracy with respect to a specified height were calculated. The results revealed no significant differences in jump height and its accuracy to the specified heights between the groups (stratified by age, sex, and sport). Individuals with a higher jumping accuracy also exhibited greater maximum jump heights. Jumps to 25% of the maximum height were approximately 2 times higher than the target height. The decreased jump accuracy to a specific height when attempting to jump to lower heights should be reduced with training, particularly among athletes who play team sports. These findings provide useful information regarding the proprioceptive system for team sport coaches and may shape guidelines for training routines by working with submaximal loads.

  7. Training methods to improve vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gomez, J; Calbet, J A L

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to review the main methods used to improve vertical jump performance (VJP). Although many training routines have been proposed, these can be grouped into four main categories: plyometric training (PT), weight training (WT), whole body vibration training (VT) and electromyostimulation training (ET). PT enhances muscular force, the rate of force development (RFD), muscular power, muscle contraction velocity, cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle stiffness allowing greater storage and release of elastic energy. WT improve muscular force, velocity, power output, and RFD during jumping on a force plate, muscle hypertrophy and neural adaptations. One of the most effective methods to improve VJP is the combination of PT with WT, which takes advantage of the enhancement of maximal dynamic force through WT and the positive effects of PT on speed and force of muscle contraction through its specific effect on type II fibers. Some authors have found an increase in VJP with the use of VT while other did not see such an effect. However, it remains unknown by which mechanisms VT could enhance VJP. ET has been shown to elicit muscle hypertrophy. The VJP may be improved when ET is applied concomitantly with PT or practice of sports. In summary, scientific evidence suggests that the best way to improve VJP is through the combination of PT with WT. Further research is needed to establish if better results are possible by more complex strategies.

  8. Understanding the physics of bungee jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, André; Uylings, Peter; Kędzierska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Changing mass phenomena like the motion of a falling chain, the behaviour of a falling elastic bar or spring, and the motion of a bungee jumper surprise many a physicist. In this article we discuss the first phase of bungee jumping, when the bungee jumper falls, but the bungee rope is still slack. In instructional material this phase is often considered a free fall, but when the mass of the bungee rope is taken into account, the bungee jumper reaches acceleration greater than g. This result is contrary to the usual experience with free falling objects and therefore hard to believe for many a person, even an experienced physicist. It is often a starting point for heated discussions about the quality of the experiments and the physics knowledge of the experimentalist, or it may even prompt complaints about the quality of current physics education. But experiments do reveal the truth and students can do them supported by information and communication technology (ICT) tools. We report on a research project done by secondary school students and use their work to discuss how measurements with sensors, video analysis of self-recorded high-speed video clips and computer modelling allow study of the physics of bungee jumping.

  9. A jumping cylinder in an incline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Raul W.; Hernandez, Jorge; Marquina, Vivianne

    2012-02-01

    The problem of a cylinder of mass m and radius r, with its center of mass out of the cylinder axis, rolling in an incline that makes an angle α respect to the horizontal is analyzed. The equation of motion is solved to obtain the site where the cylinder loses contact with the incline (jumps). Several simplifications are made: the analyzed system consists of an homogeneous disc with a one dimensional straight line of mass parallel to the disc axis at a distance d Styrofoam cylinder of radius r = 10.0 ± 0.05 cm, high h = 5.55 ± 0.05 cm and a mass m1 = 24.45 ± 0.05 g, to which a 9.50 ± 0.01 mm diameter and 5.10 ± 0.001 cm long brass road of mass m2 = 30.75 ± 0.05 g was imbibed parallel to the disc axis at a distance of 5.40 ± 0.05 cm from it. Then the disc rolls on a 3.20 m long wooden ramp inclined at 30 and 45 respect to the horizontal. To determine the jumping site, the movements were recorded with a high-speed video camera (Casio EX ZR100) at 400 frames per second. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Biomechanical differences of arm swing countermovement jumps on sand and rigid surface performed by elite beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, George; Panoutsakopoulos, Vassilios; Kollias, Iraklis A

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible arm swing effect on the biomechanical parameters of vertical counter movement jump due to differences of the compliance of the take-off surface. Fifteen elite male beach-volleyball players (26.2 ± 5.9 years; 1.87 ± 0.05 m; 83.4 ± 6.0 kg; mean ± standard deviation, respectively) performed counter movement jumps on sand and on a rigid surface with and without an arm swing. Results showed significant (p jump height, the ankle joint angle at the lowest height of the body center of mass and the ankle angular velocity. Also, significant arm swing effects were found on jump height, maximum power output, temporal parameters, range of motion and angular velocity of the hip. These findings could be attributed to the instability of the sand, which resulted in reduced peak power output due to the differences of body configuration at the lowest body position and lower limb joints' range of motion. The combined effect of the backward arm swing and the recoil of the sand that resulted in decreased resistance at ankle plantar flexion should be controlled at the preparation of selected jumping tasks in beach-volleyball.

  11. Autotomy, tail regeneration and jumping ability in Cape dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined jumping by the Cape dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus capensis) in terms of individuals' varying states of tail autotomy and regeneration. Although longer jumps were less likely to be successful (i.e. the animal would not successfully grip the surface and fell to the ground), there was no difference in the distance over ...

  12. JUMPING AND LANDING TECHNIQUES IN ELITE WOMEN'S VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Brunt

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Volleyball has become one of the most widely played participant sports in the world. Participation requires expertise in many physical skills and performance is often dependent on an individual's ability to jump and land. The incidence of injury in volleyball is similar to the rates reported for sports that are considered more physical contact sports. Though the most common source of injury in volleyball is the jump landing sequence, little research exists regarding the prevalence of jumping and landing techniques. The purpose of this study was to quantify the number of jumps performed by female volleyball players in competitive matches and to determine the relative frequency of different jump-landing techniques. Videotape recordings of two matches among four volleyball teams were analyzed for this study. Each activity was categorized by jump type (offensive spike or defensive block and phase (jump or landing. Phase was subcategorized by foot use patterns (right, left, or both. Each of the players averaged nearly 22 jump-landings per game. Foot use patterns occurred in unequal amounts (p < 0.001 with over 50% of defensive landings occurring on one foot. Coaches, physical educators, and recreation providers may utilize the findings of this inquiry to help prevent injuries in volleyball

  13. Upper-limb motion and drop jump: effect of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaye, G; Bardy, B; Taiar, R

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the role of arm motion in a drop jump was investigated in skilled and unskilled subjects. Nine skilled volleyball players and 8 novice individuals performed a series of jumps from two different heights: 30 cm and 60 cm. Free and restricted arm motion were used to determine the effect of arm motion on the vertical jump. Participants were instructed to land on a force plate and jump as high as possible. The ground reaction force was measured with an AMTI force plate (500 Hz). The kinematics of the jumps was recorded with two digital cameras (50 Hz). The motion of the arms during the jumps was found to increase the jump height by 15% for the volleyball players and 12% for unskilled jumpers. Volleyball players performed better in the 60 cm than in 30 cm drop height (+8.5%). In the volleyball players, the peak vertical ground reaction force during take-off increased by 7%, the peak power increased by 10.6% while the peak impact force decreased by 6.3%. Skilled jumpers were found to have a better use of arm motion than novices in (i) increasing the vertical jump performance, (ii) controlling the balance of the body at take-off (iii) leaving the ground with an optimal body orientation.

  14. Mechanical output in jumps of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Plas, R.L.C.; Weide, G.; Clairbois, H.E.; Hofman, S.; Jaspers, R.T.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the mechanical output of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during jumping. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured in 18 animals while they jumped from an instrumented crossbar to a crossbar located 70 cm higher. From the vertical force time histories, we

  15. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The world price of jump and volatility risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Jump and volatility risk are important for understanding equity returns, option pricing and asset allocation. This paper is the first to study international integration of markets for jump and volatility risk, using data on index options for each of the three main global markets: US S&P 500 index

  17. Basketball jump shooting is controlled online by vision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraz De Oliveira, R.M.; Huys, R.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; van der Langenberg, R.W.; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether basketball jump shooting relies on online visual (i.e., dorsal stream-mediated) control rather than motor preprogramming. Seventeen expert basketball players (eight males and nine females) performed jump shots under normal vision and in three conditions

  18. A Safe and Effective Modification of Thomson's Jumping Ring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschke, Felix; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The electrical circuit of the jumping ring experiment based on discharging a capacitor is optimized. The setup is scoop proof at 46 V and yet the ring jumps more than 9 m high. The setup is suitable for both lectures and student laboratory work in higher education. (Contains 1 table, 8 figures and 3 footnotes.)

  19. Could the deep squat jump predict weightlifting performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaya, Francisco J; Viana, Oscar; del Olmo, Miguel Fernandez; Acero, Rafael Martin

    2009-05-01

    This research was carried out with the aim of describing the deep squat jump (DSJ) and comparing it with the squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps, to introduce it as a strength testing tool in the monitoring and control of training in strength and power sports. Forty-eight male subjects (21 weightlifters, 12 triathletes, and 15 physical education students) performed 3 trials of DSJ, SJ, and CMJ with a 1-minute rest among them. For the weightlifters, snatch and clean and jerk results during the Spanish Championship 2004 and the 35th EU Championships 2007 were collected to study the relationship among vertical jumps and weightlifters' performance. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between groups in the vertical jumps, with the highest jumps for the weightlifters and the lowest for the triathletes. An ANOVA for repeated measures (type of jump) showed better results for DSJ and CMJ than SJ in all groups. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between weightlifting and vertical jump performances. Correlations among the weightlifting performance and the vertical jumps were also calculated and determined using Pearson r. Results have shown that both CMJ and DSJ are strongly correlated with weightlifting ability. Therefore, both measures can be useful for coaches as a strength testing tool in the monitoring and control of training in weightlifting.

  20. Role of the hamstrings in human vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.

    1996-01-01

    In some human subjects performing maximum-height squat jumps, the EMG-pattern of semitendinosus is bi-phasic and that of biceps femoris is mono-phasic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of biceps femoris and semitendinosus in squat jumping, and to explain why they are different.

  1. Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil

    2013-01-01

    . The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height.Compared to the control group, the training group significant decreased stopping time following perturbation (-109ms, 95% CI [-196:-21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5cm...

  2. Relationships between variables describing vertical jump and sprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between jumping variables, namely the height of the countermovement jump (CMJ) with arm swing and relative peak muscle power and time of the 30m-sprint (in a straight line and with direction changes) in a group of 187 young athletes who practised team sports.

  3. Control strategy of maximum vertical jumps: The preferred countermovement depth may not be fully optimized for jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Radivoj; Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the control strategy of maximum countermovement jumps regarding the preferred countermovement depth preceding the concentric jump phase. Elite basketball players and physically active non-athletes were tested on the jumps performed with and without an arm swing, while the countermovement depth was varied within the interval of almost 30 cm around its preferred value. The results consistently revealed 5.1-11.2 cm smaller countermovement depth than the optimum one, but the same difference was more prominent in non-athletes. In addition, although the same differences revealed a marked effect on the recorded force and power output, they reduced jump height for only 0.1-1.2 cm. Therefore, the studied control strategy may not be based solely on the countermovement depth that maximizes jump height. In addition, the comparison of the two groups does not support the concept of a dual-task strategy based on the trade-off between maximizing jump height and minimizing the jumping quickness that should be more prominent in the athletes that routinely need to jump quickly. Further research could explore whether the observed phenomenon is based on other optimization principles, such as the minimization of effort and energy expenditure. Nevertheless, future routine testing procedures should take into account that the control strategy of maximum countermovement jumps is not fully based on maximizing the jump height, while the countermovement depth markedly confound the relationship between the jump height and the assessed force and power output of leg muscles.

  4. Control strategy of maximum vertical jumps: The preferred countermovement depth may not be fully optimized for jump height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandic Radivoj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the control strategy of maximum countermovement jumps regarding the preferred countermovement depth preceding the concentric jump phase. Elite basketball players and physically active non-athletes were tested on the jumps performed with and without an arm swing, while the countermovement depth was varied within the interval of almost 30 cm around its preferred value. The results consistently revealed 5.1-11.2 cm smaller countermovement depth than the optimum one, but the same difference was more prominent in non-athletes. In addition, although the same differences revealed a marked effect on the recorded force and power output, they reduced jump height for only 0.1-1.2 cm. Therefore, the studied control strategy may not be based solely on the countermovement depth that maximizes jump height. In addition, the comparison of the two groups does not support the concept of a dual-task strategy based on the trade-off between maximizing jump height and minimizing the jumping quickness that should be more prominent in the athletes that routinely need to jump quickly. Further research could explore whether the observed phenomenon is based on other optimization principles, such as the minimization of effort and energy expenditure. Nevertheless, future routine testing procedures should take into account that the control strategy of maximum countermovement jumps is not fully based on maximizing the jump height, while the countermovement depth markedly confound the relationship between the jump height and the assessed force and power output of leg muscles.

  5. Diffusion of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we report the quasielastic neutron scattering and FTIR studies on the dynamics of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites. QENS data show that although the mechanism of translational motion of propylene is jump diffusion in both the cases of Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites, the diffusivity is affected by the ...

  6. Diffusion of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Here we report the quasielastic neutron scattering and FTIR studies on the dynamics of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites. QENS data show that although the mechanism of translational motion of propylene is jump diffusion in both the cases of Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites, the diffusivity is affected ...

  7. Diffusion mechanism of non-interacting Brownian particles through a deformed substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfa, Lahcen; Ouahmane, Mehdi; El Arroum, Lahcen

    2018-02-01

    We study the diffusion mechanism of non-interacting Brownian particles through a deformed substrate. The study is done at low temperature for different values of the friction. The deformed substrate is represented by a periodic Remoissenet-Peyrard potential with deformability parameter s. In this potential, the particles (impurity, adatoms…) can diffuse. We ignore the interactions between these mobile particles consider them merely as non-interacting Brownian particles and this system is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. We solve this equation numerically using the matrix continued fraction method to calculate the dynamic structure factor S(q , ω) . From S(q , ω) some relevant correlation functions are also calculated. In particular, we determine the half-width line λ(q) of the peak of the quasi-elastic dynamic structure factor S(q , ω) and the diffusion coefficient D. Our numerical results show that the diffusion mechanism is described, depending on the structure of the potential, either by a simple jump diffusion process with jump length close to the lattice constant a or by a combination of a jump diffusion model with jump length close to lattice constant a and a liquid-like motion inside the unit cell. It shows also that, for different friction regimes and various potential shapes, the friction attenuates the diffusion mechanism. It is found that, in the high friction regime, the diffusion process is more important through a deformed substrate than through a non-deformed one.

  8. Granular jump properties for the design of protection dams against snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Ségolène; Faug, Thierry; Einav, Itai

    2017-04-01

    macroscopic geometry of the jump. The laboratory tests are used to test and validate the trends observed in the numerical model. The numerical simulations backed up with the laboratory tests allow to understand precisely the role of each term in the new analytical solution proposed and to develop robust closure relations, thus helping to make the analytical solution predictive over a wide range of incoming flow conditions.

  9. Reliability of the Tuck Jump Injury Risk Screening Assessment in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-06-01

    Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.

  10. Unilateral plantar flexors static-stretching effects on ipsilateral and contralateral jump measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Behm, David George; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Silva, Fernando Henrique Domingues de Oliveira; Soares, Enrico Gori; Serpa, Érica Paes; Vilela Junior, Guanis de Barros; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static-stretching (SS) on the passive range of movement (ROM) of the stretched limb, surface electromyography (sEMG) and single-leg bounce drop jump (SBDJ) performance measures of the ipsilateral stretched and contralateral non-stretched lower limbs. Seventeen young men (24 ± 5 years) performed SBDJ before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch) unilateral ankle plantar flexor SS (6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort). SBDJ performance measures included jump height, impulse, time to reach peak force, contact time as well as the sEMG integral (IEMG) and pre-activation (IEMGpre-activation) of the gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive ROM increased in the stretched limb after the SS (pre-test: 21 ± 4° and post-test: 26.5 ± 5°, p effectively increased passive ankle ROM of the stretched limb, and transiently (less than 10 minutes) decreased muscle peak force and pre-activation. The decrease of jump height and impulse for the non-stretched limb suggests a SS-induced central nervous system inhibitory effect. Key pointsWhen considering whether or not to SS prior to athletic activities, one must consider the potential positive effects of increased ankle dorsiflexion motion with the potential deleterious effects of power and muscle activity during a simple jumping task or as part of the rehabilitation process.Since decreased jump performance measures can persist for 10 minutes in the stretched leg, the timing of SS prior to performance must be taken into consideration.Athletes, fitness enthusiasts and therapists should also keep in mind that SS one limb has generalized effects upon contralateral limbs as well.

  11. Effect of various training modalities on vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kevin; Magnusen, Marshall; Walters, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of weight training, training with weights and plyometrics, and training with weights and the VertiMax on vertical jump. Subjects were 37 intercollegiate athletes assigned to one of four training groups: strength (S), strength-plyometric (P), strength-VertiMax without arms (VNA), and strength-VertiMax with arms (VA). Each group completed a 6-week training program. There were no statistical increases in pre-post vertical jump within all groups. There were no significant differences for posttest vertical jump between the four training groups. Pre- and posttest effect sizes were minimal across all groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is no difference in vertical jump among strength training, plyometric training, and jump training over a 6-week timeframe.

  12. Post-processing interstitialcy diffusion from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, U.; Bukkuru, S.; Warrier, M.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm to rigorously trace the interstitialcy diffusion trajectory in crystals is developed. The algorithm incorporates unsupervised learning and graph optimization which obviate the need to input extra domain specific information depending on crystal or temperature of the simulation. The algorithm is implemented in a flexible framework as a post-processor to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We describe in detail the reduction of interstitialcy diffusion into known computational problems of unsupervised clustering and graph optimization. We also discuss the steps, computational efficiency and key components of the algorithm. Using the algorithm, thermal interstitialcy diffusion from low to near-melting point temperatures is studied. We encapsulate the algorithms in a modular framework with functionality to calculate diffusion coefficients, migration energies and other trajectory properties. The study validates the algorithm by establishing the conformity of output parameters with experimental values and provides detailed insights for the interstitialcy diffusion mechanism. The algorithm along with the help of supporting visualizations and analysis gives convincing details and a new approach to quantifying diffusion jumps, jump-lengths, time between jumps and to identify interstitials from lattice atoms.

  13. Post-processing interstitialcy diffusion from molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, U., E-mail: haptork@gmail.com [Computational Analysis Division, BARC, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, 530012 (India); Bukkuru, S. [Nuclear Physics Dept., Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, 530003 (India); Warrier, M. [Computational Analysis Division, BARC, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, 530012 (India)

    2016-01-15

    An algorithm to rigorously trace the interstitialcy diffusion trajectory in crystals is developed. The algorithm incorporates unsupervised learning and graph optimization which obviate the need to input extra domain specific information depending on crystal or temperature of the simulation. The algorithm is implemented in a flexible framework as a post-processor to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We describe in detail the reduction of interstitialcy diffusion into known computational problems of unsupervised clustering and graph optimization. We also discuss the steps, computational efficiency and key components of the algorithm. Using the algorithm, thermal interstitialcy diffusion from low to near-melting point temperatures is studied. We encapsulate the algorithms in a modular framework with functionality to calculate diffusion coefficients, migration energies and other trajectory properties. The study validates the algorithm by establishing the conformity of output parameters with experimental values and provides detailed insights for the interstitialcy diffusion mechanism. The algorithm along with the help of supporting visualizations and analysis gives convincing details and a new approach to quantifying diffusion jumps, jump-lengths, time between jumps and to identify interstitials from lattice atoms. -- Graphical abstract:.

