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Sample records for range considered optimal

  1. Microgrid management architecture considering optimal battery dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tim George

    Energy management and economic operation of microgrids with energy storage systems at the distribution level have attracted significant research interest in recent years. One of the challenges in this area has been the coordination of energy management functions with decentralized and centralized dispatch. In this thesis a distributed dispatch algorithm for a microgrid consisting of a photovoltaic source with energy storage which can work with a centralized dispatch algorithm that ensure stability of the microgrid is proposed. To this end, first a rule based dispatch algorithm is formulated which is based on maximum resource utilization and can work in both off grid and grid connected mode. Then a fixed horizon optimization algorithm which minimizes the cost of power taken from the grid is developed. In order to schedule the battery based on changes in the PV farm a predictive horizon methodology based optimization is designed. Further, the rule based and optimization based dispatch methodologies is linked to optimize the voltage deviations at the microgrid Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that, an optimal active power dispatch considering the nominal voltage bandwidth can be initiated for the microgrid in both grid connected or off grid mode of operation. Also, the method allows the grid operator to consider cost based optimal renewable generation scheduling and/or the maximum power extraction based modes of operation simultaneously or separately based on grid operating conditions and topologies. Further, the methods allows maintaining PCC voltage within the limits during these modes of operation and at the same time ensure that the battery dispatch is optimal.

  2. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following problem: Given an unsorted array of n elements, and a sequence of intervals in the array, compute the median in each of the subarrays defined by the intervals. We describe a simple algorithm which needs O(nlog k + klog n) time to answer k such median queries. This improv...

  3. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Considering FACTS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail MAROUANI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because their capability to change the network parameters with a rapid response and enhanced flexibility, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices have taken more attention in power systems operations as improvement of voltage profile and minimizing system losses. In this way, this paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA to solve optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem with FACTS devices. This nonlinear multi-objective problem (MOP consists to minimize simultaneously real power loss in transmission lines and voltage deviation at load buses, by tuning parameters and searching the location of FACTS devices. The constraints of this MOP are divided to equality constraints represented by load flow equations and inequality constraints such as, generation reactive power sources and security limits at load buses. Two types of FACTS devices, static synchronous series compensator (SSSC and unified power flow controller (UPFC are considered. A comparative study regarding the effects of an SSSC and an UPFC on voltage deviation and total transmission real losses is carried out. The design problem is tested on a 6-bus system.

  4. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  5. On process optimization considering LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieragostini, Carla; Mussati, Miguel C; Aguirre, Pío

    2012-04-15

    The goal of this work is to research the state-of-the-art in process optimization techniques and tools based on LCA, focused in the process engineering field. A collection of methods, approaches, applications, specific software packages, and insights regarding experiences and progress made in applying the LCA methodology coupled to optimization frameworks is provided, and general trends are identified. The "cradle-to-gate" concept to define the system boundaries is the most used approach in practice, instead of the "cradle-to-grave" approach. Normally, the relationship between inventory data and impact category indicators is linearly expressed by the characterization factors; then, synergic effects of the contaminants are neglected. Among the LCIA methods, the eco-indicator 99, which is based on the endpoint category and the panel method, is the most used in practice. A single environmental impact function, resulting from the aggregation of environmental impacts, is formulated as the environmental objective in most analyzed cases. SimaPro is the most used software for LCA applications in literature analyzed. The multi-objective optimization is the most used approach for dealing with this kind of problems, where the ε-constraint method for generating the Pareto set is the most applied technique. However, a renewed interest in formulating a single economic objective function in optimization frameworks can be observed, favored by the development of life cycle cost software and progress made in assessing costs of environmental externalities. Finally, a trend to deal with multi-period scenarios into integrated LCA-optimization frameworks can be distinguished providing more accurate results upon data availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Broadband Access Network Planning Optimization Considering Real Copper Cable Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Blaž Kos, Andrej

    Broadband access network planning strategies with techno-economic calculations are important topics, when optimal broadband network deployments are considered. This paper analyzes optimal deployment combination of digital subscriber line technologies (xDSL) and fiber to the home technologies (FTTx), following different user bandwidth demand scenarios. For this reason, optimal placement of remote digital subscriber line multiplexer (RDSLAM) is examined. Furthermore, the article also discusses the economy of investments, depending on certain investment threshold and the reach of different xDSL technologies. Finally, the difference between broadband network deployment in a characteristic urban and rural area in Republic of Slovenia, in terms of required optical cable dig length per household is shown. A tree structure network model of a traditional copper access network is introduced. A dynamic programming logic, with recursion as a basis of a tree structure examination and evaluation of optimal network elements placement is used. The tree structure network model considers several real network parameters (e. g.: copper cable lengths, user coordinates, node coordinates). The main input for the optimization is a local loop distance between each user and a candidate node for RDSLAM placement. Modelling of copper access networks with a tree structure makes new extensions in planning optimization of broadband access networks. Optimization of network elements placement has direct influence on efficiency and profitability of broadband access telecommunication networks.

  7. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  8. Reactive power optimization strategy considering analytical impedance ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongchao; Shen, Weibing; Liu, Jinming; Guo, Maoran; Zhang, Shoulin; Xu, Keqiang; Wang, Wanjun; Sui, Jinlong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, considering the traditional reactive power optimization cannot realize the continuous voltage adjustment and voltage stability, a dynamic reactive power optimization strategy is proposed in order to achieve both the minimization of network loss and high voltage stability with wind power. Due to the fact that wind power generation is fluctuant and uncertain, electrical equipments such as transformers and shunt capacitors may be operated frequently in order to achieve minimization of network loss, which affect the lives of these devices. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces the derivation process of analytical impedance ratio based on Thevenin equivalent. Thus, the multiple objective function is proposed to minimize the network loss and analytical impedance ratio. Finally, taking the improved IEEE 33-bus distribution system as example, the result shows that the movement of voltage control equipment has been reduced and network loss increment is controlled at the same time, which proves the applicable value of this strategy.

  9. Model Predictive Control considering Reachable Range of Wheels for Leg / Wheel Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naito; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is one of the important tasks for mobile robots. In this paper, we study obstacle avoidance control for mobile robots equipped with four legs comprised of three DoF SCARA leg/wheel mechanism, which enables the robot to change its shape adapting to environments. Our previous method achieves obstacle avoidance by model predictive control (MPC) considering obstacle size and lateral wheel positions. However, this method does not ensure existence of joint angles which achieves reference wheel positions calculated by MPC. In this study, we propose a model predictive control considering reachable mobile ranges of wheels positions by combining multiple linear constraints, where each reachable mobile range is approximated as a convex trapezoid. Thus, we achieve to formulate a MPC as a quadratic problem with linear constraints for nonlinear problem of longitudinal and lateral wheel position control. By optimization of MPC, the reference wheel positions are calculated, while each joint angle is determined by inverse kinematics. Considering reachable mobile ranges explicitly, the optimal joint angles are calculated, which enables wheels to reach the reference wheel positions. We verify its advantages by comparing the proposed method with the previous method through numerical simulations.

  10. Topology optimization of embedded piezoelectric actuators considering control spillover effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano F.; De Leon, Daniel M.; Perondi, Eduardo A.

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of active structural vibration control by means of embedded piezoelectric actuators. The topology optimization method using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) approach is employed in this work to find the optimum design of actuators taken into account the control spillover effects. A coupled finite element model of the structure is derived assuming a two-phase material and this structural model is written into the state-space representation. The proposed optimization formulation aims to determine the distribution of piezoelectric material which maximizes the controllability for a given vibration mode. The undesirable effects of the feedback control on the residual modes are limited by including a spillover constraint term containing the residual controllability Gramian eigenvalues. The optimization of the shape and placement of the conventionally embedded piezoelectric actuators are performed using a Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) algorithm. Numerical examples are presented considering the control of the bending vibration modes for a cantilever and a fixed beam. A Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is synthesized for each case of controlled structure in order to compare the influence of the additional constraint.

  11. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures using discrete material optimization considering “worst” shape imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Robust buckling optimal design of laminated composite structures is conducted in this work. Optimal designs are obtained by considering geometric imperfections in the optimization procedure. Discrete Material Optimization is applied to obtain optimal laminate designs. The optimal geometric...

  12. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2001-01-01

    a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...

  13. Optimal residential water conservation strategies considering related energy in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, residential water use is a much more energy intensive user. Based on this, we analyze the increased willingness to adopt water conservation strategies if energy cost is included in the customers' utility function. Using a Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses and probability distribution functions for parameters affecting water and water-related energy use in 10 different locations in California, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills and costs given both water and energy price shocks. Results can provide an upper bound of household savings for customers with well-behaved preferences, and show greater adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances when energy is accounted, resulting in an overall 24% reduction in indoor water use that represents a 30% reduction in water-related energy use and a 53% reduction in household water-related CO2 emissions. Previous use patterns and water and energy rate structures can affect greatly the potential benefits for customers and so their behavior. Given that water and energy are somewhat complementary goods for customers, we use results of the optimization to obtain own-price and cross-price elasticities of residential water use by simulating increases in water and energy prices. While the results are highly influenced by assumptions due to lack of empirical data, the method presented has no precedent in the literature and hopefully will stimulate the collection of additional relevant data.

  14. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  15. Robust Optimization of a MEMS Accelerometer Considering Temperature Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjun; Yang, Feng; Bao, Xiaofan; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A robust optimization approach for a MEMS accelerometer to minimize the effects of temperature variations is presented. The mathematical model of the accelerometer is built. The effects of temperature variations on the output performance of the accelerometer are determined, and thermal deformation of the accelerometer is analyzed. The deviations of the output capacitance and resonance frequency due to temperature fluctuations are calculated and discussed. The sensitivity analysis method is employed to determine the design variables for robust optimization and find out the key structural parameters that have most significant influence on the output capacitance and resonance frequency of the accelerometer. The mathematical model and procedure for the robust optimization of the accelerometer are proposed. The robust optimization problem is solved and discussed. The robust optimization results show that an optimized accelerometer with high sensitivity, high temperature robustness and decoupling structure is finally obtained. PMID:25785308

  16. Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design Considering Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    the direction of wind farm placement and the spacing between WTs, the control strategy’s impact on energy yields is also discussed. Since the problem is non-convex and lots of optimization variables are involved, an evolutionary algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), is adopted to find...... the solution. In order to increase the probability of finding the global optimal solution, the adaptive parameter control strategy is utilized. Simulation results are given to verify the proposed approach and comparison is made with results obtained using other methods....

  17. Topology optimization considering design-dependent Stokes flow loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; van Keulen, A.; Li, Qing; Steven, Grant P.; Zhang, Zhongpu

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evolutionary topology optimization method for mean compliance minimization of structures under design-dependent viscous fluid flow loads. The structural domain is governed by the elasticity equation and the fluid by the incompressible Stokes flow equations. When the

  18. Shape optimization of shear fracture specimen considering plastic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yoon, J. W.; Lee, S.; Lou, Y.

    2017-10-01

    It is important to fabricate fracture specimens with minimum variation of triaxiality in order to characterize the failure behaviors experimentally. Fracture in ductile materials is usually calibrated by uniaxial tensile, shear and plane strain tests. However, it is often observed that triaxiality for shear specimen changes severely during shear fracture test. The nonlinearity of triaxiality is most critical for shear test. In this study, a simple in-plane shear specimen is optimized by minimizing the variation of stress triaxiality in the shear zone. In the optimization, the Hill48 and Yld2000-2d criteria are employed to model the anisotropic plastic deformation of an aluminum alloy of 6k21. The evolution of the stress triaxiality of the optimized shear specimen is compared with that of the initial design of the shear specimen. The comparison reveals that the stress triaxiality changes much less for the optimized shear specimen than the evolution of the stress triaxiality with the original design of the shear specimen.

  19. Optimizing wind farm cable routing considering power losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    that must be spent immediately in cable and installation costs, and the future reduced revenues due to power losses. The latter goal has not been addressed in previous work. We present a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming approach to optimize the routing using both exact and math-heuristic methods...... it is important to optimize o shore inter-array cable routing. The routing should connect all turbines to one (or more) o shore sub-station(s) while respecting cable capacities, no-cross restrictions, connection-limits at the substation, and obstacles at the site. The objective is to minimize both the capital....... In the power losses computation, wind scenarios are handled eciently as part of the preprocessing, resulting in a MIP model of only slightly larger size. A library of real-life instances is introduced and made publicly available for benchmarking. Computational results on this testbed show the viability of our...

  20. Optimizing wind farm cable routing considering power losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    that must be spent immediately in cable and installation costs, and the future reduced revenues due to power losses. The latter goal has not been addressed in previous work. We present a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming approach to optimize the routing using both exact and math-heuristic methods...... it is important to optimize o shore inter-array cable routing. The routing should connect all turbines to one (or more) o shore sub-station(s) while respecting cable capacities, no-cross restrictions, connection-limits at the substation, and obstacles at the site. The objective is to minimize both the capital....... In the power losses computation, wind scenarios are handled eciently as part of the preprocessing, resulting in a MIP model of only slightly larger size. A library of real-life instances is introduced and made publicly available for benchmarking. Computational results on this testbed show the viability of our...

  1. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to the downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. Meanwhile, the energy production is determined by the power generation and the lifetime of the wind turbine. In this paper, an optimal active power control method is proposed......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...... as an example. Due to the small range of the effective wake area, it is found that the energy production is almost the same. Finally, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized according to the Maximum Energy Production (MEP) of a wind farm. Upon considering and contrasting the MPPT method...

  2. Geometric optimal design of MR damper considering damping force, control energy and time constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K S [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Chonan 330-240 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of magnetorheological (MR) damper based on finite element analysis. The MR damper is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies geometric dimensions of the damper that minimizes an objective function. The objective function is proposed by considering the damping force, dynamic range and the inductive time constant of the damper. After describing the configuration of the MR damper, a quasi-static modelling of the damper is performed based on Bingham model of MR fluid. The initial geometric dimensions of the damper are then determined based on the assumption of constant magnetic flux density throughout the magnetic circuit of the damper. Subsequently, the optimal design variables that minimize the objective function are determined using a golden-section algorithm and a local quadratic fitting technique via commercial finite element method parametric design language. A comparative work on damping force and time constant between the initial and optimal design is undertaken.

  3. Optimizing wind farm cable routing considering power losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy, but as wind farms are getting larger and more remotely located, installation and infrastructure costs are rising. It is estimated that the expenses for electrical infrastructure account for 15-30% of the overall initial costs, hence...... it is important to optimize o shore inter-array cable routing. The routing should connect all turbines to one (or more) o shore sub-station(s) while respecting cable capacities, no-cross restrictions, connection-limits at the substation, and obstacles at the site. The objective is to minimize both the capital...

  4. Microgrid optimal scheduling considering impact of high penetration wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz

    The objective of this thesis is to study the impact of high penetration wind energy in economic and reliable operation of microgrids. Wind power is variable, i.e., constantly changing, and nondispatchable, i.e., cannot be controlled by the microgrid controller. Thus an accurate forecasting of wind power is an essential task in order to study its impacts in microgrid operation. Two commonly used forecasting methods including Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used in this thesis to improve the wind power forecasting. The forecasting error is calculated using a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and is improved using the ANN. The wind forecast is further used in the microgrid optimal scheduling problem. The microgrid optimal scheduling is performed by developing a viable model for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) based on mixed-integer linear programing (MILP) method. The proposed SCUC is solved for various wind penetration levels and the relationship between the total cost and the wind power penetration is found. In order to reduce microgrid power transfer fluctuations, an additional constraint is proposed and added to the SCUC formulation. The new constraint would control the time-based fluctuations. The impact of the constraint on microgrid SCUC results is tested and validated with numerical analysis. Finally, the applicability of proposed models is demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  5. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  6. An extended continuum model considering optimal velocity change with memory and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingtao, Zhai; Hongxia, Ge; Rongjun, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an extended continuum model of traffic flow is proposed with the consideration of optimal velocity changes with memory. The new model's stability condition and KdV-Burgers equation considering the optimal velocities change with memory are deduced through linear stability theory and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the extended continuum model, which explores how optimal velocity changes with memory affected velocity, density and energy consumption. Numerical results show that when considering the effects of optimal velocity changes with memory, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. Both the memory step and sensitivity parameters of optimal velocity changes with memory will enhance the stability of traffic flow efficiently. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrates that the effect of optimal velocity changes with memory can avoid the disadvantage of historical information, which increases the stability of traffic flow on road, and so it improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' energy consumptions.

  7. Multi-Stage Optimization-Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2017-01-01

    cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...

  8. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given.

  9. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    guaranteeing the entire system operating constraints (e.g., network voltage magnitude) within reasonable ranges in this paper. Meanwhile, optimal inverter dispatch is employed to further improve the PV integration by ensuring the optimal set-points of both active power and reactive power for the PV inverters...

  10. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.

  11. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warid Warid

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM. To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.

  12. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  13. Stochastic Optimal Dispatch of Virtual Power Plant considering Correlation of Distributed Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual power plant (VPP is an aggregation of multiple distributed generations, energy storage, and controllable loads. Affected by natural conditions, the uncontrollable distributed generations within VPP, such as wind and photovoltaic generations, are extremely random and relative. Considering the randomness and its correlation of uncontrollable distributed generations, this paper constructs the chance constraints stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP including stochastic variables and its random correlation. The probability distributions of independent wind and photovoltaic generations are described by empirical distribution functions, and their joint probability density model is established by Frank-copula function. And then, sample average approximation (SAA is applied to convert the chance constrained stochastic optimization model into a deterministic optimization model. Simulation cases are calculated based on the AIMMS. Simulation results of this paper mathematic model are compared with the results of deterministic optimization model without stochastic variables and stochastic optimization considering stochastic variables but not random correlation. Furthermore, this paper analyzes how SAA sampling frequency and the confidence level influence the results of stochastic optimization. The numerical example results show the effectiveness of the stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP considering the randomness and its correlations of distributed generations.

  14. Multi-objective reservoir operation during flood season considering spillway optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Chen, Lu; Zhu, Yonghui; Singh, Vijay P.; Qu, Geng; Guo, Xiaohu

    2017-09-01

    Flood control and hydropower generation are two main functions of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. In this study, a multi-objective operation model for TGR considering these two functions was developed. Since the optimal results of reservoir operation are mostly in the form of gross outflow which is hardly used to directly guide reservoir operation, the optimization of spillways operation was taken into account. For observed historical flood hydrographs and design flood hydrographs, the progressive optimality algorithm (POA) was employed to determine the optimal operation of spillways. For the real-time reservoir operation, a smooth support vector machine (SSVM) model was applied to abstract the optimal operation rules which consider the order and the number of spillways put into use. Results demonstrate that the use of different spillways has a significant impact on reservoir operation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the order and number of spillways that should be used. Instead of optimizing outflow, direct optimization of the order and number of spillways can yield most reasonable results. The SSVM model simulates the relationship among inflow, water level and outflow satisfactorily and can be used for real-time or short term reservoir operation. Application of the SSVM model can also reduce flood risk and increase hydropower generation during the flood season.

  15. The Optimal Configuration Scheme of the Virtual Power Plant Considering Benefits and Risks of Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant (VPP is a special virtual unit that integrates various distributed energy resources (DERs distributed in the generation and consumption sides. The optimal configuration scheme of the VPP needs to break the geographical restrictions to make full use of DERs, considering the uncertainties. First, the components of the DERs and the structure of the VPP are briefly introduced. Next, the cubic exponential smoothing method is adopted to predict the VPP load requirement. Finally, the optimal configuration of the DER capacities inside the VPP is calculated by using portfolio theory and genetic algorithms (GA. The results show that the configuration scheme can optimize the DER capacities considering uncertainties, guaranteeing economic benefits of investors, and fully utilizing the DERs. Therefore, this paper provides a feasible reference for the optimal configuration scheme of the VPP from the perspective of investors.

  16. Considering induction factor using BEM method in wind farm layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Dehghan, M.; Torabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which was conside......For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which...... and consequently influences the farm layout in optimization process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relays Using PSO-TVAC Considering Series Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Mancer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of system compensation such as Series Compensator (SC into the transmission line makes the coordination of directional overcurrent in a practical power system important and complex. This article presents an efficient variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm based on Time-Varying Acceleration Coefficients (PSO-TVAC for optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs considering the integration of series compensation. Simulation results are compared to other methods to confirm the efficiency of the proposed variant PSO in solving the optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relay in the presence of series compensation.

  18. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described.

  19. Collective neurodynamic optimization for economic emission dispatch problem considering valve point effect in microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiancai; He, Xing; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The economic emission dispatch (EED) problem aims to control generation cost and reduce the impact of waste gas on the environment. It has multiple constraints and nonconvex objectives. To solve it, the collective neurodynamic optimization (CNO) method, which combines heuristic approach and projection neural network (PNN), is attempted to optimize scheduling of an electrical microgrid with ten thermal generators and minimize the plus of generation and emission cost. As the objective function has non-derivative points considering valve point effect (VPE), differential inclusion approach is employed in the PNN model introduced to deal with them. Under certain conditions, the local optimality and convergence of the dynamic model for the optimization problem is analyzed. The capability of the algorithm is verified in a complicated situation, where transmission loss and prohibited operating zones are considered. In addition, the dynamic variation of load power at demand side is considered and the optimal scheduling of generators within 24 h is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vision-based stereo ranging as an optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Sridhar, B.; Chatterji, G. B.

    1992-01-01

    The recent interest in the use of machine vision for flight vehicle guidance is motivated by the need to automate the nap-of-the-earth flight regime of helicopters. Vision-based stereo ranging problem is cast as an optimal control problem in this paper. A quadratic performance index consisting of the integral of the error between observed image irradiances and those predicted by a Pade approximation of the correspondence hypothesis is then used to define an optimization problem. The necessary conditions for optimality yield a set of linear two-point boundary-value problems. These two-point boundary-value problems are solved in feedback form using a version of the backward sweep method. Application of the ranging algorithm is illustrated using a laboratory image pair.

  1. Developing a simulation framework for safe and optimal trajectories considering drivers’ driving style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Thierry; Larue, Grégoire S.; Rakotonirainy, Andry

    2017-01-01

    Advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) have huge potential for improving road safety and travel times. However, their take-up in the market is very slow; and these systems should consider driver's preferences to increase adoption rates. The aim of this study is to develop a model providing...... drivers with the optimal trajectory considering the motorist's driving style in real time. Travel duration and safety are the main parameters used to find the optimal trajectory. A simulation framework to determine the optimal trajectory was developed in which the ego car travels in a highway environment...... safe and fast trajectories in three tests scenarios: emergency braking, overtaking and a complex situation with multiple vehicles around the ego vehicle. Different driver profiles were then tested in the complex scenario, showing that the proposed approach can adapt to driver preferences and provide...

  2. Adaptive optimal spectral range for dynamically changing scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Siman-tov, Avihay; Peles, David

    2012-06-01

    A novel multispectral video system that continuously optimizes both its spectral range channels and the exposure time of each channel autonomously, under dynamic scenes, varying from short range-clear scene to long range-poor visibility, is currently being developed. Transparency and contrast of high scattering medium of channels with spectral ranges in the near infrared is superior to the visible channels, particularly to the blue range. Longer wavelength spectral ranges that induce higher contrast are therefore favored. Images of 3 spectral channels are fused and displayed for (pseudo) color visualization, as an integrated high contrast video stream. In addition to the dynamic optimization of the spectral channels, optimal real-time exposure time is adjusted simultaneously and autonomously for each channel. A criterion of maximum average signal, derived dynamically from previous frames of the video stream is used (Patent Application - International Publication Number: WO2009/093110 A2, 30.07.2009). This configuration enables dynamic compatibility with the optimal exposure time of a dynamically changing scene. It also maximizes the signal to noise ratio and compensates each channel for the specified value of daylight reflections and sensors response for each spectral range. A possible implementation is a color video camera based on 4 synchronized, highly responsive, CCD imaging detectors, attached to a 4CCD dichroic prism and combined with a common, color corrected, lens. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique is then applied for real time "dimensional collapse" in color space, in order to select and fuse, for clear color visualization, the 3 most significant principal channels out of at least 4 characterized by high contrast and rich details in the image data.

  3. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its...... downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can...... be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control...

  4. Multi-objective optimal power flow for active distribution network considering the stochastic characteristic of photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Rong; Liu, Si-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yi, Ying-Qi; Lin, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    To mitigate the impact on the distribution networks caused by the stochastic characteristic and high penetration of photovoltaic, a multi-objective optimal power flow model is proposed in this paper. The regulation capability of capacitor, inverter of photovoltaic and energy storage system embedded in active distribution network are considered to minimize the expected value of active power the T loss and probability of voltage violation in this model. Firstly, a probabilistic power flow based on cumulant method is introduced to calculate the value of the objectives. Secondly, NSGA-II algorithm is adopted for optimization to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the best compromise solution can be achieved through fuzzy membership degree method. By the multi-objective optimization calculation of IEEE34-node distribution network, the results show that the model can effectively improve the voltage security and economy of the distribution network on different levels of photovoltaic penetration.

  5. An Improved Optimal Slip Ratio Prediction considering Tyre Inflation Pressure Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle control systems. Many studies have verified there is a definitive impact of tyre pressure change on the optimal slip ratio. However, the existing method of optimal slip ratio prediction has not taken into account the influence of tyre pressure changes. By introducing a second-order factor, an improved optimal slip ratio prediction considering tyre inflation pressure is proposed in this paper. In order to verify and evaluate the performance of the improved prediction, a cosimulation platform is developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim software packages, achieving a comprehensive simulation study of vehicle braking performance cooperated with an ABS controller. The simulation results show that the braking distances and braking time under different tyre pressures and initial braking speeds are effectively shortened with the improved prediction of optimal slip ratio. When the tyre pressure is slightly lower than the nominal pressure, the difference of braking performances between original optimal slip ratio and improved optimal slip ratio is the most obvious.