  14. Dynamics and stability of directional jumps in the desert locust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gvirsman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are known for their ability to jump large distances to avoid predation. The jump also serves to launch the adult locust into the air in order to initiate flight. Various aspects of this important behavior have been studied extensively, from muscle physiology and biomechanics, to the energy storage systems involved in powering the jump, and more. Less well understood are the mechanisms participating in control of the jump trajectory. Here we utilise video monitoring and careful analysis of experimental directional jumps by adult desert locusts, together with dynamic computer simulation, in order to understand how the locusts control the direction and elevation of the jump, the residual angular velocities resulting from the jump and the timing of flapping-flight initiation. Our study confirms and expands early findings regarding the instrumental role of the initial body position and orientation. Both real-jump video analysis and simulations based on our expanded dynamical model demonstrate that the initial body coordinates of position (relative to the hind-legs ground-contact points are dominant in predicting the jumps’ azimuth and elevation angles. We also report a strong linear correlation between the jumps’ pitch-angular-velocity and flight initiation timing, such that head downwards rotations lead to earlier wing opening. In addition to offering important insights into the bio-mechanical principles of locust jumping and flight initiation, the findings from this study will be used in designing future prototypes of a bio-inspired miniature jumping robot that will be employed in animal behaviour studies and environmental monitoring applications.

  15. Temperature-jump investigation of adsorption/desorption kinetics at methylated silica/solution interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, F.Y.; Waite, S.W.; Harris, J.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A temperature-jump relaxation technique is used to monitor reversible adsorption/desorption kinetics at the reversed-phase C1-silica/solution interface. A Joule discharge is used to heat a packed bed of trimethylchlorosilane-derivatized silica gel on a microsecond time scale. Single-exponential relaxation kinetics are observed for adsorption of an ionic fluorescent probe, 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate, to a C1-silica surface from methanol/water solution. The relaxation rate increases with concentration of solute in solution, which shows that adsorption kinetics are detectable in the relaxation. The adsorption rate of the ionic probe is slower than diffusion-controlled, exhibiting significant influence over the adsorption equilibrium constant. The adsorption rate of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine is indistinguishable from the diffusion limit, indicating a negligible barrier to adsorption for this neutral species. 20 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Gender and bilateral differences in single-leg countermovement jump performance with comparison to a double-leg jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; DeVoe, Dale E; Reiser, Raoul F

    2007-08-01

    Expectations may be for both legs to function identically during single- and double-leg vertical jumps. However, several reasons might prevent this from occurring. The goals of this investigation were twofold: assess the presence of side-to-side jump height differences during single-leg jumps in a homogenous group of healthy subjects and determine if those with a jump height asymmetry possessed consistent biomechanical differences during single-and double-leg jumps. Thirteen men and 12 women with competitive volleyball experience volunteered for the study. Significance was assessed at p greater maximum ground reaction forces and ankle joint powers on their DL whereas the women had no differences during the single-leg jumps. The only side-to-side differences that existed during the double-leg jumps were in the average ground reaction forces during propulsion. These findings suggest that equality of single-leg jump performance is the exception rather than the norm, with identification of consistent biomechanical attributes difficult within a group.

  17. Jump Distance Increases while Carrying Handheld Weights: Impulse, History, and Jump Performance in a Simple Lab Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2004-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to provide an understanding of the mechanical concept of impulse as it applies to human movement and athletic performance. Students compare jumps performed with and without handheld weights. Contrary to initial expectation, jump distance is increased with moderate additional weights. This was familiar to…

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of grain-boundary diffusion of vacancies in bcc iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T.; Ho, P. S.; Yip, S.; Balluffi, R.; Brokman, A. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1981-06-01

    The jumping of vacancies in a bcc iron sigma = 5 tilt boundary was simulated by computer molecular dynamics. The data yielded a reasonable value of the activation energy for migration and showed that the jump processes are highly structure dependent. The use of a temperature dependent transition probability matrix to describe the diffusion of the vacancies in the grain boundary is suggested. Formation of one type of boundary interstitial was observed which was found to be immobile.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of grain-boundary diffusion of vacancies in bcc iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, T.; Ho, P. S.; Yip, S.; Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.; Brokman, A.

    1981-06-01

    The jumping of vacancies in a bcc iron ..sigma.. = 5 tilt boundary was simulated by computer molecular dynamics. The data yielded a reasonable value of the activation energy for migration and showed that the jump processes are highly structure-dependent. The use of a temperature dependent transition probability matrix to describe the diffusion of the vacancies in the grain boundary is suggested. Formation of one type of boundary interstitial was observed which was found to be immobile.

  20. Automated Storm Tracking and the Lightning Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Christopher Joseph; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a fully automated lightning jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper proxy data, and the lightning jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and lightning information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the lightning jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system's performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system's performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system's performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of lightning jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system's performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the lightning jump system.

  1. Effects of Foam Rolling on Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foam rolling is a popular activity utilized by strength and conditioning coaches as it is believed to increase muscle length and break up fibrous adhesions located in connective tissue. However, there is little research investigating the effects of foam rolling on athletic performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower body foam rolling on vertical jump performance. Methods: Twenty males (age 24.05 ± 2.02 years; height 177.43 ± 6.31 cm; mass 81.41 ± 8.76 kg volunteered to participate. Subjects completed three days of testing, separated by at least twenty-four hours. Day one consisted of baseline vertical jumps on a force plate, followed by familiarization with foam rolling and control protocols. Subjects returned on days two and three and performed 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling or mimicked foam rolling movements on a skateboard followed by vertical jumps on a force plate. The highest jump from each day was used for statistical analyses. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in Jump height, impulse, relative ground reaction force, or take-off velocity between conditions. Conclusion: 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling do not improve vertical jump performance. Keywords: Dynamic Warm-Up, Foam Rolling, Vertical Jump

  2. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Soares

    Full Text Available Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  3. Aerial Jumping in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S.

    2013-01-01

    Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal. PMID:23613883

  4. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Wong

    Full Text Available A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas-which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles-constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of

  5. Numerical simulations of katabatic jumps in coats land, Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ye; Cai, Xiaoming; King, John C.; Renfrew, Ian A.

    A non-hydrostatic numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), has been used to investigate the development of katabatic jumps in Coats Land, Antarctica. In the control run with a 5 m s-1downslope directed initial wind, a katabatic jump develops near the foot of the idealized slope. The jump is manifested as a rapid deceleration of the downslope flow and a change from supercritical to subcritical flow, in a hydraulic sense, i.e., the Froude number (Fr) of the flow changes from Fr > 1 to Fr> 1. Results from sensitivity experiments show that an increase in the upstream flow rate strengthens the jump, while an increase in the downstream inversion-layer depth results in a retreat of the jump. Hydraulic theory and Bernoulli''s theorem have been used to explain the surface pressure change across the jump. It is found that hydraulic theory always underestimates the surface pressure change, while Bernoulli''s theorem provides a satisfactory estimation. An analysis of the downs balance for the katabatic jump indicates that the important forces are those related to the pressure gradient, advection and, to a lesser extent, the turbulent momentum divergence. The development of katabatic jumps can be divided into two phases. In phase I, the t gradient force is nearly balanced by advection, while in phase II, the pressure gradient force is counterbalanced by turbulent momentum divergence. The upslope pressure gradient force associated with a pool of cold air over the ice shelf facilitates the formation of the katabatic jump.

  6. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  7. Detection of weak frequency jumps for GNSS onboard clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinming; Gong, Hang; Ou, Gang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a weak frequency jump detection method is developed for onboard clocks in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). A Kalman filter is employed to facilitate the onboard real-time processing of atomic clock measurements, whose N-step prediction residuals are used to construct the weak frequency jump detector. Numerical simulations show that the method can successfully detect weak frequency jumps. The detection method proposed in this paper is helpful for autonomous integrity monitoring of GNSS satellite clocks, and can also be applied to other frequency anomalies with an appropriately modified detector.

  8. Influence of stretching on warm up in jump and speed

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez Ruiz, Pablo; Tapia Flores, A; Jurado Lavanant, A

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es determinar si la realización de estiramientos pasivos, incluidos como parte del calentamiento, influyen en el rendimiento de la fuerza explosiva, en este caso en varios tests de salto vertical: Squat Jump (SJ), Countermouvement Jump (CMJ) y Reactive Jump (RJ); y también en un test de velocidad de 30 metros (mts.) con salida lanzada de 5 mts. Para ello, 9 jugadores del Málaga Club de Fútbol de categoría juvenil (18,22 ± 0,441 años) realizaron 2 protocolos de...

  9. Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... velocity vectors pointing towards the copepod; such a flow field may inform the predator of the whereabouts of the escaping copepod prey. High Froude propulsion efficiency (0.94–0.98) was obtained for individual power stroke durations of all simulated jumps. This is unusual for small aquatic organisms...

  10. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN MEASUREMENT OF STANDING LONG JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratko Stanković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 21 students of Faculty of sports and physical education, age 21±6 months, measurement of standing long jump length by using test for explosive puissance estimation of lower extremities was effected. Test was recorded by digital video camera, and all conditions for application of video analyses i.e. kinematics methods were present. After digitalization, record was mistreated and prepared for further manipulating by using appropriate software for video analyses. Four different persons measured jump length (4 items. Metric characteristics of standing long jump showed high signifi cation level.

  11. Quantum jumps: from foundational research to particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Ignazio; Chiatti, Leonardo

    2017-08-01

    Since 1986 a vast body of experimental evidence has been accumulated of direct observation of quantum jumps in many physical systems. We can therefore assume that quantum jumps are genuine physical phenomena. On the other hand, substantial identity of ”quantum jumps” and ”collapses” induced by measurements can be admitted, both being represented by self-conjugate projection operators related to specific non-Hamiltonian aspects of micro-interactions. On this basis a model of quantum jump involving a single particle is discussed, and some consequences concerning hadronic physics (Hagedorn temperature, Regge trajectories) and quantum gravity are briefly sketched.

  12. Developing an Enhanced Lightning Jump Algorithm for Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Overall Goals: 1. Build on the lightning jump framework set through previous studies. 2. Understand what typically occurs in nonsevere convection with respect to increases in lightning. 3. Ultimately develop a lightning jump algorithm for use on the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). 4 Lightning jump algorithm configurations were developed (2(sigma), 3(sigma), Threshold 10 and Threshold 8). 5 algorithms were tested on a population of 47 nonsevere and 38 severe thunderstorms. Results indicate that the 2(sigma) algorithm performed best over the entire thunderstorm sample set with a POD of 87%, a far of 35%, a CSI of 59% and a HSS of 75%.

  13. Effects of countermovement depth on kinematic and kinetic patterns of maximum vertical jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Radivoj; Jakovljevic, Sasa; Jaric, Slobodan

    2015-04-01

    Although maximum height (H(max)), muscle force (F), and power output (P), have been routinely obtained from maximum vertical jumps for various purposes, a possible role of the countermovement depth (H(cmd)) on the same variables remains largely unexplored. Here we hypothesized that (1) the optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max) exists, while (2) an increase in H(cmd) would be associated with a decrease in both F and P. Professional male basketball players (N=11) preformed maximum countermovement jumps with and without arm swing while varying H(cmd)±25 cm from its preferred value. Although regression models revealed a presence of optimum H(cmd) for maximizing H(max), H(max) revealed only small changes within a wide range of H(cmd). The preferred H(cmd) was markedly below its optimum value (p cmd), while F also revealed a minimum for H(cmd) close to its highest values. Therefore, we conclude that although the optimum H(cmd) should exists, the magnitude of its effect on H(max) should be only minimal within a typical H(cmd) range. Conversely, F and P of leg muscles assessed through maximum vertical jumps should be taken with caution since both of them could be markedly confounded by H(cmd). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  15. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  16. Predicting lower body power from vertical jump prediction equations for loaded jump squats at different intensities in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn A; Pustina, Andrew A; Mikat, Richard P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of estimating peak lower body power from a maximal jump squat using 3 different vertical jump prediction equations. Sixty physically active college students (30 men, 30 women) performed jump squats with a weighted bar's applied load of 20, 40, and 60% of body mass across the shoulders. Each jump squat was simultaneously monitored using a force plate and a contact mat. Peak power (PP) was calculated using vertical ground reaction force from the force plate data. Commonly used equations requiring body mass and vertical jump height to estimate PP were applied such that the system mass (mass of body + applied load) was substituted for body mass. Jump height was determined from flight time as measured with a contact mat during a maximal jump squat. Estimations of PP (PP(est)) for each load and for each prediction equation were compared with criterion PP values from a force plate (PP(FP)). The PP(est) values had high test-retest reliability and were strongly correlated to PP(FP) in both men and women at all relative loads. However, only the Harman equation accurately predicted PP(FP) at all relative loads. It can therefore be concluded that the Harman equation may be used to estimate PP of a loaded jump squat knowing the system mass and peak jump height when more precise (and expensive) measurement equipment is unavailable. Further, high reliability and correlation with criterion values suggest that serial assessment of power production across training periods could be used for relative assessment of change by either of the prediction equations used in this study.

  17. Usefulness and metabolic implications of a 60-second repeated jumps test as a predictor of acrobatic jumping performance in gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M; Rodríguez, F A

    2013-03-01

    Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a "series". The aims of the study were: 1) to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60), 2) to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate), and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3) to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5), 10 s (R10) and 60 s (R60) and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ), squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). We assessed heart rate (HR) and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax) after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol · l(-1); females = 2.1±0.8 mmol · l(-1)) confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol · l(-1) females = 5.9±2.1 mmol · l(-1)) that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm) and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC) in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts.

  18. USEFULNESS AND METABOLIC IMPLICATIONS OF A 60-SECOND REPEATED JUMPS TEST AS A PREDICTOR OF ACROBATIC JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN GYMNASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Antoni Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a �series�. The aims of the study were: 1 to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60, 2 to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate, and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3 to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5, 10 s (R10 and 60 s (R60 and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ, squat jumps (SJ and countermovement jumps (CMJ. We assessed heart rate (HR and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol.l-1; females = 2.1±0.8 mmol.l-1 confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol.l-1; females = 5.9±2.1 mmol.l-1 that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts.

  19. Modeling the early evolution of massive OB stars with an experimental wind routine. The first bi-stability jump and the angular momentum loss problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Z.; Puls, J.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Stellar evolution models of massive stars are very sensitive to the adopted mass-loss scheme. The magnitude and evolution of mass-loss rates significantly affect the main sequence evolution, and the properties of post-main sequence objects, including their rotational velocities. Aims: Driven by potential discrepancies between theoretically predicted and observationally derived mass-loss rates in the OB star range, we aim in particular to investigate the response to mass-loss rates that are lower than currently adopted, in parallel with the mass-loss behavior at the "first" bi-stability jump. Methods: We performed 1D hydrodynamical model calculations of single 20-60 M⊙ Galactic (Z = 0.014) stars where the effects of stellar winds are already significant in the main sequence phase. We have developed an experimental wind routine to examine the behavior and response of the models under the influence of different mass-loss rates. This observationally guided, simple and flexible wind routine is not a new mass-loss description but a useful tool based on the wind-momentum luminosity relation and other scaling relations, and provides a meaningful base for various tests and comparisons. Results: The main result of this study indicates a dichotomy between solutions of currently debated problems regarding mass-loss rates of hot massive stars. In a fully diffusive approach, and for commonly adopted initial rotational velocities, lower mass-loss rates than theoretically predicted require to invoke an additional source of angular momentum loss (either due to bi-stability braking, or yet unidentified) to brake down surface rotational velocities. On the other hand, a large jump in the mass-loss rates due to the bi-stability mechanism (a factor of 5-7 predicted by Vink et al. (2000, A&A, 362, 295), but a factor of 10-20 in modern models of massive stars) is challenged by observational results, and might be avoided if the early mass-loss rates agreed with the theoretically

  20. [Effects of Reactive Jump Training in Handball Players Regarding Jump Height and Power Development in the Triceps Surae Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, N; Westermann, A; Möller, D; von Piekartz, H

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown changes in the technical and physical demands in modern handball. The game has increased considerably in speed, power and dynamics. Jump training has, therefore, become ever more important in the training of the athletes. These developments contribute to the fact that handball is now one of the most injury-prone types of sport, with the lower extremities being most frequently affected. Reactive jump training is not only used in training by now, but also increasingly in injury prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reactive jump training with handball players. 21 regional league handball players were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 9). The intervention group completed a six-week reactive jump training programme while the control group went through a non-specific training programme. Jump height (squat and counter movement jump), isokinetic and isometric maximum power as well as muscle activity served as measuring parameters. A comparison of the intervention and control groups revealed that the reactive jump training led to significant improvements in jump height. The isometric and isokinetic maximum power measurements and the electromyographic activities of the triceps surae muscle demonstrated an improvement in the values within the intervention group. However, this improvement was not significant compared with the control group. Likewise both jumps correlated with the muscle activity of the soleus muscle as shown by electromyography. A moderate correlation was noticed between the isokinetic maximum power measurement and the electromyographic activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. Furthermore, the correlations of the isometric and isokinetic maximum power meas-urements resulted in a strong correlation coefficient. This study revealed a significant increase in jump height after reactive jump training. There was no significant difference in

  1. Solvable random-walk model with memory and its relations with Markovian models of anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, D.; Romo-Cruz, J. C. R.

    2014-10-01

    Motivated by studies on the recurrent properties of animal and human mobility, we introduce a path-dependent random-walk model with long-range memory for which not only the mean-square displacement (MSD) but also the propagator can be obtained exactly in the asymptotic limit. The model consists of a random walker on a lattice, which, at a constant rate, stochastically relocates at a site occupied at some earlier time. This time in the past is chosen randomly according to a memory kernel, whose temporal decay can be varied via an exponent parameter. In the weakly non-Markovian regime, memory reduces the diffusion coefficient from the bare value. When the mean backward jump in time diverges, the diffusion coefficient vanishes and a transition to an anomalous subdiffusive regime occurs. Paradoxically, at the transition, the process is an anticorrelated Lévy flight. Although in the subdiffusive regime the model exhibits some features of the continuous time random walk with infinite mean waiting time, it belongs to another universality class. If memory is very long-ranged, a second transition takes place to a regime characterized by a logarithmic growth of the MSD with time. In this case the process is asymptotically Gaussian and effectively described as a scaled Brownian motion with a diffusion coefficient decaying as 1 /t .

  2. Ankle stabilizers affect agility but not vertical jump or dynamic balance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Redmond, Charles J; Winter, Christa; Cortes, Nelson; Ambegaonkar, Shruti J; Thompson, Brian; Guyer, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    Ankle stabilizers can reduce ankle sprain incidence and severity by limiting range of motion. Still whether using them affects performance remains unclear. The authors compared effects of 3 ankle stabilizers, tape, lace-up (Swede-O Ankle Lok), and semirigid (Air-Cast Air-Stirrup) braces, and a nonsupport control on vertical jump (Sargent Jump Test), agility (Right-Boomerang Run test), and dynamic balance (Modified Bass Test) in 10 volunteers (4 males, 6 females; 25.6 ± 2.8 years, 167.8 ± 13.7 cm, 61.4 ± 10.7 kg) using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Participants had similar vertical jump (P = .27; control = 41.40 ± 11.89 cm, tape = 37.90 ± 7.92 cm, Swede-O = 41.40 ± 11.89 cm, Air-Cast = 39.29 ± 10.85 cm) and dynamic balance (P = .08; control = 92.50 ± 2.46, tape = 91.55 ± 3.53, Swede-O = 97.00 ± 5.32, Air-Cast = 89.40 ± 6.08) but differing agility scores (P = .03; control = 13.55 ± 1.35 seconds, tape = 14.03 ± 1.5 seconds, Swede-O = 14.10 ± 1.36 seconds, Air-Cast = 14.14 ± 1.41 seconds). Post hoc tests revealed a significant difference (P = .03) between control and Air-Cast but not between Swede-O (P = .06) or tape (P = .07). Effect size (d) analyses indicated that compared with control, all stabilizers trended to increase agility run times (tape, d = 0.33; Swede-O, d = 0.40; Air-Cast, d = 0.43). Since participants primarily required sagittal plane motion when jumping vertically and had relatively slow directional changes in the dynamic balance test, wearing ankle stabilizers did not hamper jump or balance. However, ankle stabilizers hindered participants' ability to perform quick directional changes required in the agility test, with the most rigid stabilizer (Air-Cast) affecting agility the most. Clinicians should be aware that ankle stabilizers may affect some performance measures (agility) but not others (jumping, balance) and continue examinations in larger cohorts. Therapeutic, Level II.