  6. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    guaranteeing the entire system operating constraints (e.g., network voltage magnitude) within reasonable ranges in this paper. Meanwhile, optimal inverter dispatch is employed to further improve the PV integration by ensuring the optimal set-points of both active power and reactive power for the PV inverters......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while....... However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  7. Multi-Objective Distribution Network Operation Based on Distributed Generation Optimal Placement Using New Antlion Optimizer Considering Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHANBABAZADEH Javad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution network designers and operators are trying to deliver electrical energy with high reliability and quality to their subscribers. Due to high losses in the distribution systems, using distributed generation can improves reliability, reduces losses and improves voltage profile of distribution network. Therefore, the choice of the location of these resources and also determining the amount of their generated power to maximize the benefits of this type of resource is an important issue which is discussed from different points of view today. In this paper, a new multi-objective optimal location and sizing of distributed generation resources is performed to maximize its benefits on the 33 bus distribution test network considering reliability and using a new Antlion Optimizer (ALO. The benefits for DG are considered as system losses reduction, system reliability improvement and benefits from the sale electricity and voltage profile improvement. For each of the mentioned benefits, the ALO algorithm is used to optimize the location and sizing of distributed generation resources. In order to verify the proposed approach, the obtained results have been analyzed and compared with the results of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The results show that the ALO has shown better performance in optimization problem solution versus PSO.

  8. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing for locating additional boreholes considering combined variance minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani-Mohammadi, Saeed; Safa, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    One of the most important stages in complementary exploration is optimal designing the additional drilling pattern or defining the optimum number and location of additional boreholes. Quite a lot research has been carried out in this regard in which for most of the proposed algorithms, kriging variance minimization as a criterion for uncertainty assessment is defined as objective function and the problem could be solved through optimization methods. Although kriging variance implementation is known to have many advantages in objective function definition, it is not sensitive to local variability. As a result, the only factors evaluated for locating the additional boreholes are initial data configuration and variogram model parameters and the effects of local variability are omitted. In this paper, with the goal of considering the local variability in boundaries uncertainty assessment, the application of combined variance is investigated to define the objective function. Thus in order to verify the applicability of the proposed objective function, it is used to locate the additional boreholes in Esfordi phosphate mine through the implementation of metaheuristic optimization methods such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. Comparison of results from the proposed objective function and conventional methods indicates that the new changes imposed on the objective function has caused the algorithm output to be sensitive to the variations of grade, domain's boundaries and the thickness of mineralization domain. The comparison between the results of different optimization algorithms proved that for the presented case the application of particle swarm optimization is more appropriate than simulated annealing.

  9. Optimal Dynamical Range of Excitable Networks at Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2006-01-01

    A recurrent idea in the study of complex systems is that optimal information processing is to be found near bifurcation points or phase transitions. However, this heuristic hypothesis has few (if any) concrete realizations where a standard and biologically relevant quantity is optimized at criticality. Here we give a clear example of such a phenomenon: a network of excitable elements has its sensitivity and dynamic range maximized at the critical point of a non-equilibrium phase transition. Our results are compatible with the essential role of gap junctions in olfactory glomeruli and retinal ganglionar cell output. Synchronization and global oscillations also appear in the network dynamics. We propose that the main functional role of electrical coupling is to provide an enhancement of dynamic range, therefore allowing the coding of information spanning several orders of magnitude. The mechanism could provide a microscopic neural basis for psychophysical laws.

  10. Optimization and Analysis of Centrifugal Pump considering Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sanbao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the optimization of vibrations of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI). A set of centrifugal pumps with various blade shapes were studied using FSI method, in order to investigate the transient vibration performance. The Kriging model, based on the results of the FSI simulations, was established to approximate the relationship between the geometrical parameters of pump impeller and the root mean square (RMS) values of the displacement response at the pump bearing block. Hence, multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA) has been implemented to minimize the RMS value of the impeller displacement. A prototype of centrifugal pump has been manufactured and an experimental validation of the optimization results has been carried out. The comparison among results of Kriging surrogate model, FSI simulation, and experimental test showed a good consistency of the three approaches. Finally, the transient mechanical behavior of pump impeller has been investigated using FSI method based on the optimized geometry parameters of pump impeller. PMID:25197690

  11. Scheduling a Wind Hydro-Pumped-Storage Unit Considering the Economical Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaisi, Milad; Rahmani, Milad; Gharghabi, Pedram; Zoghi, Ali; Hosseinian, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper a new approach has been introduced to find the optimum capacity of a wind farm to cooperate with a hydro-pumped-storage in order to maximize the income and optimize the payback period of their combination. First, Monte Carlo method has been used to generate the annual price and wind speed values. Then, an operating policy has been considered to schedule each unit generating and saving the produced energy by the wind farm. Subsequently, simulations have be...

  12. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  13. Optimal Design of Viscoelastic Dampers in Frame Structures considering Soil-Structure Interaction Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response control of multistory frame structures using optimally placed viscoelastic dampers (VEDs within consideration of soil-structure interaction (SSI effect is investigated in this paper. The system is assumed to be elastic and responses of the system are obtained in frequency domain for stationary random seismic excitations. The optimal designs of VEDs in structures are achieved through genetic algorithm (GA by minimizing the maximum response quantities of the system for a determined total amount of viscoelastic material. Two typical elastic multistory frame structures with different soil types and foundation embedment ratios are considered to demonstrate the optimization process. It is shown that the VEDs have the best control of the structural response for fixed base condition and the control efficiency decreases as the soil becomes softer. The optimal placement types of VEDs for different soil types differ from each other. With the decrease of soil stiffness, the optimal locations of VEDs have a tendency to shift to top floors.

  14. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  15. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  16. Optimized Planning of Power Source Capacity in Microgrid, Considering Combinations of Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since renewable energy resource is universally accepted as a promising method to solve the global energy problem, optimal planning and utilization of various distributed generators (DG and energy storage (ES devices deserve special concern. ES devices possess various characteristics in power density, energy density, response speed (switching speed and lifetime. Besides, as different load types have various requirements on power supply reliability according to their importance, coordinated planning with consideration of reasonable matching between power source and load can efficiently improve power supply reliability and economic efficiency via a customized power supply and compensation strategy. This paper focuses on optimization of power source capacity in microgrid and a coordinated planning strategy is proposed with integrated consideration of characteristics of DG, ES and load. An index named additional compensation ratio (ACR for balancing economic efficiency and reliability is proposed and considered in the strategy. The objective function which aims to minimize life cycle cost (LCC is established considering economic efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation. The proposed planning strategy and optimizing model is calculated and verified through case study of an autonomy microgrid.

  17. Considering the ranges of uncertainties in the New Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Germany - Version 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthal, Gottfried; Stromeyer, Dietrich; Bosse, Christian; Cotton, Fabrice; Bindi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The seismic load parameters for the upcoming National Annex to the Eurocode 8 result from the reassessment of the seismic hazard supported by the German Institution for Civil Engineering . This 2016 version of hazard assessment for Germany as target area was based on a comprehensive involvement of all accessible uncertainties in models and parameters into the approach and the provision of a rational framework for facilitating the uncertainties in a transparent way. The developed seismic hazard model represents significant improvements; i.e. it is based on updated and extended databases, comprehensive ranges of models, robust methods and a selection of a set of ground motion prediction equations of their latest generation. The output specifications were designed according to the user oriented needs as suggested by two review teams supervising the entire project. In particular, seismic load parameters were calculated for rock conditions with a vS30 of 800 ms-1 for three hazard levels (10%, 5% and 2% probability of occurrence or exceedance within 50 years) in form of, e.g., uniform hazard spectra (UHS) based on 19 sprectral periods in the range of 0.01 - 3s, seismic hazard maps for spectral response accelerations for different spectral periods or for macroseismic intensities. The developed hazard model consists of a logic tree with 4040 end branches and essential innovations employed to capture epistemic uncertainties and aleatory variabilities. The computation scheme enables the sound calculation of the mean and any quantile of required seismic load parameters. Mean, median and 84th percentiles of load parameters were provided together with the full calculation model to clearly illustrate the uncertainties of such a probabilistic assessment for a region of a low-to-moderate level of seismicity. The regional variations of these uncertainties (e.g. ratios between the mean and median hazard estimations) were analyzed and discussed.

  18. Optimal Allocation of Wind Turbines by Considering Transmission Security Constraints and Power System Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Palma-Behnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization methodology consisting of finding the near optimal location of wind turbines (WTs on a planned transmission network in a secure and cost-effective way is presented on this paper. While minimizing the investment costs of WTs, the algorithm allocates the turbines so that a desired wind power energy-penetration level is reached. The optimization considers both transmission security and power system stability constraints. The results of the optimization provide regulators with a support instrument to give proper signals to WT investors, in order to achieve secure and cost effective wind power network integration. The proposal is especially aimed at countries in the initial stage of wind power development, where the WT network integration process can still be influenced by policy-makers. The proposed methodology is validated with a real power system. Obtained results are compared with those generated from a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, in which the WT network allocation is made according to existing WT projects. The proposed WT network allocation scheme not only reduces the total investment costs associated with a determined wind power energy target, but also improves power system stability.

  19. Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juying Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time.

  20. Near-Optimal Range Reporting Structures for Categorical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Range reporting on categorical (or colored) data is a well-studied generalization of the classical range reporting problem in which each of the N input points has an associated color (category). A query then asks to report the set of colors of the points in a given rectangular query range, which...... may be far smaller than the set of all points in the query range. We study two-dimensional categorical range reporting in both the word-RAM and I/O-model. For the I/O-model, we present two alternative data structures for three-sided queries. The first answers queries in optimal O(lgB N + K/B) I....../Os using O(N lg*N) space, where K is the number of distinct colors in the output, B is the disk block size, and lg*N is the iterated logarithm of N. Our second data structure uses linear space and answers queries in O(lg B N + lg(h) N + K/B) I/Os for any constant integer h ≥ 1. Here lg(1) N = lg N and lg...

  1. Optimal Allocation of Smart Substations in a Distribution System Considering Interruption Costs of Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Lei; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    number and allocation of smart substations in a given distribution system is presented, with the upgrade costs of substations and the interruption costs of customers taken into account. Besides, the reliability criterion is also properly considered in the model. By linearization strategies, the SSAM......One of the major functions of a smart substation (SS) is to restore power supply to interrupted customers as quickly as possible after an outage. The high cost of a smart substation limits its widespread utilization. In this paper, a smart substation allocation model (SSAM) to determine the optimal...

  2. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  3. Optimal Pricing and Production Master Planning in a Multiperiod Horizon Considering Capacity and Inventory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and solve a single-item joint pricing and master planning optimization problem with capacity and inventory constrains. The objective is to maximize profits over a discrete-time multiperiod horizon. The solution process consists of two steps. First, we solve the single-period problem exactly. Second, using the exact solution of the single-period problem, we solve the multiperiod problem using a dynamic programming approach. The solution process and the importance of considering both capacity and inventory constraints are illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering......-butane yields the best compromise in terms of cycle net power output, turbine cost and efficiency for the considered case study. When a conservative design approach is adopted, the turbine features a two-stage configuration with supersonic converging nozzles and post-expansion. Conversely, a single...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  5. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering......-butane yields the best compromise in terms of cycle net power output, turbine cost and efficiency for the considered case study. When a conservative design approach is adopted, the turbine features a two-stage configuration with supersonic converging nozzles and post-expansion. Conversely, a single...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  6. Application of Hybrid MOPSO Algorithm to Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem Considering Voltage Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel hybrid multiobjective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO algorithm to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem. This problem is formulated as a challenging nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem considering three objectives, that is, power losses minimization, voltage profile improvement, and voltage stability enhancement simultaneously. In order to attain better convergence and diversity, this work presents the use of combing the classical MOPSO with Gaussian probability distribution, chaotic sequences, dynamic crowding distance, and self-adaptive mutation operator. Moreover, multiple effective strategies, such as mixed-variable handling approach, constraint handling technique, and stopping criteria, are employed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the ORPD problem is validated on the standard IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems under nominal and contingency states. The obtained results are compared with classical MOPSO, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D, and other methods recently reported in the literature from the point of view of Pareto fronts, extreme, solutions and multiobjective performance metrics. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HMOPSO in solving the ORPD problem while strictly satisfying all the constraints.

  7. Probabilistic Approach to Optimizing Active and Reactive Power Flow in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effects

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    Yong-Cheol Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel probabilistic optimization algorithm for simultaneous active and reactive power dispatch in power systems with significant wind power integration. Two types of load and wind-speed uncertainties have been assumed that follow normal and Weibull distributions, respectively. A PV bus model for wind turbines and the wake effect for correlated wind speed are used to achieve accurate AC power flow analysis. The power dispatch algorithm for a wind-power integrated system is modeled as a probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF problem, which is operated through fixed power factor control to supply reactive power. The proposed P-OPF framework also considers emission information, which clearly reflects the impact of the energy source on the environment. The P-OPF was tested on a modified IEEE 118-bus system with two wind farms. The results show that the proposed technique provides better system operation performance evaluation, which is helpful in making decisions about power system optimal dispatch under conditions of uncertainty.

  8. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

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    Shigang Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics.

  9. Parameter study and optimization for piezoelectric energy harvester for TPMS considering speed variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Lee, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we perform design parameter study and design optimization for a piezoelectric energy harvester considering vehicle speed variation. Initially, a FEM model using ANSYS is developed to appraise the performance of a piezoelectric harvester in a rotating tire. The energy harvester proposed here uses the vertical deformation at contact patch area from the car weight and centrifugal acceleration. This harvester is composed of a beam which is clamped at both ends and a piezoelectric material is attached on the top of that. The piezoelectric material possesses the 31 mode of transduction in which the direction of applied field is perpendicular to that of the electric field. To optimize the harvester performance, we would change the geometrical parameters of the harvester to obtain the maximum power. One of the main challenges in the design process is obtaining the required power while considering the constraints for harvester weight and volume. These two concerns are addressed in this paper. Since the final goal of this study is the development of an energy harvester with a wireless sensor system installed in a real car, the real time data for varied velocity of a vehicle are taken into account for power measurements. This study concludes that the proposed design is applicable to wireless tire sensor systems.

  10. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  11. Robust Optimization-Based Scheduling of Multi-Microgrids Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of multi-microgrids (MMGs is one of the important tasks in MMG operation and it faces new challenges as the integration of demand response (DR programs and renewable generation (wind and solar sources increases. In order to address these challenges, robust optimization (RO-based scheduling has been proposed in this paper considering uncertainties in both renewable energy sources and forecasted electric loads. Initially, a cost minimization deterministic model has been formulated for the MMG system. Then, it has been transformed to a min-max robust counterpart and finally, a traceable robust counterpart has been formulated using linear duality theory and Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. The developed model provides immunity against the worst-case realization within the provided uncertainty bounds. Budget of uncertainty has been used to develop a trade-off between the conservatism of solution and probability of unfeasible solution. The effect of uncertainty gaps on internal and external trading, operation cost, unit commitment of dispatchable generators, and state of charge (SOC of battery energy storage systems (BESSs have also been analyzed in both grid-connected and islanded modes. Simulations results have proved the robustness of proposed strategy.

  12. Optimal Operation of Microgrids Considering Auto-Configuration Function Using Multiagent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Hai Bui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the status of existing devices and identification of newly added devices is required in microgrids to adjust the operation schedule followed by any event or integration of a new device. Therefore, in this paper, automatic reconfiguration of microgrids is considered after the addition of a new device or change in the operation status of an existing device by using a multiagent system. This capability of the microgrid is named as auto-configuration function, which is performed by the auto-configurator agent. In case of addition of a new device, the auto-configurator agent is responsible for authorization and registration of the newly added device. In case of change in status of any existing device, the status information is updated. After integration of a new device or change in status of an existing device, re-optimization is carried out by the energy management system (EMS agent. Agent communication language (ACL is used to develop a modified contract net protocol (MCNP for communication among different agents. EMS agent and auto-configurator agent exchange information for economic rescheduling of the microgrid components. Simulation results have shown that the proposed method can be used for optimal operation of microgrids when the configuration changes due to the addition/removal of a device.

  13. A computational model for optimal muscle activity considering muscle viscoelasticity in wrist movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of neural motor control, it is important to clarify how the central nervous system organizes the coordination of redundant muscles. Previous studies suggested that muscle activity for step-tracking wrist movements are optimized so as to reduce total effort or end-point variance under neural noise. However, since the muscle dynamics were assumed as a simple linear system, some characteristic patterns of experimental EMG were not seen in the simulated muscle activity of the previous studies. The biological muscle is known to have dynamic properties in which its elasticity and viscosity depend on activation level. The motor control system is supposed to consider the viscoelasticity of the muscles when generating motor command signals. In this study, we present a computational motor control model that can control a musculoskeletal system with nonlinear dynamics. We applied the model to step-tracking wrist movements actuated by five muscles with dynamic viscoelastic properties. To solve the motor redundancy, we designed the control model to generate motor commands that maximize end-point accuracy under signal-dependent noise, while minimizing the squared sum of them. Here, we demonstrate that the muscle activity simulated by our model exhibits spatiotemporal features of experimentally observed muscle activity of human and nonhuman primates. In addition, we show that the movement trajectories resulting from the simulated muscle activity resemble experimentally observed trajectories. These results suggest that, by utilizing inherent viscoelastic properties of the muscles, the neural system may optimize muscle activity to improve motor performance. PMID:23324321

  14. Grey-Theory-Based Optimization Model of Emergency Logistics Considering Time Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao-Jian; Zhang, Jiang-Hua; Qi, Yuan-Tao; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Natural disasters occur frequently in recent years, causing huge casualties and property losses. Nowadays, people pay more and more attention to the emergency logistics problems. This paper studies the emergency logistics problem with multi-center, multi-commodity, and single-affected-point. Considering that the path near the disaster point may be damaged, the information of the state of the paths is not complete, and the travel time is uncertainty, we establish the nonlinear programming model that objective function is the maximization of time-satisfaction degree. To overcome these drawbacks: the incomplete information and uncertain time, this paper firstly evaluates the multiple roads of transportation network based on grey theory and selects the reliable and optimal path. Then simplify the original model under the scenario that the vehicle only follows the optimal path from the emergency logistics center to the affected point, and use Lingo software to solve it. The numerical experiments are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26417946

  15. Grey-Theory-Based Optimization Model of Emergency Logistics Considering Time Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available Natural disasters occur frequently in recent years, causing huge casualties and property losses. Nowadays, people pay more and more attention to the emergency logistics problems. This paper studies the emergency logistics problem with multi-center, multi-commodity, and single-affected-point. Considering that the path near the disaster point may be damaged, the information of the state of the paths is not complete, and the travel time is uncertainty, we establish the nonlinear programming model that objective function is the maximization of time-satisfaction degree. To overcome these drawbacks: the incomplete information and uncertain time, this paper firstly evaluates the multiple roads of transportation network based on grey theory and selects the reliable and optimal path. Then simplify the original model under the scenario that the vehicle only follows the optimal path from the emergency logistics center to the affected point, and use Lingo software to solve it. The numerical experiments are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Optimal trajectory and heat load analysis of different shape lifting reentry vehicles for medium range application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tauqeer ul Islam Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to compute the optimal burn-out conditions and control requirements that would result in maximum down-range/cross-range performance of a waverider type hypersonic boost-glide (HBG vehicle within the medium and intermediate ranges, and compare its performance with the performances of wing-body and lifting-body vehicles vis-à-vis the g-load and the integrated heat load experienced by vehicles for the medium-sized launch vehicle under study. Trajectory optimization studies were carried out by considering the heat rate and dynamic pressure constraints. The trajectory optimization problem is modeled as a nonlinear, multiphase, constraint optimal control problem and is solved using a hp-adaptive pseudospectral method. Detail modeling aspects of mass, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics for the launch and glide vehicles have been discussed. It was found that the optimal burn-out angles for waverider and wing-body configurations are approximately 5° and 14.8°, respectively, for maximum down-range performance under the constraint heat rate environment. The down-range and cross-range performance of HBG waverider configuration is nearly 1.3 and 2 times that of wing-body configuration respectively. The integrated heat load experienced by the HBG waverider was found to be approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of a lifting-body configuration and 5 times that of a wing-body configuration. The footprints and corresponding heat loads and control requirements for the three types of glide vehicles are discussed for the medium range launch vehicle under consideration.

  17. Optimization of a dynamic supply portfolio considering risks and discount’s constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays finding reliable suppliers in the global supply chains has become so important for success, because reliable suppliers would lead to a reliable supply and besides that orders of customer are met effectively . Yet, there is little empirical evidence to support this view, hence the purpose of this paper is to fill this need by considering risk in order to find the optimum supply portfolio. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes a multi objective model for the supplier selection portfolio problem that uses conditional value at risk (CVaR criteria to control the risks of delayed, disrupted and defected supplies via scenario analysis. Also we consider discount’s constraints which are common assumptions in supplier selection problems. The proposed approach is capable of determining the optimal supply portfolio by calculating value-at-risk and minimizing conditional value-at-risk. In this study the Reservation Level driven Tchebycheff Procedure (RLTP which is one of the reference point methods, is used to solve small size of our model through coding in GAMS. As our model is NP-hard; a meta-heuristic approach, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA which is one of the most efficient methods for optimizing multi objective models, is applied to solve large scales of our model. Findings and Originality/value: In order to find a dynamic supply portfolio, we developed a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model which contains two objectives. One objective minimizes the cost and the other minimizes the risks of delayed, disrupted and defected supplies. CVaR is used as the risk controlling method which emphases on low-probability, high-consequence events. Discount option as a common offer from suppliers is also implanted in the proposed model. Our findings show that the proposed model can help in optimization of a dynamic supplier selection portfolio with controlling the corresponding risks for large scales of real word

  18. Integrated and Consistent Active Control Formulation and Piezotransducer Position Optimization of Plate Structures considering Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Biglar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses new formulation for active vibration control of plates by optimal locations of attached piezotransducers. Free vibrations are solved by Rayleigh-Ritz and transient by assumed modes methods. Optimal orientations of patches are determined by spatial controllability/observability, as well as residual modes to reduce spillover. These criteria are used to achieve optimal fitness function defined for genetic algorithm to find optimal locations. To control vibrations, negative velocity feedback control is designed. Results indicate that, by locating piezopatches at optimal positions, depreciation rate increases and amplitudes of vibrations reduce effectively. The effect of number of piezodevices is analyzed.

  19. A Optimal Dimension Parameters Design of Needle Roller Bearings Considering Multi Factors Affecting Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, XiaoBo; Li, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Taking into many influencing factors, a Needle Roller Bearings life calculation model was established using the Influence coefficient method and ISO formula. Take this model as the optimization objective function, some optimization variables were determined, and these variables were added constraint conditions. Using dynamic nonlinear strategy to improve the inertia weight, the arccosine strategy to adjust the learning factor, function constraints was solved by the methods of ensure particle legitimacy. Nonlinear optimization design of cylindrical roller bearings was realized by Improved Particle Swarm Algorithm. The proposed method of bearing design was verified effective by test of the optimization results.

  20. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both...

  1. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...... on the total converter efficiency.The proposed efficiency optimization approach is experimentally verified on a25 W (average charging power) with100 W (peakpower) flyback dc-dc prototype....

  2. Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong

    2017-06-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.

  3. Structural Optimization Design of Large Wind Turbine Blade considering Aeroelastic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a structural optimization design of the realistic large scale wind turbine blade. The mathematical simulations have been compared with experimental data found in the literature. All complicated loads were applied on the blade when it was working, which impacts directly on mixed vibration of the wind rotor, tower, and other components, and this vibration can dramatically affect the service life and performance of wind turbine. The optimized mathematical model of the blade was established in the interaction between aerodynamic and structural conditions. The modal results show that the first six modes are flapwise dominant. Meanwhile, the mechanism relationship was investigated between the blade tip deformation and the load distribution. Finally, resonance cannot occur in the optimized blade, as compared to the natural frequency of the blade. It verified that the optimized model is more appropriate to describe the structure. Additionally, it provided a reference for the structural design of a large wind turbine blade.

  4. An Enhanced Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Algorithm for Reactive Power Optimization considering Distributed Generation Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhai Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm with quantum behavior (QPSO to solve reactive power optimization in power system with distributed generation. Moreover, differential evolution (DE operators are applied to enhance the algorithm (DQPSO. This paper focuses on the minimization of active power loss, respectively, and uses QPSO and DQPSO to determine terminal voltage of generators, and ratio of transformers, switching group number of capacitors to achieve optimal reactive power flow. The proposed algorithms are validated through three IEEE standard examples. Comparing the results obtained from QPSO and DQPSO with those obtained from PSO, we find that our algorithms are more likely to get the global optimal solution and have a better convergence. What is more, DQPSO is better than QPSO. Furthermore, with the integration of distributed generation, active power loss has decreased significantly. Specifically, PV distributed generations can suppress voltage fluctuation better than PQ distributed generations.

  5. Optimal Capacity Configuration for Energy Hubs Considering Part-Load Characteristics of Generation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The simulation model is one of the key points affecting the optimal planning and operation of energy hubs (EHs. Since treating the efficiencies of generation units as constants would significantly simplify the calculation, only a simplified model is investigated in most research works. In this paper, aiming at optimizing the capacity configuration of an EH, we present a part-load characteristics-based (PLCB model, in which the efficiencies of generation units will change with the fluctuating load. Based on the PLCB model, the accuracy of the EH model can be improved. Furthermore, a two-stage planning method is proposed to solve the optimal capacity configuration problem of the EH. Group Search Optimizer (GSO is used to determine the optimal size in the first stage, and a mathematical programming method is applied to obtain the optimal operation of the EH in the second stage. Comparative studies using the PLCB model and the simplified model are performed to examine the impacts of equipment part-load characteristics on the sizing results. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model appears to have a better economic performance than the simplified model.

  6. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.

  7. Optimal Capacitor Placement in Wind Farms by Considering Harmonics Using Discrete Lightning Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sirjani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many wind farms exist throughout the world and, in some cases, supply a significant portion of energy to networks. However, numerous uncertainties remain with respect to the amount of energy generated by wind turbines and other sophisticated operational aspects, such as voltage and reactive power management, which requires further development and consideration. To fix the problem of poor reactive power compensation in wind farms, optimal capacitor placement has been proposed in existing wind farms as a simple and relatively inexpensive method. However, the use of induction generators, transformers, and additional capacitors represent potential problems for the harmonics of a system and therefore must be taken into account at wind farms. The optimal location and size of capacitors at buses of an 80-MW wind farm were determined according to modelled wind speed, system equivalent circuits, and harmonics in order to minimize energy losses, optimize reactive power and reduce the management costs. The discrete version of the lightning search algorithm (DLSA is a powerful and flexible nature-inspired optimization technique that was developed and implemented herein for optimal capacitor placement in wind farms. The obtained results are compared with the results of the genetic algorithm (GA and the discrete harmony search algorithm (DHSA.

  8. The Improved Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for MLP considering the Advantage from Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabo Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved ant colony optimization (ACO is presented to solve the machine layout problem (MLP, and the concept is categorized as follows: firstly, an ideology on “advantage from quantity” and “advantage from relationship” is proposed and an example is demonstrated. In addition, the strategy of attached variables under local polar coordinate systems is employed to maintain search efficiency, that is, “advantage from relationship”; thus, a mathematical model is formulated under a single rectangular coordinate system in which the relative distance and azimuth between machines are taken as attached design variables. Further, the aforementioned strategies are adopted into the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm, thereby employing the inverse feedback mechanism for dissemination of pheromone and the positive feedback mechanism for pheromone concentration. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed improved ACO is tested through comparative experiments, in which the results have shown both the reliability of convergence and the improvement in optimization degree of solutions.

  9. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  10. A two-step ionospheric modeling algorithm considering the impact of GLONASS pseudo-range inter-channel biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Yi-bin; Hu, Yue-ming; Song, Wei-wei

    2017-05-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System presents a plausible and cost-effective way of computing the total electron content (TEC). But TEC estimated value could be seriously affected by the differential code biases (DCB) of frequency-dependent satellites and receivers. Unlike GPS and other satellite systems, GLONASS adopts a frequency-division multiplexing access mode to distinguish different satellites. This strategy leads to different wavelengths and inter-frequency biases (IFBs) for both pseudo-range and carrier phase observations, whose impacts are rarely considered in ionospheric modeling. We obtained observations from four groups of co-stations to analyze the characteristics of the GLONASS receiver P1P2 pseudo-range IFB with a double-difference method. The results showed that the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB remained stable for a period of time and could catch up to several meters, which cannot be absorbed by the receiver DCB during ionospheric modeling. Given the characteristics of the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB, we proposed a two-step ionosphere modeling method with the priori IFB information. The experimental analysis showed that the new algorithm can effectively eliminate the adverse effects on ionospheric model and hardware delay parameters estimation in different space environments. During high solar activity period, compared to the traditional GPS + GLONASS modeling algorithm, the absolute average deviation of TEC decreased from 2.17 to 2.07 TECu (TEC unit); simultaneously, the average RMS of GPS satellite DCB decreased from 0.225 to 0.219 ns, and the average deviation of GLONASS satellite DCB decreased from 0.253 to 0.113 ns with a great improvement in over 55%.

  11. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  12. Topology optimization of reinforced concrete structures considering control of shrinkage and strength failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yangjun; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhou, Mingdong

    2015-01-01

    To take into account the shrinkage effect in the early stage of Reinforced Concrete (RC) design, an effective continuum topology optimization method is presented in this paper. Based on the power-law interpolation, shrinkage of concrete is numerically simulated by introducing an additional design...... to ensure the structural safety under the combined action of external loads and shrinkage....

  13. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  14. Research on Construction Optimization of Three-Connected-Arch Hydraulic Underground Cavities Considering Creep Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the creep of surrounding rock in long-term construction, with consideration of different construction methods and other factors during the construction of large-scale underground cavity, three different construction schemes are designed for specific projects and a nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep model which can describe rock accelerated creeping is introduced and applied to construction optimization calculation of the large-scale three-connected-arch hydraulic underground cavity through secondary development of FLAC3D. The results show that the adoption of middle cavity construction method, the second construction method, enables the maximum vault displacement of 16.04 mm. This method results in less stress redistribution and plastic zone expansion to the cavity’s surrounding rock than the other two schemes, which is the safest construction scheme. The conclusion can provide essential reference and guidance to similar engineering for construction optimization.

  15. Computational Framework for Optimal Carbon Taxes Based on Electric Supply Chain Considering Transmission Constraints and Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling and computational framework is presented for the determination of optimal carbon taxes that apply to electric power plants in the context of electric power supply chain with consideration of transmission constraints and losses. In order to achieve this goal, a generalized electric power supply chain network equilibrium model is used. Under deregulation, there are several players in electrical market: generation companies, power suppliers, transmission service providers, and consumers. Each player in this model tries to maximize its own profit and competes with others in a noncooperative manner. The Nash equilibrium conditions of these players in this model form a finite-dimensional variational inequality problem (VIP. By solving this VIP via an extragradient method based on an interior point algorithm, the optimal carbon taxes of power plants can be determined. Numerical examples are provided to analyze the results of the presented modeling.

  16. Carbon Nanotubes as FET Channel: Analog Design Optimization considering CNT Parameter Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar Ansari, Mohd.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), both single-walled as well as multi-walled, have been employed in a plethora of applications pertinent to semiconductor materials and devices including, but not limited to, biotechnology, material science, nanoelectronics and nano-electro mechanical systems (NEMS). The Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET) is one such electronic device which effectively utilizes CNTs to achieve a boost in the channel conduction thereby yielding superior performance over standard MOSFETs. This paper explores the effects of variability in CNT physical parameters viz. nanotube diameter, pitch, and number of CNT in the transistor channel, on the performance of a chosen analog circuit. It is further shown that from the analyses performed, an optimal design of the CNFETs can be derived for optimizing the performance of the analog circuit as per a given specification set.

  17. Robust optimization based energy dispatch in smart grids considering demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassourou, M.; Puig, V.; Blesa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss the application of robust optimization to the problem of economic energy dispatch in smart grids. Robust optimization based MPC strategies for tackling uncertain load demands are developed. Unexpected additive disturbances are modelled by defining an affine dependence between the control inputs and the uncertain load demands. The developed strategies were applied to a hybrid power system connected to an electrical power grid. Furthermore, to demonstrate the superiority of the standard Economic MPC over the MPC tracking, a comparison (e.g average daily cost) between the standard MPC tracking, the standard Economic MPC, and the integration of both in one-layer and two-layer approaches was carried out. The goal of this research is to design a controller based on Economic MPC strategies, that tackles uncertainties, in order to minimise economic costs and guarantee service reliability of the system.

  18. Hierarchical incremental path planning and situation-dependent optimized dynamic motion planning considering accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xue-Cheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies a hierarchical approach for incrementally driving a nonholonomic mobile robot to its destination in unknown environments. The A* algorithm is modified to handle a map containing unknown information. Based on it, optimal (discrete) paths are incrementally generated with a periodically updated map. Next, accelerations in varying velocities are taken into account in predicting the robot pose and the robot trajectory resulting from a motion command. Obstacle constraints are transformed to suitable velocity limits so that the robot can move as fast as possible while avoiding collisions when needed. Then, to trace the discrete path, the system searches for a waypoint-directed optimized motion in a reduced 1-D translation or rotation velocity space. Various situations of navigation are dealt with by using different strategies rather than a single objective function. Extensive simulations and experiments verified the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  19. Optimization of Highway Work Zone Decisions Considering Short-Term and Long-Term Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of solutions to provide an estimate of where the best solutions are located; • Metaheuristics , such as simulated annealing, genetic algorithm. For...solving large-scale real-world problems metaheuristics currently dominate other approaches focusing on convergence proof, mathematical tractability...and optimal solution, though the latter ones receive more attention by the academic world. The main reason is that metaheuristics are generally fast

  20. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors? reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as ...

  1. Techno-Economic Analysis for Optimal Energy Storage Systems Placement Considering Stacked Grid Services

    OpenAIRE

    KARADIMOS DIMITRIOS; KARAFOULIDIS ALEXANDROS; DOUKAS DIMITRIOS; GKAIDATZIS PASCHALIS; LABRIDIS DIMITRIS; MARINOPOULOS ANTONIOS

    2017-01-01

    The increasing penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and generation uncertainties, brought to the fore new challenges and problems regarding efficient Distribution Networks (DNs) operation. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can play a significant role in more reliable, secure and flexible DN operation since they can deal with difficult-to-predict changes. This study provides a detailed methodology among the corresponding mathematical formulation for the optimal sizing and allocation of ESS...

  2. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  3. Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Uncertain Large Photovoltaic Powers and Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kyoto protocol recommended that industrialized countries limit their green gas emissions in 2012 to 5.2% below 1990 levels. Photovoltaic (PV arrays provide clear and sustainable renewable energy to electric power systems. Solar PV arrays can be installed in distribution systems of rural and urban areas, as opposed to wind-turbine generators, which cause noise in surrounding environments. However, a large PV array (several MW may incur several operation problems, for example, low power quality and reverse power. This work presents a novel method to reconfigure the distribution feeders in order to prevent the injection of reverse power into a substation connected to the transmission level. Moreover, a two-stage algorithm is developed, in which the uncertain bus loads and PV powers are clustered by fuzzy-c-means to gain representative scenarios; optimal reconfiguration is then achieved by a novel mean-variance-based particle swarm optimization. The system loss is minimized while the operational constraints, including reverse power and voltage variation, are satisfied due to the optimal feeder reconfiguration. Simulation results obtained from a 70-bus distribution system with 4 large PV arrays validate the proposed method.

  4. A Combined Optimization Method for Tuning Two-Level Memory Hierarchy Considering Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Filho AbelGuilhermino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuning cache hierarchies in platforms for embedded systems can significantly reduce energy consumption. In this paper we combined two optimization methods for tuning both instruction and data cache configurations in a two-level memory hierarchy, where both levels have separate instruction and data caches. This kind of hierarchy allows us to evaluate instruction and data caches branches separately, although previous approaches have applied the same method for both branches of the hierarchy. This work evaluates several methods intended for two-level hierarchies, and the results showed that when we combine different methods for each branch of the hierarchy, results can be improved. Experiments based on simulations were performed for 12 applications from the Mibench suite benchmark and the combined method achieved better efficiency in 60% of the evaluated cases compared with existing heuristics. The proposed solution is only 11% less economic in terms of energy consumption than optimal values and required, on average, 42 simulations to conclude optimization mechanism, representing only 9% of the design space.

  5. Approximate Range Emptiness in Constant Time and Optimal Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    that the query time can be improved greatly, to constant time, while matching our space lower bound up to a lower order additive term. This result is achieved through a succinct data structure for (non-approximate 1d) range emptiness/reporting queries, which may be of independent interest....

  6. A Multi-objective Optimization Application in Friction Stir Welding: Considering Thermo-mechanical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate optimum process parameters in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) to minimize residual stresses in the work piece and maximize production efficiency meanwhile satisfying process specific constraints as well. More specifically, the choices of tool rotational...... speed and traverse welding speed have been sought in order to achieve the goals mentioned above using an evolutionary multi-objective optimization (MOO) algorithm, i.e. non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), integrated with a transient, 2-dimensional sequentially coupled thermomechanical...

  7. Range-Space Predictive Control for Optimal Robot Motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-7 ISSN 1998-0140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/06/P275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Accurate manipulation * Industrial robot ics * Predictive control * Range-space control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0305644.pdf

  8. LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission optimization considering J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hai-yang; Zhou, Jian-yong

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of an LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission considering the J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint is studied in the paper. First, a mission scenario is introduced. One service spacecraft and several target spacecraft run on an LEO near-circular orbit, the service spacecraft rendezvouses with some service positions one by one, and target spacecraft transfer to corresponding service positions respectively. Each target spacecraft returns to its original position after obtaining required propellant and the service spacecraft returns to its original position after refueling all target spacecraft. Next, an optimization model of this mission is built. The service sequence, orbital transfer time, and service position are used as deign variables, whereas the propellant cost is used as the design objective. The J2 perturbation, time constraint and the target spacecraft's surplus propellant capability constraint are taken into account. Then, a hybrid two-level optimization approach is presented to solve the formulated mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. A hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is adopted to seek the near optimal solution in the up-level optimization, while a linear relative dynamic equation considering the J2 perturbation is used to obtain the impulses of orbital transfer in the low-level optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model and method is validated by numerical examples.

  9. Optimization of Location–Routing Problem for Cold Chain Logistics Considering Carbon Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyi; Tao, Fengming; Shi, Yuhe

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the optimization problem of logistics distribution system for fresh food, this paper provides a low-carbon and environmental protection point of view, based on the characteristics of perishable products, and combines with the overall optimization idea of cold chain logistics distribution network, where the green and low-carbon location–routing problem (LRP) model in cold chain logistics is developed with the minimum total costs as the objective function, which includes carbon emission costs. A hybrid genetic algorithm with heuristic rules is designed to solve the model, and an example is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Furthermore, the simulation results obtained by a practical numerical example show the applicability of the model while provide green and environmentally friendly location-distribution schemes for the cold chain logistics enterprise. Finally, carbon tax policies are introduced to analyze the impact of carbon tax on the total costs and carbon emissions, which proves that carbon tax policy can effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions in cold chain logistics network. PMID:29316639

  10. Optimization of Location-Routing Problem for Cold Chain Logistics Considering Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songyi; Tao, Fengming; Shi, Yuhe

    2018-01-06

    In order to solve the optimization problem of logistics distribution system for fresh food, this paper provides a low-carbon and environmental protection point of view, based on the characteristics of perishable products, and combines with the overall optimization idea of cold chain logistics distribution network, where the green and low-carbon location-routing problem (LRP) model in cold chain logistics is developed with the minimum total costs as the objective function, which includes carbon emission costs. A hybrid genetic algorithm with heuristic rules is designed to solve the model, and an example is used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Furthermore, the simulation results obtained by a practical numerical example show the applicability of the model while provide green and environmentally friendly location-distribution schemes for the cold chain logistics enterprise. Finally, carbon tax policies are introduced to analyze the impact of carbon tax on the total costs and carbon emissions, which proves that carbon tax policy can effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions in cold chain logistics network.

  11. A simulation-optimization model for Stone column-supported embankment stability considering rainfall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, Kousik, E-mail: kousik@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Purohit, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.purohit91@gmail.com [Former B.Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Rourkela (India)

    2016-02-01

    Landslide due to rainfall has been and continues to be one of the most important concerns of geotechnical engineering. The paper presents the variation of factor of safety of stone column-supported embankment constructed over soft soil due to change in water level for an incessant period of rainfall. A combined simulation-optimization based methodology has been proposed to predict the critical surface of failure of the embankment and to optimize the corresponding factor of safety under rainfall conditions using an evolutionary genetic algorithm NSGA-II (Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). It has been observed that the position of water table can be reliably estimated with varying periods of infiltration using developed numerical method. The parametric study is presented to study the optimum factor of safety of the embankment and its corresponding critical failure surface under the steady-state infiltration condition. Results show that in case of floating stone columns, period of infiltration has no effect on factor of safety. Even critical failure surfaces for a particular floating column length remain same irrespective of rainfall duration.

  12. Planning Target Volume D95 and Mean Dose Should Be Considered for Optimal Local Control for Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lina [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhou, Shouhao [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shen, Chan [Department of Health Service Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R.; Welsh, James D.; Lin, Steve H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To identify the optimal dose parameters predictive for local/lobar control after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This study encompassed a total of 1092 patients (1200 lesions) with NSCLC of clinical stage T1-T2 N0M0 who were treated with SABR of 50 Gy in 4 fractions or 70 Gy in 10 fractions, depending on tumor location/size, using computed tomography-based heterogeneity corrections and a convolution superposition calculation algorithm. Patients were monitored by chest CT or positron emission tomography/CT and/or biopsy after SABR. Factors predicting local/lobar recurrence (LR) were determined by competing risk multivariate analysis. Continuous variables were divided into 2 subgroups at cutoff values identified by receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: At a median follow-up time of 31.7 months (interquartile range, 14.8-51.3 months), the 5-year time to local recurrence within the same lobe and overall survival rates were 93.8% and 44.8%, respectively. Total cumulative number of patients experiencing LR was 40 (3.7%), occurring at a median time of 14.4 months (range, 4.8-46 months). Using multivariate competing risk analysis, independent predictive factors for LR after SABR were minimum biologically effective dose (BED{sub 10}) to 95% of planning target volume (PTVD95 BED{sub 10}) ≤86 Gy (corresponding to PTV D95 physics dose of 42 Gy in 4 fractions or 55 Gy in 10 fractions) and gross tumor volume ≥8.3 cm{sup 3}. The PTVmean BED{sub 10} was highly correlated with PTVD95 BED{sub 10.} In univariate analysis, a cutoff of 130 Gy for PTVmean BED{sub 10} (corresponding to PTVmean physics dose of 55 Gy in 4 fractions or 75 Gy in 10 fractions) was also significantly associated with LR. Conclusions: In addition to gross tumor volume, higher radiation dose delivered to the PTV predicts for better local/lobar control. We recommend that both PTVD95 BED

  13. Start-Stop Moment Optimization of Range Extender and Control Strategy Design for Extended -Range Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Han, Bing-yuan; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-10-01

    Range extender is the core component of E-REV, its start-stop control determines the operation modes of vehicle. This paper based on a certain type of E-REV, researched constant power control strategy of range extender in extended-range model, to target range as constraint condition, combined with different driving cycle conditions, by correcting battery SOC for range extender start-stop moment, optimized the control strategy of range extender, and established the vehicle and range extender start-stop control simulation model. Selected NEDC and UDDS conditions simulation results show that: under certain target mileage, the range extender running time reduced by 37.2% and 28.2% in the NEDC condition, and running time UDDS conditions were reduced by 40.6% and 33.5% in the UDDS condition, reached the purpose of meeting the vehicle mileage and reducing consumption and emission.

  14. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Used for TNEP Considering Network Adequacy Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    H. Shayeghi; M. Mahdavi; A. Kazemi

    2009-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, transmission expansion planning considering network adequacy restriction has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, STNEP problem is...

  15. Optimal Operation of Microgrids Considering Auto-Configuration Function Using Multiagent System

    OpenAIRE

    Van-Hai Bui; Akhtar Hussain; Hak-Man Kim

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the status of existing devices and identification of newly added devices is required in microgrids to adjust the operation schedule followed by any event or integration of a new device. Therefore, in this paper, automatic reconfiguration of microgrids is considered after the addition of a new device or change in the operation status of an existing device by using a multiagent system. This capability of the microgrid is named as auto-configuration function, which is performed by the...

  16. Optimized Reactive Power Flow of DFIG Power Converters for Better Reliability Performance Considering Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    and the current loading. Then an optimized reactive power flow is proposed in the case an over-excited reactive power support is applied with the joint compensation from both the rotor-side converter and the grid-side converter. Finally, some experimental validations are performed at a down-scale DFIG prototype......If there is no reactive power exchange between the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and the grid, the various characteristics of the power converters in the DFIG wind turbine system cause the lifetime expectancy of the rotor-side converter significantly less than the grid-side converter....... In order to fulfill the modern grid codes, over-excited reactive power injection will further reduce the lifetime of the rotor-side converter. In this paper, the additional stress of the power semiconductor due to the reactive power injection is firstly evaluated in terms of modulation index...

  17. Scheduling Optimization of Home Health Care Service Considering Patients’ Priorities and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a new service model, home health care can provide effective health care by adopting door-to-door service. The reasonable arrangements for nurses and their routes not only can reduce medical expenses, but also can enhance patient satisfaction. This research focuses on the home health care scheduling optimization problem with known demands and service capabilities. Aimed at minimizing the total cost, an integer programming model was built in this study, which took both the priorities of patients and constraints of time windows into consideration. The genetic algorithm with local search was used to solve the proposed model. Finally, a case study of Shanghai, China, was conducted for the empirical analysis. The comparison results verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and methodology, which can provide the decision support for medical administrators of home health care.

  18. Optimal robust stabilizer design based on UPFC for interconnected power systems considering time delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koofigar Hamid Reza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A robust auxiliary wide area damping controller is proposed for a unified power flow controller (UPFC. The mixed H2 / H∞ problem with regional pole placement, resolved by linear matrix inequality (LMI, is applied for controller design. Based on modal analysis, the optimal wide area input signals for the controller are selected. The time delay of input signals, due to electrical distance from the UPFC location is taken into account in the design procedure. The proposed controller is applied to a multi-machine interconnected power system from the IRAN power grid. It is shown that the both transient and dynamic stability are significantly improved despite different disturbances and loading conditions.

  19. USING OF RANDOM DRIFT PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (RDPSO ALGORITHM ON ECONOMIC DISPATCH CONSIDERING WIND ELECTRICAL POWER FOR EMISSION REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhael Vidi Santoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization technique is a treatment to increase the value of efficiency and effectiveness of an industrial system and for obtaining an objective optimal of system. Optimization technique, itself, is used in industrial sector a lot enough, particularly in the fields of energy industry, where other industries sector, such as manufacturing, transportation, and telecommunications, including the provision. As user optimization technique within period of quite long time, energy industry facing a wide range of issues, such as climate change, the use of tissues and reliability, the repeated construction of a system, and many more. Optimization technique helps companies in the field of energy through these issues with a better way and faster decisions. Economic dispatch (or ED is one of the main problems towards energy companies. Economic dispatch (ED is essential in control and power system. On this Final Project, the method offered is a method of modification of Particle Swarm Optimization, namely Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization (RDPSO Algorithm. RDPSO could produce the power 0.15% more efficient and 78% faster to reach the convergent point.

  20. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David

    2015-11-02

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors' reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as a peer reviewer, to use. Additionally, keeping up with the current literature, whether as a content expert or being aware of advances in systematic review methods is likely be make for a more comprehensive and effective peer review. Providing a brief summary of what the systematic review has reported is an important first step in the peer review process (and not performed frequently enough). At its core, it provides the authors with some sense of what the peer reviewer believes was performed (Methods) and found (Results). Importantly, it also provides clarity regarding any potential problems in the methods, including statistical approaches for meta-analysis, results, and interpretation of the systematic review, for which the peer reviewer can seek explanations from the authors; these clarifications are best presented as questions to the authors.

  1. Optimization of Surface Finish in Turning Operation by Considering the Machine Tool Vibration using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of surface roughness has been one of the primary objectives in most of the machining operations. Poor control on the desired surface roughness generates non conforming parts and results into increase in cost and loss of productivity due to rework or scrap. Surface roughness value is a result of several process variables among which machine tool condition is one of the significant variables. In this study, experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of machine tool condition on surface roughness. Variable used to represent machine tool\\'s condition was vibration amplitude. Input parameters used, besides vibration amplitude, were feed rate and insert nose radius. Cutting speed and depth of cut were kept constant. Based on Taguchi orthogonal array, a series of experimentation was designed and performed on AISI 1040 carbon steel bar at default and induced machine tool\\'s vibration amplitudes. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance, revealed that vibration amplitude and feed rate had moderate effect on the surface roughness and insert nose radius had the highest significant effect on the surface roughness. It was also found that a machine tool with low vibration amplitude produced better surface roughness. Insert with larger nose radius produced better surface roughness at low feed rate.

  2. Optimization of Close Range Photogrammetry Network Design Applying Fuzzy Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminia, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring object 3D coordinates with optimum accuracy is one of the most important issues in close range photogrammetry. In this context, network design plays an important role in determination of optimum position of imaging stations. This is, however, not a trivial task due to various geometric and radiometric constraints affecting the quality of the measurement network. As a result, most camera stations in the network are defined on a try and error basis based on the user's experience and generic network concept. In this paper, we propose a post-processing task to investigate the quality of camera positions right after image capturing to achieve the best result. To do this, a new fuzzy reasoning approach is adopted, in which the constraints affecting the network design are all modeled. As a result, the position of all camera locations is defined based on fuzzy rules and inappropriate stations are determined. The experiments carried out show that after determination and elimination of the inappropriate images using the proposed fuzzy reasoning system, the accuracy of measurements is improved and enhanced about 17% for the latter network.

  3. Optimized Power Dispatch in Wind Farms for Power Maximizing Considering Fatigue Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao

    2018-01-01

    Wake effects in a wind farm (WF) include the wind velocity deficit and added turbulence. The wind velocity deficit may bring significant loss of the wind power and the added turbulence may cause extra fatigue load on the wind turbines (WTs). Inclusion of the wake effects in the wind farm control...... load of the shafts and the towers within a certain range from the values using traditional strategy, which adopts maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for each WT. A WT derating control strategy is included in the WT controller and the fatigue load for the tower and shaft is evaluated offline...

  4. New spatial clustering-based models for optimal urban facility location considering geographical obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Maryam; Shahrabi, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    The problems of facility location and the allocation of demand points to facilities are crucial research issues in spatial data analysis and urban planning. It is very important for an organization or governments to best locate its resources and facilities and efficiently manage resources to ensure that all demand points are covered and all the needs are met. Most of the recent studies, which focused on solving facility location problems by performing spatial clustering, have used the Euclidean distance between two points as the dissimilarity function. Natural obstacles, such as mountains and rivers, can have drastic impacts on the distance that needs to be traveled between two geographical locations. While calculating the distance between various supply chain entities (including facilities and demand points), it is necessary to take such obstacles into account to obtain better and more realistic results regarding location-allocation. In this article, new models were presented for location of urban facilities while considering geographical obstacles at the same time. In these models, three new distance functions were proposed. The first function was based on the analysis of shortest path in linear network, which was called SPD function. The other two functions, namely PD and P2D, were based on the algorithms that deal with robot geometry and route-based robot navigation in the presence of obstacles. The models were implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software using the visual basic programming language. These models were evaluated using synthetic and real data sets. The overall performance was evaluated based on the sum of distance from demand points to their corresponding facilities. Because of the distance between the demand points and facilities becoming more realistic in the proposed functions, results indicated desired quality of the proposed models in terms of quality of allocating points to centers and logistic cost. Obtained results show promising

  5. Methods for optimizing solutions when considering group arguments by team of experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, Sergei; Budnik, Vlad

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to methods of expert evaluation. The technology of expert evaluation is presented from the standpoint of precedent structures. In this paper, an aspect of the mathematical basis for constructing a component of decision analysis is considered. In fact, this approach leaves out any identification of their knowledge and skills of simulating organizational and manufacturing situations and taking efficient managerial decisions; it doesn't enable any identification and assessment of their knowledge on the basis of multi-informational and least loss-making methods and information technologies. Hence the problem is to research and develop a methodology for systemic identification of professional problem-focused knowledge acquired by employees operating adaptive automated systems of training management (AASTM operators), which shall also further the theory and practice of the intelligence-related aspects thereof.

  6. Building of Reusable Reverse Logistics Model and its Optimization Considering the Decision of Backorder or Next Arrival of Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    This paper deals with the building of the reusable reverse logistics model considering the decision of the backorder or the next arrival of goods. The optimization method to minimize the transportation cost and to minimize the volume of the backorder or the next arrival of goods occurred by the Just in Time delivery of the final delivery stage between the manufacturer and the processing center is proposed. Through the optimization algorithms using the priority-based genetic algorithm and the hybrid genetic algorithm, the sub-optimal delivery routes are determined. Based on the case study of a distilling and sale company in Busan in Korea, the new model of the reusable reverse logistics of empty bottles is built and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.