  3. How do elite ski jumpers handle the dynamic conditions in imitation jumps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, G.J.; Hooiveld, J; Braaten, S; Bobbert, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of boundary conditions in imitation ski jumping on movement dynamics and coordination. We compared imitation ski jumps with – and without – the possibility to generate shear propulsion forces. Six elite ski jumpers performed imitation jumps by jumping from a fixed

  4. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  5. A comparison of one-legged and two-legged countermovement jumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A J; Roebroeck, M.E.; Bobbert, M F; Huijing, P A; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1985-01-01

    Ten well-trained male volleyball players performed one-legged and two-legged vertical countermovement jumps. Ground reaction forces, cinematographic data, and electromyographic data were recorded. Jumping height in one-legged jumps was 58.5% of that reached in two-legged jumps. Mean net torques in

  6. METRIC TESTS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING JUMPING FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toplica Stojanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With goal to establish metric tests characteristics for estimating jumping for volleyball players, it was organized a pilot research on pattern of 23 volleyball players from cadet team and 23 students from high-school. For needs of this research four tests are valid for estimation, jump in block with left and right leg and jump in spike with left and right leg. Each test has been taken three times, so that we could with test-re test method determine their reliability, and with factor analysis their validity. Data were processed by multivariate analysis (item analysis, factor analysis from statistical package „Statistica 6.0 for windows“. On the results of research and discussion we can say that the tests had high coefficient of reliability, as well as factor validity, and these tests can be used to estimate jumping for volleyball players.

  7. Stick-jump mode in surface droplet dissolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Erik; Zhang, Xuehua; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between evaporating surface droplets in air to dissolving long-chain alcohol droplets in water is worked out. We show that next to the three known modi for surface droplet evaporation or dissolution (constant contact angle mode, constant contact radius mode, and stick-slide mode), a fourth mode exists for small droplets on supposedly smooth substrates, namely the stick-jump mode: intermittent contact line pinning causes the droplet to switch between sticking and jumping during the dissolution. We present experimental data and compare them to theory to predict the dissolution time in this stick-jump mode. We also explain why these jumps were easily observed for microscale droplets but not for larger droplets.

  8. Metatarsal strapping tightness effect to vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Baker, Julien S; Ren, Xuejun; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the effect of metatarsal strapping on vertical jump performance and evaluated the difference in lower limb kinematics and electromyographic signal (EMG) between different strapping force levels. Twelve male callisthenic athletes completed single vertical jump from a squat posture with hands on hips under three conditions as non-strapping (NS), moderate strapping (MS) and high strapping (HS) round metatarsals. Ground reaction force (GRF) was recorded with KISTLER force platform to calculate the vertical jump height. Angles of ankle, knee and hip were measured with VICON motion analysis system and EMG data were recorded with mega6000 system. Data showed that jump height was significantly higher under HS than NS condition. Compared with NS, ankle inversion decreased significantly during take-off and external rotation increased significantly during landing with MS. Significant difference was also found in the muscle activity of tibialis anterior between non-strapping and strapping conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic criteria of plankton jumping out of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Hasanyan, Jalil; Gemmell, Brad J.; Lee, Sungyon; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    In nature, jumping out of water is a behaviour commonly observed in aquatic species to either escape from predators or hunt prey. However, not all aquatic species are capable of jumping out, especially small organisms whose length scales are comparable to the capillary length (approx. 2.7 mm for water). Some aquatic animals smaller than the capillary length are able to jump out while others are not, as observed in some marine copepods. To understand the dynamics of jumping out of the water–air interface, we perform physical experiments by shooting a spherical particle towards the liquid–air interface from below. Experimental results show that the particle either penetrates or bounces back from the interface, depending on the particle and fluid properties, and the impact velocity. The transition from bouncing to penetration regimes, which is theoretically predicted based on a particle force balance, is in good agreement with both physical experiments and plankton behavioural data. PMID:26468066

  10. The fluid dynamics of swimming by jumping in copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Copepods swim either continuously by vibrating their feeding appendages or erratically by repeatedly beating their swimming legs resulting in a series of small jumps. The two swimming modes generate different hydrodynamic disturbances and therefore expose the swimmers differently to rheotactic...... limited and temporally ephemeral owing to jump-impulsiveness and viscous decay. In contrast, continuous steady swimming generates two well-extended long-lasting momentum jets both in front of and behind the swimmer, as suggested by the well-known steady stresslet model. Based on the observed jump-swimming...... kinematics of a small copepod Oithona davisae, we further showed that jump-swimming produces a hydrodynamic disturbance with much smaller spatial extension and shorter temporal duration than that produced by a same-size copepod cruising steadily at the same average translating velocity. Hence, small copepods...

  11. Jump-landing differences between varsity, club, and intramural athletes: the Jump-ACL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Justin L; Gerber, J Parry; Cameron, Kenneth L; Beutler, Anthony I; Marshall, Stephen W; Distefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; de la Motte, Sarah J; Miller, Joseph M; Yunker, Craig A

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal movement patterns have been identified as important prospective risk factors for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament injury. Specifically, poor neuromuscular control during the early landing phase has been associated with increased injury risk. Although it is commonly assumed that higher division collegiate athletes generally exhibit better movement patterns than lower division athletes, few studies compare the biomechanical differences on basic tasks such as jump landing between various levels of athletic groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate jump-landing and fitness differences among college-aged Intramural, Competitive Club, and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level athletes. Two hundred seventy-seven student-athletes (222 men, 55 women; age 19.3 ± 0.8 years) categorized as NCAA Division I, Competitive Club, or Intramural level athletes were evaluated during a jump-landing task using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), a validated qualitative movement assessment. Fitness was measured using the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). Results showed no significant differences in landing errors between the levels of athletic group (F(2,267) = 0.36, p = 0.70). There was a significant difference in landing errors between genders (F(1,268) = 3.99, p = 0.05). Significant differences in APFT scores were observed between level of athletic group (F(2,267) = 11.14, p APFT and LESS scores (p = 0.26). In conclusion, higher level athletes had better physical fitness as measured by the APFT but did not as a group exhibit better landing technique. The implications of this research suggest that "high-risk" movement patterns are prevalent in all levels of athletes.

  12. Hydraulic jumps in the liquid foam microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, Christophe; Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Rajchenbach, Jean; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Mederic

    2017-11-01

    Plateau borders (PBs) are the liquid microchannels found at the intersection between three bubbles in liquid foams. They form an interconnected network that plays a major role in foam drainage and stability properties. Each channel has an unbounded geometry but is not subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. This stability is accounted for by an effective negative surface tension (Géminard et al., 2004). We show that their relaxation dynamics can trigger inertial flows characterized by strongly nonlinear features. An experimental setup was designed to study the response of a PB to a liquid perturbation. Extra liquid is injected into the PB by drop coalescence. Depending on the parameters, either a viscous flow or an inertial one is observed. For the latter, the relaxation takes the form of a hydraulic jump, which propagates at a velocity around 0.1-1 m/s. Solitons are also observed for another type of perturbation. The PB dynamics is modeled and its equation presents an analogy with the differential equation of mechanical nonlinear oscillators.

  13. [Bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwat, J; Deckunakorn, S

    1991-01-01

    The removable bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper is a new orthodontic appliance designed to correct the abnormal habit of lower lip biting children with mentalis muscle hyperactivity. Upper anterior teeth protrusion, mandible retrusion, lower anterior teeth lingual collapse and anterior deep bite usually are found in association with this lower lip biting habit, especially in the mixed dentition period (7-12 yrs). The function of this appliance is similar to the partial functional appliance. It is made into two parts: upper removable plate with anterior inclined bite plane and lower lip bumper attached to the upper plate. Three cases are discussed and compared before and after treatment. Changes in both skeletal and dental pattern were recorded in the following aspects: increase in the posterior rotation of mandible (increased SN-MP), stimulation of forward growth of the mandible (the increase is SNB value overcomes the increase in SNA, through reduction ANB), retroclination of upper maxillary teeth (reduced 1-NA), proclination of lower anterior teeth (increased 1-NB), the reduction of overjet. Additionally, the normal position of the lower lip provided by this appliance effectively corrects the lip biting with mentalis muscle hyperactivity.

  14. Ethics in radiology: wait lists queue jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natalie; Reid, Lynette; MacSwain, Sarah; Clarke, James R

    2013-08-01

    Education in ethics is a requirement for all Royal College residency training programs as laid out in the General Standards of Accreditation for residency programs in Canada. The ethical challenges that face radiologists in clinical practice are often different from those that face other physicians, because the nature of the physician-patient interaction is unlike that of many other specialties. Ethics education for radiologists and radiology residents will benefit from the development of teaching materials and resources that focus on the issues that are specific to the specialty. This article is intended to serve as an educational resource for radiology training programs to facilitate teaching ethics to residents and also as a continuing medical education resource for practicing radiologists. In an environment of limited health care resources, radiologists are frequently asked to expedite imaging studies for patients and, in some respects, act as gatekeepers for specialty care. The issues of wait lists, queue jumping, and balancing the needs of individuals and society are explored from the perspective of a radiologist. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Droplet jumping by electrowetting and its application to the three-dimensional digital microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Lee, Seung; Lee, Sanghyun; Hyoung Kang, Kwan

    2012-02-01

    We introduce droplet jumping by electrowetting (DJE), which stretches droplets to store energy for jumping by electrowetting. The capillarity-driven droplet jumping is effective to overcome the energy barrier, where the threshold for jumping is less than 100 V. We studied the detailed jumping mechanisms with regard to the jumping height and the energy conversion and demonstrated the transport of sessile droplets to upper surfaces under diverse electrode configurations. While the droplet jumping on the superhydrophobic surface is the primary focus of our research, DJE is also found to be possible on conventional Teflon surfaces, envisioning the three-dimensional droplet-based digital microfluidics.

  16. Dynamic Jump Intensities and Risk Premiums in Crude Oil Futures and Options Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Li, Bingxin

    2016-01-01

    Options on crude oil futures are the most actively traded commodity options. We develop a class of computationally efficient discrete-time jump models that allow for closed-form option valuation, and we use crude oil futures and options data to investigate the economic importance of jumps...... and dynamic jump intensities in these markets. Allowing for jumps is crucial for modeling crude oil futures and futures options, and we find evidence in favor of time-varying jump intensities. During crisis periods, jumps occur more frequently. The properties of the jump processes implied by the option data...

  17. Forecasting Exchange Rate Volatility in the Presence of Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We study measures of foreign exchange rate volatility based on high-frequency (5-minute) $/DM exchange rate returns using recent nonparametric statistical techniquesto compute realized return volatility and its separate continuous sample path and jumpcomponents, and measures based on prices...... for impliedvolatility than for realized volatility in this market. Finally, we show that the jump componentof future realized exchange rate volatility is to some extent predictable, and thatoption implied volatility is the dominant forecast of the future jump component....

  18. Neuromuscular Fatigue After Repeated Jumping With Concomitant Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Samararatne, Jimmy; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas

    2017-12-18

    To evaluate the etiology and extent of neuromuscular fatigue induced by 50 squat jumps performed with and without neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the knee extensors. Nine healthy, recreationally active men (24 ± 2 y) took part in 2 experiments. These consisted of 50 squat jumps performed with stimulation (NMES) or without (CON). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, maximal voluntary activation level (VAL), and forces evoked by single and double (10 and 100 Hz) stimulations were recorded before and after the 50 jumps. NMES was delivered at the maximal tolerated intensity. Despite average jump height being ∼16% lower in the NMES than in the CON session, a reduction over time in jump height was only found in the NMES condition (-6%). After the 50 jumps, MVC force was reduced to a greater extent in NMES than in CON (-25% ± 11% vs -11% ± 12%). Similarly, forces evoked by single stimulations, as well as by 10-Hz and 100-Hz paired stimulations, were reduced to a greater extent in NMES (-33% ± 12%, -42% ± 15%, and -25% ± 13%) than in CON (-21% ± 6%, -30% ± 9%, and -14% ± 11%). VAL was not significantly altered by either condition. Performing repeated squat jumps with concomitant NMES induced a greater fatigue than squat jumps performed alone and might potentially represent a stronger training stimulus.

  19. Properties of Hydraulic Jump Down Stream Sluice Gate

    OpenAIRE

    Hana A. Hayawi and Ahmed Y. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The properties of a hydraulic jump and energy dissipation downstream sluice gate have been studied Three gate opening 2, 3, 4 cm were used to carry out the experiments in a rectangular channel. It was found that energy dissipation through the hydraulic jump is a function of Froud, Weber numbers and gate openings, and that energy dissipation decrease as Weber number increase and increase as Froud number increase, and that Weber number increases as gate opening increase while Froud number decre...

  20. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    on the first day of pre-season training camp. All athletes provided their informed consent as part of their sport requirements consistent with the college's Institutional Review Board's policies for use of human subjects in research. They were familiar with all testing protocols and had performed these assessments for the previous 2 - 6 years. All athletes reported to the athletic training facility for strength and vertical jump testing and performed a 5-min warm-up (pedaling at 60 rpm at 300 kg·m·min-1 interspersed with five all-out sprints during the last 5-s of each minute on a cycle ergometer prior to testing. Following the warm-up the athletes performed two countermovement vertical jumps. The higher of the two trials was recorded. The athletes then performed a 1-RM strength test for the barbell back squat exercise. Following a 5-minute rest interval, each athlete performed an additional countermovement vertical jump trial. The 1-RM squat test was performed using methods previously described by Hoffman, 2006. Each athlete performed a warm-up set using a resistance that was approximately 40-60% of his perceived maximum, and then performed three-to- four subsequent trials to determine the 1-RM. A 3 - 5 minute rest period was provided between each trial. The squat exercise required the athlete to place an Olympic bar across the trapezius muscle at a self-selected location. The athlete then descended to the parallel position which was attained when the greater trochanter of the femur reached the same level as the knee. The athlete then ascended until full knee extension. Trials not meeting the range of motion criteria were discarded.The counter-movement vertical jump height was measured using a VertecTM (Sports Imports, Columbus, OH. Prior to testing, each athlete's standing vertical reach height was determined. Vertical jump height was calculated by subtracting the standing reach height from the jump height. Power outputs were calculated based upon the formula of

  1. Effects of electromyostimulation training and volleyball practice on jumping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Davide; Cattaneo, Fabio; Dugnani, Sergio; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation (EMS) training program on the vertical jump performance of 12 volleyball players. EMS sessions were incorporated into volleyball sessions 3 times weekly. EMS consisted of 20-22 concomitant stimulations of the knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles and lasted approximately 12 minutes. No significant changes were observed after EMS training for squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) performance, while the mean height and the mean power maintained during 15 seconds of consecutive CMJs significantly increased by approximately 4% (p < 0.05). Ten days after the end of EMS training, the jumping height significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with baseline also for single jumps (SJ +6.5%, CMJ +5.4%). When the aim of EMS resistance training is to enhance vertical jump ability, sport-specific workouts following EMS would enable the central nervous system to optimize the control to neuromuscular properties.

  2. the Modeling of Hydraulic Jump Generated Partially on Sloping Apron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Abdulatif Jalil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling aims to characterize system behavior and achieve simulation close as possible of the reality. The rapid energy exchange in supercritical flow to generate quiet or subcritical flow in hydraulic jump phenomenon is important in design of hydraulic structures. Experimental and numerical modeling is done on type B hydraulic jump which starts first on sloping bed and its end on horizontal bed.  Four different apron slopes are used, for each one of these slopes the jump is generated on different locations by controlling the tail water depth.  Modelling validation is based on 120 experimental runs which they show that there is reliability. The air volume fraction which creates in through hydraulic jump varied between 0.18 and 0.28. While the energy exchanges process take place within 6.6, 6.1, 5.8, 5.5 of the average relative jump height for apron slopes of 0.18, 0.14, 0.10, 0.07 respectively. Within the limitations of this study, mathematical prediction model for relative hydraulic jump height is suggested.The model having an acceptable coefficient of determination.

  3. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  4. Kinetic asymmetries between forward and drop jump landing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Alves de Britto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n6p661   Landing asymmetry is a risk factor for knee anterior cruciate ligament injury. The aim of this study was to identify kinetic asymmetries in healthy recreational athletes performing different jump-landing techniques. Twelve recreational athletes engaged in regular training underwent kinetic evaluation using two 3D force plates and were analyzed for: (a three-dimensional peak forces, (b time to peak vertical force, and (c initial phase asymmetries. All data were collected during performance of unilateral and bilateral trials of forward and drop jump tasks. Forward jump-landing tasks elicited greater kinetic asymmetry than drop-landing tasks. Regardless of jump-landing technique, the preferred leg experienced higher forces than the non-preferred leg. The initial landing phase showed more kinetic asymmetries than the later phase when peak vertical forces occur. It was concluded that when screening athletes for kinetic asymmetries that may predispose them to injury, forward jump-landing tasks and the early landing phase might show more kinetic asymmetries than drop jump-landing tasks and the late landing phase, respectively.

  5. Factors influencing spike jump height in female college volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yusuke; Sasaki, Yusuke; Sorimachi, Shingo; Hamano, Rena

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing spike jump (SPJ) performance by female competitive volleyball players through comparisons of the kinematic data of SPJ with those of the standing long jump (SLJ) and vertical jump (VJ). Seventeen female competitive volleyball players were asked to perform SPJ, SLJ, and VJ. Motion data of SPJ including the approach phase were recorded. Regarding SLJ and VJ, jumping motion and ground reaction force were recorded during each performance. The results obtained showed that SPJ height correlated with vertical velocity at take-off, horizontal velocity at third step contact, and the deceleration of horizontal velocity from third step contact to take-off. Regarding the relationship among SPJ, SLJ, and VJ, the relationship between SPJ and SLJ was stronger than that with VJ. The contributions of the hip, knee, and ankle muscles to the propulsive phase of SLJ were 39.7%, 21.1%, and 39.2%, respectively, whereas their contributions to VJ were 36.2%, 30.2%, and 33.6%, respectively. The vertical velocity of SPJ at take-off correlated with hip work and ankle peak power in SLJ and knee peak power in VJ. These results suggest the importance of enhancing horizontal and vertical jumping abilities separately to improve the height of SPJ because the primary generator for power production appears to depend on jump direction.

  6. Changes in hip flexor passive compliance do not account for improvement in vertical jump performance after hip flexor static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, C Brent; Cottrell, G Trevor

    2015-06-01

    To date, there is limited research investigating stretching of antagonist muscles and its effects on agonist muscle function. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of pre-static stretching (pre-SS) of the hip flexor musculature on passive hip extension range of motion (ROM) and vertical jump height. Fifteen subjects reported to the laboratory on 4 separate days (D1, D2, D3, and D4). D1 was for familiarization, while on D2 to D4, subjects randomly completed 1 of 3 intervention conditions; no stretch (CON), hip flexor stretch (HFS), or hip extensor stretch (HES). Subject's pre- and post-intervention hip extension ROM were measured before performing 3 sets of pre- and post-maximal counter-movement vertical jumps. Vertical jump height was normalized to baseline for data analysis. A repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc paired sample t-tests revealed a significant increase in vertical jump height in the HFS condition (1.74% ± 0.73; p ≤ 0.05) when compared with CON (-1.34% ± 0.96) or HES (-1.74% ± 0.65) conditions. There was also a significant increase in hip extension ROM after the HFS stretching protocol (6.5 ± 2.75%; p ≤ 0.05) when compared with the CON protocol (-1.73 ± 3.26); however, no significant difference when compared with the HES protocol (1.84 ± 2.79). A correlation analysis showed that the relative hip laxity of each subject had no effect on response to either condition nor did the magnitude of hip ROM change predict improvement in vertical jump. These results suggest that performing SS of the hip flexors may enhance vertical jump performance independent of changes in passive compliance of the hip flexor muscular tendon unit.

  7. Comparison of Land and Aquatic Loaded Countermovement Jump Landings in Female NCAA Division I Collegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Samantha L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations in lower extremity kinematics during the landing phase of a countermovement jump when performed in different environments and under multiple external loads. Twenty-four NCAA Divison I collegiate female athletes performed 12 countermovement jumps on land and 12 jumps in water, submerged to the xiphoid process, for a total of 24 jumps. Within each environmental condition, four loading conditions of three jumps each were performed using a ...

  8. The effects of jumping distance on the landing mechanics after a volleyball spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Walter Quispe; Masumura, Masanao; Ae, Michiyoshi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of jumping distance on the landing mechanics after a volleyball spike, to help in injury prevention and training for safer landing. Ground reaction forces and three-dimensional kinematic data were collected from six male university right-handed volleyball players under "Normal" and "Long" jumping distance conditions of landing after a spike. The results revealed that the landings under the Long jumping distance condition produced significantly greater centre of gravity velocities and larger mean loading rates. Although data were collected for bilateral landings with the two feet contacting the force platform at the same time, landing motion was asymmetric and the left leg was considered to play a more critical role in the absorption of the landing impact. The trunk and hip positions at the initial contact with the floor and the range of motions of the knee and ankle were key kinematic parameters for reducing the vertical peak ground reaction forces and extending the time from the initial contact to the occurrence of this peak force, which consequently reduced the mean loading rate upon landing.

  9. Protons migrate along interfacial water without significant contributions from jumps between ionizable groups on the membrane surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andreas; Hagen, Volker; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Pohl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as energy transduction. Commonly, it is treated as a succession of jumps between membrane-anchored proton-binding sites. Our experiments provide evidence for an alternative model. We released membrane-bound caged protons by UV flashes and monitored their arrival at distant sites by fluorescence measurements. The kinetics of the arrival is probed as a function of distance for different membranes and for different water isotopes. We found that proton diffusion along the membrane is fast even in the absence of ionizable groups in the membrane, and it decreases strongly in D2O as compared to H2O. We conclude that the fast proton transport along the membrane is dominated by diffusion via interfacial water, and not via ionizable lipid moieties. PMID:21859952

  10. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of a uniform driving force on tracer diffusion in a one-dimensional hard-core lattice gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutner, R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1985-01-01

    The influence of a uniform driving force on tracer diffusion is investigated for a one-dimensional lattice gas where particles jump stochastically to unoccupied neighboring sites. A new, simple calculation is presented for the diffusion coefficient of a tracer particle with respect to its average

  12. Acute Effects Of Active, Ballistic, Passive And Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Streching On Sprint And Vertical Jump Performance In Trained Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Oliveira, Lucas; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Aquino, Rodrigo; Vieira Manechini, João Paulo; Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Puggina, Enrico Fuini

    2017-10-27

    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of active (AC), ballistic (BA), passive (PA), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) methods on performance in vertical jumping, sit and reach, and sprinting in young soccer players. Twelve trained soccer players (17.67 ± 0.87 years) participated in the study. The jump height (H), peak power (PP), and relative power (RP) in the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), the range of motion (ROM), the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and time (s) in 10-20-30 m sprints were evaluated. Significant differences (p PNF with CO and BA, and in the PP between the PNF and CO, AC, and BA, as well as in the RP between the PNF and BA. Significant increases in ROM were found in the AC, BA, PA, and PNF, compared to the CO. In relation to RPE, higher scores were reported in the PA and PNF conditions compared to the AC and BA. No significant differences were found in 10-20-30 m sprints. Therefore, the AC and BA methods can be used prior to vertical jump and sprint activities, with the aim of increasing flexibility. However, the PA and PNF methods should be avoided, due to subsequent negative effects on vertical jump performance.

  13. The Jump Set under Geometric Regularization. Part 1: Basic Technique and First-Order Denoising

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Let u ∈ BV(Ω) solve the total variation (TV) denoising problem with L2-squared fidelity and data f. Caselles, Chambolle, and Novaga [Multiscale Model. Simul., 6 (2008), pp. 879-894] have shown the containment Hm-1 (Ju \\\\Jf) = 0 of the jump set Ju of u in that of f. Their proof unfortunately depends heavily on the co-area formula, as do many results in this area, and as such is not directly extensible to higher-order, curvature-based, and other advanced geometric regularizers, such as total generalized variation and Euler\\'s elastica. These have received increased attention in recent times due to their better practical regularization properties compared to conventional TV or wavelets. We prove analogous jump set containment properties for a general class of regularizers. We do this with novel Lipschitz transformation techniques and do not require the co-area formula. In the present Part 1 we demonstrate the general technique on first-order regularizers, while in Part 2 we will extend it to higher-order regularizers. In particular, we concentrate in this part on TV and, as a novelty, Huber-regularized TV. We also demonstrate that the technique would apply to nonconvex TV models as well as the Perona-Malik anisotropic diffusion, if these approaches were well-posed to begin with.

  14. Coupled jump rotational dynamics in aqueous nitrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-12-21

    A nitrate ion (NO3-) with its trigonal planar geometry and charges distributed among nitrogen and oxygen atoms can couple to the extensive hydrogen bond network of water to give rise to unique dynamical characteristics. We carry out detailed atomistic simulations and theoretical analyses to investigate these aspects and report certain interesting findings. We find that the nitrate ions in aqueous potassium nitrate solution exhibit large amplitude rotational jump motions that are coupled to the hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of the surrounding water molecules. The jump motion of nitrate ions bears certain similarities to the Laage-Hynes mechanism of rotational jump motions of tagged water molecules in neat liquid water. We perform a detailed atomic-level investigation of hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of water in aqueous KNO3 solution to unearth two distinct mechanisms of hydrogen bond exchange that are instrumental to promote these jump motions of nitrate ions. As observed in an earlier study by Xie et al., in the first mechanism, after breaking a hydrogen bond with nitrate ion, water forms a new hydrogen bond with a water molecule, whereas the second mechanism involves just a switching of hydrogen bond between the two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate ion (W. J. Xie et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224504 (2015)). The magnitude as well as nature of the reorientational jump of nitrate ion for the two mechanisms is different. In the first mechanism, nitrate ion predominantly undergoes out-of-plane rotation, while in the second mechanism, in-plane reorientation of NO3- is favourable. These have been deduced by computing the torque on the nitrate ion during the hydrogen bond switching event. We have defined and computed the time correlation function for coupled reorientational jump of nitrate and water and obtained the associated relaxation time which is also different for the two mechanisms. These results provide insight into the relation between the coupled

  15. Effect of Instructions on Selected Jump Squat Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott W; Young, Warren B; Beseler, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Talpey, SW, Young, WB, and Beseler, B. Effect of instructions on selected jump squat variables. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2508-2513, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare 2 instructions on the performance of selected variables in a jump squat (JS) exercise. The second purpose was to determine the relationships between JS variables and sprint performance. Eighteen male subjects with resistance training experience performed 2 sets of 4 JS with no extra load with the instructions to concentrate on (a) jumping for maximum height and (b) extending the legs as fast as possible to maximize explosive force. Sprint performance was assessed at 0- to 10-m and 10- to 20-m distances. From the JS jump height, peak power, relative peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and countermovement distance were measured from a force platform and position transducer system. The JS variables under the 2 instructions were compared with paired t-tests, and the relationships between these variables and sprint performance were determined with Pearson's correlations. The jump height instruction produced greater mean jump height and peak velocity (p 0.05). Jump height was the variable that correlated most strongly with 10-m time and 10- to 20-m time under both instructions. The height instruction produced a stronger correlation with 10-m time (r = -0.455), but the fast leg extension JS produced a greater correlation with 10-20 time (r = -0.545). The results indicate that instructions have a meaningful influence on JS variables and therefore need to be taken into consideration when assessing or training athletes.

  16. Effects of footwear condition on maximal jumping performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, John R; Paquette, Max R; Caia, Johnpaul; Townsend, Robert J; Weiss, Lawrence W; Schilling, Brian K

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of footwear on kinetics and lower extremity electromyographic (EMG) activity during the vertical jump (VJ) and standing long jump. Fifteen men performed the 2 jump types in 3 footwear conditions: barefoot, minimal shoes, and cross-training shoes. Jump displacement and kinetic data were collected, along with EMG activity of the biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, semitendinosus/semimembranosus, soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis. Subjective footwear performance and comfort were also assessed with a custom survey. No differences were found in jump displacement, peak ground reaction forces (GRF), countermovement and propulsive phase durations, vertical impulse, peak countermovement, or average propulsive EMG activity. Significant differences in peak propulsive root mean square EMG were found between barefoot and minimal shoes (p = 0.030) and minimal shoes and shod (p = 0.031) conditions for the SOL during the VJ, and for average countermovement EMG of the semitendinosus/semimembranosus during the VJ between barefoot and shod (p = 0.039). Moderate-to-large effect sizes (>0.59) were found between conditions for horizontal GRF, propulsive phase duration, average EMG amplitude, and duration of EMG activity during the countermovement. Participants reported higher comfort ratings when shod compared with barefoot and minimal shoes for both jumps. Participants also perceived better performance when shod compared with barefoot and minimal shoes for the VJ only. No acute differences in displacement were observed between barefoot, minimal shoes, and cross-trainer shoes during vertical and horizontal jumps. Some differences in muscle activation and timing seem to be present, and thus, training effects between footwear conditions should be examined. Footwear familiarization may prove beneficial, as acute increases in comfort seem unrelated to performance improvements.

  17. Studies on Foam Decay Trend and Influence of Temperature Jump on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Wentao; Yan, Fei; Fan, Yubo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of temperature jump and liquid-gas ratio on foam stability to derive the foam-decay law. The experimental group conditions were as follows: mutation temperatures (10°C, 16°C, 20°C, 23°C, 25°C, and 27°C to >37°C) and liquid-gas ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4). The control group conditions were as follows: temperatures (10°C, 16°C, 20°C, 23°C, 25°C and 27°C) and liquid-gas ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4). A homemade device manufactured using the Tessari DSS method was used to prepare the foam. The decay process was videotape recorded. In the drainage rate curve, the temperature rose, and the liquid-gas ratio varied from 1:1 to 1:4, causing faster decay. In the entire process, the foam volume decreased with increasing drainage rate. The relationships were almost linear. Comparison of the experimental and control groups shows that the temperature jump results in a drainage time range of 1 to 15 seconds. The half-life ranges from 10 to 30 seconds. The maximum rate is 18.85%. Changes in the preparation temperature yields a drainage time range of 3 to 30 seconds. The half-life varies from 20 to 60 seconds. Decreasing the temperature jump range and liquid-gas ratio gradually enhances the foam stability. The foam decay time and drainage rate exhibit an exponential function distribution.

  18. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  19. Carrier diffusion as a measure of carrier/exciton transfer rate in InAs/InGaAsP/InP hybrid quantum dot-quantum well structures emitting at telecom spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Biegańska, D.; Misiewicz, J.; Lelarge, F.; Rousseau, B.; Sek, G.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the diffusion of photo-generated carriers (excitons) in hybrid two dimensional-zero dimensional tunnel injection structures, based on strongly elongated InAs quantum dots (called quantum dashes, QDashes) of various heights, designed for emission at around 1.5 μm, separated by a 3.5 nm wide barrier from an 8 nm wide In0.64Ga0.36As0.78P0.22 quantum well (QW). By measuring the spectrally filtered real space images of the photoluminescence patterns with high resolution, we probe the spatial extent of the emission from QDashes. Deconvolution with the exciting light spot shape allows us to extract the carrier/exciton diffusion lengths. For the non-resonant excitation case, the diffusion length depends strongly on excitation power, pointing at carrier interactions and phonons as its main driving mechanisms. For the case of excitation resonant with absorption in the adjacent QW, the diffusion length does not depend on excitation power for low excitation levels since the generated carriers do not have sufficient excess kinetic energy. It is also found that the diffusion length depends on the quantum-mechanical coupling strength between QW and QDashes, controlled by changing the dash size. It influences the energy difference between the QDash ground state of the system and the quantum well levels, which affects the tunneling rates. When that QW-QDash level separation decreases, the probability of capturing excitons generated in the QW by QDashes increases, which is reflected by the decreased diffusion length from approx. 5 down to 3 μm.

  20. The mechanics of elevation control in locust jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, G P; Burrows, M

    2008-06-01

    How do animals control the trajectory of ballistic motions like jumping? Targeted jumps by a locust, which are powered by a rapid extension of the tibiae of both hind legs, require control of the take-off angle and speed. To determine how the locust controls these parameters, we used high speed images of jumps and mechanical analysis to reach three conclusions: (1) the extensor tibiae muscle applies equal and opposite torques to the femur and tibia, which ensures that tibial extension accelerates the centre of mass of the body along a straight line; (2) this line is parallel to a line drawn from the distal end of the tibia through the proximal end of the femur; (3) the slope of this line (the angle of elevation) is not affected if the two hind legs extend asynchronously. The mechanics thus uncouple the control of elevation and speed, allowing simplified and independent control mechanisms. Jump elevation is controlled mechanically by the initial positions of the hind legs and jump speed is determined by the energy stored within their elastic processes, which allows us to then propose which proprioceptors are involved in controlling these quantities.

  1. Bayesian inference for Markov jump processes with informative observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Andrew; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of parameter inference for Markov jump process (MJP) representations of stochastic kinetic models. Since transition probabilities are intractable for most processes of interest yet forward simulation is straightforward, Bayesian inference typically proceeds through computationally intensive methods such as (particle) MCMC. Such methods ostensibly require the ability to simulate trajectories from the conditioned jump process. When observations are highly informative, use of the forward simulator is likely to be inefficient and may even preclude an exact (simulation based) analysis. We therefore propose three methods for improving the efficiency of simulating conditioned jump processes. A conditioned hazard is derived based on an approximation to the jump process, and used to generate end-point conditioned trajectories for use inside an importance sampling algorithm. We also adapt a recently proposed sequential Monte Carlo scheme to our problem. Essentially, trajectories are reweighted at a set of intermediate time points, with more weight assigned to trajectories that are consistent with the next observation. We consider two implementations of this approach, based on two continuous approximations of the MJP. We compare these constructs for a simple tractable jump process before using them to perform inference for a Lotka-Volterra system. The best performing construct is used to infer the parameters governing a simple model of motility regulation in Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Direct spectroscopic observation of quantum jumps of a single molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basché, Th.; Kummer, S.; Bräuchle, C.

    1995-01-01

    BOHR'S notion of quantum jumps between electronic states of an excited atom has now been demonstrated experimentally for single ions confined in radio-frequency traps and interacting with a driving laser field1-3. In these experiments the fluorescence of a strongly allowed transition was shown to cease abruptly when the ion jumped into a metastable state which was coupled to the common electronic ground state by a weak radiative transition. But attempts to monitor quantum jumps of single molecules have been hampered by the fact that the lifetime of the metastable triplet state was too short in relation to the photon detection rate. By using a system with favourable photophysical parameters-terrylene doped into p-terphenyl crystals4-we have now been able to observe directly quantum jumps between electronic states of single terrylene molecules. In contrast to single atoms, here the quantum jumps occur as non-radiative transitions between states of different multiplicity, and are manifested as interruptions of the fluorescence signal. These results demonstrate how single-molecule spectros-copy can reveal truly quantum-mechanical effects in large polyatomic molecules.

  3. Effects of Defects on Hydrogen Diffusion in NbC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehinia, Iman, E-mail: isalehinia@niu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Mastorakos, Ioannis [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Zbib, Hussein M. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • MD simulations are used to study the effects of defects on the H diffusion in NbC. • Buckingham potential is more accurate for diffusion of H atoms than LJ potential. • H diffusion coefficient (D) increases with carbon vacancy concentration. • H diffusion coefficient for 6 Å pore (radius = 6 Å) is as high as that for 20 Å pore. • For small pores, H diffusion coefficient drops notably at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Exceptional mechanical and physical properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides make them good coating-material candidates for extreme corrosive environments such as oil and natural gas wells. However, existence of small pores, pinholes and columnar structures of these ceramics significantly affect their resistance to corrosion, as pore sites would accelerate the diffusion of corrosive media into the substrate. In this research, molecular dynamics atomistic simulations are employed to investigate the effects of the isolated vacancies and the columnar structure on the diffusion rate of H atoms in NbC single crystal at various temperatures. Diffusion coefficient (D) of H atoms in NbC increased with C vacancy concentration. At elevated temperatures, the trapping effect of Nb vacancies is less effective when C vacancies are also present, as H atoms gain enough energy to jump back and forth between the C vacancies. Atomistic simulations also showed a jump in diffusion coefficient for cylindrical pore size of larger than 3 Å radius. Furthermore, D increased monotonically with temperature up to 1000 K in the presence of cylindrical pores. Further increase in temperature resulted in a drop in the diffusion coefficient for small pores while the large pores only showed a lower increasing trend in diffusion coefficient with the temperature.

  4. Effect of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on vertical jump in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Dawn T; Castel, John C; Palermo, Francis X; Draper, David O

    2011-03-01

    Patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) uses the electrical stimulation of sensory and motor nerves to achieve a skeletal muscle contraction using an electromyogram-derived functional pattern. PENS is used extensively for neuromuscular reeducation and treatment of muscle disuse atrophy. To explore the effectiveness of PENS as applied to the quadriceps muscles on the vertical jump of an athletic population. Experimental with control and repeated measures over time. Healthy college athletes (54 women, 75 men) were divided into 3 groups (control, n = 30; jump, n = 33; and jump with PENS, n = 63). There was no difference among groups' height and weight. Athletes performed a baseline standing vertical jump using a vertical jump system. The control group continued its normal daily activities with no jumping tasks included. The jump groups performed 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 2-minute rest between sets at a frequency of 3 times per week. The PENS group did the jumping with the coordination of an electrical stimulation system. Vertical jump was retested after 6 weeks of intervention and 2 weeks after cessation. A 3-way repeated measures analysis of variance for time (control, jump alone, jump with PENS) revealed a significant difference (P jump group from posttest to follow-up jump. There was no significant difference between groups for the baseline vertical jump. This study demonstrated that 6 weeks of vertical jump training coordinated with PENS resulted in a greater increase than jumping only or control. This pattern of stimulation with PENS in combination with jump training may positively affect jumping.

  5. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  6. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  7. Electrowetting-driven spreading and jumping of drops in oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiwoo; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-11-01

    Electrowetting-based practical applications include digital microfluidics, liquid lenses, and reflective displays. Most of them are performed in water/oil system, because oil medium reduces the contact-angle hysteresis and prevents drop evaporation. In this study, the effects of drop volume, oil viscosity, and applied voltage on the dynamic behaviors of spreading drops, such as transition of spreading pattern and response time, are investigated. Interestingly, jumping phenomena of drops are observed in oil when the applied voltage is turned off after reaching the electrowetted equilibrium radius of drops. A numerical model to predict the transient behavior of jumping drops is formulated based on the phase-field method. The numerical results for the transient deformation of jumping drops show quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Dynamical Jumps in a Shape Memory Alloy Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical response of systems with shape memory alloy (SMA elements presents a rich behavior due to their intrinsic nonlinear characteristic. SMA’s nonlinear response is associated with both adaptive dissipation related to hysteretic behavior and huge changes in properties caused by phase transformations. These characteristics are attracting much technological interest in several scientific and engineering fields, varying from medical to aerospace applications. An important characteristic associated with dynamical response of SMA system is the jump phenomenon. Dynamical jumps result in abrupt changes in system behavior and its analysis is essential for a proper design of SMA systems. This paper discusses the nonlinear dynamics of a one degree of freedom SMA oscillator presenting pseudoelastic behavior and dynamical jumps. Numerical simulations show different aspects of this kind of behavior, illustrating its importance for a proper understanding of nonlinear dynamics of SMA systems.