  7. Considering passive mechanical properties and patient user motor performance in lower limb prosthesis design optimization to enhance rehabilitation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Fey, Nicholas P

    2017-07-17

    Selection of prosthesis mechanical characteristics to restore function of persons with lower-limb loss can be framed as an optimization problem to satisfy a given performance objective. However, the choice of a particular objective is critical, and considering only device and generalizable outcomes across users without accounting for inherent motor performance likely restricts a given patient from fully realizing the benefits of a prosthetic intervention. This review presents methods for optimizing passive below-knee prosthesis designs to maximize rehabilitation outcomes and how considerations on patient motor performance may enhance these outcomes. Available literature supports that considering patient-specific variables pertaining to motor performance permits a multidimensional landscape relating device characteristics and user function, which may yield more accurate predictions of rehabilitation outcomes for individual patients. Moreover, the addition of targeted physical therapeutic interventions that encourage user self-organization may further improve these outcomes. We note the potential of existing paradigms to address these additional dimensions, and we encourage investigators to consider the many different performance objectives available for prosthesis optimization. By considering user motor performance in combination with prosthesis mechanical characteristics, a staged optimization approach can be formulated which acknowledges that device modifications may only improve outcomes to a certain extent and user self-organization is a critical component to complete rehabilitation. An iterative process that can be integrated within existing rehabilitative practices accounts for changes in patient status through combined targeted prosthetic solutions and physical therapeutic techniques, and embodies the concept of personalized intervention for patients with lower limb-loss.

  8. AN OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR STEEL FRAMES CONSIDERING THE DISCONTINUITY OF THE STRUCTURAL PROPERTY COEFFICIENT IN NECESSARY ULTIMATE HORIZONTAL RESISTANT FORCE

    OpenAIRE

    宋, 昶; 山川, 誠; 上谷, 宏二

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal load-carrying capacity of steel rigid-frames is one of the most important mechanical performances required in the practical design. Design horizontal load is lowered by the structural property coefficient Ds, which is determined by the plastic deformation capacity of the frame. A practical method using branch and bound approach for the optimization of steel frame structures considering the discontinuity of structural property coefficient Ds is proposed in this paper, and is verifie...

  9. Shape optimization of blended-wing-body underwater glider by using gliding range as the optimization target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended-Wing-Body Underwater Glider (BWBUG, which has excellent hydrodynamic performance, is a new kind of underwater glider in recent years. In the shape optimization of BWBUG, the lift to drag ratio is often used as the optimization target. However this results in lose of internal space. In this paper, the energy reserve is defined as the direct proportional function of the internal space of BWBUG. A motion model, which relates gliding range to steady gliding motion parameters as well as energy consumption, is established by analyzing the steady-state gliding motion. The maximum gliding range is used as the optimization target instead of the lift to drag ratio to optimizing the shape of BWBUG. The result of optimization shows that the maximum gliding range of initial design is increased by 32.1% though an Efficient Global Optimization (EGO process. Keywords: Blended-wing-body underwater glider, Shape optimization, Gliding range, Energy consumption model, Lift to drag ratio

  10. Transport of pollutants considered from the point of view of a short and medium range-material balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Benaire

    1976-01-01

    Episodical long-range transport is the quasi-instantaneous peak event. It does not express the total dosage of pollutant carried over from the source area to some distant place. The purpose of the present paper is to obtain an average material balance of a pollutant leaving a given area. Available information from the OECD "Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants...

  11. Co-occurrence of viruses and mosquitoes at the vectors' optimal climate range: An underestimated risk to temperate regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Marcus S C; Caminade, Cyril; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Sutton, Elizabeth R; Wardeh, Maya; Baylis, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses have been estimated to cause over 100 million cases of human disease annually. Many methodologies have been developed to help identify areas most at risk from transmission of these viruses. However, generally, these methodologies focus predominantly on the effects of climate on either the vectors or the pathogens they spread, and do not consider the dynamic interaction between the optimal conditions for both vector and virus. Here, we use a new approach that considers the complex interplay between the optimal temperature for virus transmission, and the optimal climate for the mosquito vectors. Using published geolocated data we identified temperature and rainfall ranges in which a number of mosquito vectors have been observed to co-occur with West Nile virus, dengue virus or chikungunya virus. We then investigated whether the optimal climate for co-occurrence of vector and virus varies between "warmer" and "cooler" adapted vectors for the same virus. We found that different mosquito vectors co-occur with the same virus at different temperatures, despite significant overlap in vector temperature ranges. Specifically, we found that co-occurrence correlates with the optimal climatic conditions for the respective vector; cooler-adapted mosquitoes tend to co-occur with the same virus in cooler conditions than their warmer-adapted counterparts. We conclude that mosquitoes appear to be most able to transmit virus in the mosquitoes' optimal climate range, and hypothesise that this may be due to proportionally over-extended vector longevity, and other increased fitness attributes, within this optimal range. These results suggest that the threat posed by vector-competent mosquito species indigenous to temperate regions may have been underestimated, whilst the threat arising from invasive tropical vectors moving to cooler temperate regions may be overestimated.

  12. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  13. Optimal Line Pressure Control for an Automatic Transmission-Based Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle considering Mode Change and Gear Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimal line pressure control algorithm was proposed for the fuel economy improvement of an AT-based parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. By performing lever analysis at each gear step, the required line pressure was obtained considering the torque ratio of the friction elements. In addition, the required line pressure of the mode clutch was calculated. Based on these results, the optimal line pressure map at each gear step of the EV and HEV modes was presented. Using the line pressure map, an optimal line pressure was performed for the AT input torque and mode. To investigate the proposed line pressure control algorithm, a HEV performance simulator was developed based on the powertrain model of the target HEV, and fuel economy improvement was evaluated. Simulation results showed that as the gear step became higher, the optimal line pressure control could reduce the hydraulic power loss, which gave a 2.2% fuel economy improvement compared to the existing line pressure control for the FTP-72 mode.

  14. Optimal Operation Planning of Wind Farm Installed BESS Using Wind Power Forecast Data of Wind Turbine Generators Considering Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Kazuki; Kamiyama, Shota; Palmer, Michael; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    2013-06-01

    In order to solve the problems of global warming and depletion of energy resource, renewable energy systems such as wind generation are getting attention. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed, and it is difficult to perfectly forecast wind power. This paper describes a method to use power forecast data of wind turbine generators considering wind power forecast error for optimal operation. The purpose in this paper is to smooth the output power fluctuation of a wind farm and to obtain more beneficial electrical power for selling.

  15. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    plants. In this paper, a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for finding the optimal production and investment plan for a biogas supply chain is presented to ensure better economy for the full chain hopefully stimulating future investments in biogas. The model makes use of step-wise linear functions...... to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...

  16. An enhanced bacterial foraging algorithm approach for optimal power flow problem including FACTS devices considering system loadability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwin Edward, J; Rajasekar, N; Sathiyasekar, K; Senthilnathan, N; Sarjila, R

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining optimal power flow solution is a strenuous task for any power system engineer. The inclusion of FACTS devices in the power system network adds to its complexity. The dual objective of OPF with fuel cost minimization along with FACTS device location for IEEE 30 bus is considered and solved using proposed Enhanced Bacterial Foraging algorithm (EBFA). The conventional Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) has the difficulty of optimal parameter selection. Hence, in this paper, BFA is enhanced by including Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm for better performance. A MATLAB code for EBFA is developed and the problem of optimal power flow with inclusion of FACTS devices is solved. After several run with different initial values, it is found that the inclusion of FACTS devices such as SVC and TCSC in the network reduces the generation cost along with increased voltage stability limits. It is also observed that, the proposed algorithm requires lesser computational time compared to earlier proposed algorithms. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel Algorithm for Optimal Operation of Hydrothermal Power Systems under Considering the Constraints in Transmission Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Trung Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an effective novel cuckoo search algorithm (ENCSA in order to enhance the operation capacity of hydrothermal power systems, considering the constraints in the transmission network, and especially to overcome optimal power flow (OPF problems. This proposed algorithm is developed on the basis of the conventional cuckoo search algorithm (CSA by two modified techniques: the first is the self-adaptive technique for generating the second new solutions via discovery of alien eggs, and the second is the high-quality solutions based on a selection technique to keep the best solutions among all new and old solutions. These techniques are able to expand the search zone to overcome the local optimum trap and are able to improve the optimal solution quality and convergence speed as well. Therefore, the proposed method has significant impacts on the searching performances. The efficacy of the proposed method is investigated and verified using IEEE 30 and 118 buses systems via numerical simulation. The obtained results are compared with the conventional cuckoo search algorithm (CCSA and the modified cuckoo search algorithm (MCSA. As a result, the proposed method can overcome the OPF of hydrothermal power systems better than the conventional ones in terms of the optimal solution quality, convergence speed, and high success rate.

  18. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    fossil fuels to biofuels. In many ways biomass is a unique renewable resource. It can be stored and transported relatively easily in contrast to renewable options such as wind and solar, which create intermittent electrical power that requires immediate consumption and a connection to the grid. This thesis presents two different models for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks. This work compares the performance and solutions obtained by two types of metaheuristic approaches; genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. Compared to rigorous mathematical optimization methods or iterative algorithms, metaheuristics do not guarantee that a global optimal solution can be found on some class of problems. Problems with similar characteristics to the one presented in this thesis have been previously solved using linear programming, integer programming and mixed integer programming methods. However, depending on the type of problem, these mathematical or complete methods might need exponential computation time in the worst-case. This often leads to computation times too high for practical purposes. Therefore, this thesis develops two types of metaheuristic approaches for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system considering multiple types of feedstocks and shows that metaheuristics are highly suitable to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems such as the one addressed in this research work.

  19. The use of lifetime functions in the optimization of interventions on existing bridges considering maintenance and failure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung-Ie [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: yangsione@dreamwiz.com; Frangopol, Dan M. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: dan.frangopol@colorado.edu; Kawakami, Yoriko [Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Kobe Maintenance Department, 16-1 Shinko-cho Chuo-ku Kobe City, Hyogo, 650-0041 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoriko-kawakami@hepc.go.jp; Neves, Luis C. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: lneves@civil.uminho.pt

    2006-06-15

    In the last decade, it became clear that life-cycle cost analysis of existing civil infrastructure must be used to optimally manage the growing number of aging and deteriorating structures. The uncertainties associated with deteriorating structures require the use of probabilistic methods to properly evaluate their lifetime performance. In this paper, the deterioration and the effect of maintenance actions are analyzed considering the performance of existing structures characterized by lifetime functions. These functions allow, in a simple manner, the consideration of the effect of aging on the decrease of the probability of survival of a structure, as well as the effect of maintenance actions. Models for the effects of proactive and reactive preventive maintenance, and essential maintenance actions are presented. Since the probability of failure is different from zero during the entire service life of a deteriorating structure and depends strongly on the maintenance strategy, the cost of failure is included in this analysis. The failure of one component in a structure does not usually lead to failure of the structure and, as a result, the safety of existing structures must be analyzed using a system reliability framework. The optimization consists of minimizing the sum of the cumulative maintenance and expected failure cost during the prescribed time horizon. Two examples of application of the proposed methodology are presented. In the first example, the sum of the maintenance and failure costs of a bridge in Colorado is minimized considering essential maintenance only and a fixed minimum acceptable probability of failure. In the second example, the expected lifetime cost, including maintenance and expected failure costs, of a multi-girder bridge is minimized considering reactive preventive maintenance actions.

  20. Multi-objective optimization to improve the product range of baking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Esveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The operational range of a food production system can be used to obtain a variation in certain product characteristics. The range of product characteristics that can be simultaneously realized by an optimal choice of the process conditions is inherently limited. Knowledge of this feasible product

  1. Optimizing Single Sweep Range and Doppler Processing for FMCW Radar using Inverse Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Dorp, Ph. van

    2005-01-01

    We discuss range and Doppler processing for FMCW radar using only a single pulse or frequency sweep. The first step is correlation processing, for which the range and Doppler resolution are limited by the ambiguity function. We show that this resolution can be optimized with an additional inverse

  2. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  3. Dynamic optimization of the complex adaptive controlling by the structure of enterprise’s product range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Fyodorovich Shorikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a methodical approach to solve multi-step dynamic problem of optimal integrated adaptive management of a product portfolio structure of the enterprise. For the organization of optimal adaptive terminal control of the system the recurrent algorithm, which reduces an initial multistage problem to the realization of the final sequence of problems of optimal program terminal control is offered. In turn, the decision of each problem of optimal program terminal control is reduced to the realization of the final sequence only single-step operations in the form of the problems solving of linear and convex mathematical programming. Thus, the offered approach allows to develop management solutions at current information support, which consider feedback, and which create the optimal structure of an enterprise’s product lines, contributing to optimising of profits, as well as maintenance of the desired level of profit for a long period of time

  4. Technical Note: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous underdose and overdose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisotzky, Eric, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@charite.de, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@ipk.fraunhofer.de; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking radiotherapy is complex as the beam pattern needs to be modified due to the planned intensity modulation as well as the real-time target motion. The target motion cannot be planned; therefore, the modified beam pattern differs from the original plan and the MLC sequence needs to be recomputed online. Current MLC tracking algorithms use a greedy heuristic in that they optimize for a given time, but ignore past errors. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed and improved an algorithm that minimizes large underdose and overdose regions. Additionally, previous underdose and overdose events are taken into account to avoid regions with high quantity of dose events. Methods: The authors improved the existing MLC motion control algorithm by introducing a cumulative underdose/overdose map. This map represents the actual projection of the planned tumor shape and logs occurring dose events at each specific regions. These events have an impact on the dose cost calculation and reduce recurrence of dose events at each region. The authors studied the improvement of the new temporal optimization algorithm in terms of the L1-norm minimization of the sum of overdose and underdose compared to not accounting for previous dose events. For evaluation, the authors simulated the delivery of 5 conformal and 14 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-plans with 7 3D patient measured tumor motion traces. Results: Simulations with conformal shapes showed an improvement of L1-norm up to 8.5% after 100 MLC modification steps. Experiments showed comparable improvements with the same type of treatment plans. Conclusions: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous dose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy has been developed and investigated. Reductions in underdose/overdose are observed for conformal and IMRT delivery.

  5. Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heat and Power in Different Demand Type Buildings Considering Seasonal Demand Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal energy management strategy for a cooperative multi-microgrid system with combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP is proposed and has been verified for a test case of building microgrids (BMGs. Three different demand types of buildings are considered and the BMGs are assumed to be equipped with their own combined heat and power (CHP generators. In addition, the BMGs are also connected to an external energy network (EEN, which contains a large CHP, an adsorption chiller (ADC, a thermal storage tank, and an electric heat pump (EHP. By trading the excess electricity and heat energy with the utility grid and EEN, each BMG can fulfill its energy demands. Seasonal energy demand variations have been evaluated by selecting a representative day for the two extreme seasons (summer and winter of the year, among the real profiles of year-round data on electricity, heating, and cooling usage of all the three selected buildings. Especially, the thermal energy management aspect is emphasized where, bi-lateral heat trading between the energy supplier and the consumers, so-called energy prosumer concept, has been realized. An optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming has been developed for minimizing the daily operation cost of the EEN while fulfilling the energy demands of the BMGs. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  7. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  8. An Approximate Optimal Maximum Range Guidance Scheme for Subsonic Unpowered Gliding Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Chi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the maximum gliding range problems of subsonic unpowered gliding vehicles and proposes an approximate optimal maximum range guidance scheme. First, the gliding flight path angle corresponding to constant dynamic pressure is derived. A lift-to-drag ratio (L/D inversely proportional to the dynamic pressure is then proven. On this basis, the calculation method of an optimal dynamic pressure (ODP profile with a maximum L/D throughout the flight is presented. A guidance scheme for tracking the ODP profile, which uses the flight path angle as control variable, is then designed. The maximum ranges of the unpowered gliding vehicle obtained by the proposed guidance scheme and pseudospectral method are compared. Results show that the guidance scheme provides an accurate approximation of the optimal results, and the errors are less than 2%. The proposed guidance scheme is easy to implement and is not influenced by wind compared with numerical schemes.

  9. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  10. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  11. An Optimized Control for LLC Resonant Converter with Wide Load Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xia; Qian, Qinsong

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an optimized control which makes LLC resonant converters operate with a wider load range and provides good closed-loop performance. The proposed control employs two paralleled digital compensations to guarantee the good closed-loop performance in a wide load range during the steady state, an optimized trajectory control will take over to change the gate-driving signals immediately at the load transients. Finally, the proposed control has been implemented and tested on a 150W 200kHz 400V/24V LLC resonant converter and the result validates the proposed method.

  12. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  13. Valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine from an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia; Prokopiou, Georgia; Kronik, Leeor; Brena, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    We analyse the valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by means of optimally tuning a range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning is performed by modifying both the amount of short-range exact exchange (α ) included in the hybrid functional and the range-separation parameter (γ ), with two strategies employed for finding the optimal γ for each α . The influence of these two parameters on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoPc is thoroughly investigated. The electronic structure is found to be very sensitive to the amount and range in which the exact exchange is included. The electronic structure obtained using the optimal parameters is compared to gas-phase photo-electron data and GW calculations, with the unoccupied states additionally compared with inverse photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The calculated spectrum with tuned γ , determined for the optimal value of α = 0.1 , yields a very good agreement with both experimental results and with GW calculations that well-reproduce the experimental data.

  14. Tuning Range Optimization of a Planar Inverted F Antenna for LTE Low Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) tuned with a fixed capacitor to the low frequency bands supported by the Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The tuning range is investigated and optimized with respect to the bandwidth and the efficiency of the resulting antenna. Simulations...

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization Considering Battery Degradation for a Multi-Mode Power-Split Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A multi-mode power-split (MMPS hybrid electric vehicle (HEV has two planetary gearsets and clutches/grounds which results in several operation modes with enhanced electric drive capability and better fuel economy. Basically, the battery storage system is involved in different operation modes to satisfy the power demand and minimize the fuel consumption, whereas the complicated operation modes with frequent charging/discharging will absolutely influence the battery life because of degradation. In this paper, firstly, we introduce the solid electrolyte interface (SEI film growth model based on the previous study of the battery degradation principles and was verified according to the test data. We consider both the fuel economy and battery degradation as a multi-objective problem for MMPS HEV by normalization with a weighting factor. An instantaneous optimization is implemented based on the equivalent fuel consumption concept. Then the control strategy is implemented on a simulation framework integrating the MMPS powertrain model and the SEI film growth map model over some typical driving cycles, such as New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS. Finally, the result demonstrates that these two objectives are conflicting and the trade-off reduces the battery degradation with fuel sacrifice. Additionally, the analysis reveals how the mode selection will reflect the battery degradation.

  16. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  17. Optimal reactive power planning for distribution systems considering intermittent wind power using Markov model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng

    Wind farms, photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, and micro-turbines are all considered to be Distributed Generation (DG). DG is defined as the generation of power which is dispersed throughout a utility's service territory and either connected to the utility's distribution system or isolated in a small grid. This thesis addresses modeling and economic issues pertaining to the optimal reactive power planning for distribution system with wind power generation (WPG) units. Wind farms are inclined to cause reverse power flows and voltage variations due to the random-like outputs of wind turbines. To deal with this kind of problem caused by wide spread usage of wind power generation, this thesis investigates voltage and reactive power controls in such a distribution system. Consequently static capacitors (SC) and transformer taps are introduced into the system and treated as controllers. For the purpose of getting optimum voltage and realizing reactive power control, the research proposes a proper coordination among the controllers like on-load tap changer (OLTC), feeder-switched capacitors. What's more, in order to simulate its uncertainty, the wind power generation is modeled by the Markov model. In that way, calculating the probabilities for all the scenarios is possible. Some outputs with consecutive and discrete values have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speeds. The thesis will describe the method to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrix. After that, utilizing genetic algorithm, the optimal locations of SCs, the sizes of SCs and transformer taps are determined so as to minimize the cost or minimize the power loss, and more importantly improve voltage profiles. The applicability of the proposed method is verified through simulation on a 9-bus system and a 30-bus system respectively. At last, the simulation results indicate that as long as the available capacitors are able to sufficiently

  18. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse™) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem. All

  19. Optimal Sensor Placement for Multiple Target Positioning with Range-Only Measurements in Two-Dimensional Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Aranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimal geometric configuration of a sensor network that will maximize the range-related information available for multiple target positioning is of key importance in a multitude of application scenarios. In this paper, a set of sensors that measures the distances between the targets and each of the receivers is considered, assuming that the range measurements are corrupted by white Gaussian noise, in order to search for the formation that maximizes the accuracy of the target estimates. Using tools from estimation theory and convex optimization, the problem is converted into that of maximizing, by proper choice of the sensor positions, a convex combination of the logarithms of the determinants of the Fisher Information Matrices corresponding to each of the targets in order to determine the sensor configuration that yields the minimum possible covariance of any unbiased target estimator. Analytical and numerical solutions are well defined and it is shown that the optimal configuration of the sensors depends explicitly on the constraints imposed on the sensor configuration, the target positions, and the probabilistic distributions that define the prior uncertainty in each of the target positions. Simulation examples illustrate the key results derived.

  20. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  1. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  2. Concurrent topology optimization for minimization of total mass considering load-carrying capabilities and thermal insulation simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Gu, Xianguang

    2017-09-01

    The present work introduces a novel concurrent optimization formulation to meet the requirements of lightweight design and various constraints simultaneously. Nodal displacement of macrostructure and effective thermal conductivity of microstructure are regarded as the constraint functions, which means taking into account both the load-carrying capabilities and the thermal insulation properties. The effective properties of porous material derived from numerical homogenization are used for macrostructural analysis. Meanwhile, displacement vectors of macrostructures from original and adjoint load cases are used for sensitivity analysis of the microstructure. Design variables in the form of reciprocal functions of relative densities are introduced and used for linearization of the constraint function. The objective function of total mass is approximately expressed by the second order Taylor series expansion. Then, the proposed concurrent optimization problem is solved using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm, by splitting into a series of sub-problems in the form of the quadratic program. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method. The various effects including initial designs, prescribed limits of nodal displacement, and effective thermal conductivity on optimized designs are also investigated. An amount of optimized macrostructures and their corresponding microstructures are achieved.

  3. An Optimal Decision Model of Production-Inventory with MTS and ATO Hybrid Model Considering Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization decision model for a production system that comprises the hybrid make-to-stock/assemble-to-order (MTS/ATO organization mode with demand uncertainty, which can be described as a two-stage decision model. In the first decision stage (i.e., before acquiring the actual demand information of the customer, we have studied the optimal quantities of the finished products and components, while in the second stage (i.e., after acquiring the actual demand information of the customer, we have made the optimal decision on the assignment of components to satisfy the remaining demand. The optimal conditions on production and inventory decision are deduced, as well as the bounds of the total procurement quantity of the components in the ATO phase and final products generated in the MTS phase. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the above optimal model. The findings are shown as follows: the hybrid MTS and ATO production system reduces uncertain demand risk by arranging MTS phase and ATO phase reasonably and improves the expected profit of manufacturer; applying the strategy of component commonality can reduce the total inventory level, as well as the risk induced by the lower accurate demand forecasting.

  4. Fault Ride through Capability Improvement of Wind Turbine Based DFIG Considering an Optimized Crowbar Along with STATCOM under Grid Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Zohoori; Ahad Kazemi; Rouhollah Shafaie

    2013-01-01

    Grid disturbances, especially grid faults, have very unfavorable effect on the performance of wind turbine based Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). In this study active and reactive powers control of DFIG with STATCOM has been carried out to improve Fault Ride Through (FRT) capability of a wind turbine. In order to excel improvement of the DFIG behavior under grid fault disturbances, an optimized crowbar protection method is also considered together with STATCOM. The optimized protection ...

  5. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  6. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... mechanism, which better exploits a battery’s fast ramping capability. However, battery life might be decreased by frequent charge–discharge cycling, especially when providing fast regulation service. It is profitable for battery storage to extend its service life by limiting its operational strategy to some...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  7. Optimal Curtailment of Non-Synchronous Renewable Generation on the Island of Tenerife Considering Steady State and Transient Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ledesma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of non-synchronous, renewable energy in modern power systems displaces synchronous generation and affects transient stability. This is just one of the factors that has led to preventive curtailment of renewable energy sources in an increasing number of electrical grids. Transient stability constrained optimal power flow (OPF techniques provide a tool to optimize the dispatch of power systems while ensuring a secure operation. This work proposes a transient stability-constrained OPF model that includes non-synchronous generation with fault ride-through capability and reactive support during voltage dips. The model is applied it to the IEEE 39 Bus benchmark test case and to the power system of the Spanish island of Tenerife, and solved using the open-source library IPOPT that implements a primal-dual interior point algorithm. The solution of the model makes it possible to optimize the dispatch of conventional plants and the curtailment of non-synchronous generation, as well as to explore methods to reduce generation cost. Fault ride-through capability, synchronous inertia and fault clearing times are identified as useful tools to reduce the curtailment of non-synchronous generation, especially during periods of low load and high availability of renewable energy sources.

  8. An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs and energy storage systems (ESSs are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced.

  9. Optimal antiproteinuric dose of losartan in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverman, G D; Henning, R H; de Jong, P E; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D

    2001-12-01

    Although the antiproteinuric response to antihypertensive treatment is the main predictor of renoprotective efficacy in long-term renal disease, to date, dose-finding studies of antihypertensives have been based only on blood pressure. We aimed to find the optimal antiproteinuric dose of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan. An open-label, dose-response study using subsequent 6-week treatment periods was performed in 10 nondiabetic patients with proteinuria of 5.8 +/- 0.8 g/d and a mean arterial pressure of 103 +/- 3.7 mm Hg without antihypertensive medication. All patients had normal to moderately impaired renal function. After the baseline period, five periods followed with a daily losartan dose of 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 50 mg and a recovery without losartan. At the end of each period, proteinuria and mean arterial pressure were measured. The consecutive doses of losartan had a similar antihypertensive response (-11.3 +/- 2.8% by the 100-mg dose). The optimal antiproteinuric response was reached at 100 mg of losartan (-30 +/- 8%). The 50-mg dose (-13 +/- 7%) was less effective, and the 150-mg dose (-28 +/- 8%) was not more effective. A 100-mg dose of losartan is optimal for reduction of proteinuria in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

  10. On Optimal Placement of Short Range Base Stations for Indoor Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of short-range wireless for object positioning has seen a growing interest in recent years. This interest is compounded by the inherent GPS limitations especially in indoor situations and in urban canyons. In order to achieve the highest performance of short-range positioning systems it is important to optimize the placement of Base-Stations (BSs in a given area. The problems of BSs placement to minimize error and to achieve multiple coverage of the area have been addressed separately in the literature. In this paper, we discuss that using short range BSs the two problems are interrelated and need to be solved jointly. We study the impact of different influential attributes of the positioning problem as we alter the layout of BSs in the area. We investigate different scenarios for short-range BSs placement that maximize coverage and minimize positioning error. Simulation results demonstrate that better performance could be achieved using layouts that tend to distribute the BSs uniformly.

  11. Optimal Scheduling of Distributed Energy Resources and Responsive Loads in Islanded Microgrids Considering Voltage and Frequency Security Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    in islanded MGs with regard to voltage and frequency security constraints. Based on the proposed model, scheduling of the controllable units in both supply and demand sides is done in a way not only to maximize the expected profit of MG operator (MGO), but also to minimize the energy payments of customers...... on the system’s performance in terms of voltage and frequency stability. Moreover, optimal coordination of DERs and responsive loads can increase the expected profit of MGO significantly. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on an islanded MG test system over a 24-h period....

  12. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Smart Distribution Grid Considering Reactive Power Capability of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional paradigm, large power plants provide active and reactive power required for the transmission system and the distribution network purchases grid power from it. However, with more and more distributed energy resources (DERs connected at distribution levels, it is necessary to schedule DERs to meet their demand and participate in the electricity markets at the distribution level in the near future. This paper proposes a comprehensive operational scheduling model to be used in the distribution management system (DMS. The model aims to determine optimal decisions on active elements of the network, distributed generations (DGs, and responsive loads (RLs, seeking to minimize the day-ahead composite economic cost of the distribution network. For more detailed simulation, the composite cost includes the aspects of the operation cost, emission cost, and transmission loss cost of the network. Additionally, the DMS effectively utilizes the reactive power support capabilities of wind and solar power integrated in the distribution, which is usually neglected in previous works. The optimization procedure is formulated as a nonlinear combinatorial problem and solved with a modified differential evolution algorithm. A modified 33-bus distribution network is employed to validate the satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology.

  13. Combined Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model - Design of experiments approach to optimize dye adsorption considering both equilibrium and kinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukkumaran, A; Aravamudan, K

    2017-12-15

    Adsorption, a popular technique for removing azo dyes from aqueous streams, is influenced by several factors such as pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and adsorbent dosage. Any strategy that seeks to identify optimal conditions involving these factors, should take into account both kinetic and equilibrium aspects since they influence rate and extent of removal by adsorption. Hence rigorous kinetics and accurate equilibrium models are required. In this work, the experimental investigations pertaining to adsorption of acid orange 10 dye (AO10) on activated carbon were carried out using Central Composite Design (CCD) strategy. The significant factors that affected adsorption were identified to be solution temperature, solution pH, adsorbent dosage and initial solution concentration. Thermodynamic analysis showed the endothermic nature of the dye adsorption process. The kinetics of adsorption has been rigorously modeled using the Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM) after incorporating the non-linear Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Optimization was performed for kinetic parameters (color removal time and surface diffusion coefficient) as well as the equilibrium affected response viz. percentage removal. Finally, the optimum conditions predicted were experimentally validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the exposure parameters with signal-to-noise ratios considering human visual characteristics in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Maki; Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

    2010-04-01

    The use of digital mammography systems has become widespread recently. However, the optimal exposure parameters are uncertain in clinical practice. We need to optimize the exposure parameter in digital mammography while maximizing image quality and minimizing patient dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most beneficial exposure variable-tube voltage for each compressed breast thickness-with these indices: noise power spectrum, noise equivalent quanta, detective quantum efficiency, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In this study, the SNRs were derived from the perceived statistical decision theory model with the internal noise of eye-brain system (SNRi), contrived and studied by Loo LN1), Ishida M et al. 2) These image quality indices were obtained under a fixed average glandular dose (AGD) and a fixed image contrast. Our results indicated that when the image contrast and AGD was constant, for phantom thinner than 5 cm, an increase of the tube voltage did not improve the noise property of images very much. The results also showed that image property with the target/filter Mo/Rh was better than that with Mo/Mo for phantom thicker than 4 cm. In general, it is said that high tube voltage delivers improved noise property. Our result indicates that this common theory is not realized with the x-ray energy level for mammography.

  15. Simulation of optimal impulsive maneuvers of a spacecraft in orbit of Mars considering constructive aspects of the propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi Rocco, Evandro

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The goal of this work is calculate and simulate orbital maneuvers of a spacecraft in orbit of Mars considering constructive aspects of the propulsion system and trajectory control in closed loop. Initially, ideal thrusters capable of applying forces of infinite magnitude are considered. The ideal thruster allows instantaneous variation of velocity. Thus the optimum impulsive maneuvers are obtained, from the point of view of fuel consumption, by the solution of Lambert Problem (Two Point Boundary Value Problem). Then these maneuvers are simulated, but now considering a more realistic model of the propulsion system. Due to the impossibility of application of an infinite thrust the orbital maneuver must be distributed in a propulsive arc around the position of the impulse determined by solution of the Lambert Problem. In this propulsive arc continuous thrust is applied, limited to the maximum capacity of the thrusters. However, the effect of the propulsive arc is not exactly equivalent to the application of an impulsive thrust, the difference produces a deviation in the final orbit with respect to the reference orbit. This deviation depends on the magnitude of the impulse required, the capacity of the propulsion system and the characteristics of the trajectory control system. The evaluation of this deviation is extremely relevant in the analysis of a spacecraft mission and in the dimensioning of the trajectory control system. Therefore in this study the influence of the thrusters capacity in the trajectory error was evaluated, when considered a more realistic model instead of ideal case represented by the impulsive approach.

  16. A new fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization for daily Volt/Var control in distribution networks considering distributed generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University, MArvdasht Branch (Iran); Ostadi, Amir [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel approach for daily Volt/Var control in distribution systems using Distributed Generation (DG) units. The impact of DG units on Volt/Var control is significant in a distribution network with radial configuration and small X/R ratio. In this paper, a price-based approach is adopted to determine the optimum active and reactive power dispatch for the DG units, the reactive power contribution of the capacitor banks, and the tap settings of the transformers in a day in advance. A fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization (FAPSO) method is used to solve the daily Volt/Var control which is a non-linear mixed-integer problem. A mathematical expression of the proposed method and its effectiveness using simulation results are provided. (author)

  17. A Data-Driven Stochastic Reactive Power Optimization Considering Uncertainties in Active Distribution Networks and Decomposition Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Yang, Qingrun; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    can be directly decomposed into several small-scale sub-problems, which can be handled in parallel without the information of dual problems. Numerical study on two distribution systems has been performed. Comparisons with the two-stage stochastic and robust approaches demonstrate the effectiveness...... the physical constraints. Therein, the probability distribution of uncertainties in the stochastic model is always pre-defined by the historical data. However, the empirical distribution can be biased due to a limited amount of historical data and thus result in a suboptimal control decision. Therefore......, in this paper, a data-driven modeling approach is introduced to assume that the probability distribution from the historical data is uncertain within a confidence set. Furthermore, a data-driven stochastic programming model is formulated as a two-stage problem, where the first-stage variables find the optimal...

  18. Orthogonal Range Reporting: Query Lower Bounds, Optimal Structures in 3-d, and Higher Dimensional Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2010-01-01

    , this is not the case in higher dimensions. In this paper we provide a space optimal pointer machine data structure for 3-d orthogonal range reporting that answers queries in O(log n + k) time. Thus we settle the complexity of the problem in 3-d. We use this result to obtain improved structures in higher dimensions...... data structure for the d-dimensional orthogonal range reporting problem in the pointer machine model of computation that uses S(n) space must spend Ω((log n/ log(S(n)/n))⌊d/2⌋--1) time to answer queries. Thus, if S(n)/n is poly-logarithmic, then the query time is at least Ω((log n/ log log n)⌊d/2......Orthogonal range reporting is the problem of storing a set of n points in d-dimensional space, such that the k points in an axis-orthogonal query box can be reported efficiently. While the 2-d version of the problem was completely characterized in the pointer machine model more than two decades ago...

  19. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  20. A Joint Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Energy Storage Systems considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Aiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power random on system operation, energy storage systems (ESSs and demand response (DR are introduced to the traditional scheduling model of wind power and thermal power with carbon emission trading (CET. Firstly, a joint optimization scheduling model for wind power, thermal power, and ESSs is constructed. Secondly, DR and CET are integrated into the joint scheduling model. Finally, 10 thermal power units, a wind farm with 2800 MW of installed capacity, and 3×80 MW ESSs are taken as the simulation system for verifying the proposed models. The results show backup service for integrating wind power into the grid is provided by ESSs based on their charge-discharge characteristics. However, system profit reduces due to ESSs’ high cost. Demand responses smooth the load curve, increase profit from power generation, and expand the wind power integration space. After introducing CET, the generation cost of thermal power units and the generation of wind power are both increased; however, the positive effect of DR on the system profit is also weakened. The simulation results reach the optimum when both DR and CET are introduced.

  1. A simulation-optimization approach to retrieve reservoir releasing strategies under the trade-off objectives considering flooding, sedimentation, turbidity and water supply during typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.; Yeh, W. W. G.; You, G. J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study develops a simulation-optimization approach for retrieving optimal multi-layer reservoir conjunctive release strategies considering the natural hazards of sedimentation, turbidity and flooding during typhoon invasion. The purposes of the developed approach are: (1) to apply WASP-based fluid dynamic sediment concentration simulation model and the developed extracting method of ideal releasing practice to search the optimal initial solution for optimization; and (2) to construct the replacing sediment concentration simulation model which embedded in the optimization model. In this study, the optimization model is solved by tabu search, and the optimized releasing hydrograph is then used for construction of the decision model. This study applies Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Real-time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN) as construction tool of the concentration simulation model for total suspended solids. This developed approach is applied to the Shihmen Reservoir basin, Taiwan. The assessment index of operational outcome of multi-purpose multi-layer conjunctive releasing are maximum sediment concentration at Yuan-Shan weir, sediment removed ratio, highest water level at Shan-Yin Bridge, and final water level in Shihmen reservoir. The analyzed and optimizing results shows the following: (1) The multi-layer releasing during the stages before flood coming and before peak flow possess high potential for flood detention and sedimentation control; and during the stages after peak flow, for turbidity control and storage; (2) The ability of error toleration and adaption of ANFIS is superior, so ANFIS-based sediment concentration simulation model surpass RTRLNN-based model on simulating the mechanism and characteristics of sediment transport; and (3) The developed approach can effectively and automatically retrieve the optimal multi-layer releasing strategies under the trade-off control between flooding, sedimentation, turbidity

  2. Optimization of liquid and gas flow rates for aerated drilling fluids considering hole cleaning for vertical and low inclination wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayoglu, M.E. [Middle East Univ., Metn (Lebanon)

    2009-07-01

    One of the most widely used technologies in depleted and/or low pressured formations is underbalanced drilling. Drilling fluids are usually gasified in order to achieve underbalanced conditions. The most commonly used drilling fluids during underbalanced drilling are pure gas, gas-liquid mixtures, and foams. This paper presented a study that focused on gas-liquid mixtures. The purpose of this paper was to express two-phase flow in vertical wellbores, and determine required flow rates for liquid and gas phase by considering formation pressure and hole cleaning properties. It was assumed that the liquid phase is the major contributor for cuttings transport, and that the gas phase only influences the bottom hole pressure. The paper introduced a mechanistic model for estimating the hydraulic behaviour of gas-liquid mixture drilling fluids under different flow patterns. Based on the bottom hole pressure and effective hole cleaning point of view, an algorithm was proposed for estimating the optimum required flow rates for liquid and gas phases based on the introduced mechanistic model. The model also predicts the required backpressure that must be applied. It was concluded that since the liquid flow rate is only dependent on proper hole cleaning, gas flow rate can be adjusted to achieve a bottomhole pressure equal to formation pressure. Also, backpressure should not be kept constant at the same value for static and dynamic conditions. Otherwise, bottomhole pressure cannot be kept constant. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 appendix.

  3. Optimization and maintenance tests considering multiple failure modes, aging and imperfect maintenance; Optimizacion de las pruebas y mantenimiento considerando multiples modos de fallo, envejecimiento y mantenimiento imperfecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Sanchez, A.; Carlos, S.

    2014-07-01

    The paper focuses on the optimization of the test and maintenance intervals under the criteria of unavailability or cost including the effect of the aging of the components and models of imperfect maintenance. The results obtained in the case of application, which focuses on a system of safety of a nuclear power station, show differences, mainly in the outage when you consider the aging. (Author)

  4. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2017-11-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  5. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D2 - D98, where D2 and D98 are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to 98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects have limited impact on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and organ-at-risk dose parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young

    2017-03-15

    This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal Detection Range of RFID Tag for RFID-based Positioning System Using the k-NN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technology to track a moving object is an important and essential component of ubiquitous computing environments and applications. An RFID-based positioning system using the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN algorithm can determine the position of a moving reader from observed reference data. In this study, the optimal detection range of an RFID-based positioning system was determined on the principle that tag spacing can be derived from the detection range. It was assumed that reference tags without signal strength information are regularly distributed in 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional spaces. The optimal detection range was determined, through analytical and numerical approaches, to be 125% of the tag-spacing distance in 1-dimensional space. Through numerical approaches, the range was 134% in 2-dimensional space, 143% in 3-dimensional space.

  8. Optimization Of Scan Range For 3d Point Localization In Statscan Digital Medical Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta S. Kimuyu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of computerized medical imaging in early 1970s which merged with digital technology in the 1980s was celebrated as a major breakthrough in three-dimensional 3D medicine. However a recent South African innovation the high speed scanning Lodox Statscan Critical Digital Radiology modality posed challenges in X-ray photogrammetry due to the systems intricate imaging geometry. The study explored the suitability of the Direct Linear Transformation as a method for the determination of 3D coordinates of targeted points from multiple images acquired with the Statscan X-ray system and optimization of the scan range. This investigation was carried out as a first step towards the development of a method to determine the accurate positions of points on or inside the human body. The major causes of errors in three-dimensional point localization using Statscan images were firstly the X-ray beam divergence and secondly the position of the point targets above the X-ray platform. The experiments carried out with two reference frames showed that point positions could be established with RMS values in the mm range in the middle axis of the X-ray patient platform. This range of acceptable mm accuracies extends about 15 to 20 cm sideways towards the edge of the X-ray table and to about 20 cm above the table surface. Beyond this range accuracy deteriorated significantly reaching RMS values of 30mm to 40 mm. The experiments further showed that the inclusion of control points close to the table edges and more than 20 cm above the table resulted in lower accuracies for the L - parameters of the DLT solution than those derived from points close to the center axis only. As the accuracy of the L - parameters propagates into accuracy of the final coordinates of newly determined points it is essential to restrict the space of the control points to the above described limits. If one adopts the usual approach of surrounding the object by known control points then

  9. Optimal placement of range-only beacons for mobile robot localisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available related to landmark detection and association. The use of beacons providing range-only estimates using time-of-flight measurements is one such approach. Here, range measurements are used in trilateration or range-only SLAM algorithms to provide an accurate...

  10. Spectral range optimization for the near-infrared quantitative analysis of petrochemical and petroleum products: naphtha and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbok; Chung, Hoeil; Kim, Nakjoong

    2006-08-01

    The proper selection of the spectral range in partial least squares (PLS) calibration is critical when highly overlapping spectra from compositionally complex samples are used, such as naphtha and gasoline. In particular, the relevant spectral information related to a given property is frequently localized in a narrow range, and the most selective region may be difficult to locate. We have presented the importance of range optimization in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the analyses of petrochemical and petroleum products that are generally highly complex in composition. For this purpose, the determination of a detailed compositional analysis (so called PIONA) and the distillation temperature of naphtha were evaluated. In the same fashion, the research octane number (RON) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP) were selected for gasoline. By optimizing the range using moving window (MW) PLS, the overall calibration performance was improved by finding the optimal spectral range for each property. In particular, for a detailed compositional analysis of naphtha, it was effective to search for localized spectral information in a relatively narrow range with fewer factors.

  11. A continuous current model of ultra-thin cylindrical surrounding-gate inversion-mode Si nanowire nMOSFETs considering a wide range of body doping concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Liu, Xi; Wu, Meile; Chuai, Rongyan; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Based on the approximated solution of Poisson's equation, we propose a continuous current model of ultra-thin fully depleted cylindrical surrounding-gate Si nanowire MOSFETs. It matches well with three-dimensional simulation results using SILVACO Atlas TCAD in a wide range (from intrinsic to high doping) of the body doping concentration without any empirical fitting parameters. It is valid for all the operation regions such as subthreshold, turn-on, linear and saturation.

  12. Integrated Optimization of Long-Range Underwater Signal Detection, Feature Extraction, and Classification for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuma, M.; Rorbech, V.; Prior, M.; Igel, C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed and jointly optimized an integrated signal processing chain for detection and classification of long-range passive-acoustic underwater signals recorded by the global geophysical monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Starting at the level of raw

  13. Optimized design of a TOF laser range finder based on time-correlated single-photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanqin; Yang, Yixin; Huang, Zhe; Cao, YangYang; Gui, Huaqiao

    2014-11-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finder based on time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) has been developed. By using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) with the ability of detecting single-photon events and Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) with picosecond resolution, a good linearity with 4.5 cm range precision can be achieved in the range of 1-10 m. This paper highlights a significant advance in improving the key parameters of this system, including the range precision and measurement dynamic range. In our experiments, it was found that both of the precision and the measurement dynamic range were limited by the signal to noise rate (SNR) and the inherent jitter of system. The range precision can be improved by enhancing the SNR of system. However, when the SNR is high enough, the main factors affecting the range precision will turn into the inherent jitter, which makes the range precision can not be improved infinitely. Moreover, the inherent jitter generated by pulsed laser and the signal processing module has been measured, and its influence on the system performance has also been discussed. Taking all of these factors into account, some optimized designs have been proposed to improve range precision and dynamic range simultaneously. The final experiment results show that, after all of these optimization designs, the range precision of system is better than 1.2 cm and the measurement dynamic range is enlarged to 54 m when the sampling time is as short as 1 ms, which is sufficient for many applications of 3D object recognition, computer vision, reverse engineering and virtual reality.

  14. Optimal antiproteinuric dose of losartan in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, GD; Henning, RH; de Jong, PE; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D

    2001-01-01

    Although the antiproteinuric response to antihypertensive treatment is the main predictor of renoprotective efficacy in long-term renal disease, to date, dose-finding studies of anti hypertensives have been based only on blood pressure. We aimed to find the optimal antiproteinuric dose of the

  15. Optimal scheduling and routing of free-range AGVs at large scale automated container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Xin, J.; Negenborn, R.R.; D'Ariano, A.; Sama, M.; Toli, A.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    This work tackles the problem of controlling operations at an automated container terminal. In the context of large supply chains, there is a growing trend for increasing productivity and economic efficiency. New optimization models and algorithms are provided for scheduling and routing equipment

  16. GIS-based approach for optimal siting and sizing of renewables considering techno-environmental constraints and the stochastic nature of meteorological inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Olympia; Karanastasi, Maria; Markonis, Yannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Following the legislative EU targets and taking advantage of its high renewable energy potential, Greece can obtain significant benefits from developing its water, solar and wind energy resources. In this context we present a GIS-based methodology for the optimal sizing and siting of solar and wind energy systems at the regional scale, which is tested in the Prefecture of Thessaly. First, we assess the wind and solar potential, taking into account the stochastic nature of the associated meteorological processes (i.e. wind speed and solar radiation, respectively), which is essential component for both planning (i.e., type selection and sizing of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and management purposes (i.e., real-time operation of the system). For the optimal siting, we assess the efficiency and economic performance of the energy system, also accounting for a number of constraints, associated with topographic limitations (e.g., terrain slope, proximity to road and electricity grid network, etc.), the environmental legislation and other land use constraints. Based on this analysis, we investigate favorable alternatives using technical, environmental as well as financial criteria. The final outcome is GIS maps that depict the available energy potential and the optimal layout for photovoltaic panels and wind turbines over the study area. We also consider a hypothetical scenario of future development of the study area, in which we assume the combined operation of the above renewables with major hydroelectric dams and pumped-storage facilities, thus providing a unique hybrid renewable system, extended at the regional scale.

  17. Structure optimization of a micro drill bit with nonlinear constraints considering the effects of eccentricity, gyroscopic moments, lateral and torsional vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Danh-Tuyen; Hoang, Tien-Dat; Lee, An-Chen

    2017-10-01

    A micro drill structure was optimized to give minimum lateral displacement at its drill tip, which plays an extremely important role on the quality of drilled holes. A drilling system includes a spindle, chuck and micro drill bit, which are modeled as rotating Timoshenko beam elements considering axial drilling force, torque, gyroscopic moments, eccentricity and bearing reaction force. Based on our previous work, the lateral vibration at the drill tip is evaluated. It is treated as an objective function in the optimization problem. Design variables are diameter and lengths of cylindrical and conical parts of the micro drill, along with nonlinear constraints on its mass and mass center location. Results showed that the lateral vibration was reduced by 15.83 % at a cutting speed of 70000 rpm as compared to that for a commercial UNION drill. Among the design variables, we found that the length of the conical part connecting to the drill shank plays the most important factor on the lateral vibration during cutting process.

  18. Minarchy Considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Garner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Whilst some defenders of the minimal, limited state or government hold that the state is “a necessary evil,” others would consider that this claim that the state is evil concedes too much ground to anarchists. In this article I intend to discuss the views of some who believe that government is a good thing, and their arguments for supporting this position. My main conclusions will be that, in each case, the proponents of a minimal state, or “minarchy,” fail to justify as much as what they call government, and so fail to oppose anarchism, or absences of what they call government.

  19. Comparison of different hip prosthesis shapes considering micro-level bone remodeling and stress-shielding criteria using three-dimensional design space topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christopher; Kim, Il Yong

    2011-06-03

    Since the late 1980s, computational analysis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis components has been completed using macro-level bone remodeling algorithms. The utilization of macro-sized elements requires apparent bone densities to predict cancellous bone strength, thereby, preventing visualization and analysis of realistic trabecular architecture. In this study, we utilized a recently developed structural optimization algorithm, design space optimization (DSO), to perform a micro-level three-dimensional finite element bone remodeling simulation on the human proximal femur pre- and post-THA. The computational simulation facilitated direct performance comparison between two commercially available prosthetic implant stems from Zimmer Inc.: the Alloclassic and the Mayo conservative. The novel micro-level approach allowed the unique ability to visualize the trabecular bone adaption post-operation and to quantify the changes in bone mineral content by region. Stress-shielding and strain energy distribution were also quantified for the immediate post-operation and the stably fixated, post-remodeling conditions. Stress-shielding was highest in the proximal region and remained unchanged post-remodeling; conversely, the mid and distal portions show large increases in stress, suggesting a distal shift in the loadpath. The Mayo design conserves bone mass, while simultaneously reducing the incidence of stress-shielding compared to the Alloclassic, revealing a key benefit of the distinctive geometry. Several important factors for stable fixation, determined in clinical evaluations from the literature, were evident in both designs: high levels of proximal bone loss and distal bone densification. The results suggest this novel computational framework can be utilized for comparative hip prosthesis shape, uniquely considering the post-operation bone remodeling as a design criterion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal Sensor placement for acoustic range-based underwater robotic positioning

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glotzbach, T.; Moreno-Salinas, D.; Aranda, J.; Pascoal, A.M.

    for Acoustic Range-Based Underwater Robot Positioning Thomas Glotzbach*. David Moreno-Salinas.** Antonio Pascoal***. Joaquin Aranda ** * Institute for Automation and Systems Engineering, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau, Germany (Tel: +49... of Robotics and Systems in Engineering and Science (LARSyS), Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Univ. Lisbon, Portugal; Adjunct Scientist, National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India (e-mail: antonio@isr.ist.utl.pt)} Abstract: This paper addresses...

  1. Optimization of aerodynamic form of projectile for solving the problem of shooting range increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipanov, Alexey M.; Korolev, Stanislav A.; Rusyak, Ivan G.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the development of methods for solving the problem of external ballistics using a more complete system of motion equation taken into account the rotation and oscillation about the mass center and using aerodynamic coefficients of forces and moments which are calculated on the basis of modeling the hydrodynamics of flow around the projectile. Developed methods allows to study the basic ways of increasing the shooting range or artillery.

  2. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tatsuya [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Widder, Joachim; Dijk, Lisanne V. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Takegawa, Hideki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Anneyuko I. [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Veld, Aart A. van' t; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Korevaar, Erik W., E-mail: e.w.korevaar@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D{sub 2} − D{sub 98}, where D{sub 2} and D{sub 98} are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Results: The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to <98% (clinical threshold) in 3 of 10 patients for robust 5-mm evaluations. However, the TC remained >98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range

  3. Searching the optimal PTH target range in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: new insights from international cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Dieter; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of the mineral and bone disorder associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) remains a major challenge in pediatric patients. The principal aims of therapeutic measures are not only to prevent the debilitating skeletal complications and to achieve normal growth but also to preserve long-term cardiovascular health. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are used as a surrogate parameter of bone turnover. Whereas it is generally accepted that serum calcium and phosphate levels should be kept within the range for age, current pediatric consensus guidelines differ markedly with respect to the optimal PTH target range and operate on a limited evidence base. Recently, the International Pediatric Dialysis Network (IPPN) established a global registry collecting detailed clinical and biochemical information, including data relevant to CKD-MBD in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). This review highlights the current evidence basis regarding the optimal PTH target range in pediatric CKD patients, and re-assesses the current guidelines in view of the outcome data collected by the IPPN registry. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of CKD-MBD outcome measures in this global patient cohort, a PTH target range of 1.7-3 times the upper limit of normal (i.e. 100-200 pg/ml) appears reasonable in children undergoing chronic PD.

  4. Design Optimization for High Manufacturability of Optical Fiber Endcap for Range Detection LADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinsuk; Shin, Jung-Hwan; La, Jongpil; Koh, Hae-Seog; Lee, Changjae; Kim, Sug-Whan

    2014-07-01

    High power fiber laser module of the transmitting channel for the designed LADAR (LAser raDAR) system has an angled endcap to avoid the direct reflection fed back to the source laser unit. However, the reference endcap design shows low manufacturability caused by the technical challenge in splicing and fabrication. We explored four alternative design solutions exhibiting similar performances. The end cap design compatibility was achieved with the transmittance and beam shape analysis using a non-sequential ray tracing program, ASAP. Specially, the analysis was focused at the zoom lens position and the endcap position. Among the four designs, the best solution shows the transmittance of about 89% of the Reference Design with 0.14° LOS (Line of Sight) shift. We believe that 11% in absorption by the mechanical components and can be further improved with the minor mechanical change and that the LOS shift is within the accommodation range of the wedge compensators in the transmitting channel.