  9. Vertical Jump Biomechanics Altered With Virtual Overhead Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Hegedus, Eric J; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2017-04-01

    Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.

  10. The kinematics of swimming and relocation jumps in copepod nauplii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Marc Andersen; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of pelagic copepods: Temora longicornis, Oithona davisae and Acartia tonsa. The kinematics of jumping is similar between the three species. Jumps result in a very erratic translation with no phase of passive coasting and the nauplii move backwards during recovery strokes. This is due to poorly synchronized...... recovery strokes and a low beat frequency relative to the coasting time scale. For the same reason, the propulsion efficiency of the nauplii is low. Given the universality of the nauplius body plan, it is surprising that they seem to be inefficient when jumping, which is different from the very efficient...... larger copepodites. A slow-swimming mode is only displayed by T. longicornis. In this mode, beating of the appendages results in the creation of a strong feeding current that is about 10 times faster than the average translation speed of the nauplius. The nauplius is thus essentially hovering when...

  11. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J A; Izquierdo, M; Maffiuletti, N A; García-López, J

    2006-07-01

    This study compared the effects of four-week training periods of electromyostimulation (EMS), plyometric training (P), or combined EMS and P training of the knee extensor muscles on 20 m sprint time (ST), jumping ability (Squat jump [SJ] and Countermovement jump [CMJ]), maximal isometric strength (MVC), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Forty subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups: electromyostimulation (EG), plyometric (PG), combined EMG, and P (EPG), that took place 4 times per week, and a control group (CG). Subjects were tested before and after the training program, as well as once more after 2 wk of detraining. A significant improvement (p < 0.05) in ST was observed after training (2.4 %) in EG while a significant slowing (p < 0.05) was observed (- 2.3 %) in EPG. Significant increases in EPG (p < 0.05) were observed in SJ (7.5 %) and CMJ (7.3 %) after training, while no significant changes in both jumps were observed after training and detraining for EG. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in MVC was observed after training (9.1 %) and after detraining (8.1 %) in EG. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in MVC was observed after training (16.3 %) in EPG. A significant increase (p < 0.01) in CSA was observed after training in EG (9.0 %) and in EPG (7.1 %). EMS combined with plyometric training increased the jumping height and sprint run in physically active men. In addition, EMS alone or EMS combined with plyometric training leads to increase maximal strength and to some hypertrophy of trained muscles. However, EMS training alone did not result in any improvement in jumping explosive strength development or even interfered in sprint run.

  12. A simple method for quantifying jump loads in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Kenneally-Dabrowski, Claire; Sheppard, Jeremy; Spratford, Wayne

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the validity of a commercially available wearable device, the Vert, for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in volleyball athletes. Propose a potential method of quantifying external load during training and match play within this population. Validation study. The ability of the Vert device to measure vertical displacement in male, junior elite volleyball athletes was assessed against reference standard laboratory motion analysis. The ability of the Vert device to count jumps during training and match-play was assessed via comparison with retrospective video analysis to determine precision and recall. A method of quantifying external load, known as the load index (LdIx) algorithm was proposed using the product of the jump count and average kinetic energy. Correlation between two separate Vert devices and three-dimensional trajectory data were good to excellent for all jump types performed (r=0.83-0.97), with a mean bias of between 3.57-4.28cm. When matched against jumps identified through video analysis, the Vert demonstrated excellent precision (0.995-1.000) evidenced by a low number of false positives. The number of false negatives identified with the Vert was higher resulting in lower recall values (0.814-0.930). The Vert is a commercially available tool that has potential for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in elite junior volleyball athletes without the need for time-consuming analysis and bespoke software. Subsequently, allowing the collected data to better quantify load using the proposed algorithm (LdIx). Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Defects on Hydrogen Diffusion in NbC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehinia, Iman; Mastorakos, Ioannis; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2017-04-01

    Exceptional mechanical and physical properties of transition metal carbides and nitrides make them good coating-material candidates for extreme corrosive environments such as oil and natural gas wells. However, existence of small pores, pinholes and columnar structures of these ceramics significantly affect their resistance to corrosion, as pore sites would accelerate the diffusion of corrosive media into the substrate. In this research, molecular dynamics atomistic simulations are employed to investigate the effects of the isolated vacancies and the columnar structure on the diffusion rate of H atoms in NbC single crystal at various temperatures. Diffusion coefficient (D) of H atoms in NbC increased with C vacancy concentration. At elevated temperatures, the trapping effect of Nb vacancies is less effective when C vacancies are also present, as H atoms gain enough energy to jump back and forth between the C vacancies. Atomistic simulations also showed a jump in diffusion coefficient for cylindrical pore size of larger than 3 Å radius. Furthermore, D increased monotonically with temperature up to 1000 K in the presence of cylindrical pores. Further increase in temperature resulted in a drop in the diffusion coefficient for small pores while the large pores only showed a lower increasing trend in diffusion coefficient with the temperature.

  14. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  15. The effect of dropping height on jumping performance in trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, Eleni I; Patikas, Dimitrios A; Panagiotidou, Aikaterini I; Papadopoulou, Sophia D; Pylianidis, Theofilos C; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2012-08-01

    Plyometric training in children, including different types of jumps, has become common practice during the last few years in different sports, although there is limited information about the adaptability of children with respect to different loads and the differences in performance between various jump types. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gender and training background on the optimal drop jump height of 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty prepubertal (untrained and track and field athletes, boys and girls, equally distributed in each group [n = 15]), performed the following in random order: 3 squat jumps, 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs) and 3 drop jumps from heights of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm. The trial with the best performance in jump height of each test was used for further analysis. The jump type significantly affected the jump height. The jump height during the CMJ was the highest among all other jump types, resulting in advanced performance for both trained and untrained prepubertal boys and girls. However, increasing the dropping height did not change the jumping height or contact time during the drop jump. This possibly indicates an inability of prepubertal children to use their stored elastic energy to increase jumping height during drop jumps, irrespective of their gender or training status. This indicates that children, independent of gender and training status, have no performance gain during drop jumps from heights up to 50 cm, and therefore, it is recommended that only low drop jump heights be included in plyometric training to limit the probability of sustaining injuries.

  16. Co-ordination and fatigue of countermovement jump

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gleber

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo principal desta tese foi investigar a causa e a conseqüência da fadiga em countermovement jumps realizados em diferentes razões de esforço e pausa. Esses objetivos foram testados utilizando dois estudos experimentais. O primeiro estudo comparou as causas da fadiga em protocolos de fadiga de curta (=10 min) e longa duração (=20 min), manipulando as durações da pausa entre countermovement jumps. Os resultados indicaram que, após a realização do protocolo de fadiga de curta duração, h...

  17. Heart rate variability as determinism with jump stochastic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiongxuan; Skufca, Joseph D; Bollt, Erik M

    2013-08-01

    We use measured heart rate information (RR intervals) to develop a one-dimensional nonlinear map that describes short term deterministic behavior in the data. Our study suggests that there is a stochastic parameter with persistence which causes the heart rate and rhythm system to wander about a bifurcation point. We propose a modified circle map with a jump process noise term as a model which can qualitatively capture such this behavior of low dimensional transient determinism with occasional (stochastically defined) jumps from one deterministic system to another within a one parameter family of deterministic systems.

  18. Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, Alexander, E-mail: piel@physik.uni-kiel.de; Wilms, Jochen [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.

  19. A logarithmic interpretation of Edixhoven's jumps for Jacobians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Dennis; Halle, Lars Halvard; Nicaise, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Let A be an abelian variety over a discretely valued field. Edixhoven has defined a filtration on the special fiber of the N\\'eron model of A that measures the behaviour of the N\\'eron model under tame base change. We interpret the jumps in this filtration in terms of lattices of logarithmic...... differential forms in the case where A is the Jacobian of a curve C , and we give a compact explicit formula for the jumps in terms of the combinatorial reduction data of C. ...

  20. Jumping mechanisms in gum treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Eurymelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2013-07-15

    Jumping in a species of Australian gum treehopper was analysed from high-speed images. Pauroeurymela amplicincta adults and nymphs lived together in groups that were tended by ants, but only adults jumped. The winged adults with a body mass of 23 mg and a body length of 7 mm had some morphological characteristics intermediate between those of their close relatives the leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) and the treehoppers (Membracidae). They, like leafhoppers, lacked the prominent prothoracic helmets of membracid treehoppers, and their large hind coxae were linked by press studs (poppers), that are present in leafhoppers but not treehoppers. The hindlegs were only 30-40% longer than the other legs and 67% of body length. They are thus of similar proportion to the hindlegs of treehoppers but much shorter than those of most leafhoppers. Jumping was propelled by the hindlegs, which moved in the same plane as each other beneath and almost parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body. A jump was preceded by full levation of the coxo-trochanteral joints of the hindlegs. In its best jumps, the rapid depression of these joints then accelerated the insect in 1.4 ms to a take-off velocity of 3.8 m s(-1) so that it experienced a force of almost 280 g. In 22% of jumps, the wings opened before take-off but did not flap until the gum treehopper was airborne, when the body rotated little in any plane. The energy expended was 170 μJ, the power output was 122 mW and the force exerted was 64 mN. Such jumps are predicted to propel the insect forwards 1450 mm (200 times body length) and to a height of 430 mm if there is no effect of wind resistance. The power output per mass of jumping muscle far exceeded the maximum active contractile limit of muscle and indicates that a catapult-like action must be used. This eurymelid therefore out-performs both leafhoppers and treehoppers in i ts faster acceleration and in its higher take-off velocity.

  1. The workload of riding-school horses during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Spierenburg, A J; van den Broek, E T W

    2006-08-01

    As there are no reports on the real workload of horses that jump fences, this study was undertaken in riding-school horses. To compare the workload of horses jumping a course of fences with that of horses cantering over the same course at the same average speed without jumping fences. The workload variables included heart rate (HR), packed cell volume (PCV), acid-base balance (venous pH, pCO2, HCO3-) and blood lactate (LA), glucose, total protein and electrolyte concentrations. Eight healthy riding-school horses performed test A (a course of approximately 700 m with 12 jumps from 0.8-1.0 m high at an average speed of approximately 350 m/min) and test B (same course at the same speed, but without the rails) in a crossover study with at least 4 h between the 2 tests. Before each test the horses were fitted with a heart rate meter (Polar Electro). Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at rest prior to the test, after warm-up before starting the course, immediately after the course and after recovery. All samples were analysed immediately. The mean +/- s.d maximal HR (beats/min) during the course (184 +/- 17 and 156 +/- 21, respectively) and the mean HR after recovery (75 +/- 6 and 63 +/- 7, respectively) were significantly higher in test A compared to test B (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007 respectively). The mean LA concentrations after the course and after recovery (mmol/l) were significantly higher in test A (3.6 +/- 2.7 and 1.0 +/- 0.9, respectively) compared to test B (0.9 +/- 0.5 and 0.3 +/- 0.1, respectively), (P = 0.016 and P = 0.048 respectively). The mean PCV (I/l) after the course and after recovery was also significantly different between tests A (0.48 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.03, respectively) and B (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 0.36 +/- 0.03, respectively) (PPspeed without fences. This study makes it clear that the extra workload of jumping fences should be taken into account in the training programmes of jumping horses. Further research with more experienced

  2. Effect of a dynamic loaded warm-up on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattong, Charles; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2010-07-01

    Considering the importance of the vertical jump in several sports, an optimal warm-up protocol may help athletes perform at their maximum level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiating effects of different levels of external resistance (weighted vest) during box jumps on vertical jump performance. Twenty resistance trained men (age 22.45 +/- 1.73 years, height 176.83 +/- 6.67 cm, mass 76.98 +/- 8.56 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed 5 jumps onto a box equivalent in height to their lateral femoral condyle. After a 2-minute rest period, subjects performed 3 vertical jumps with the greatest height being recorded. On day 1, each subject performed a control condition with no external resistance to establish a baseline vertical jump height. On the following days, they performed 4 random jump conditions with a weight vest equivalent to 5, 10, 15, or 20% of their body weight then rested for 2 minutes before performing 3 posttest vertical jumps. Results demonstrated no significant interaction of condition by time for vertical jump height. However, there was a significant main effect for time (p jump height (22.99 +/- 3.35 in.) being greater than pretest jump height (22.69 +/- 3.37 in.). Performing an active dynamic warm-up with or without a weighted vest produced significantly greater posttest vertical jump performance. A dynamic warm-up may improve vertical jump performance, albeit to a very small increment.

  3. Does gymnastics practice improve vertical jump reliability from the age of 8 to 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Michel; Torrado, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm whether gymnastics practice from a young age can induce greater vertical jump reliability. Fifty young female gymnasts (8.84 ± 0.62 years) and 42 females in the control group (8.58 ± 0.92 years) performed the following jump tests on a contact mat: squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing and drop jump from heights of 40 and 60 cm. The two testing sessions had three trials each and were separated by one week. A 2 (groups) × 2 (sessions) × 3 (trials) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a test-retest correlation analysis were used to study the reliability. There was no systematic source of error in either group for non-plyometric jumps such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and countermovement jump with arm swing. A significant group per trial interaction revealed a learning effect in gymnasts' drop jumps from 40 cm height. Additionally, the test-retest correlation analysis and the higher minimum detectable error suggest that the quick drop jump technique was not fully consolidated in either group. At an introductory level of gymnastics and between the ages of 8-10 years, the condition of being a gymnast did not lead to conclusively higher reliability, aside from better overall vertical jump performance.

  4. Validation of an inertial measurement unit for the measurement of jump count and height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kerry; Bahr, Roald; Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie L; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2017-05-01

    To validate the use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for the collection of total jump count and assess the validity of an IMU for the measurement of jump height against 3-D motion analysis. Cross sectional validation study. 3D motion-capture laboratory and field based settings. Thirteen elite adolescent volleyball players. Participants performed structured drills, played a 4 set volleyball match and performed twelve counter movement jumps. Jump counts from structured drills and match play were validated against visual count from recorded video. Jump height during the counter movement jumps was validated against concurrent 3-D motion-capture data. The IMU device captured more total jumps (1032) than visual inspection (977) during match play. During structured practice, device jump count sensitivity was strong (96.8%) while specificity was perfect (100%). The IMU underestimated jump height compared to 3D motion-capture with mean differences for maximal and submaximal jumps of 2.5 cm (95%CI: 1.3 to 3.8) and 4.1 cm (3.1-5.1), respectively. The IMU offers a valid measuring tool for jump count. Although the IMU underestimates maximal and submaximal jump height, our findings demonstrate its practical utility for field-based measurement of jump load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Eccentric Contraction Duration on Muscle Strength, Power Production, Vertical Jump, and Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Jonathan N; Cole, Nathan; Herrera, Chris; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Kravitz, Len; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    significance but there was a trend toward a difference (G × T, p = 0.07). No other significant (p > 0.05) G × T interaction effects were found for the performance variables. All groups showed significant main effects for time in 1RM (p jump (p = 0.004), peak power (p jump protocol as a result of the 4-week training program (p = 0.03). Soreness data revealed significant increases across time in all groups at both week 0 and week 4. Paired sample t-tests revealed greater differences in soreness values across time in the 2S group. The results provide further evidence that resistance training with eccentrically dominated movement patterns can be an effective method to acutely increase maximal strength and power expression in trained college age men. Furthermore, longer eccentric contractions may negatively impact explosive movements such as the vertical jump, whereas shorter eccentric contractions may instigate greater amounts of soreness. These are important considerations for the strength and conditioning professional to more fully understand that expressions of strength and power through eccentric training and varying durations of eccentric activity can have a significant impact for populations ranging from athletes desiring peak performance.

  6. Asymmetrical loading demands associated with vertical jump landings in people with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Marlene; Diss, Ceri E; Strike, Siobhan C

    2013-01-01

    Loading symmetry during vertical jump landings between a person with amputation's intact and prosthetic limbs was assessed to determine the role of each limb in controlling the downward momentum of the center of mass during landing. Six participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) and ten nondisabled participants completed 10 maximal vertical jumps, of which the highest jump was analyzed. Contralateral symmetry was assessed through the Symmetry Index (SI), while symmetry at the group level was assessed through a Mann-Whitney U test. Participants with TTA performed quasi-unilateral landings onto the intact limbs, resulting from either the incapability of the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex or increased residual-limb knee and hip flexion. In the loading phase, the participants with TTA displayed reduced prosthetic-side peak vertical forces (p = 0.04) along with reduced prosthetic-side ankle range of motion (p vertical force magnitudes (SI = 51%-140%), duration from touchdown to peak vertical force (SI = 52%-157%), ankle joint angles at touchdown (SI = 100%-538%), ranges of motion (SI = 147%-200%), knee (SI = 66%-179%) and hip (SI = 87%-132%) extensor moments, and work done at the ankle (SI = 155%-199%) and hip (SI = 83%-204%). High peak forces (25.25 +/- 4.89 N·kg(-1) intact limb and 14.61 +/- 8.28 N·kg(-1) prosthetic limb) from significantly lower (p < 0.001) landing heights than the nondisabled participants indicate a potential injury risk associated with landing for people with TTA.

  7. Conformational relaxation dynamics of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aqueous solution measured using the laser temperature jump transient grating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hayato; Katayama, Kenji; Iwai, Kaoru; Miura, Atsushi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2012-04-28

    We observed phase transition and phase relaxation processes of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution using the heterodyne transient grating (HD-TG) method combined with the laser temperature jump technique. The sample temperature was instantaneously raised by about 1.0 K after irradiation of a pump pulse to crystal violet (CV) molecules for heating, and the phase transition was induced for the sample with an initial temperature just below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST); the following phase relaxation dynamics was observed. Turbidity relaxation was observed in both the turbidity and HD-TG responses, while another relaxation process was observed only in the HD-TG response, namely via the refractive index change. It is suggested that this response is due to formation of globule molecules or their assemblies since they would have nothing to do with turbidity change but would affect the refractive index, which is dependent on the molar volume of a chemical species. Furthermore, the grating spacing dependence of the HD-TG responses suggests that the response was caused by the counter propagating diffusion of the coil molecules as a reactant species and the globule molecules as a product species and the lifetime of the globule molecules ranged from 1.5 to 5 seconds. Thus, we conclude that the turbidity reflects the dynamics of aggregate conditions, not molecular conditions. The coil and globule sizes were estimated from the obtained diffusion coefficient. The sizes of the coil molecules did not change at the initial temperatures below the LCST but increased sharply as it approaches LCST. We propose that the coil-state molecules associate due to hydrophobic interaction when the initial temperature was higher than LCST minus 0.5 K and that the globule-state molecules generated from the coil-state molecules showed a similar trend in temperature. The phase transition was also induced by heating under a microscope, and the relaxation process

  8. Influence of Familiarization and Competitive Level on the Reliability of Countermovement Vertical Jump Kinetic and Kinematic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibali, Maria L; Tombleson, Tom; Brady, Philip H; Wagner, Phillip

    2015-10-01

    Understanding typical variation of vertical jump (VJ) performance and confounding sources of its typical variability (i.e., familiarization and competitive level) is pertinent in the routine monitoring of athletes. We evaluated the presence of systematic error (learning effect) and nonuniformity of error (heteroscedasticity) across VJ performances of athletes that differ in competitive level and quantified the reliability of VJ kinetic and kinematic variables relative to the smallest worthwhile change (SWC). One hundred thirteen high school athletes, 30 college athletes, and 35 professional athletes completed repeat VJ trials. Average eccentric rate of force development (RFD), average concentric (CON) force, CON impulse, and jump height measurements were obtained from vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) data. Systematic error was assessed by evaluating changes in the mean of repeat trials. Heteroscedasticity was evaluated by plotting the difference score (trial 2 - trial 1) against the mean of the trials. Variability of jump variables was calculated as the typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (%CV). No substantial systematic error (effect size range: -0.07 to 0.11) or heteroscedasticity was present for any of the VJ variables. Vertical jump can be performed without the need for familiarization trials, and the variability can be conveyed as either the raw TE or the %CV. Assessment of VGRF variables is an effective and reliable means of assessing VJ performance. Average CON force and CON impulse are highly reliable (%CV: 2.7% ×/÷ 1.10), although jump height was the only variable to display a %CV ≤SWC. Eccentric RFD is highly variable yet should not be discounted from VJ assessments on this factor alone because it may be sensitive to changes in response to training or fatigue that exceed the TE.