  5. Optimal Phonemic Environmental Range to Select VCV Instances for VCV Speech Synthesis by Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kimoto, Masaya; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Namiki, Toshie; Isu, Naoki; Sugata, Kazuhiro

    We proposed two selection methods, 1) selection method by using phonemic environmental resemblance score (PER method), and 2) selection method by searching minimal connective distortion path (MLD method), for small scale speech synthesis system. PER method requires phonemic environmental information for each VCV instance in a VCV unit dictionary. This paper investigated experimentally to what extent we can reduce the phonemic environmental information with keeping high quality of synthesized speech. We verified that two phonemes frontward and one phoneme rearward range to a current VCV instance is enough to synthesize similar quality of speech as five phonemes frontward and five phonemes rearward. This result gives an experimental basis on minimizing a size of VCV unit dictionary.

  6. Design Optimization for the Measurement Accuracy Improvement of a Large Range Nanopositioning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Torralba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both an accurate machine design and an adequate metrology loop definition are critical factors when precision positioning represents a key issue for the final system performance. This article discusses the error budget methodology as an advantageous technique to improve the measurement accuracy of a 2D-long range stage during its design phase. The nanopositioning platform NanoPla is here presented. Its specifications, e.g., XY-travel range of 50 mm × 50 mm and sub-micrometric accuracy; and some novel designed solutions, e.g., a three-layer and two-stage architecture are described. Once defined the prototype, an error analysis is performed to propose improvement design features. Then, the metrology loop of the system is mathematically modelled to define the propagation of the different sources. Several simplifications and design hypothesis are justified and validated, including the assumption of rigid body behavior, which is demonstrated after a finite element analysis verification. The different error sources and their estimated contributions are enumerated in order to conclude with the final error values obtained from the error budget. The measurement deviations obtained demonstrate the important influence of the working environmental conditions, the flatness error of the plane mirror reflectors and the accurate manufacture and assembly of the components forming the metrological loop. Thus, a temperature control of ±0.1 °C results in an acceptable maximum positioning error for the developed NanoPla stage, i.e., 41 nm, 36 nm and 48 nm in X-, Y- and Z-axis, respectively.

  7. Optimal O(1 Bilateral Filter with Arbitrary Spatial and Range Kernels Using Sparse Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengdong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of acceleration schemes for speeding up the time-consuming bilateral filter have been proposed in the literature. Among these techniques, the histogram-based bilateral filter trades the flexibility for achieving O(1 computational complexity using box spatial kernel. A recent study shows that this technique can be leveraged for O(1 bilateral filter with arbitrary spatial and range kernels by linearly combining the results of multiple-box bilateral filters. However, this method requires many box bilateral filters to obtain sufficient accuracy when approximating the bilateral filter with a large spatial kernel. In this paper, we propose approximating arbitrary spatial kernel using a fixed number of boxes. It turns out that the multiple-box spatial kernel can be applied in many O(1 acceleration schemes in addition to the histogram-based one. Experiments on the application to the histogram-based acceleration are presented in this paper. Results show that the proposed method has better accuracy in approximating the bilateral filter with Gaussian spatial kernel, compared with the previous histogram-based methods. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed histogram-based bilateral filter is robust with respect to the parameters of the filter kernel.

  8. [Virtual simulation for optimizing the range of motion in hip alloarthroplasty using an adapted thrust-plate prosthesis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Wetzel, R; Aldinger, G; Weipert, A; Hanusek, S; Filler, T J; Peuker, E T

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to increase the free range of motion in conventional trust-plate prosthesis design and to optimize the trust-plate contact as well as the osteointegration area below the trust-plate. For the first part of the study, the two-dimensional geometry of the osteotomy plane was demonstrated in 25 CT-reconstructed femora after performing a virtual cut at a CCD angle of 135 degrees. In the second part, we constructed a prototype of an anatomic adapted trust-plate prosthesis (A-TPP) with an optimized trust-plate and corpus geometry based on the three-dimensional data of three human cadaveric femurs (age 67-75 years). In the final step, we documented the range of motion with computer-aided movement-mapping and compared the conventional TPP with the A-TPP. The results showed a wide variance in osteotomy geometry in the 12 femurs. With the A-TPP, we were able to obtain a much better fit in the trust plate surface. The movement-mapping showed a much higher range of motion in the A-TPP implant. With the A-TPP, the implant surface area for osteointegration could also be significantly increased.

  9. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) using Raman spectroscopy for in-line culture cell monitoring considering time-varying batches synchronized with correlation optimized warping (COW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Juan; André, Silvère; Saint Cristau, Lydia; Lagresle, Sylvain; Hannas, Zahia; Calvosa, Éric; Devos, Olivier; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2017-02-01

    Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is increasingly popular as the challenge provided by large multivariate datasets from analytical instruments such as Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of complex cell cultures in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, Raman spectroscopy for in-line monitoring often produces unsynchronized data sets, resulting in time-varying batches. Moreover, unsynchronized data sets are common for cell culture monitoring because spectroscopic measurements are generally recorded in an alternate way, with more than one optical probe parallelly connecting to the same spectrometer. Synchronized batches are prerequisite for the application of multivariate analysis such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for the MSPC monitoring. Correlation optimized warping (COW) is a popular method for data alignment with satisfactory performance; however, it has never been applied to synchronize acquisition time of spectroscopic datasets in MSPC application before. In this paper we propose, for the first time, to use the method of COW to synchronize batches with varying durations analyzed with Raman spectroscopy. In a second step, we developed MPCA models at different time intervals based on the normal operation condition (NOC) batches synchronized by COW. New batches are finally projected considering the corresponding MPCA model. We monitored the evolution of the batches using two multivariate control charts based on Hotelling's T2 and Q. As illustrated with results, the MSPC model was able to identify abnormal operation condition including contaminated batches which is of prime importance in cell culture monitoring We proved that Raman-based MSPC monitoring can be used to diagnose batches deviating from the normal condition, with higher efficacy than traditional diagnosis, which would save time and money in the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer

  11. An Efficiency-Optimized Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Extended Power Range for Energy Storage Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel extended-single-phase shift (ESPS control strategy of isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converters (IBDCs which are a promising alternative as a power electronic interface in microgrids with an additional function of galvanic isolation. Based on the mathematical models of ESPS control under steady-state conditions, detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of IBDC under ESPS control are presented. Compared with conventional single-phase-shift (CSPS control, ESPS control can greatly improve the efficiency of IBDCs in microgrids through decreasing current stress and backflow power considerably over a wide input and output voltage range under light and medium loads. In addition, ESPS control only needs to adjust one single phase-shift angel to control transmission power, thus it retains implementation simplicity in comparison with dual-phase-shift (DPS control for microgrid applications. Furthermore, an efficiency-optimized modulation scheme based on ESPS and CSPS control is developed in the whole power range of IBDC for power distribution in microgrids. A 10 kW IBDC prototype is constructed and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, showing that the proposed strategy can enhance the overall efficiency up to 30%.

  12. Mix Model of FE Method and IPSO Algorithm for Dome Shape Optimization of Articulated Pressure Vessels Considering the Effect of Non-geodesic Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, A.; Nourani, R.

    2014-04-01

    The main essential topic for the design of articulated pressure vessels is related to the determination of the optimal meridian profile. This article, aimed to present the new model for optimum design of dome contours for filament wound articulated pressure vessels based on non-geodesic trajectories. The current model is a mix of finite element analysis and inertia weight particle swarm optimization algorithm. Geometrical limitations, stability-ensuring winding conditions and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion have been used as optimization constraints. Classical lamination theory and non-geodesic trajectories are used to analyse the field stress equations and increase the structural performance. The geometry of dome contours is defined by the B-spline curves with twenty-one points. The results, when compared to the previously published results, indicate the efficiency of the presented model in achieving superior performance of dome shape for articulated pressure vessels. Also, it is shown that the design based on non-geodesic trajectories using this model gains better response than the design by geodesics type.

  13. Interferometric acquisition and fire control radar for short-range missile defense with optimized radar distribution (SWORD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

    2002-07-01

    The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept "SWORD" (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of the past investments. The Deptuy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology [DAS(R&T)] has a three-year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary Bench-Top Experiment results will be presented in this paper.

  14. Image Segmentation Parameter Optimization Considering Within- and Between-Segment Heterogeneity at Multiple Scale Levels: Test Case for Mapping Residential Areas Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale/multi-level geographic object-based image analysis (MS-GEOBIA methods are becoming widely-used in remote sensing because single-scale/single-level (SS-GEOBIA methods are often unable to obtain an accurate segmentation and classification of all land use/land cover (LULC types in an image. However, there have been few comparisons between SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for the purpose of mapping a specific LULC type, so it is not well understood which is more appropriate for this task. In addition, there are few methods for automating the selection of segmentation parameters for MS-GEOBIA, while manual selection (i.e., trial-and-error approach of parameters can be quite challenging and time-consuming. In this study, we examined SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for extracting residential areas in Landsat 8 imagery, and compared naïve and parameter-optimized segmentation approaches to assess whether unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO could improve the extraction of residential areas. Our main findings were: (i the MS-GEOBIA approaches achieved higher classification accuracies than the SS-GEOBIA approach, and (ii USPO resulted in more accurate MS-GEOBIA classification results while reducing the number of segmentation levels and classification variables considerably.

  15. Optimizing Taq polymerase concentration for improved signal-to-noise in the broad range detection of low abundance bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Spangler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR in principle can detect a single target molecule in a reaction mixture. Contaminating bacterial DNA in reagents creates a practical limit on the use of PCR to detect dilute bacterial DNA in environmental or public health samples. The most pernicious source of contamination is microbial DNA in DNA polymerase preparations. Importantly, all commercial Taq polymerase preparations inevitably contain contaminating microbial DNA. Removal of DNA from an enzyme preparation is problematical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that the background of contaminating DNA detected by quantitative PCR with broad host range primers can be decreased greater than 10-fold through the simple expedient of Taq enzyme dilution, without altering detection of target microbes in samples. The general method is: For any thermostable polymerase used for high-sensitivity detection, do a dilution series of the polymerase crossed with a dilution series of DNA or bacteria that work well with the test primers. For further work use the concentration of polymerase that gave the least signal in its negative control (H(2O while also not changing the threshold cycle for dilutions of spiked DNA or bacteria compared to higher concentrations of Taq polymerase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is clear from the studies shown in this report that a straightforward procedure of optimizing the Taq polymerase concentration achieved "treatment-free" attenuation of interference by contaminating bacterial DNA in Taq polymerase preparations. This procedure should facilitate detection and quantification with broad host range primers of a small number of bona fide bacteria (as few as one in a sample.

  16. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervino, G., E-mail: gervino@to.infn.it [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Torino, Turin (Italy); Mana, G. [INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy); Palmisano, C. [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the “best” spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. “Best” is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  17. Optimized fabrication of high-quality La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films considering all essential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschker, H.; Huijben, M.; Vailionis, A.; Verbeeck, J.; van Aert, S.; Luysberg, M.; Bals, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Houwman, E. P.; Koster, G.; Blank, D. H. A.; Rijnders, G.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, an overview of the fabrication and properties of high-quality La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) thin films is given. A high-quality LSMO film combines a smooth surface morphology with a large magnetization and a small residual resistivity, while avoiding precipitates and surface segregation. In the literature, typically only a few of these issues are adressed. We therefore present a thorough characterization of our films, which were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The films were characterized with reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, magnetization and transport measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The films have a saturation magnetization of 4.0 µB/Mn, a Curie temperature of 350 K and a residual resistivity of 60 µΩ cm. These results indicate that high-quality films, combining both large magnetization and small residual resistivity, were realized. A comparison between different samples presented in the literature shows that focussing on a single property is insufficient for the optimization of the deposition process. For high-quality films, all properties have to be adressed. For LSMO devices, the thin-film quality is crucial for the device performance. Therefore, this research is important for the application of LSMO in devices.

  18. Hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on layers of inorganic nanocrystals and organic semiconductors: optimization of layer thickness by considering the width of the depletion region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudip K; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J

    2014-03-07

    We report the formation and characterization of hybrid pn-junction solar cells based on a layer of copper diffused silver indium disulfide (AgInS2@Cu) nanoparticles and another layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules. With copper diffusion in the nanocrystals, their optical absorption and hence the activity of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells was extended towards the near-IR region. To decrease the particle-to-particle separation for improved carrier transport through the inorganic layer, we replaced the long-chain ligands of copper-diffused nanocrystals in each monolayer with short-ones. Under illumination, the hybrid pn-junctions yielded a higher short-circuit current as compared to the combined contribution of the Schottky junctions based on the components. A wider depletion region at the interface between the two active layers in the pn-junction device as compared to that of the Schottky junctions has been considered to analyze the results. Capacitance-voltage characteristics under a dark condition supported such a hypothesis. We also determined the width of the depletion region in the two layers separately so that a pn-junction could be formed with a tailored thickness of the two materials. Such a "fully-depleted" device resulted in an improved photovoltaic performance, primarily due to lessening of the internal resistance of the hybrid pn-junction solar cells.

  19. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  20. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  1. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans

  2. Risk Based Optimal Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.; Kroon, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    Optimal fatigue life testing of materials is considered. Based on minimization of the total expected costs of a mechanical component a strategy is suggested to determine the optimal stress range levels for which additional experiments are to be performed together with an optimal value of the maxi......Optimal fatigue life testing of materials is considered. Based on minimization of the total expected costs of a mechanical component a strategy is suggested to determine the optimal stress range levels for which additional experiments are to be performed together with an optimal value...

  3. Consider a Cylindrical Cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, John

    Cylindrical Cow will help students achieve a whole new level of environmental modeling and problem solving. Featuring a new core set of 25 fully worked-out problems, this book uses real problems in environmental science rather than relying on the more traditional cookbook problems found in textbooks. It is organized according to five thematic sections on probability, optimization, scaling, differential equations, and stability & feedback. Each section begins with a general treatment of the relevant mathematical concepts, and concludes with a range of homework exercises to help students sharpen their modeling skills. Like its predecessor, this book will empower students with the mathematical skills needed to cut through the complexity of real-world problems.

  4. Modeling forest planning trade-offs on the Colorado Front Range using MAGIS, an optimization, spatial decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Butler

    2005-01-01

    The fires of 2000 and 2002 catalyzed a national mandate for fuel treatment programs to facilitate wildfire mitigation, yet the issues that need to be considered when planning large landscape projects are daunting, often ending in gridlock due to planning conflicts. Hazardous fuels maps help little when planning for integrated, system-wide ecological objectives and fail...

  5. Tuning range and output power optimization of an external-cavity GaN diode laser at 455 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how different feedback gratings affect the tuning range and the output power of external feedback diode laser systems. A tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser system around 455 nm is investigated. The laser system is based on a high-power GaN diode...... laser in a Littrow external-cavity. Both a holographic diffraction grating and a ruled diffraction grating are used as feedback elements in the external cavity. The output power, spectral bandwidth, and tunable range of the external cavity diode laser system are measured and compared with the two...... gratings at different injected currents. When the holographic grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 1.4 nm with an output power around 530 mW. When the ruled grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 6.0 nm with an output power around 80 mW. The results can...

  6. Practical solutions to the aircraft minimum fuel, fixed-range, fixed time-of-arrival trajectory optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Waters, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A practical scheme is presented for generating fixed range, minimum fuel vertical flight profiles that also satisfy time-of-arrival constraints. The resulting algorithm is suitable for incorporation into an on-board flight management system. Example results show that such a capability can save up to 6% of fuel burned in flights subject to delays because of terminal area congestion.

  7. Optimizing Protein Intake in Adults: Interpretation and Application of the Recommended Dietary Allowance Compared with the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Cifelli, Amy M; Kostas, Georgia; Kim, Il-Young

    2017-03-01

    The adult RDA is defined as the average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people. The RDA for protein for adults ≥18 y of age (0.8 g/kg) has been essentially unchanged for >70 y. In practice, the RDA for protein was derived to estimate the minimum amount of protein that must be eaten to avoid a loss of body nitrogen. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (10-35% of calories as protein) was developed to express dietary recommendations in the context of a complete diet. It is noteworthy that the lowest level of protein intake reflected in the AMDR is higher than that of the RDA. Furthermore, recent studies, particularly in older individuals, suggest specific health benefits at levels of protein intake that significantly exceed the RDA. Translation of protein intake recommendations for the general adult population into dietary guidance for individuals requires an understanding of the derivation and intended use of both the protein RDA and AMDR. The following discussion will describe limitations to the derivation and practical application of the RDA compared with the use of the AMDR to help maximize health benefits associated with higher protein intake by using flexible calories inherent in different dietary patterns. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Optimal all-optical switching of a microcavity resonance in the telecom range using the electronic Kerr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Emre; Ctistis, Georgios; Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Vos, Willem L

    2016-01-11

    We have switched GaAs/AlAs and AlGaAs/AlAs planar microcavities that operate in the "Original" (O) telecom band by exploiting the instantaneous electronic Kerr effect. We observe that the resonance frequency reversibly shifts within one picosecond when the nanostructure is pumped with low-energy photons. We investigate experimentally and theoretically the role of several parameters: the material backbone and its electronic bandgap, the quality factor, and the duration of the switch pulse. The magnitude of the frequency shift is reduced when the backbone of the central λ-layer has a greater electronic bandgap compared to the cavity resonance frequency and the frequency of the pump. This observation is caused by the fact that pumping with photon energies near the bandgap resonantly enhances the switched magnitude. We thus find that cavities operating in the telecom O-band are more amenable to ultrafast Kerr switching than those operating at lower frequencies, such as the C-band. Our results indicate that the large bandgap of AlGaAs/AlAs cavity allows to tune both the pump and the probe to the telecom range to perform Kerr switching without detrimental two-photon absorption. We observe that the magnitude of the resonance frequency shift decreases with increasing quality factor of the cavity. Our model shows that the magnitude of the resonance frequency shift depends on the pump pulse duration and is maximized when the duration matches the cavity storage time to within a factor two. In our experiments, we obtain a maximum shift of the cavity resonance relative to the cavity linewidth of 20%. We project that the shift of the cavity resonance can be increased twofold with a pump pulse duration that better matches the cavity storage time. We provide the essential parameter settings for different materials so that the frequency shift of the cavity resonance can be maximized using the electronic Kerr effect.

  9. Determinants of spatial behavior of a tropical forest seed predator: The roles of optimal foraging, dietary diversification, and home range defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Suzanne; Powell, George V N; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Specialized seed predators in tropical forests may avoid seasonal food scarcity and interspecific feeding competition but may need to diversify their daily diet to limit ingestion of any given toxin. Seed predators may, therefore, adopt foraging strategies that favor dietary diversity and resource monitoring, rather than efficient energy intake, as suggested by optimal foraging theory. We tested whether fine-scale space use by a small-group-living seed predator-the bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia irrorata)-reflected optimization of short-term foraging efficiency, maximization of daily dietary diversity, and/or responses to the threat of territorial encroachment by neighboring groups. Food patches across home ranges of five adjacent saki groups were widely spread, but areas with higher densities of stems or food species were not allocated greater feeding time. Foraging patterns-specifically, relatively long daily travel paths that bypassed available fruiting trees and relatively short feeding bouts in undepleted food patches-suggest a strategy that maximizes dietary diversification, rather than "optimal" foraging. Travel distance was unrelated to the proportion of seeds in the diet. Moreover, while taxonomically diverse, the daily diets of our study groups were no more species-rich than randomly derived diets based on co-occurring available food species. Sakis preferentially used overlapping areas of their HRs, within which adjacent groups shared many food trees, yet the density of food plants or food species in these areas was no greater than in other HR areas. The high likelihood of depletion by neighboring groups of otherwise enduring food sources may encourage monitoring of peripheral food patches in overlap areas, even if at the expense of immediate energy intake, suggesting that between-group competition is a key driver of fine-scale home range use in sakis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  11. Using a Pareto-optimal solution set to characterize trade-offs between a broad range of values and preferences in climate risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Gregory; Reed, Patrick; Keller, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are often used to inform the design of climate risk management strategies. Previous IAM studies have broken important new ground on analyzing the effects of parametric uncertainties, but they are often silent on the implications of uncertainties regarding the problem formulation. Here we use the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE) to analyze the effects of uncertainty surrounding the definition of the objective(s). The standard DICE model adopts a single objective to maximize a weighted sum of utilities of per-capita consumption. Decision makers, however, are often concerned with a broader range of values and preferences that may be poorly captured by this a priori definition of utility. We reformulate the problem by introducing three additional objectives that represent values such as (i) reliably limiting global average warming to two degrees Celsius and minimizing (ii) the costs of abatement and (iii) the climate change damages. We use advanced multi-objective optimization methods to derive a set of Pareto-optimal solutions over which decision makers can trade-off and assess performance criteria a posteriori. We illustrate the potential for myopia in the traditional problem formulation and discuss the capability of this multiobjective formulation to provide decision support.

  12. Considering Student Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, James P.

    2014-01-01

    What does student coaching involve and what considerations make sense in deciding to engage an outside contractor to provide personal coaching? The author explores coaching in light of his own professional experience and uses this reflection as a platform from which to consider the pros and cons of student coaching when deciding whether to choose…

  13. Landscape resistance and habitat combine to provide an optimal model of genetic structure and connectivity at the range margin of a small mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrotte, R R; Gonzalez, A; Millien, V

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of habitat and landscape characteristics on the population genetic structure of the white-footed mouse. We develop a new approach that uses numerical optimization to define a model that combines site differences and landscape resistance to explain the genetic differentiation between mouse populations inhabiting forest patches in southern Québec. We used ecological distance computed from resistance surfaces with Circuitscape to infer the effect of the landscape matrix on gene flow. We calculated site differences using a site index of habitat characteristics. A model that combined site differences and resistance distances explained a high proportion of the variance in genetic differentiation and outperformed models that used geographical distance alone. Urban and agriculture-related land uses were, respectively, the most and the least resistant landscape features influencing gene flow. Our method detected the effect of rivers and highways as highly resistant linear barriers. The density of grass and shrubs on the ground best explained the variation in the site index of habitat characteristics. Our model indicates that movement of white-footed mouse in this region is constrained along routes of low resistance. Our approach can generate models that may improve predictions of future northward range expansion of this small mammal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  15. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  16. BRICS To Be Considered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Toloraya

    2016-09-01

    most efficient when the countries consolidate their positions in the Group of 20 or other international organizations and communities. BRICS positions have become very noticeable in such instances. However, the BRICS countries have not yet reached an adequate level of cooperating and promoting the irinterests in the United Nations, which could be considered one trouble spot for the group.This article presents a comprehensive analysis of various factors affecting the ongoing formation and development of the BRICS, and offers possible formats for its institutionalization, expansion with new members, and options for competing with the new structures of economic growth and regional trade and economic unions. It concludes that the BRICS should remain a strategic priority for Russia

  17. Reference Ranges of Amniotic Fluid Index in Late Third Trimester of Pregnancy: What Should the Optimal Interval between Two Ultrasound Examinations Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amniotic fluid index (AFI is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. Objectives. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. Materials and Methods. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL. Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen’s d coefficient was used

  18. Reference ranges of amniotic fluid index in late third trimester of pregnancy: what should the optimal interval between two ultrasound examinations be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Shripad; Rai, Lavanya; Adiga, Prashant; Guruvare, Shyamala

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm) in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL). Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles) were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen's d coefficient was used to examine the magnitude of change at different time intervals

  19. Optimization of the method of stages through genetic algorithms for unavailable protection systems analysis considering aging effects; Analise da indisponibilidade de sistemas de protecao considerando os efeitos do envelhecimento atraves do metodo dos estagios otimizados por algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Marcos Eduardo Costa

    2001-03-01

    When a safety system is under aging the failure times follow non-exponential distributions, and its interstate transition rates become time-dependent. It follows, therefore, that the stochastic process employed in the modeling becomes Nonmarkovian. In this thesis, this analysis is developed using an alternative method, called the device of stages which allows the transformation of Nonmarkovian models into equivalent Markovian ones. That transformation consists in reshaping the state transition diagram with time-dependent transition rates into a new one where fictitious states (called stages) are added and whose transition rates are constant. The number of added stages and their connections are identification parameters of the device of stages used for the equivalent Markovian model and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool. In order to perform a global search in such a topologically complex space, a genetic algorithm has been developed to automatically determine the stages combination and set of parameters which better represent the analyzed distribution. The developed genetic algorithm has demonstrated a good ability for optimizing the method of stages. Results concerning the application to a nuclear reactor protection system are shown and commented, in which the Weibull distribution is employed for modelling failure times. (author)

  20. Optimized fabrication of high-quality La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films considering all essential characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschker, H; Huijben, M; Houwman, E P; Koster, G; Blank, D H A; Rijnders, G [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Vailionis, A [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S; Bals, S; Van Tendeloo, G [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Luysberg, M, E-mail: a.j.h.m.rijnders@utwente.nl [Institute of Solid State Research and Ernst Ruska Center for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Helmholtz Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    In this paper, an overview of the fabrication and properties of high-quality La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) thin films is given. A high-quality LSMO film combines a smooth surface morphology with a large magnetization and a small residual resistivity, while avoiding precipitates and surface segregation. In the literature, typically only a few of these issues are adressed. We therefore present a thorough characterization of our films, which were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The films were characterized with reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, magnetization and transport measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The films have a saturation magnetization of 4.0 {mu}{sub B}/Mn, a Curie temperature of 350 K and a residual resistivity of 60 {mu}{Omega} cm. These results indicate that high-quality films, combining both large magnetization and small residual resistivity, were realized. A comparison between different samples presented in the literature shows that focussing on a single property is insufficient for the optimization of the deposition process. For high-quality films, all properties have to be adressed. For LSMO devices, the thin-film quality is crucial for the device performance. Therefore, this research is important for the application of LSMO in devices.