  9. Species status assessment report New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) (jumping mouse) lives in dense riparian herbaceous vegetation along streams from southern Colorado to...

  10. Cardiovascular changes during the performance by nonathletes of Bosco repeated jumps anaerobic test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas; Poderienė, Kristina; Buliuolis, Alfonsas; Šilinskas, Viktoras; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the characteristics of cardiovascular changes when performing Bosco repeated jumps anaerobic test depending on the duration of jumping in a nonathletes cohort...

  11. Acute Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance After Isometric Squats Depends on Knee Angle and Vertical Jumping Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukos, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Tsoukos, A, Bogdanis, GC, Terzis, G, and Veligekas, P. Acute improvement of vertical jump performance after isometric squats depends on knee angle and vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2250-2257, 2016-This study examined the acute effects of maximum isometric squats at 2 different knee angles (90 or 140°) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in power athletes. Fourteen national-level male track and field power athletes completed 3 main trials (2 experimental and 1 control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order 1 week apart. Countermovement jump performance was evaluated using a force-plate before and 15 seconds, 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after 3 sets of 3 seconds maximum isometric contractions with 1-minute rest in between, from a squat position with knee angle set at 90 or 140°. Countermovement jump performance was improved compared with baseline only in the 140° condition by 3.8 ± 1.2% on the 12th minute of recovery (p = 0.027), whereas there was no change in CMJ height in the 90° condition. In the control condition, there was a decrease in CMJ performance over time, reaching -3.6 ± 1.2% (p = 0.049) after 12 minutes of recovery. To determine the possible effects of baseline jump performance on subsequent CMJ performance, subjects were divided into 2 groups ("high jumpers" and "low jumpers"). The baseline CMJ values of "high jumpers" and "low jumpers" differed significantly (CMJ: 45.1 ± 2.2 vs. 37.1 ± 3.9 cm, respectively, p = 0.001). Countermovement jump was increased only in the "high jumpers" group by 5.4 ± 1.4% (p = 0.001) and 7.4 ± 1.2% (p = 0.001) at the knee angles of 90 and 140°, respectively. This improvement was larger at the 140° angle (p = 0.049). Knee angle during isometric squats and vertical jumping ability are important determinants of the acute CMJ performance increase observed after a conditioning activity.

  12. A mode-coupling theory analysis of the observed diffusion anomaly in aqueous polyatomic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Bagchi, Biman

    2017-09-28

    In contrast to simple monatomic alkali and halide ions, complex polyatomic ions such as nitrate, acetate, nitrite, and chlorate have not been studied in any great detail. Experiments have shown that diffusion of polyatomic ions exhibits many remarkable anomalies; notable among them is the fact that polyatomic ions with similar size show large difference in their diffusivity values. This fact has drawn relatively little interest in scientific discussions. We show here that a mode-coupling theory can provide a physically meaningful interpretation of the anomalous diffusivity of polyatomic ions in water, by including the contribution of rotational jumps on translational friction. The two systems discussed here, namely, aqueous nitrate ion and aqueous acetate ion, although have similar ionic radii, exhibit largely different diffusivity values due to the differences in the rate of their rotational jump motions. We have further verified the mode-coupling theory formalism by comparing it with experimental and simulation results that agree well with the theoretical prediction.

  13. A mode-coupling theory analysis of the observed diffusion anomaly in aqueous polyatomic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Bagchi, Biman

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to simple monatomic alkali and halide ions, complex polyatomic ions such as nitrate, acetate, nitrite, and chlorate have not been studied in any great detail. Experiments have shown that diffusion of polyatomic ions exhibits many remarkable anomalies; notable among them is the fact that polyatomic ions with similar size show large difference in their diffusivity values. This fact has drawn relatively little interest in scientific discussions. We show here that a mode-coupling theory can provide a physically meaningful interpretation of the anomalous diffusivity of polyatomic ions in water, by including the contribution of rotational jumps on translational friction. The two systems discussed here, namely, aqueous nitrate ion and aqueous acetate ion, although have similar ionic radii, exhibit largely different diffusivity values due to the differences in the rate of their rotational jump motions. We have further verified the mode-coupling theory formalism by comparing it with experimental and simulation results that agree well with the theoretical prediction.

  14. Ski jump takeoff performance predictions for a mixed-flow, remote-lift STOVL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.

    1992-01-01

    A ski jump model was developed to predict ski jump takeoff performance for a short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The objective was to verify the model with results from a piloted simulation of a mixed flow, remote lift STOVL aircraft. The prediction model is discussed. The predicted results are compared with the piloted simulation results. The ski jump model can be utilized for basic research of other thrust vectoring STOVL aircraft performing a ski jump takeoff.

  15. Particle drift, diffusion, and acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The gradient and curvature drifts implicit in change of the ambient magnetic field at a hydromagnetic shock wave are incorporated into the diffusive theory of shock acceleration of charged particles. The conventional jump condition at the shock is modified by a term incorporating the large drift along the shock plane. This term vanished identically for one-dimensional systems, but must be included in general for shocks which are finite in transverse extent or which have transverse structure. It is found that the effect of the drift is such that the transverse drift rate is proportional to the acceleration rate, and for perpendicular shocks is exactly equal to the rate of change of energy in the V x B electric field observed in the shock frame. This establishes a connection with the 'shock drift' models which neglect diffusion.

  16. Diffusion in normal and critical transient chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Z; Németh, A; Szépfalusy, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deterministic diffusion in systems which are spatially extended in certain directions but are restricted in size and open in other directions, consequently particles can escape. We introduce besides the diffusion coefficient D on the chaotic repeller a coefficient ${\\hat D}$ which measures the broadening of the distribution of trajectories during the transient chaotic motion. Both coefficients are explicitly computed for one-dimensional models, and they are found to be different in most cases. We show furthermore that a jump develops in both of the coefficients for most of the initial distributions when we approach the critical borderline where the escape rate equals the Liapunov exponent of a periodic orbit.

  17. Fact or friction: jumps at ultra high frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, K.; Oomen, R.; Podolskij, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that jumps in financial asset prices are not nearly as common as generally thought, and that they account for only a very small proportion of total return variation. We base our investigation on an extensive set of ultra high-frequency equity and foreign exchange rate

  18. Contribution to the experimental study of the hydraulic jump in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to study experimentally the hydraulic jump evolving in a symmetric trapezoidal channel with a positive slope, requires the use of an experimental protocol, and to find experimental relations linking the characteristics of the formed projection. The experimental study investigated the variation of the ...

  19. Considering Jumping Ship? A Pirate Looks at Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    If you're like me, a "senior" faculty member at a public state university facing significant budget cuts, recently you've probably thought about leaving your current position for another faculty position in a different state. A possible reason for considering jumping ship is envisioning a clearer picture of your retirement as it nears on…

  20. Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngkyu Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Movable weirs have been developed to address the weaknesses of conventional fixed weirs. However, the structures for riverbed protection downstream of movable weirs are designed using the criteria of fixed weirs in most cases, and these applications cause problems, such as scour and deformation of structures, due to misunderstanding the difference between different types of structures. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was conducted to examine weir type-specific hydraulic phenomena, compare hydraulic jumps and downstream flow characteristics according to different weir types, and analyze hydraulic characteristics, such as changes in water levels, velocities and energy. Additionally, to control the flow generated by a sluice gate, energy dissipators were examined herein for their effectiveness in relation to different installation locations and heights. As a result, it was found that although sluice gates generated hydraulic jumps similar to those of fixed weirs, their downstream supercritical flow increased to eventually elongate the overall hydraulic jumps. In energy dissipator installation, installation heights were found to be sensitive to energy dissipation. The most effective energy dissipator height was 10% of the downstream free surface water depth in this experiment. Based on these findings, it seems desirable to use energy dissipators to reduce energy, as such dissipators were found to be effective in reducing hydraulic jumps and protecting the riverbed under sluice gates.

  1. Spatiotemporal characteristics of motor actions by blind long jump athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Miguel Angel; Padullés, José María; Losada, Jose Luis; López, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background Blind people depend on spatial and temporal representations to perform activities of daily living and compete in sport. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of long jumps performed by blind athletes and compare findings with those reported for sighted athletes. Methods We analysed a sample of 12 male athletes competing in the F11 Long Jump Finals at the Paralympic Games in London 2012. Performances were recorded using four high-speed cameras, and speeds were measured using a radar speed gun. The images were processed using validated image analysis software. Results The long jump run-up is shorter in blind athletes than in sighted athletes. We observed statistically significant differences for body centre of mass velocity and an increase in speed over the last three strides prior to take-off, contrasting with reports for sighted athletes and athletes with less severe visual impairment, who maintain or reduce their speed during the last stride. Stride length for the last three strides was the only spatial characteristic that was not significantly associated with effective jump distance. Blind long jumpers extend rather than shorten their last stride. Contact time with the take-off board is longer than that reported for sighted athletes. Conclusion The actions of blind long jumpers, unlike those without disabilities, do not vary their leg actions during the final runway approach for optimal placement on the take-off board. PMID:29018542

  2. Security Sensor System Based on Large Barkhausen Jump of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents and discusses preliminary laboratory results for fabrication and testing of a security sensor system for use in article surveillance in such places as libraries, CD rental shops, and supermarkets, as a crime preventive measure. The system employs the large Barkhausen jump (LBJ) inherent in the ...

  3. Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of Jumping Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of Jumping Genes. Vidyanand Nanjundiah. General Article Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 56-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. The Hydraulic Jump: Finding Complexity in Turbulent Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Students who do not progress to more advanced science disciplines in college generally do not realize that seemingly simple physical systems are--when studied in detail--more complex than one might imagine. This article presents one such phenomenon--the hydraulic jump--as a way to help students see the complexity behind the seemingly simple, and…

  5. The world price of jump and volatility risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Maenhout, P.

    2013-01-01

    We study international integration of markets for jump and volatility risk, using index option data for the main global markets. To explain the cross-section of expected option returns we focus on return-based multi-factor models. For each market separately, we provide evidence that volatility and

  6. Jump tests for semimartingales | Hong | South African Actuarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to introduce jump tests to the actuarial community. In actuarial science, semimartingales are extensively used in the models for interest rates, options, variable annuities and equity-linked annuities. Those models usually assume without justification that the underlying asset process follows a continuous ...

  7. Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of Jumping Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    milind1

    An understanding of the nature of the gene had to await the identification of DNA as the genetic material. The final piece of evidence for a physical model of genes emerged from two independent experiments whose results were published. Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of Jumping Genes. Vidyanand Nanjundiah.

  8. Increased distance of shooting on basketball jump shot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Rodacki, André Luiz Félix

    2012-01-01

    .... Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively...

  9. The Jumping Ring and Lenz's Law--An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock-Smith, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Lenz's law is sometimes invoked to explain the behaviour of the jumping, or levitating, ring. This is shown to be incomplete, and an alternative explanation using Faraday's laws and circuit analysis is offered. This leads to the choice of optimum material and dimensions for the ring. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  10. Influence of Competition on Vertical Jump, Kicking Speed, Sprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of competition level (elite group [EG] and sub-elite group [SG]), on the Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Kicking Speed (KS), sprint and agility in young football players. The subjects were 79 young football players (14 to 18 years old), from Andalusian football teams with ...

  11. Jump-diffusion model of exchange rate dynamics : estimation via indirect inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, George J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates asymmetric effects of monetary policy over the business cycle. A two-state Markov Switching Model is employed to model both recessions and expansions. For the United States and Germany, strong evidence is found that monetary policy is more effective in a recession than during

  12. Study of the semi-theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump evolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in ...

  13. Flow in a triangular open channel with hydraulic jump | Eyo | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another feature of the work is the application of our model in Bernoulli's equation which leads to the energy dissipated in the jump for both the original and new channel. Based on this, other parameters like jump efficiency, relative energy loss, power loss and height of the jump are also determined in the two channels and ...

  14. Proximal-to-distal sequencing in vertical jumping with and without arm swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; Bryanton, Megan A; Moolyk, Amy N

    2014-05-01

    Vertical jumping performance is dependent on muscle strength and motor skill. An understanding of motor skill strategies and their influence on jumping mechanics provides insight into how to improve performance. This study aimed to determine whether kinematic sequencing strategy influenced jump height, the effect of sequencing on jumping mechanics, and whether arm swing influences sequencing strategy. Women volleyball players (n = 16) performed vertical jumps with and without arm swing on force platforms while recorded with a 6-camera motion capture system. Sequencing strategy was determined as the relative time delay between pelvis and knee extension. A long time delay indicated a proximal-to-distal strategy, whereas no time delay represented a simultaneous strategy. Longer relative time delay was correlated with higher jump height in jumps with (r = 0.82, p jump height were associated with greater hip extensor and ankle plantar flexor net joint moments (NJM), and greater ratio of concentric to eccentric knee extensor NJM (p ≤ 0.05). Longer relative time delay and higher jump height were correlated with greater thigh and leg angular accelerations (p ≤ 0.05). These kinetic and kinematic variables, along with relative time delay and jump height were greater in jumps with arm swing than without (p ≤ 0.05), indicating arm swing promotes use of a proximal-to-distal strategy. Use of a proximal-to-distal strategy is associated with greater NJM and segment accelerations, which may contribute to better vertical jump performance.

  15. Vertical jumping performance of bonobo (Pan paniscus) suggests superioro muscle porperties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, M.N.; D'Aout, K.; Bobbert, M.F.; Aerts, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical jumping was used to assess muscle mechanical output in bonobos and comparisons were drawn to human jumping. Jump height, defined as the vertical displacement of the body centre of mass during the airborne phase, was determined for three bonobos of varying age and sex. All bonobos reached

  16. Is the effect of a countermovement on jump height due to active state development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the difference in jump height between countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) could be explained by a difference in active state during propulsion. Methods: Simulations were performed with a model of the human musculoskeletal system comprising four body

  17. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Safar, Sandor; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps

  18. Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping? - a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrenterghem, J.; Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; de Clercq, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with

  19. Relationships among jumping performances and sprint parameters during maximum speed phase in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mehmet; Aşçi, Alper; Bayrak, Coşkun; Açikada, Caner

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among jumping performances and speed parameters during maximum speed phase in sprinters. Twenty-one men sprinters volunteered to participate at the beginning of the preparation training phase. All tests-including 100-m sprint running, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), drop jump (DJ), 60-second repetitive jump (RJ), standing long jump (SLJ), standing triple jump (STJ), standing quintuple jump (SQJ), and standing 10-stride jump (STENJ)-were done on switching mats. Flight (FT) and contact times (CT) during the vertical jump tests and 10-m split times during 100-m sprint running were measured by a 2-channel precision timing system (PTS) connected to the mats. The trace marking method was used for measuring the stride length (SL) through 60 m in 100-m sprint running. Stride frequency (SF), maximum velocity (Vmax), jump height for all vertical jumps, and lower-body power in DJ and RJ were calculated. Statistical analysis showed that the highest significant correlation was found between Vmax and DJ height (r = 0.69; p training phase.

  20. A water-walking robot mimicking the jumping abilities of water striders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Liu, Gangfeng; Yan, Jihong; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xinbin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-10-21

    The highly efficient and agile water-surface locomotion of water striders has attracted substantial research attention. Compared with imitating the horizontal rowing motion, imitating the jumping capability of water striders is much more challenging because the strong interaction in the jumping process easily causes the robot to sink. This study focuses on designing a miniature robot capable of continuously jumping on the water surface. A spring-based actuating mechanism is proposed to produce a large jumping force. The center of gravity of the robot is carefully designed to allow the robot to jump on the surface continuously and smoothly. The influences of several critical factors, including the area of the supporting legs, the spring stiffness, the jumping angle, etc on jumping ability are analyzed by means of dynamic simulation and experiments. The jumping performance under different jumping angles is tested. The fabricated robot weighs approximately 10.2 g and can continuously jump on water with a maximum leap height and length of 120 and 410 mm, respectively. This study helps researchers understand the jumping mechanism of water striders and provides a reference for developing water-jumping robots that can perform various aquatic tasks in the future.

  1. Jumping for recognition: Women's ski jumping viewed as a struggle for rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, W; Loland, S

    2017-03-01

    With the campaign for women's participation in international and Olympic ski jumping as a practical case, sport's potential for recognition of individual rights is explored. In line with Honneth's influential ethical theory, recognition of rights refers to a mutual recognition between persons of each other as rational and responsible agents with an equal right to take part in the public formation and development of their community or practice. The argument is that women ski jumpers were entitled to compete as they had actual and/or potential capabilities and skills to contribute in the public formation and development of their sport. Their exclusion was a violation of individual rights. At a more general level, sport is discussed as a sphere for recognition of rights. It is argued that the basic principles of equal opportunity to take part and to perform make sport a particularly clear and potent sphere for such recognition, and also for the identification of rights violations. In sport, rights, or the violation of rights, are demonstrated in concrete and embodied ways. It is concluded that struggles for recognition and individual rights are a continuous process in sport as in most other human institutions and practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Surface Diffusion of Cr Adatoms on Au(111) by Quantum Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohresser, P.; Bulou, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Boeglin, C.; Lazarovits, B.; Gaudry, E.; Chado, I.; Faerber, J.; Scheurer, F.

    2005-11-01

    The low-temperature surface diffusion of isolated Cr adatoms on Au(111) has been determined using nonperturbing x rays. Changes in the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectral line shape together with Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate that adatom nucleation proceeds via quantum tunneling diffusion rather than over-barrier hopping for temperatures <40K. The jump rates are shown to be as much as 35 orders of magnitude higher than that expected for thermal over-barrier hopping at 10 K.

  3. Noninvasive determination of knee cartilage deformation during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Vulovic, Radun; Peulic, Aleksandar; Radakovic, Radivoje; Kosanic, Djordje; Ristic, Branko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to use a combination of image processing, force measurements and finite element modeling to calculate deformation of the knee cartilage during jumping. Professional athletes performed jumps analyzed using a force plate and high-speed video camera system. Image processing was performed on each frame of video using a color recognition algorithm. A simplified mass-spring-damper model was utilized for determination of global force and moment on the knee. Custom software for fitting the coupling characteristics was created. Simulated results were used as input data for the finite element calculation of cartilage deformation in the athlete's knee. Computer simulation data was compared with the average experimental ground reaction forces. The results show the three-dimensional mechanical deformation distribution inside the cartilage volume. A combination of the image recognition technology, force plate measurements and the finite element cartilage deformation in the knee may be used in the future as an effective noninvasive tool for prediction of injury during jumping. Key pointsEven there are many existing mathematical models of force distribution during running or jumping (Liu et al, 1998), to our knowledge there is no interdisciplinary approach where imaging processing, finite element modeling and experimental force plate system are employed.The aim is to explore noninvasive deformation in the knee cartilage during athlete's jumping on the force plate.An original image algorithms and software were developed as well as complex mathematical models using high-performance computational power of finite element modeling together with one-dimensional dynamics model.The initial results showed cartilage deformation in the knee and future research will be focused on the methodology and more precisely determination of the stress and strain distribution in the knee cartilage during training phase of sportsman.