  1. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  2. Enhanced Growth of Influenza Vaccine Seed Viruses in Vero Cells Mediated by Broadening the Optimal pH Range for Virus Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shin; Ito, Mutsumi; Takano, Ryo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shimojima, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective preventive measures to combat influenza. Prospectively, cell culture-based influenza vaccines play an important role for robust vaccine production in both normal settings and urgent situations, such as during the 2009 pandemic. African green monkey Vero cells are recommended by the World Health Organization as a safe substrate for influenza vaccine production for human use. However, the growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses is occasionally suboptimal in Vero cells, which places limitations on their usefulness for enhanced vaccine production. Here, we present a strategy for the development of vaccine seed viruses with enhanced growth in Vero cells by changing an amino acid residue in the stem region of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. This mutation optimized the pH for HA-mediated membrane fusion in Vero cells and enhanced virus growth 100 to 1,000 times in the cell line, providing a promising strategy for cell culture-based influenza vaccines. PMID:22090129

  3. Optimized 3-D electromagnetic models of composite materials in microwave frequency range: application to EMC characterization of complex media by statistical means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lalléchère

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the ability of tridimensional (3-D electromagnetic modeling tool for the characterization of composite materials in microwave frequency band range. Indeed, an automated procedure is proposed to generate random materials, proceed to 3-D simulations, and compute shielding effectiveness (SE statistics with finite integration technique. In this context, 3-D electromagnetic models rely on random locations of conductive inclusions; results are compared with classical electromagnetic mixing theory (EMT approaches (e.g. Maxwell-Garnett formalism, and dynamic homogenization model (DHM. The article aims to demonstrate the interest of the proposed approach in various domains such as propagation and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC.

  4. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  5. Cordon Pricing Considering Air Pollutants Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of air pollutants emission for the optimal and sustainable determination of cordon location, toll level, and price of park and ride (P&R. Although air pollutants emission decreases within the cordon by the implementation of cordon pricing scheme, it may increase outside the cordon and the whole network. Hence, air pollutants emission may only transfer from inside of the cordon to its outside. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-objective bi-level optimization model is developed. A solution algorithm is also presented based on the second version of strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2. The results reveal that this multi-objective model can be a useful tool for the sustainable and optimal design of the cordon and P&R scheme. In addition, cordon pricing is a multi-objective problem. Therefore, it is necessary to consider air pollutants emission. By choosing another non-dominated result in the solution space, air pollutants emission outside the cordon and the whole network can be reduced without a significant reduction in social welfare.

  6. Voltage Control in Distribution Systems Considered Reactive Power Output Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Masato; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, distributed generation (DG) and renewable energy source (RES) are attracting special attention to distribution systems. Renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbine generator are used as a source of clean energy. However, the large amount of distributed generation causes voltage deviation beyond a statutory range in distribution systems. This paper proposes a methodology for voltage control by using inverters interfaced with DG and tap changing transformers. In the proposed method a one-day schedule of voltage references for the control devices are determined by an optimization technique based on predicted values of load demand and PV power generation. Furthermore, decided reactive power output according to the locally measurable voltage based on droop characteristic. Slope and base value on droop characteristic are selected by fuzzy control. The proposed method accomplishes improvement against voltage distribution considered the reactive power output sharing and reduction of distribution loss. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by using MATLAB®.

  7. Propagation number in periodic structures considering losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méresse, P.; Renou, Y.; Vasseur, J.; Audoly, C.; Hladky, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of absorbing or reflecting panels is of interest for underwater acoustic stealth. Most of the time, losses are not considered in the structures studied, specifically in the propagation number determination, despite the fact that most materials used, such as polymer matrices, have non negligible viscous losses. So, for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of these structures and to allow their optimization, simulations should consider the material properties, including losses. In order to obtain more realistic results from simulation, two numerical tools based on the finite element method (FEM) are proposed, with the help of the ATILA software. One is based on a differential method, the other on the transfer matrix. The two methods are first validated in the lossless case, then when losses are taken into account. Both methods give results in good agreement and give the propagation number where losses are taken into account.

  8. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  9. Work space optimization of a r-r planar manipulator using particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model for optimization is built considering singularities which control the range of design variables. Condition number which is the measure ... Particle swarm optimization technique is implemented on the non-linear optimization model for optimum value of objective function. The maximum value of objective ...

  10. A troposphere tomography method considering the weighting of input information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingzhi; Yao, Yibin; Yao, Wanqiang

    2017-12-01

    Troposphere tomography measurement using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) generally consists of several types of input information including the observation equation, horizontal constraint equation, vertical constraint equation, and a priori constraint equation. The reasonable weightings of input information are a prerequisite for ensuring the reliability of the adjustment of the parameters. This forms the focus of this research, which tries to determine the weightings, including the observations, for the same type of equation and the optimal weightings for different types of equations. The optimal weightings of the proposed method are realized on the basis of the stable equilibrium relationship between different types of a posteriori unit weight variances, which are capable of adaptively adjusting the weightings for different types of equations and enables the ratio between the two arbitrary a posteriori unit weight variances to tend to unity. A troposphere tomography experiment, which was used to consider these weightings, was implemented using global positioning system (GPS) data from the Hong Kong Satellite Positioning Reference Station Network (SatRef). Numerical results show the applicability and stability of the proposed method for GPS troposphere tomography assessment under different weather conditions. In addition, the root mean square (RMS) error in the water vapor density differences between tomography-radiosonde and tomography-ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) are 0.91 and 1.63 g m-3, respectively, over a 21-day test.

  11. Truss systems and shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, Mihai Victor; Bunea, Marian; Nedelcu, Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Structure optimization is an important topic because of its benefits and wide applicability range, from civil engineering to aerospace and automotive industries, contributing to a more green industry and life. Truss finite elements are still in use in many research/industrial codesfor their simple stiffness matrixand are naturally matching the requirements for cellular materials especially considering various 3D printing technologies. Optimality Criteria combined with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization is the optimization method of choice, particularized for truss systems. Global locked structures areobtainedusinglocally locked lattice local organization, corresponding to structured or unstructured meshes. Post processing is important for downstream application of the method, to make a faster link to the CAD systems. To export the optimal structure in CATIA, a CATScript file is automatically generated. Results, findings and conclusions are given for two and three-dimensional cases.

  12. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cong; Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei; Luo, Haosu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz1/2 at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz1/2 for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established.

  13. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  14. Should Euthanasia Be Considered Iatrogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Silvana; Unguru, Yoram

    2017-08-01

    As more countries adopt laws and regulations concerning euthanasia, pediatric euthanasia has become an important topic of discussion. Conceptions of what constitutes harm to patients are fluid and highly dependent on a myriad of factors including, but not limited to, health care ethics, family values, and cultural context. Euthanasia could be viewed as iatrogenic insofar as it results in an outcome (death) that some might consider inherently negative. However, this perspective fails to acknowledge that death, the outcome of euthanasia, is not an inadvertent or preventable complication but rather the goal of the medical intervention. Conversely, the refusal to engage in the practice of euthanasia might be conceived as iatrogenic insofar as it might inadvertently prolong patient suffering. This article will explore cultural and social factors informing families', health care professionals', and society's views on pediatric euthanasia in selected countries. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  16. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel

    2016-02-01

    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs.

  17. Role of metastructural matrixes in optimization ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Leuchin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article possibilities anthropocentric and ecocentric developing paradigms ecotourism are shown. The updating role institutional functions ecotourism an expert by metastructural matrixes of optimization tourist-institutional space (TIS is specified. Long-range directions of socially-ecological interaction in system of ecotourism are designated, measures on optimisation of this interaction are considered.

  18. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  19. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  20. Lâmina ótima de irrigação do feijoeiro, com restrição de água, em função do nível de aversão ao risco do produtor = Optimal irrigation depth for bean crops considering water constraints and farmer’s risk aversion level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Garcia de Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência da atual pressão econômica sobre os agricultores, da crescente competição pelo uso da água e dos impactos ambientais, deverá ocorrer uma mudança de paradigma no manejo da irrigação, enfocando-se mais a eficiência econômica do que a exigência de água pela cultura. Desta forma, considerando a importância sócio-econômicaque o feijão tem no Brasil, associado ao fato de tratar-se de uma cultura de elevado padrão de risco devido à grande sensibilidade tanto ao déficit hídrico quanto ao excesso de água, a realização de trabalhos utilizando-se técnicas de otimização no manejo da irrigação de feijão torna-se cada vez mais necessário. Neste trabalho objetivou-se propor um método para determinar a quantidade ótima de irrigação, considerando diferentes combinações entre receita líquida esperada para a cultura do feijoeiro e nível de risco, obtendo uma relação entre a receita líquida esperada, associada a um certo grau de risco econômico, e as lâminas de irrigação, quando o único fator limitante à produção é a disponibilidade hídrica.Nowadays, the rising competition for the use of water and environmental resources with consequent restrictions for farmers should change the paradigm in terms of irrigation concepts, or rather, in order to attain economical efficiency other than to supply water requirement for the crop. Therefore, taking into account the social and economical role of bean activity in Brazil, as well as the risk inherent to crop due to its high sensibility to both deficit and excessive water, the optimization methods regarding to irrigation management have become more interesting and essential. This study intends to present a way to determine the optimal water supply, considering different combinations between desired bean yield and level of risk, bringing as a result a graph with the former associated with the latter, depending on different water depths.

  1. Lâmina ótima de irrigação para o feijoeiro considerando restrição de terra e aversão ao risco = Optimal irrigation depth for beans, considering land constrain and risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Frizzone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência da atual pressão econômica sobre os agricultores, da crescente competição pelo uso da água e dos impactos ambientais, deverá ocorrer uma mudança de paradigma no manejo da irrigação, enfocando-se mais a eficiência econômica do que a exigência de água pela cultura. Dessa forma, considerando a importância socioeconômicaque o feijão tem no Brasil, tendo em vista o fato de sua cultura apresentar elevado padrão de risco, devido à grande sensibilidade tanto ao déficit hídrico quanto ao excesso de água, a realização de trabalhos utilizando técnicas de otimização no manejo da irrigação de feijão torna-se cada vez mais interessante. O presente estudo procurou identificar uma forma de determinar a quantidade ótima de água aplicada, considerando diferentes combinações entre receita líquida esperada para feijão e nível de risco, obtendo como resultado a receita líquida esperada, associada a um certo grau de risco, em função de diferentes lâminas de água.Nowadays, the rising competition for use of water and environmentalresources with consequent restrictions on farmers should change the paradigm in terms of irrigation concepts. or rather, in order to attain economical efficiency other than to supply water requirement for the crop. Therefore, taking into consideration the social andeconomical role of bean activity in Brazil, as well as the risk inherent to crop due to its high sensibility to both deficit and excessive water, the optimization methods regarding to irrigation management have become more interesting and essential. This study intends to present a way to determine the optimal water supply, considering different combinations between desired bean yield and level of risk, bringing as a result a graph with the formerassociated with the latter, depending on different water depths.

  2. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    2015-01-01

    across these setting effectively allow you to distinguish between different types of frictions. I find that the considered labor market is significantly affected by optimizations frictions, which masks the bunching at kink points normally associated with a positive labor supply elasticity under standard......In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  3. Tunnel design considering stress release effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-hung Dao

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In tunnel design, the determination of installation time and the stiffness of supporting structures is very important to the tunnel stability. This study used the convergence-confinement method to determine the stress and displacement of the tunnel while considering the counter-pressure curve of the ground base, the stress release effect, and the interaction between the tunnel lining and the rock surrounding the tunnel chamber. The results allowed for the determination of the installation time, distribution and strength of supporting structures. This method was applied to the intake tunnel in the Ban Ve Hydroelectric Power Plant, in Nghe An Province, Vietnam. The results show that when a suitable displacement µ0 ranging from 0.0865 m to 0.0919 m occurrs, we can install supporting structures that satisfy the stability and economical requirements.

  4. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  5. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  6. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...... considering a number of foreseen real-time scenarios. The results indicate that strategic wind producer is more likely to exercise market power having a mid-mean or low-mean forecast distribution, rather than having a high-mean one. Furthermore, it is observed that its offering strategy varies considerably...

  7. Topology optimization based on the harmony search method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Han, Seog-Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A new topology optimization scheme based on a Harmony search (HS) as a metaheuristic method was proposed and applied to static stiffness topology optimization problems. To apply the HS to topology optimization, the variables in HS were transformed to those in topology optimization. Compliance was used as an objective function, and harmony memory was defined as the set of the optimized topology. Also, a parametric study for Harmony memory considering rate (HMCR), Pitch adjusting rate (PAR), and Bandwidth (BW) was performed to find the appropriate range for topology optimization. Various techniques were employed such as a filtering scheme, simple average scheme and harmony rate. To provide a robust optimized topology, the concept of the harmony rate update rule was also implemented. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the HS by comparing the optimal layouts of the HS with those of Bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) and Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA). The following conclu- sions could be made: (1) The proposed topology scheme is very effective for static stiffness topology optimization problems in terms of stability, robustness and convergence rate. (2) The suggested method provides a symmetric optimized topology despite the fact that the HS is a stochastic method like the ABCA. (3) The proposed scheme is applicable and practical in manufacturing since it produces a solid-void design of the optimized topology. (4) The suggested method appears to be very effective for large scale problems like topology optimization.

  8. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  9. Work space optimization of a r-r planar manipulator using particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two link revolute planar robotic manipulator is optimized for maximization of work space covered by its end effector. A mathematical model for optimization is built considering singularities which control the range of design variables. Condition number which is the measure of change in output value (End effector position) ...

  10. Work space optimization of a r-r planar manipulator using particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mathematical model for optimization is built considering singularities which control the range of design variables. Condition ... implemented on the non-linear optimization model for optimum value of objective function. ..... The linear programming problem after first sequence of linearization with starting solution is: ( ). 1. 1 2. 1.

  11. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  12. Concepts of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management.  The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range  of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization.Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts:- On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomi

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN MACROECONOMIC POLICY FOR 2016-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmundinov V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the methodological issues of economic policy elaboration and optimization of economic policy instruments’ parameters. Actuality of this research is provided by growing complexity of social and economic systems, important state role in their functioning as well as multi-targets of economic policy with limited number of instruments. Considering a big variety of internal and external restrictions of social and economic development of modern Russia it has wide range of applications. Extension of the dynamic econometric general equilibrium input-output model of the Russian economy with development of the sub-model of economic policy optimization is a key purpose of this study. The sub-model of economic policy optimization allows estimating impact of economic policy measures on target indicators as well as defining optimal values of their parameters. For this purpose, we extend Robert Mundell’s approach by considering dynamic optimization and wider range of economic policy targets and measures. Use of general equilibrium input-output model allows considering impact of economic policy on different aggregate markets and sectors. Approbation of suggested approach allows us to develop multi-variant forecast for the Russian economy for 2016-2020, define optimal values of monetary policy parameters and compare considered variants by values of social losses. The obtained results could be further used in theoretical as well as applied researches concerned with issues of economic policy elaboration and forecasting of social and economic development.

  14. Staged Venture Capital Investment considering Unexpected Major Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yindong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of capital financing, taking into consideration unexpected major events occurring within continuous time model. We are considering a special jump-diffusion model first described by Samuelson (1973 while using traditional geometric Brownian motion. This paper seeks to accurately show the innovative project valuation when unexpected major events occur and get the analytical results of the project option value. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of multistaged financing; results indicated that both sources of uncertainty positively impact the project option value; particularly, the option price when considering unexpected major events occurrence is larger than the option price without unexpected major events. Based on a comparative-static analysis, new propositions for optimal amount of investment and optimal level of project are derived from simulations.

  15. Optimization-based controller design for rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsing, N.-K.; Fan, M. K. H.; Barlow, J.; Tits, A. L.; Tischler, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    An optimization-based methodology for linear control system design is outlined by considering the design of a controller for a UH-60 rotorcraft in hover. A wide range of design specifications is taken into account: internal stability, decoupling between longitudinal and lateral motions, handling qualities, and rejection of windgusts. These specifications are investigated while taking into account physical limitations in the swashplate displacements and rates of displacement. The methodology crucially relies on user-machine interaction for tradeoff exploration.

  16. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  17. Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design includes an optimization process in which designers always consider objectives such as strength, deflection, weight, wear, corrosion, etc. depending on the requirements. However, design optimization for a complete mechanical assembly leads to a complicated objective function with a large number of design variables. It is a good practice to apply optimization techniques for individual components or intermediate assemblies than a complete assembly. Analytical or numerical methods for calculating the extreme values of a function may perform well in many practical cases, but may fail in more complex design situations. In real design problems, the number of design parameters can be very large and their influence on the value to be optimized (the goal function) can be very complicated, having nonlinear character. In these complex cases, advanced optimization algorithms offer solutions to the problems, because they find a solution near to the global optimum within reasonable time and computational ...

  18. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  19. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...

  20. Maintenance resources optimization applied to a manufacturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiori de Castro, Helio [UNICAMP-FEM, Department of Mechanical Design, P.O. Box 6051, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Lucchesi Cavalca, Katia [UNICAMP-FEM, Department of Mechanical Design, P.O. Box 6051, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: katia@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-04-15

    This paper presents an availability optimization of an engineering system assembled in a series configuration, with redundancy of units and corrective maintenance resources as optimization parameters. The aim is to reach maximum availability, considering as constraints installation and corrective maintenance costs, weight and volume. The optimization method uses a Genetic Algorithm based on biological concepts of species evolution. It is a robust method, as it does not converge to a local optimum. It does not require the use of differential calculus, thus facilitating computational implementation. Results indicate that the methodology is suitable to solve a wide range of engineering design problems involving allocation of redundancies and maintenance resources.

  1. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12... § 220.12 Evidence considered. The regulations explaining the employee's responsibility to provide evidence of disability, the kind of evidence, what medical evidence consists of, and the consequences of...

  2. Lagrange multiplier for perishable inventory model considering warehouse capacity planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Tiena Gustina; Fatima, Zenny

    2017-06-01

    This paper presented Lagrange Muktiplier approach for solving perishable raw material inventory planning considering warehouse capacity. A food company faced an issue of managing perishable raw materials and marinades which have limited shelf life. Another constraint to be considered was the capacity of the warehouse. Therefore, an inventory model considering shelf life and raw material warehouse capacity are needed in order to minimize the company's inventory cost. The inventory model implemented in this study was the adapted economic order quantity (EOQ) model which is optimized using Lagrange multiplier. The model and solution approach were applied to solve a case industry in a food manufacturer. The result showed that the total inventory cost decreased 2.42% after applying the proposed approach.

  3. Generation and Demand Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid Microgrid Considering Price-based Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Microgrids rely on energy management levels to optimally schedule their components. Conventionally, the research in this field has been focused on the optimal formulation of the generation or the demand side management separately without considering real case scenarios and validated only by simul......Microgrids rely on energy management levels to optimally schedule their components. Conventionally, the research in this field has been focused on the optimal formulation of the generation or the demand side management separately without considering real case scenarios and validated only...

  4. Optimized renormalization group flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litim, Daniel F.

    2001-11-01

    We study the optimization of exact renormalization group (ERG) flows. We explain why the convergence of approximate solutions towards the physical theory is optimized by appropriate choices of the regularization. We consider specific optimized regulators for bosonic and fermionic fields and compare the optimized ERG flows with generic ones. This is done up to second order in the derivative expansion at both vanishing and nonvanishing temperature. We find that optimized flows at finite temperature factorize. This corresponds to the disentangling of thermal and quantum fluctuations. A similar factorization is found at second order in the derivative expansion. The corresponding optimized flow for a ``proper-time renormalization group'' is also provided to leading order in the derivative expansion.

  5. Optimization and limits of electrostatic sorting by bi-polar charge of mineral mixtures in the fine grain size range. Final report. Optimierung und Grenzen der elektrostatischen Sortierung durch bipolare Aufladung von Mineralgemischen im Feinkornbereich. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the charge distribution in mineral mixtures and the electrostatic sorting according to tribo-charging is examined on R-10 fractions in the particle size range of 50-200 {mu}m. The purpose of the investigations was combinations of pairs from quartz, calcite, heavy spar, river spar and the pairing anthracite/quartz. Separation experiments were also carried out for the quartz/calcite pair in the particle size range of 20-50 {mu}m. After a survey of the literature and the electrical processes in the contact of two materials, some theoretical considerations procede the investigations, which are concerned with the maximum surface charge density on particles, the electrostatic agglomeration and the calculation of particle track curves in an homogeneous electrical field. It is shown that in principle, electrostatic agglomerates can always be separated in an electrical field. (orig.).

  6. Data-Driven User Feedback: An Improved Neurofeedback Strategy considering the Interindividual Variability of EEG Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has frequently been reported that some users of conventional neurofeedback systems can experience only a small portion of the total feedback range due to the large interindividual variability of EEG features. In this study, we proposed a data-driven neurofeedback strategy considering the individual variability of electroencephalography (EEG features to permit users of the neurofeedback system to experience a wider range of auditory or visual feedback without a customization process. The main idea of the proposed strategy is to adjust the ranges of each feedback level using the density in the offline EEG database acquired from a group of individuals. Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in offline experiments to construct an EEG database, and five subjects participated in online experiments to validate the performance of the proposed data-driven user feedback strategy. Using the optimized bin sizes, the number of feedback levels that each individual experienced was significantly increased to 139% and 144% of the original results with uniform bin sizes in the offline and online experiments, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the use of our data-driven neurofeedback strategy could effectively increase the overall range of feedback levels that each individual experienced during neurofeedback training.

  7. Data-Driven User Feedback: An Improved Neurofeedback Strategy considering the Interindividual Variability of EEG Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Jun-Hak; Kim, Kangsan; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that some users of conventional neurofeedback systems can experience only a small portion of the total feedback range due to the large interindividual variability of EEG features. In this study, we proposed a data-driven neurofeedback strategy considering the individual variability of electroencephalography (EEG) features to permit users of the neurofeedback system to experience a wider range of auditory or visual feedback without a customization process. The main idea of the proposed strategy is to adjust the ranges of each feedback level using the density in the offline EEG database acquired from a group of individuals. Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in offline experiments to construct an EEG database, and five subjects participated in online experiments to validate the performance of the proposed data-driven user feedback strategy. Using the optimized bin sizes, the number of feedback levels that each individual experienced was significantly increased to 139% and 144% of the original results with uniform bin sizes in the offline and online experiments, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the use of our data-driven neurofeedback strategy could effectively increase the overall range of feedback levels that each individual experienced during neurofeedback training.

  8. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-12-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets ('technical potential'). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160-270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization ('cascade utilization') of biomass flows.

  9. Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Working Through Grief About Us Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider By Cheryl Arenella, MD, ... proxy designation, known as a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care or a Health Care Proxy : ...

  10. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  11. Identification for the optimal working parameters of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru alloy in a wide deformation condition range by processing maps based on DMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yu-feng; Long, Shuai; Zhou, Yu-ting; Zhao, Jia; Wang, Tian-yu; Zhou, Jie, E-mail: kkyttyls@vip.qq.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University (China)

    2016-11-15

    The hot deformation behaviours of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru alloy were investigated by isothermal hot compression tests in the temperature range of 1023-1423 K and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s{sup -1}. The β transus was determined to be 1198 K by continuous heating method. The values of deformation activation energy Q at the strain of 0.3 were calculated to be 630.01 kJ/mol in dual-phase field and 331.75 kJ/mol in β-phase field. Moreover, the processing maps at the strain of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 were developed based on dynamic materials model (DMM). To deeply understand the microstructure evolution mechanism during hot deformation processes and to verify the processing maps, the microstructures at different deformation conditions were observed. The stable microstructures (i.e. globularization, dynamic recovery (DRV) and β dynamic recrystallization (β-DRX)) and instable microstructures (i.e. lamellae kinking and flow localization) were obtained. To make it useful in the design of industrial hot working schedules for this material, a microstructural mechanism map was constructed on the basis of processing maps and microstructure observation. Deformation conditions in the vicinity of 1150 K & 0.01 s{sup -1} where globularization occurs and in the vicinity of 1323 K & 0.01 s{sup -1} where β-DRX occurs are recommended. (author)

  12. Economic Dispatch Considering Correlations of Solar and Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic dispatch considering correlation between solar and load is proposed. The probabilistic density functions of solar and load are introduced, and then solar-load bivariate normal distribution is established based on multivariate statistical analysis technique. The loss load risk model of typical scenario is constructed and the economic dispatch model is established. α-superquantile is used to describe the risk constraint, Monte Carlo simulation and analytic method were combined to solve the optimization model. Results show that proposed method can describe the impact of correlation of solar and load on economic dispatch at different confidence levels.

  13. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Generation expansion planning (GEP) is the problem of finding the optimal strategy to plan the Construction of new generation while satisfying technical and economical constraints. In the deregulated and competitive environment, large-scale integration of wind generation (WG) in power system has...... necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...

  14. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  15. Optimal power flow solution using evolutionary programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, T.; Ravikumar, R.; Ramya, S.C.; Vandhana, M.S.; Swarupini, S. [Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Optimal power flow (OPF) is used to determine the optimal outputs of generators, bus voltages, and transformer tap settings in power systems. This paper provided details of an evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm for solving OPF. EP is a stochastic optimization method which analyzes the mechanics of evolution to produce optimal solutions by evolving a population of candidate solutions towards the global minimum through the use of a mutation operator and selection scheme. In this study, EP was used to determine the global optimum solution to the OPF for a range of constraints and objective functions as well as to develop non-convex generator cost curves. The proposed algorithm was applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system under different generator input-output curves. Two sets of generator cost curves were then used to illustrate the robustness of the technique. The first case considered all curves as quadratic. In the second case, a number of local optimal solutions for the dispatch problem were developed. The EP-based OPF algorithm method was then compared with results obtained from a genetic algorithm. Results showed that the EP-based algorithm was reliable even in nonlinear cases with value point loading. It was concluded that the proposed algorithm produced optimal results. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Time–cost tradeoff analysis considering funding variability and time uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Metwally El-kholy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linear programming model for solution of the time–cost tradeoff problem. Although several analytical models have been developed for time–cost optimization (TCO, some of them mainly focused on projects where the contract duration is fixed. The optimization objective is therefore restricted to identify the minimum total cost only. Another group have primarily focused on project duration minimization. The model presented here considers scheduling characteristics that were ignored simultaneously in prior research. In the new formulation, variability of funding and uncertainty of project duration are considered simultaneously. A chance-constrained programming is used to incorporate the variability of funding, which is quantified by the coefficient of variation. The financial feasibility expressed as a stochastic constraint, which transformed into a deterministic equivalent at a pre-specified confidence level. Also, the project duration uncertainty incorporated into the model by applying PERT in scheduling and then the uncertainty is quantified by the coefficient of variation at a pre-specified confidence level. A system of objective function, which is minimizing direct cost and the group of constraints are solved by means of Lindo software. Two examples are conducted to demonstrate the model performance and its contributions. Four scenarios were adopted in solving the example problems to reflect the effect of each of funding variability and time uncertainty on project cost and duration. The results revealed that with 95% confidence level: 10% variability in funding versus neglecting it, would increase direct cost with 20% approximately for a pre-specified project deadline. Also, 10% variability in time versus neglecting it, would increase duration in range from 16.5% to 30% approximately, for a pre-specified direct cost. Also, considering 10% variability in funding and time would increase direct cost with more than 25% for a

  17. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Desired Generation Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh GOLESTANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP is an important part of power system planning in both conventional and new structured power market. Its goal is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increase, considering technical and economic conditions. Planning algorithm in this paper consisted of two stages. The former specifies highly uncertain lines and probability of congestion, considering desired generation security level (e.g. N-2 generation security level. The latter determines the optimal expansion capacity of existing lines. Splitting required capacity for reinforcement of weak lines due to desired generation security level simplifies the TNEP problem. In addition, it monitors the impact of generation uncertainty on transmission lines. Simulation results of the proposed idea are presented for IEEE-RTS-24bus network.