  4. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  5. Lack of association between postactivation potentiation and subsequent jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a strategy that has been used to acutely enhance the performance of explosive activities. Although, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) have previously been shown to enhance subsequent explosive performance, no information currently exists regarding (1) the optimal variables (intensity/volume) of a MVC that best elicits a PAP response, and (2) the utilisation of evoked isometric twitch contractions in combination with performance measures to directly ascertain the presence of PAP following a MVC, and its relationship to performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the influence of isometric contraction duration on the PAP response, and (2) to determine the relationship between PAP, indicated as potentiation of muscle twitch force and subsequent jump performance following different-duration MVCs. Eight males (age: 21 ± 0.99) were assessed using performance measures [countermovement jumps] and evoked twitch contractions, before and 4 minutes after three different conditioning contractions (CCs), (1) a 3-second MVC (MVC3), (2) a 5-second MVC (MVC5) and (3) a 7-second MVC (MVC7). Following all CCs, peak twitch torque of the knee extensor muscles was found to increase (MVC3, + 3.9%; MVC5, + 9.6%; MVC7, + 5.2%), although not significantly (P > 0.05). No significant increases in jump height, jump power, rate of force development or takeoff velocity were observed following any of the CCs (P > 0.05). There was also a lack of association between the changes in PAP (twitch torque) and jump height following all CCs (MVC3, r = 0.25; MVC5, r = 0.28; MVC7, r = -0.47). These data indicate that PAP as assessed via twitch contractions is not associated with performance measures subsequent to single-set isometric CCs of varying durations.

  6. Estimation of joint forces and moments for the in-run and take-off in ski jumping based on measurements with wearable inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-05-13

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers' body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  7. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Logar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers’ body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  8. The influence of an additional load on time and force changes in the ground reaction force during the countermovement vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverka, Frantisek; Jakubsova, Zlatava; Jandacka, Daniel; Zahradnik, David; Farana, Roman; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Supej, Matej; Vodicar, Janez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how an additional load influences the force-vs-time relationship of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ). The participants that took part in the experiment were 18 male university students who played sport recreationally, including regular games of volleyball. They were asked to perform a CMVJ without involving the arms under four conditions: without and with additional loads of 10%, 20%, and 30% of their body weight (BW). The vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate. The GRF was used to calculate the durations of the preparatory, braking, and acceleration phases, the total duration of the jump, force impulses during the braking and acceleration phases, average forces during the braking and acceleration phases, and the maximum force of impact at landing. Results were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA. Increasing the additional load prolonged both the braking and acceleration phases of the jump, with statistically significant changes in the duration of the acceleration phase found for an additional load of 20% BW. The magnitude of the force systematically and significantly increased with the additional load. The force impulse during the acceleration phase did not differ significantly between jumps performed with loads of 20% and 30% BW. The results suggest that the optimal additional load for developing explosive strength in vertical jumping ranges from 20% to 30% of BW, with this value varying between individual subjects.

  9. Determination of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios of 3d transition metals by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçal, Mustafa Recep; Han, Ibrahim; Akman, Ferdi

    2014-10-29

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) has been employed for measuring K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios for Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu elements. The jump factors and jump ratios for these elements were determined by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters such as the Kα X-ray production cross-sections, K shell fluorescence yields, Kβ-to-Kα X-rays intensity ratios, total atomic absorption cross sections and mass attenuation coefficients. The measurements were performed using a Cd-109 radioactive point source and an Si(Li) detector in direct excitation and transmission experimental geometry. The measured values for jump factors and jump ratios were compared with theoretically calculated and the ones available in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lithium diffusion in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G. J.; Henderson, P.; Lowry, R. K.; Nolan, J.; Reed, S. J. B.; Long, J. V. P.

    1983-10-01

    The diffusion properties of Li in an andesitic and pitchstone melt have been determined over the temperature range 1300-1400°C. The diffusion data have been fitted to an Arrhenius relationship between log D0 and 1/ T, and give relatively small activation energies of diffusion: 21.4±5.8 kcal mol -1 in the andesite and 20.1±2.8 kcal mol -1 in the pitchstone. Li +, unlike several other cations, shows similar diffusivities in these melt compositions to that in a basaltic melt. Despite the similar ionic radius of Li + to that of Co 2+, the diffusion properties of the two ions are very different from each other.

  11. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2017-02-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  12. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2017-02-14

    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  13. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.

  14. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, pjump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term.

  15. Differences between the elite and subelite sprinters in kinematic and dynamic determinations of countermovement jump and drop jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coh, Milan; Mackala, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between selected variables of lower extremities explosive power measured via countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) and sprinting ability over 60- and 100-m dash. Twelve national-level Slovenian sprinters were assigned to 2 groups: elite (n = 6) and subelite (n = 6). The grouping criterion was performance in 60 and 100 m in official competition. Biomechanical parameters of both jumps were measured with the use of bipedal force platform and a system of 9 infraspectral charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with a 200 Hz frequency. Differences between the groups of sprinters were examined with the use of repeated-measures analysis of variance. In CMJ, the differences (p sprinters differentiated in the realization of movement velocity in the eccentric and concentric phases (take off velocity: elites = 3.18 m · s, subelites = 2.87 m · s; eccentric velocity: elites = 3.05 m · s, subelites = 2.81 m · s). This investigation provides evidence that vertical jumps and DJs are very important tools to meet the demands of sprint training according eccentric-concentric muscular work. The DJ showed better quality than CMJ in the neuromuscular specificity.

  16. Carbon diffusion in bulk hcp zirconium: A multi-scale approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); EDF–R& D, Département Matériaux et Mécanique des Composants, Les Renardières, Ecuelles, F-77250 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Roques, J., E-mail: roques@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Domain, C. [EDF–R& D, Département Matériaux et Mécanique des Composants, Les Renardières, Ecuelles, F-77250 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Simoni, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-05-15

    In the framework of the geological repository of the used fuel claddings of pressurized water reactor, carbon behavior in bulk zirconium is studied by periodic Density Functional Theory calculations. The C interstitial sites were investigated and it was found that there are two possible carbon interstitial sites: a distorted basal tetragonal site and an octahedral site. There are four types of possible atomic jumps between them. After calculating the migration energies, the attempt frequencies and the jump probabilities for each possible migration path, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed to simulate carbon diffusion at the macroscopic scale. The results show that carbon diffusion in pure Zr bulk is extremely limited at the storage temperature (50 °C). Since there are defects in Zr bulk, in a second step, the effect of atomic vacancy was studied and it was proved that vacancies cannot increase carbon diffusion. - Highlights: • DFT was used to identify two possible carbon interstitial sites in zirconium bulk. • Jump probabilities for each migration path were calculated using NEB and TST. • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were performed to simulate the carbon diffusion. • No carbon diffusion in zirconium at the storage conditions. • Zirconium vacancies don't increase the carbon diffusion.

  17. Comparison of the Hang High-Pull and Loaded Jump Squat for the Development of Vertical Jump and Isometric Force-Time Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranchuk, Dustin J; Robinson, Tracey L; Switaj, Zachary J; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2017-04-15

    Weightlifting movements have high skill demands and require expert coaching. Loaded jumps have a comparably lower skill demand, but may be similarly effective for improving explosive performance. The purpose of this study was to compare vertical jump performance, isometric force, and rate of force development (RFD) following a ten-week intervention employing the hang high-pull (hang-pull) or trap-bar jump squat (jump-squat). Eighteen NCAA Division II swimmers (8 males, 10 females) with at least one year of resistance training experience volunteered to participate. Testing included the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). Vertical ground reaction forces were analyzed to obtain jump height and relative peak power. Relative peak force, peak RFD and relative force at five time bands were obtained from the IMTP. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a hang-pull (n = 9) or jump-squat (n = 9) training group and completed a ten-week, volume-equated, periodized training program. While there was a significant main effect of training for both groups, no statistically significant between-group differences were found (p ≥ 0.17) for any of the dependent variables. However, medium effect sizes in favor of the jump-squat training group were seen in SJ height (d = 0.56) and SJ peak power (d = 0.69). Loaded jumps seem equally effective as weightlifting derivatives for improving lower-body power in experienced athletes. Since loaded jumps require less skill and less coaching expertise than weightlifting, loaded jumps should be considered where coaching complex movements is difficult.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOKINETIC KNEE STRENGTH AND JUMP CHARACTERISTICS FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin; Evans, Daniel; Wong, Regan; Allen, Aaron; Kirsch, Tom; Long, Brian; Meister, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Clinicians are often challenged when making return-to-play decisions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Isokinetic strength and jump performance testing are common tools used to make this decision. Unfortunately, vertical jump performance standards have not been clearly established and many clinicians do not have access to isokinetic testing equipment. To establish normative jump and strength characteristics in ACL-R patients cleared by an orthopedic physician to return-to-play and to determine if relationships exist between knee isokinetic strength measurements and jump characteristics described using an electronic jump map system. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty-three ACL-R patients who had been cleared to return to athletic competition participated in this study. Twenty-six of these ACL-R participants were also matched to 26 asymptomatic athletes based on sex, limb, height, and mass to determine isokinetic strength and jump characteristic differences between groups. Jump tests consisted of single leg vertical, double leg vertical, and a 4-jump single leg vertical jump assessed using an electronic jump mat system. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses were used to identify any relationships between jump performance and knee strength (pjump capabilities and some bilateral knee strength deficiencies compared to the matched control group. The ACL-R group also showed several moderate-to-strong positive relationships for both knee extension and flexion strength with several jump performance characteristics, such as single and double leg vertical jump height. The current results indicate that ACL-R patients present with several knee strength and vertical jump differences compared to a matched control group at the time of return-to-play. Also, ACL-R patient's performance on an electronic jump mat system is strongly related to isokinetic knee strength measures. 2b.

  19. Modeling and forecasting electricity price jumps in the Nord Pool power market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knapik, Oskar

    For risk management traders in the electricity market are mainly interested in the risk of negative (drops) or of positive (spikes) price jumps, i.e. the sellers face the risk of negative price jumps while the buyers face the risk of positive price jumps. Understanding the mechanism that drive...... extreme prices and forecasting of the price jumps is crucial for risk management and market design. In this paper, we consider the problem of the impact of fundamental price drivers on forecasting of price jumps in NordPool intraday market. We develop categorical time series models which take into account...

  20. Large enhancement of the spin Hall effect in Au by side-jump scattering on Ta impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczkowski, P.; Fu, Y.; Yang, H.; Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C.; Noel, P.; Pham, V. T.; Zahnd, G.; Deranlot, C.; Collin, S.; Bouard, C.; Warin, P.; Maurel, V.; Chshiev, M.; Marty, A.; Attané, J.-P.; Fert, A.; Jaffrès, H.; Vila, L.; George, J.-M.

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of the spin Hall effect (SHE) in AuW and AuTa alloys for a large range of W or Ta concentrations by combining experiments on lateral spin valves and ferromagnetic-resonance/spin-pumping techniques. The main result is the identification of a large enhancement of the spin Hall angle (SHA) by the side-jump mechanism on Ta impurities, with a SHA as high as +0.5 (i.e., 50 % ) for about 10% of Ta. In contrast, the SHA in AuW does not exceed +0.15 and can be explained by intrinsic SHE of the alloy without significant extrinsic contribution from skew or side-jump scattering by W impurities. The AuTa alloys, as they combine a very large SHA with a moderate resistivity (smaller than 85 μ Ω cm ), are promising for spintronic devices exploiting the SHE.

  1. On the Hα behaviour of blue supergiants: rise and fall over the bi-stability jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Blagovest; Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Context. The evolutionary state of blue supergiants is still unknown. Stellar wind mass loss is one of the dominant processes determining the evolution of massive stars, and it may provide clues to the evolutionary properties of blue supergiants. As the Hα line is the most oft-used mass-loss tracer in the OB-star regime, we investigate Hα line formation as a function of Teff. Aims: We provide a detailed analysis of the Hα line for OB supergiant models over an Teff range between 30 000 and 12 500 K, with the aim of understanding the mass-loss properties of blue supergiants. Methods: We model the Hα line using the non-LTE code cmfgen, in the context of the bi-stability jump at Teff ~ 22 500 K. Results: We find a maximum in the Hα equivalent width at 22 500 K exactly at the location of the bi-stability jump. The Hα line-profile behaviour is characterised by two branches of effective temperature: (i) a hot branch between 30 000 and 22 500 K, where Hα emission becomes stronger with decreasing Teff; and (ii) a cool branch between 22 500 and 12 500 K, where the Hα line becomes weaker. Our models show that this non-monotonic Hα behaviour is related to the optical depth of Lyα, finding that at the "cool" branch the population of the 2nd level of hydrogen is enhanced in comparison to the 3rd level. This is expected to increase line absorption, leading to weaker Hα flux when Teff drops from 22 500 K downwards. We also show that for late B supergiants (at Teff below ~15 000 K), the differences in the Hα line between homogeneous and clumpy winds becomes insignificant. Moreover, we show that, at the bi-stability jump, Hα changes its character completely, from an optically thin to an optically thick line, implying that macro-clumping should play an important role at temperatures below the bi-stability jump. This would not only have consequences for the character of observed Hα line profiles, but also for the reported discrepancies between theoretical and empirical

  2. Effects of fatigue and surface instability on neuromuscular performance during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, M; Prieske, O; Demps, M; Granacher, U

    2016-10-01

    It has previously been shown that fatigue and unstable surfaces affect jump performance. However, the combination thereof is unresolved. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue and surface instability on jump performance and leg muscle activity. Twenty elite volleyball players (18 ± 2 years) performed repetitive vertical double-leg box jumps until failure. Before and after a fatigue protocol, jump performance (i.e., jump height) and electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles were recorded during drop jumps (DJs) and countermovement jumps (CMJs) on a force plate on stable and unstable surfaces (i.e., balance pad on top of force plate). Jump performance (3-7%; P jump performance: 8%; P volleyball players, whereas surface instability affects neuromuscular DJ performance only. Absent fatigue × surface interactions indicate that fatigue-induced changes in jump performance are similar on stable and unstable surfaces in jump-trained athletes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Validity and reliability of Optojump photoelectric cells for estimating vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Julia F; Gouge, Sylvain; Nussbaumer, Silvio; Stauffacher, Simone; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2011-02-01

    Vertical jump is one of the most prevalent acts performed in several sport activities. It is therefore important to ensure that the measurements of vertical jump height made as a part of research or athlete support work have adequate validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent validity and reliability of the Optojump photocell system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) with force plate measurements for estimating vertical jump height. Twenty subjects were asked to perform maximal squat jumps and countermovement jumps, and flight time-derived jump heights obtained by the force plate were compared with those provided by Optojump, to examine its concurrent (criterion-related) validity (study 1). Twenty other subjects completed the same jump series on 2 different occasions (separated by 1 week), and jump heights of session 1 were compared with session 2, to investigate test-retest reliability of the Optojump system (study 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for validity were very high (0.997-0.998), even if a systematic difference was consistently observed between force plate and Optojump (-1.06 cm; p height. We propose the following equation that allows force plate and Optojump results to be used interchangeably: force plate jump height (cm) = 1.02 × Optojump jump height + 0.29. In conclusion, the use of Optojump photoelectric cells is legitimate for field-based assessments of vertical jump height.

  4. The effect of arm action on the vertical jump performance in children and adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.

  5. Loaded and unloaded jump performance of top-level volleyball players from different age categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Finotti, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete's body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate. SJ and CMJ jump height values were higher for professional and under-21 players than under-17 players (pvolleyball players. Therefore, to increase the vertical jumping ability of these team sport athletes throughout their long-term development, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are encouraged to implement consistent neuromuscular training strategies, in accordance with the specific needs and physiological characteristics of each age group.

  6. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source.

  7. Questions arising for future surface diffusion studies using scattering techniques-the case of benzene diffusion on graphite basal plane surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Almazan, Irene; Seydel, Tilo; Fouquet, Peter, E-mail: fouquet@ill.e [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-08-04

    This paper gives a review of recent work on benzene diffusion on graphitic carbon surfaces using neutron and helium scattering spectroscopy as well as computational modelling. Recent spin-echo spectroscopy measurements have demonstrated that benzene/graphite displays almost perfect Brownian diffusion and that it can be used as a tool to study dynamic friction. Incoherent neutron backscattering measurements, on the other hand, reveal a jump diffusion behaviour, related to the molecular rotational modes of the benzene rings. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have delivered a very detailed picture of the adsorbate dynamics. We use this review to illustrate the open questions and possible future directions of this research field.

  8. Keeping Your Eye on the Rail: Gaze Behaviour of Horse Riders Approaching a Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carol; Varley, Ian; Kay, Rachel; Crundall, David

    2014-01-01

    The gaze behaviour of riders during their approach to a jump was investigated using a mobile eye tracking device (ASL Mobile Eye). The timing, frequency and duration of fixations on the jump and the percentage of time when their point of gaze (POG) was located elsewhere were assessed. Fixations were identified when the POG remained on the jump for 100 ms or longer. The jumping skill of experienced but non-elite riders (n = 10) was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Their gaze behaviour was recorded as they completed a course of three identical jumps five times. The speed and timing of the approach was calculated. Gaze behaviour throughout the overall approach and during the last five strides before take-off was assessed following frame-by-frame analyses. Differences in relation to both round and jump number were found. Significantly longer was spent fixated on the jump during round 2, both during the overall approach and during the last five strides (pJump 1 was fixated on significantly earlier and more frequently than jump 2 or 3 (pjump 3 than with jump 1 (p = 0.01) but there was no difference in errors made between rounds. Although no significant correlations between gaze behaviour and skill scores were found, the riders who scored higher for jumping skill tended to fixate on the jump earlier (p = 0.07), when the horse was further from the jump (p = 0.09) and their first fixation on the jump was of a longer duration (p = 0.06). Trials with elite riders are now needed to further identify sport-specific visual skills and their relationship with performance. Visual training should be included in preparation for equestrian sports participation, the positive impact of which has been clearly demonstrated in other sports. PMID:24846055

  9. A valid and reliable method to measure jump-specific training and competition load in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skazalski, C; Whiteley, R; Hansen, C; Bahr, R

    2018-01-06

    Use of a commercially available wearable device to monitor jump load with elite volleyball players has become common practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of this device, the Vert, to count jumps and measure jump height with professional volleyball players. Jump count accuracy was determined by comparing jumps recorded by the device to jumps observed through systematic video analysis of three practice sessions and two league matches performed by a men's professional volleyball team. Jumps performed by 14 players were each coded for time and jump type and individually matched to device recorded jumps. Jump height validity of the device was examined against reference standards as participants performed countermovement jumps on a force plate and volleyball-specific jumps with a Vertec. The Vert device accurately counted 99.3% of the 3637 jumps performed during practice and match play. The device showed excellent jump height interdevice reliability for two devices placed in the same pouch during volleyball jumps (r = .99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99). The device had a minimum detectable change (MDC) of 9.7 cm and overestimated jump height by an average of 5.5 cm (95% CI 4.5-6.5) across all volleyball jumps. The Vert device demonstrates excellent accuracy counting volleyball-specific jumps during training and competition. While the device is not recommended to measure maximal jumping ability when precision is needed, it provides an acceptable measure of on-court jump height that can be used to monitor athlete jump load. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. External loading and maximum dynamic output in vertical jumping: the role of training history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Sasa; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan

    2012-02-01

    We examined the effect of training history on the load-power relationship in vertical jumping (VJ) by employing external loads ranging from -30% to +30% body weight (BW). Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that (1) the maximum dynamic output (power production and momentum generation) would be within the tested loading interval, and (2) the load-power and load-momentum relations would depend on the subject's training history. Thirty-one healthy male subjects of different training history (i.e., 9 strength-trained athletes, 12 speed-trained athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals), performed maximum countermovement jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's BW. An increase in external loading during VJ resulted in a systematic decrease (ppower production and momentum generation in all 3 studied groups. We also observed significant Group×Load interactions (ppower and the load-momentum relationships, probably due to the group differences in slopes of the trend lines that describe the loading-associated changes in power and momentum. The results suggest that, from the evolutionary standpoint, the human muscular system of the lower limbs could be designed to produce the maximum power output against the loads that are well below the mass and inertia of the human body. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Tuck Jump Assessment by Health Professionals of Varied Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Dudley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA, a clinical plyometric assessment, identifies 10 jumping and landing technique flaws. The study objective was to investigate TJA interrater and intrarater reliability with raters of different educational and clinical backgrounds. Methods. 40 participants were video recorded performing the TJA using published protocol and instructions. Five raters of varied educational and clinical backgrounds scored the TJA. Each score of the 10 technique flaws was summed for the total TJA score. Approximately one month later, 3 raters scored the videos again. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interrater (5 and 3 raters for first and second session, resp. and intrarater (3 raters reliability. Results. Interrater reliability with 5 raters was poor (ICC = 0.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.33–0.62. Interrater reliability between 3 raters who completed 2 scoring sessions improved from 0.52 (95% CI 0.35–0.68 for session one to 0.69 (95% CI 0.55–0.81 for session two. Intrarater reliability was poor to moderate, ranging from 0.44 (95% CI 0.22–0.68 to 0.72 (95% CI 0.55–0.84. Conclusion. Published protocol and training of raters were insufficient to allow consistent TJA scoring. There may be a learned effect with the TJA since interrater reliability improved with repetition. TJA instructions and training should be modified and enhanced before clinical implementation.