  18. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Deep

    methods reported in the literature consider the machine requirements of parts. The problem is formulated using binary machine-part incidence matrix [10]. The binary representation assumes that each part is processed follow- ing a unique route with a certain set of machines. It is important to recognize that in an actual ...

  19. Selective Maintenance Model Considering Time Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Le Chen; Zhengping Shu; Yuan Li; Xuezhi Lv

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a selective maintenance model for weapon system during mission interval. First, it gives relevant definitions and operational process of material support system. Then, it introduces current research on selective maintenance modeling. Finally, it establishes numerical model for selecting corrective and preventive maintenance tasks, considering time uncertainty brought by unpredictability of maintenance procedure, indetermination of downtime for spares and difference of skil...

  20. The Musical Mind Considered: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marilyn C.; Merrion, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Examines how new theories about the mind and brain affect music education. Specifically considers the nature of the musical mind and the nature of music. Discusses the work of Robert Ornstein, D. Alan Allport, Howard Gardner, and David Loye. Recommends that music educators, at all levels, incorporate these perspectives into their teaching. (KM)

  1. Considering the Move to Electronic Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past four years, the author has attempted to compare students' participation patterns during electronic threaded discussions and face-to-face classroom discussions. Most recently, he considered the interactions of 40 students in two world history classes at a public high school. These students regularly engaged in classroom discussions…

  2. Considering Bilingual Dictionaries Against a Corpus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ions in music, in eating habits and leisure activities all produce their own new vocabulary at a startling rate. Some of .... (LOB Press:editorial B18:38). (7). There must also be a better staffing ratio - 16 students to one teacher in ..... The importance has been previously stressed of considering the produc- tion, handling, storage ...

  3. Considering Teacher Empowerment: Why It Is Moral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Thomas A.; Hill-Clarke, Kantaylieniere

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical educational structures employ a standards-driven decision-making atmosphere that challenges teachers' autonomy. This situation represents a critical issue for teacher educators who must consider how they will teach candidates to respond to these settings. We argue that teacher empowerment represents a moral issue that teacher…

  4. A Network Reconfiguration Method Considering Data Uncertainties in Smart Distribution Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ke-yan Liu; Wanxing Sheng; Yongmei Liu; Xiaoli Meng

    2017-01-01

    .... The uncertainties of load fluctuation before the network reconfiguration are also considered. Three optimal objectives, including minimal line loss cost, minimum Expected Energy Not Supplied, and minimum switch operation cost, are investigated...

  5. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  6. SAGD optimization under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossuin, J.; Naccache, P. [Schlumberger SIS, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Bailley, W.; Couet, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but this is a costly method and ways to make it more efficient are needed. Multiple methods have been developed to optimize the SAGD process but none of them explicitly considered uncertainty. This paper presents an optimization method in the presence of reservoir uncertainty. This process was tested on an SAGD model where three equi-probable geological models are possible. Preparatory steps were first performed to identify key variables and the optimization model was then proposed. The method was shown to be successful in handling a significant number of uncertainties, optimizing the SAGD process and preventing premature steam channels that can choke production. The optimization method presented herein was successfully applied to an SAGD process and was shown to provide better strategies than sensitivity analysis while handling more complex problems.

  7. Optimal Strategy in Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the major principles associated with optimal strategy in basketball. In particular, we consider the principles of allocative efficiency (optimal allocation of shots between offensive options), dynamic efficiency (optimal shot selection in the face of pressure from the shot clock), and the risk/reward tradeoff (strategic manipulation of outcome variance). For each principle, we provide a simple example of a strategic problem and show how it can be described analytically. We then review general analytical results and provide an overview of existing statistical studies. A number of open challenges in basketball analysis are highlighted.

  8. Consider the Connections. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    The old ways of doing things are no longer suitable to some of the current conditions faced by the world, such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, unstable economic development, and wasteful consumption of natural resources. In order to achieve a sustainable future, nations must develop better long range planning through combining…

  9. Consider Adopting Collaborative Project Management Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Brent I; Felkey, Bill G

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacy administrators are often tasked with a range of responsibilities, from strategic planning and human resources to information systems management. Because of this, tools to support administrators' efficient and appropriate attention to everything on their plate can be valuable. Identification and evaluation of the available tools should be guided by careful consideration of the department's needs.

  10. A Mixed Feature Selection Method Considering Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zilin Zeng; Hongjun Zhang; Rui Zhang; Youliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Feature interaction has gained considerable attention recently. However, many feature selection methods considering interaction are only designed for categorical features. This paper proposes a mixed feature selection algorithm based on neighborhood rough sets that can be used to search for interacting features. In this paper, feature relevance, feature redundancy, and feature interaction are defined in the framework of neighborhood rough sets, the neighborhood interaction weight factor refle...

  11. What to Consider for Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 14 NOV 2016 1. Your paper, entitled What to Consider for Animal Research presented at...Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and...for Animal Research 7 FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? D YES [8I NO FUNDING SOURCE 8 DO YOU NEED FUNDING SUPPORT FOR PUBLICATION PURPOSES: 0 YES [81

  12. Optimization under uncertainty of parallel nonlinear energy sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Ethan; Missoum, Samy; Mattei, Pierre-Olivier; Vergez, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear Energy Sinks (NESs) are a promising technique for passively reducing the amplitude of vibrations. Through nonlinear stiffness properties, a NES is able to passively and irreversibly absorb energy. Unlike the traditional Tuned Mass Damper (TMD), NESs do not require a specific tuning and absorb energy over a wider range of frequencies. Nevertheless, they are still only efficient over a limited range of excitations. In order to mitigate this limitation and maximize the efficiency range, this work investigates the optimization of multiple NESs configured in parallel. It is well known that the efficiency of a NES is extremely sensitive to small perturbations in loading conditions or design parameters. In fact, the efficiency of a NES has been shown to be nearly discontinuous in the neighborhood of its activation threshold. For this reason, uncertainties must be taken into account in the design optimization of NESs. In addition, the discontinuities require a specific treatment during the optimization process. In this work, the objective of the optimization is to maximize the expected value of the efficiency of NESs in parallel. The optimization algorithm is able to tackle design variables with uncertainty (e.g., nonlinear stiffness coefficients) as well as aleatory variables such as the initial velocity of the main system. The optimal design of several parallel NES configurations for maximum mean efficiency is investigated. Specifically, NES nonlinear stiffness properties, considered random design variables, are optimized for cases with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 NESs in parallel. The distributions of efficiency for the optimal parallel configurations are compared to distributions of efficiencies of non-optimized NESs. It is observed that the optimization enables a sharp increase in the mean value of efficiency while reducing the corresponding variance, thus leading to more robust NES designs.

  13. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme. These sche......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme....... These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms...

  14. Optimization of Geothermal Well Placement under Geological Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Arnold, Dan; Demyanov, Vasily; Sass, Ingo; Geiger, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Well placement optimization is critical to commercial success of geothermal projects. However, uncertainties of geological parameters prohibit optimization based on a single scenario of the subsurface, particularly when few expensive wells are to be drilled. The optimization of borehole locations is usually based on numerical reservoir models to predict reservoir performance and entails the choice of objectives to optimize (total enthalpy, minimum enthalpy rate, production temperature) and the development options to adjust (well location, pump rate, difference in production and injection temperature). Optimization traditionally requires trying different development options on a single geological realization yet there are many possible different interpretations possible. Therefore, we aim to optimize across a range of representative geological models to account for geological uncertainty in geothermal optimization. We present an approach that uses a response surface methodology based on a large number of geological realizations selected by experimental design to optimize the placement of geothermal wells in a realistic field example. A large number of geological scenarios and design options were simulated and the response surfaces were constructed using polynomial proxy models, which consider both geological uncertainties and design parameters. The polynomial proxies were validated against additional simulation runs and shown to provide an adequate representation of the model response for the cases tested. The resulting proxy models allow for the identification of the optimal borehole locations given the mean response of the geological scenarios from the proxy (i.e. maximizing or minimizing the mean response). The approach is demonstrated on the realistic Watt field example by optimizing the borehole locations to maximize the mean heat extraction from the reservoir under geological uncertainty. The training simulations are based on a comprehensive semi

  15. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  16. Data Structures: Sequence Problems, Range Queries, and Fault Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    The focus of this dissertation is on algorithms, in particular data structures that give provably ecient solutions for sequence analysis problems, range queries, and fault tolerant computing. The work presented in this dissertation is divided into three parts. In Part I we consider algorithms for...... to assume that the algorithms themselves are in charge for dealing with memory faults. We investigate searching, sorting and counting algorithms and data structures that provably returns sensible information in spite of memory corruptions.......The focus of this dissertation is on algorithms, in particular data structures that give provably ecient solutions for sequence analysis problems, range queries, and fault tolerant computing. The work presented in this dissertation is divided into three parts. In Part I we consider algorithms...... by the constraints. Many variants and similar problems have been proposed leading to several dierent approaches and algorithms. We consider problems where the function is the sum of the elements in the sequence and the constraints only bound the length of the subsequences considered. We give optimal algorithms...

  17. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...

  18. Splenosis: a diagnosis to be considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The term splenosis applies to the autotransplanted splenic tissue resulting from seeding in the context of past splenic trauma or surgery. We report a 42-year-old man with a history of splenectomy observed for an incidentally found retrovesical mass thought to be an ectopic testicle. The abdominal laparotomy revealed multiple focuses of pelvic splenosis. As splenosis can be diagnosed through specific imaging studies one should always consider it in differential diagnosis of a mass discovered years after splenic surgery or trauma.

  19. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Furnell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can potentially be applied for insider misuse detection. General guidelines for countermeasures against insider misuse are also provided to protect data and systems.

  20. (ReConsidering American Studies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Detsi-Diamanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In writing about American studies in Greece, one is tempted to consider for a moment the fact that the field, ever since it placed itself on the international academic map, has been in a constant process of self-discovery and self-becoming. Its openness, which may be taken as evidence for its vibrant existence and its ability to reconstruct and deconstruct itself, has led to new areas of research, new formulations, new critiques, as well as to an essential paradox  : although we currently wit...

  1. An elitist teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for solving complex constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Patel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature inspired population based algorithms is a research field which simulates different natural phenomena to solve a wide range of problems. Researchers have proposed several algorithms considering different natural phenomena. Teaching-Learning-based optimization (TLBO is one of the recently proposed population based algorithm which simulates the teaching-learning process of the class room. This algorithm does not require any algorithm-specific control parameters. In this paper, elitism concept is introduced in the TLBO algorithm and its effect on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. The effects of common controlling parameters such as the population size and the number of generations on the performance of the algorithm are also investigated. The proposed algorithm is tested on 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics and the performance of the algorithm is compared with that of other well known optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm can be applied to various optimization problems of the industrial environment.

  2. Successful aging: considering non-biomedical constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Buchanan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Successful aging continues to be applied in a variety of contexts and is defined using a number of different constructs. Although previous reviews highlight the multidimensionality of successful aging, a few have focused exclusively on non-biomedical factors, as was done here. Methods This scoping review searched Ovid Medline database for peer-reviewed English-language articles published between 2006 and 2015, offering a model of successful aging and involving research with older adults. Results Seventy-two articles were reviewed. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Common non-biomedical constructs associated with successful aging included engagement, optimism and/or positive attitude, resilience, spirituality and/or religiosity, self-efficacy and/or self-esteem, and gerotranscendence. Discussion Successful aging is a complex process best described using a multidimensional model. Given that the majority of elders will experience illness and/or disease during the life course, public health initiatives that promote successful aging need to employ non-biomedical constructs, facilitating the inclusion of elders living with disease and/or disability. PMID:27956828

  3. Considering renal risk while managing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinian, Vahakn B; Bahl, Amit; Niepel, Daniela; Lorusso, Vito

    2017-01-01

    Renal function is an important consideration in the management of patients with advanced cancer. There is a reciprocal relationship between cancer and the kidney: chronic kidney disease can increase the risk of developing cancer, and patients with cancer often experience renal impairment owing to age, disease-related factors and nephrotoxic treatments. As therapies for cancer continue to improve, patients are living longer with their disease, potentially extending the period over which they are susceptible to long-term complications. Furthermore, secondary symptoms, such as bone metastases or infections, may arise that will require treatment. Certain treatments, including chemotherapy, antibiotics and some bone-targeted agents, are nephrotoxic and may require dose modifications or interruptions to prevent renal injury. Nephrologists should play a key role in the identification and management of renal impairment in patients with cancer. Furthermore, they may be able to provide advice on protecting the kidneys in instances where nephrotoxic agents require dose reductions or interruptions, and when novel therapies or combinations are used. Collaboration between oncologists and nephrologists is important to optimal patient management. This article reviews the relationship between cancer and kidney disease and examines the treatments that may impact kidney function. Considerations for monitoring renal function are also discussed. PMID:28553142

  4. Consider multishaft compressors for hazardous applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, G.K. [Pt. Indo-Rama Synthetics, West Java (Indonesia)

    1997-07-01

    API specifies two types of centrifugal compressors: single-shaft (inline) and integrally geared. The latter are mainly air compressors, and API 672, which specifies the design, manufacturing and testing of these compressors, recommends that they may be used for gas services other than air that are nonhazardous and non-toxic. These compressors offer high efficiency, high control range, lower mechanical losses, lower investment and extremely compact design. Advances in gear making technology and design make API 672 compressors highly competitive in certain applications. The single-shaft compressor is used for general refinery services, is governed by API 617, and applicable for air or gas. There is no restriction on the type of gas. Therefore, this compressor is universally applicable for any gas--hazardous or nonhazardous. A large variety of integrally-geared multishaft compressors are available with respect to the number of stages, type of gas, type of drive and pressure range. These compressors have enormous range in terms of volumetric flows, pressure ratios, allowable inlet and discharge pressures, and attainable drive speeds. API 672 compressors find large applications in process, plant and instrument air service, air separation plants, etc. Apart from air, the gases handled by API 672 compressors had been for other nonhazardous applications such as nitrogen, steam, etc. Contrary to API 672 stipulations, multishaft compressors have been used for along time in hazardous applications like refinery offgas, CH{sub 4}, oxygen, or mixtures of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, CO, HCN, etc., or even dry chlorine.

  5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERED IN A 2014 PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAPĂ ADELINA-ROXANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Project Management has come of age, yet multiple surveys and reports confirm the fact that the majority of projects are challenged. Given the more demanding and strict financial constraints associated with the current fiscal climate, project management is regarded as a tool that can deliver more with less. The literature on Project Management shows that, in spite of advancement in Project Management processes, tools and systems, project success has not significantly improved. This problem raises questions about the value and effectiveness of Project Management and Project Management systems. Programs and projects are considered as strategic assets for the majority of businesses, therefore, the trend of these organizations is to embrace a management by projects culture. The main objective of Project Management nowadays is to ensure programs and projects aligned to a certain strategy and also to provide for every member of an organization the ability to take proactive actions creating additional benefits.

  6. Considering Subcontractors in Distributed Scrum Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Jakub; Hammouda, Imed; Mikkola, Tuomas; Mustonen, Karri; Systä, Tarja

    In this chapter we present our experiences with working with subcontractors in distributed Scrum teams. The context of our experiences is a medium size software service provider company. We present the way the subcontractors are selected and how Scrum practices can be used in real-life projects. We discuss team arrangements and tools used in distributed development teams highlighting aspects that are important when working with subcontractors. We also present an illustrative example where different phases of a project working with subcontractors are described. The example also provides practical tips on work in such projects. Finally, we present a summary of our data that was collected from Scrum and non-Scrum projects implemented over a few years. This chapter should provide a practical point of view on working with subcontractors in Scrum teams for those who are considering such cooperation.

  7. Postcranial sex estimation of individuals considered Hispanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tise, Meredith L; Spradley, M Katherine; Anderson, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    When forensic anthropologists estimate the sex of Hispanic skeletal remains using nonpopulation specific metric methods, initial observations cause males to frequently misclassify as female. To help improve these methods, this research uses postcranial measurements from United States-Mexico border migrant fatalities at the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner in Tucson, Arizona, as well as Hispanic individuals from the Forensic Anthropology Data Bank. Using a total of 114 males and 28 females, sectioning points and discriminant functions provide classification rates as high as 89.43% for Hispanic individuals. A test sample assessed the reliability of these techniques resulting in accuracy up to 99.65%. The clavicle maximum length measurement provides the best univariate estimate of sex, while the radius provides the best multivariate estimated of sex. The results of this research highlight the need for population specific data in the creation of a biological profile, especially when working with individuals considered Hispanic. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. A hysteresis model considering microstructural feature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Davis, Claire

    2016-02-01

    A modified Preisach model with the Preisach function formulated based on microstructural feature distribution and probability theory, has been developed to model the major/minor loops of ferromagnetic steels. Ferrite grains and precipitates within the grains have been selected as the two independent microstructural features to demonstrate the model. The distribution of grain size, precipitate size and inter-particle spacing are introduced to formulate the Preisach function. Close fits between the modelled and measured major loops have been achieved for two ex-service power plant steels, which have ferritic microstructures containing carbide particles, for a preliminary validation of the model. The model has proved capable of modelling both major and minor loops considering microstructural feature distributions.

  9. Considering a possible future for Digital Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark DEUZE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments shaping digital journalism seem to speeding up at the start of the 21st century. Social media enable radical new ways to gather and verify sources and information. Hardware and software power innovative storytelling formats, combining platforms and channels, adding interactivity to the news experience. And the global news industry is quickly becoming a networked industry, with startups and other forms of entrepreneurial journalism springing up all over the world. In this essay, I consider a possible future for digital journalism by briefly reviewing first findings from a series of case studies of 21 new small-sized journalism enterprises operating in 11 countries (spread across 5 continents. The overarching research question: seen through their eyes, what does the future of (digital journalism look like? The answers are hopeful.

  10. Wind Power Prediction Considering Nonlinear Atmospheric Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.

  11. Finite Automata Implementations Considering CPU Cache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite automata are mathematical models for finite state systems. More general finite automaton is the nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA that cannot be directly used. It is usually transformed to the deterministic finite automaton (DFA that then runs in time O(n, where n is the size of the input text. We present two main approaches to practical implementation of DFA considering CPU cache. The first approach (represented by Table Driven and Hard Coded implementations is suitable forautomata being run very frequently, typically having cycles. The other approach is suitable for a collection of automata from which various automata are retrieved and then run. This second kind of automata are expected to be cycle-free. 

  12. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...

  13. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  14. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  15. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  16. Considering renal risk while managing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahinian VB

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vahakn B Shahinian,1 Amit Bahl,2 Daniela Niepel,3 Vito Lorusso4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Bristol Haematology and Oncology Centre, University Hospitals Bristol, Bristol, UK; 3Medical Development, Amgen (Europe GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Medical Oncology Unit, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy Abstract: Renal function is an important consideration in the management of patients with advanced cancer. There is a reciprocal relationship between cancer and the kidney: chronic ­kidney disease can increase the risk of developing cancer, and patients with cancer often experience renal impairment owing to age, disease-related factors and nephrotoxic treatments. As therapies for cancer continue to improve, patients are living longer with their disease, potentially extending the period over which they are susceptible to long-term complications. Furthermore, secondary symptoms, such as bone metastases or infections, may arise that will require treatment. Certain treatments, including chemotherapy, antibiotics and some bone-targeted agents, are nephrotoxic and may require dose modifications or interruptions to prevent renal injury. Nephrologists should play a key role in the identification and management of renal impairment in patients with cancer. Furthermore, they may be able to provide advice on protecting the kidneys in instances where nephrotoxic agents require dose reductions or interruptions, and when novel therapies or combinations are used. Collaboration between oncologists and nephrologists is important to optimal patient management. This article reviews the relationship between cancer and kidney disease and examines the treatments that may impact kidney function. Considerations for monitoring renal function are also discussed. Keywords: advanced cancer, cancer management, elderly, kidney disease, nephrotoxicity

  17. Optimal Ski Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebilas, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Consider a skier who goes down a takeoff ramp, attains a speed "V", and jumps, attempting to land as far as possible down the hill below (Fig. 1). At the moment of takeoff the angle between the skier's velocity and the horizontal is [alpha]. What is the optimal angle [alpha] that makes the jump the longest possible for the fixed magnitude of the…

  18. Optimization of reactive mufflers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.

    2010-05-01

    A new approach to optimization of reactive mufflers, which is based on use of muffler prototype with nondimensional geometrical parameters and integral criterion of acoustic performance of mufflers, is proposed. Implementation of the approach using the example of chamber mufflers is considered.

  19. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  20. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  1. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  2. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  3. Charting the circuit QED design landscape using optimal control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Motzoi, Felix; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Koch, Christiane P.

    2017-09-01

    With recent improvements in coherence times, superconducting transmon qubits have become a promising platform for quantum computing. They can be flexibly engineered over a wide range of parameters, but also require us to identify an efficient operating regime. Using state-of-the-art quantum optimal control techniques, we exhaustively explore the landscape for creation and removal of entanglement over a wide range of design parameters. We identify an optimal operating region outside of the usually considered strongly dispersive regime, where multiple sources of entanglement interfere simultaneously, which we name the quasi-dispersive straddling qutrits regime. At a chosen point in this region, a universal gate set is realized by applying microwave fields for gate durations of 50 ns, with errors approaching the limit of intrinsic transmon coherence. Our systematic quantum optimal control approach is easily adapted to explore the parameter landscape of other quantum technology platforms.

  4. Optimizing information processing in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Melo-Silva, Hiago Lucas Cardeal; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters. Specifically, the mean number of connections governed the number of spatiotemporal patterns in the networks. These findings are compatible with those of the real neuronal networks observed in specific brain circuitries, where critical behavior is necessary for the optimal dynamic range response but the uncertainty provided by high entropy as coded by spatiotemporal patterns is not required. With this, we were able to reveal that information processing can be optimized in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

  5. Optimizing information processing in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz

    Full Text Available Critical dynamics have been postulated as an ideal regime for neuronal networks in the brain, considering optimal dynamic range and information processing. Herein, we focused on how information entropy encoded in spatiotemporal activity patterns may vary in critical networks. We employed branching process based models to investigate how entropy can be embedded in spatiotemporal patterns. We determined that the information capacity of critical networks may vary depending on the manipulation of microscopic parameters. Specifically, the mean number of connections governed the number of spatiotemporal patterns in the networks. These findings are compatible with those of the real neuronal networks observed in specific brain circuitries, where critical behavior is necessary for the optimal dynamic range response but the uncertainty provided by high entropy as coded by spatiotemporal patterns is not required. With this, we were able to reveal that information processing can be optimized in neuronal networks beyond critical states.

  6. Charting the circuit QED design landscape using optimal control theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Motzoi, Felix; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    control techniques, we exhaustively explore the landscape for creation and removal of entanglement over a wide range of design parameters. We identify an optimal operating region outside of the usually considered strongly dispersive regime, where multiple sources of entanglement interfere simultaneously......, which we name the quasi-dispersive straddling qutrits regime. At a chosen point in this region, a universal gate set is realized by applying microwave fields for gate durations of 50 ns, with errors approaching the limit of intrinsic transmon coherence. Our systematic quantum optimal control approach......With recent improvements in coherence times, superconducting transmon qubits have become a promising platform for quantum computing. They can be flexibly engineered over a wide range of parameters, but also require us to identify an efficient operating regime. Using state-of-the-art quantum optimal...

  7. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  8. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Hassim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental health research appears to be continually transforming. Recent literature reflects a greater appreciation for the ways in which pathoplastic features of culture modulate emotional regulation. This article introduces those aspects of the literature which explore the (reconsideration of culture as a dynamic and essential construct in the clinical formulation of psychopathology. Objectives. The study aims to review literature that focuses on the dynamic influence of culture in psychopathology. Furthermore, the researchers aim to present a view on the ways in which culture appeared to shape the topography of psychopathology nosology. Method. A literature review of 31 sources. Results. The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This section also explored themes identified during the literature review. The literature was tabulated according to features and emerging themes. Three major themes were identified and included: the cultural context; the evolving definitions of culture; and culture and psychopathology. Conclusion/discussion. An analysis of the themes was offered. The authors concluded by highlighting the significance of the literature at present. Areas of particular interest suggested that health and behaviour are dependent, at least in part, on culture; psychopathology may also be appreciated as a social construct; culture influences psychopathology regardless of the aetiology; diagnostic classes do not adequately consider operational definitions; and a greater focus on hermeneutic perceptivity in appreciating cultural dynamics in psychopathology will benefit clinical assessment.

  9. Considering value of information when using CFD in design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, John Satprim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach to find lower resolution CFD models that can accurately lead a designer to a correct decision at a lower computational cost. High-fidelity CFD models often contain too much information and come at a higher computational cost, limiting the designs a designer can test and how much optimization can be performed on the design. Lower model resolution is commonly used to reduce computational time. However there are no clear guidelines on how much model accuracy is required. Instead experience and intuition are used to select an appropriate lower resolution model. This thesis presents an alternative to this ad hoc method by considering the added value of the addition information provided by increasing accurate and more computationally expensive models.

  10. Sustainable Stream Waste Load Allocation with Considering Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, W.; Tung, C.

    2007-12-01

    The stream assimilative capacity is the carrying capacity of a river for the maximum waste load without exceeding the water quality standard. However, only optimizing maximal waste loads may lead to inequity. Equity is an important issue in waste load allocation problems. This research formulates a multi-objective model that considers minimizing inequity and maximizing total waste loads by using water quality models, as well as combining Gini coefficient and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the relationship between the equity levels