  12. Optimum load in various vertical jumps support the maximum dynamic output hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzovic, D; Markovic, G; Pasic, M; Jaric, S

    2013-11-01

    The aim was to generalize the maximum dynamic output (MDO) hypothesis [i. e., the muscle power output in vertical jumps (VJ) is maximized when loaded with one's own body mass] to variety of VJ. We hypothesized that the subjects' own body (a) would be the optimal load for maximizing the power output (i. e., the no-load condition) and also (b) reveal the maximum benefits of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). 13 participants performed the maximum squat and various counter-movement jumps when loaded by approximately constant external force ranging from -40% to  + 40% of their body weight (BW). Regarding the first hypothesis, the differences in both the peak and mean power recorded under different load magnitudes revealed maxima close to no-load condition (i. e., from -3% BW to  + 8% BW; R2=0.65-0.96; all Phypothesis, the differences in performance between VJ executed with and without SSC also revealed maxima close to no-load conditions (0-2% BW), while the same differences in the power output were observed under relatively low positive loads (14-25% BW; R² = 0.56-0.95; all Phypothesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Conformational relaxations of human serum albumin studied by molecular dynamics simulations with pressure jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesylevskyy S. O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In this work we developed a novel technique of obtaining the spectrum of conformational relaxations in a solvated protein using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Methods. Structural relaxations in the protein are initiated by the abrupt jump of pressure in the NPT simulations. The change of the protein volume after the jump is monitored and the Maximum Entropy Method is used for spectral decomposition of the volume relaxation curve. The human serum albumin (HSA is used as a test case. Results. The obtained relaxation spectrum of HSA contains one component attributed to the bulk water and five components caused by the relaxations of the protein globule and its hydration shell. All relaxation components are in good agreement with the available experimental data obtained by the time-resolved spectroscopy and the broadband acoustic spectroscopy of HSA. Conclusions. The developed technique allows obtaining spectra of conformational relaxations of soluble proteins in a range of time scales from ~0.1 ps to ~50 ns utilizing single non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation.

  14. Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Petushek, Erich; Krosshaug, Tron

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the within-session and between-session reliability of knee kinematics and kinetics in a vertical drop jump task among elite female handball and football athletes. Specifically, we aimed to quantify the within-session waveform consistency and between-session consistency of the subject ranking for a variety of knee kinematics and kinetics. Forty-one elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes were tested in two sessions. The reliability of three-dimensional knee biomechanical measurements was quantified by the intra-class correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and typical error. All the selected discrete variables achieved excellent within-session reliability (ICC>0.87). The typical error of valgus angles, internal rotation angles, and internal rotation moment was constant throughout the whole stance phase. For between-session reliability, the selected discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.69), except peak internal rotation moment (ICC=0.40). All between-session rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 to 0.90. Most of the discrete variables achieved good to excellent reliability in both within-session and between-session analysis. Moreover, moderate to strong between-session consistency of subject rankings was found, implying that the measurements assessed during the vertical drop jump demonstrate sufficient reliability to be used in both single-session and multiple-session studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Jumps into democracy: The transition in the Polity Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Gundlach, Erich

    The Democratic Transition is the process of regime change from authoritarian at the traditional level of development to democratic at the modern level. This process is analyzed on 7,565 pairs of income and political regime data. Regimes are normally in local status quo equilibrium, so they have...... stepwise stability. The 158 countries are divided in two groups: A small OPEC group, where the transition is skew, and a Main group, where the data show the well-defined long-run path of the Democratic Transition. The distance to the transition path is termed the tension of the regime. The short......-run changes are due to triggering events that cause regime jumps. Triggering events are almost random, while most jumps are in the direction of the tension. This mechanism integrates the short and the long run to give the transition....

  16. A characterization of oil price behavior. Evidence from jump models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronwald, Marc [Munich Univ. (Germany). Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

    2011-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the statistical behavior of oil prices in two ways. It, firstly, applies a combined jump GARCH in order to characterize the behavior of daily, weekly as well as monthly oil prices. Secondly, it relates its empirical results to implications of Hotelling-type resource extraction models. The empirical analysis shows that oil prices are characterized by GARCH as well as conditional jump behavior and that a considerable portion of the total variance is triggered by sudden extreme price movements. This finding implies that, first, oil price signals are not reliable and, as a consequence, both finding optimal extraction paths and decisions regarding the transmission to alternative technologies are likely to be compromised. Second, this behavior is in stark contrast to the notion of deterministic trends in the price of oil. (orig.)

  17. The circular jump as a hydrodynamic white hole

    CERN Document Server

    Jannes, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Surface waves in classical fluids experience a rich array of black/white hole horizon effects. The dispersion relation depends on the characteristics of the fluid as well as on the fluid depth and the wavelength regime. We focus on the shallow-water regime, and discuss the experimental proof that the circular hydraulic jump marks the transition between a supercritical and a subcritical flow regime. This finally confirms a theoretical conjecture formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly 100 years ago. It also confirms that the circular jump corresponds to the spontaneous formation of a hydrodynamic white hole, with interesting characteristics from the point of view of analogue gravity. We study the dispersive regime, mention some lessons about the trans-Planckian issue and describe possible directions for future work.

  18. Differential Algebraic Equations of MOS Circuits and Jump Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, P.; Thiessen, T.; Mathis, W.

    2012-10-01

    Many nonlinear electronic circuits showing fast switching behavior exhibit jump effects which occurs when the state space of the electronic system contains a fold. This leads to difficulties during the simulation of these systems with standard circuit simulators. A method to overcome these problems is by regularization, where parasitic inductors and capacitors are added at the suitable locations. However, the transient solution will not be reliable if this regularization is not done in accordance with Tikhonov's Theorem. A geometric approach is taken to overcome these problems by explicitly computing the state space and jump points of the circuit. Until now, work has been done in analyzing example circuits exhibiting this behavior for BJT transistors. In this work we apply these methods to MOS circuits (Schmitt trigger, flip flop and multivibrator) and present the numerical results. To analyze the circuits we use the EKV drain current model as equivalent circuit model for the MOS transistors.

  19. Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Nanodroplets on Textured Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Liao, Quanwen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhichun

    2018-01-04

    Conducting experimental studies on nanoscale droplet coalescence using traditional microscopes is a challenging research topic, and views differ as to whether the spontaneous removal can occur in the coalescing nanodroplets. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to investigate the coalescence process of two equally sized nanodroplets. On the basis of atomic coordinates, we compute the liquid bridge radii for various cases, which is described by a power law of spreading time, and these nanodroplets undergo coalescence in the inertially limited-viscous regime. Moreover, coalescence-induced jumping is also possible for the nanodroplets, and the attraction force between surface and water molecules plays a crucial role in this process, where the merged nanodroplets prefer to jump away from those surfaces with lower attraction force. When the solid-liquid interaction intensity and surface structure parameters are varied, the attraction force is shown to decrease with decreasing surface wettability intensity and solid fraction.

  20. Control and filtering for semi-Markovian jump systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fanbiao; Wu, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on semi-Markovian jump systems (S-MJS). It presents solutions to a series of problems with new approaches for the control and filtering of S-MJS, including stability analysis, sliding mode control, dynamic output feedback control, robust filter design, and fault detection. A set of newly developed techniques such as piecewise analysis method, positively invariant set approach, event-triggered method, and cone complementary linearization approaches are presented. Control and Filtering for Semi-Markovian Jump Systems is a comprehensive reference for researcher and practitioners working in control engineering, system sciences and applied mathematics, and is also a useful source of information for senior undergraduates and graduates in these areas. The readers will benefit from some new concepts, new models and new methodologies with practical significance in control engineering and signal processing.

  1. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  2. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, ptraining (Δ ~4%, p training (Δ ~3.5%, p training (Δ ~27%, p training (Δ ~17%, p training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p training (Δ -1.9%, p training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength that has been the focus of several researches, while the load used during the training seem to be an important factor that affects training outcomes. Experimental group improved performance in all assessed parameters, such as Fmax, RFD100, CMJ, SJ and 50 m sprint time. However, improvements in CMJ and SJ were recorded after the entire power training period and thereafter plateau occurred. The portable FitroDyne could serve as a valuable device to individualize the load that maximizes mean power output and visual feedback can be provided to athletes during the training

  3. Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

    1999-02-10

    The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

  4. Fundamental Studies of Jumping-Drop Thermal Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    injection and vacuum pumping (visible in Figure 2a inset). The opposing superhydrophilic surface (Figure 2b) consisted of copper wick sintered to a...sectional area as the diode (76 mm x 76 mm). The backside of the heater was wrapped with insulating rubber foam to minimize heat leakage. The cooling was...and heated, so there would be no jumping drops. Note that the heater plate and the insulating foam were removed from the images in Figure 4 (a) and

  5. Computing the Rates of Measurement-Induced Quantum Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    9 pages, 2 figures, close to the published version. The text has been profoundly rewritten. The concept of "quantum spikes" is no longer discussed and will be studied in a subsequent article; International audience; Small quantum systems can now be continuously monitored experimentally which allows for the reconstruction of quantum trajectories. A peculiar feature of these trajectories is the emergence of jumps between the eigenstates of the observable which is measured. Using the Stochastic ...

  6. The beginning of time observed in quantum jumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Arno [CCQS, Physics Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Bryant, Peter W. [IBM Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Uncu, Haydar [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin (Turkey); Wickramasekara, Sujeev [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA (United States); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Hagler Institute for Advanced Study, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Texas A and M AgriLife, Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The phenomenon of quantum jumps observed in a single ion stored in a trap brings to light intimate connections between three different concepts of quantum physics: (i) quantum state trajectories, (ii) Gamow states, and (iii) the arrow of time. In particular, it allows us to identify the starting time of the semigroup time evolution. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The Economics of Bitcoins - Market Characteristics and Price Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Gronwald

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the economics of Bitcoins in two ways. First, it broadens the discussion on how to capture Bitcoins using economic terms. Center stage in this analysis take the discussion of some unique characteristics of this market as well as the comparison of Bitcoins and gold. Second, the paper empirically analyses Bitcoin prices using an autoregressive jump-intensity GARCH model; a model tested and proven by the empirical finance community. Results suggest that Bitcoin price are pa...

  8. Regional foot pressure during running, cutting, jumping, and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendurff, Michael S; Rohr, Eric S; Segal, Ava D; Medley, Jonathan W; Green, John R; Kadel, Nancy J

    2008-03-01

    Evaluating shoes during sport-related movements may provide a better assessment of plantar loads associated with repetitive injury and provide more specific data for comparing shoe cushioning characteristics. Accelerating, cutting, and jumping pressures will be higher than in straight running, differentiating regional shoe cushioning performance in sport-specific movements. Controlled laboratory study. Peak pressures on seven anatomic regions of the foot were assessed in 10 male college athletes during running straight ahead, accelerating, cutting left, cutting right, jump take-off, and jump landing wearing Speed TD and Air Pro Turf Low shoes (Nike, Beaverton, Ore). Pedar insoles (Novel, Munich, Germany) were sampled at 99 Hz during the 6 movements. Cutting and jumping movements demonstrated more than double the pressure at the heel compared with running straight, regardless of shoe type. The Air Pro Turf showed overall lower pressure for all movement types (PPro Turf shoe had lower heel pressures (36.6 +/- 12.5 N/cm(2)) than the Speed TD (50.3 +/- 11.2 N/cm(2)) (PPro Turf had lower great toe pressures than the Speed TD (44.8 +/- 8.1 N/cm(2) vs 54.4 +/- 8.4 N/cm(2); P= .0002). The Air Pro Turf also had significantly lower pressures than the Speed TD at the central forefoot during acceleration (38.2 +/- 8.3 N/cm(2) vs 50.8 +/- 7.4 N/cm(2); P<.0001). Sport-related movements load the plantar surface of the foot more than running straight. Shoe cushioning characteristics were more robustly assessed during sport-related movements (4 significant results detected) compared with running straight (1 significant result detected). There is an interaction between shoe cushioning characteristics and sport-related movements that may influence plantar pressure and repetitive stress injuries.

  9. Endogenous growth, backstop technology adoption and optimal jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Simone

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a two-phase endogenous growth model in which the adoption of a backstop technology (e.g., solar) yields a sustained supply of essential energy inputs previously obtained from exhaustible resources (e.g., oil). Growth is knowledge-driven and the optimal timing of technology switching is determined by welfare maximization. The optimal path exhibits discrete jumps in endogenous variables: technology switching implies sudden reductions in consumption and output, an increase in...

  10. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets...... are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  11. Relationships between sprinting, agility, and jump ability in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; McGuigan, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between various field tests in female athletes. Altogether, 83 high school soccer, 51 college soccer, and 79 college lacrosse athletes completed tests for linear sprinting, countermovement jump, and agility in a single session. Linear sprints (9.1, 18.3, 27.4, and 36.6 m) and agility tests (Illinois and pro-agility) were evaluated using infrared timing gates, while countermovement jump height was assessed using an electronic timing mat. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients (r) were used to determine the strength and directionality of the relationship between tests and coefficients of determination (r2) were used to examine the amount of explained variance between tests. All of the performance scores were statistically correlated with each other; however, the coefficients of determination were low, moderate, and high depending on the test pairing. Linear sprint split times were strongly correlated with each other (r= 0.775 to 0.991). The relationship between countermovement jump height and linear sprinting was stronger with the longer distances (27.4 and 36.6 m) than with the shorter distances (9.1 and 18.3 m), and showed a stronger relationship within the college athletes (r= -0.658 to -0.788) than high school soccer players (r= -0.491 to -0.580). The Illinois and pro-agility tests were correlated (r > or = 0.600) with each other as well as with linear sprint times. The results of this study indicate that linear sprinting, agility, and vertical jumping are independent locomotor skills and suggest a variety of tests ought to be included in an assessment protocol for high school and college female athletes.

  12. Soap film dynamics and topological jumps under continuous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Consider the dynamics of a soap-film bounded by a flexible wire (or wires) which can be continuously and slowly deformed. At each instant the soap-film relaxes in quasi-static manner to a minimum-area (i.e. minimum-energy) state compatible with the boundary configuration. This can however pass through a critical configuration at which a topological jump is inevitable. We have studied an interesting example of this behaviour: the jump of a one-sided (Möbius strip) soap-film to a two-sided film as the boundary is unfolded and untwisted from the double cover of a circle. The nature of this jump will be demonstrated and explained. More generally, dynamical systems have a natural tendency to relax through dissipative processes to a minimum-energy state, subject to any relevant constraints. An example is provided by the relaxation of a magnetic field in a perfectly conducting but viscous fluid, subject to the constraint that the magnetic field lines are frozen in the fluid. One may infer the existence of magnetostatic equilibria (and analogous steady Euler flows) of arbitrary field-line topology. In general, discontinuities (current sheets) appear during this relaxation process, and this is where reconnection of field-lines (with associated change of topology) can occur. Just as for the soap film, slow change of boundary conditions can lead to critical conditions in which such topological jumps are inevitable. (Work in collaboration with Ray Goldstein, Adriana Pesci, Renzo Ricca and Gareth Alexander.) This work was supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Grant EP/I036060/1.

  13. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  14. On diffusion theory in inhomogeneous media: Thin-film source of diffusant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarev, A. G.; Kondrat'ev, V. V.; Lomaev, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    Using asymptotic methods in the theory of differential equations, the original solution of the atomic diffusion problem in the semi-infinite inhomogeneous medium has been obtained for the thin-film (instantaneous) source of diffusant and arbitrary coordinate dependence of the diffusion coefficient. We have mathematically estimated the applicability of this solution and compared it numerically with the known exact solution for a particular case of the exponential coordinate dependence of the diffusion coefficient and a trivial case of the constant diffusion coefficient. Based on our analysis, the ranges of annealing times and depths of diffusant penetration for which the suggested approach proves to be correct have been established.

  15. Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-12-18

    The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.

  16. Aerodynamics of ski jumping flight and its control: II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungil; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Woojin; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    In a ski jumping competition, it is essential to analyze the effect of various posture parameters of a ski jumper to achieve a longer flight distance. For this purpose, we conduct a large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow past a model ski jumper which is obtained by 3D scanning a ski jumper's body (Mr. Chil-Ku Kang, member of the Korean national team). The angle of attack of the jump ski is 30° and the Reynolds number based on the length of the jump ski is 540,000. The flow statistics including the drag and lift coefficients in flight are in good agreements with our own experimental data. We investigate the flow characteristics such as the flow separation and three-dimensional vortical structures and their effects on the drag and lift. In addition to LES, we construct a simple geometric model of a ski jumper where each part of the ski jumper is modeled as a canonical bluff body such as the sphere, cylinder and flat plate, to find its optimal posture. The results from this approach will be compared with those by LES and discussed. Supported by NRF program (2014M3C1B1033848, 2014R1A1A1002671).

  17. Overcoming horizontal depolarizing resonances with multiple tune jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a medium energy proton synchrotron, strong enough partial Siberian snakes can be used to avoid both imperfection and vertical intrinsic depolarizing resonances. However, partial snakes tilt the stable spin direction away from vertical, which generates depolarizing resonances associated with horizontal tune. The relatively weak but numerous horizontal intrinsic resonances are the main source of the residual polarization losses. A pair of horizontal tune jump quads have been used in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron to overcome these weak resonances. The locations of the two quads have to be chosen such that the disturbance to the beam optics is minimum. The emittance growth has to be mitigated for this method to work. In addition, this technique needs very accurate jump timing. Using two partial Siberian snakes, with vertical tune inside the spin tune gap and 80% polarization at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection, polarized proton beam had reached 1.5×10^{11} proton per bunch with 65% polarization. With the tune jump timing optimized and emittance preserved, more than 70% polarization with 2×10^{11} protons per bunch has been achieved. The polarization transport efficiency is close to 90%.

  18. NONINVASIVE DETERMINATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE DEFORMATION DURING JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Kosanic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to use a combination of image processing, force measurements and finite element modeling to calculate deformation of the knee cartilage during jumping. Professional athletes performed jumps analyzed using a force plate and high-speed video camera system. Image processing was performed on each frame of video using a color recognition algorithm. A simplified mass-spring-damper model was utilized for determination of global force and moment on the knee. Custom software for fitting the coupling characteristics was created. Simulated results were used as input data for the finite element calculation of cartilage deformation in the athlete's knee. Computer simulation data was compared with the average experimental ground reaction forces. The results show the three-dimensional mechanical deformation distribution inside the cartilage volume. A combination of the image recognition technology, force plate measurements and the finite element cartilage deformation in the knee may be used in the future as an effective noninvasive tool for prediction of injury during jumping

  19. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  20. JUMP LANDING CHARACTERISTICS IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP. Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2 was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2 was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102. This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics.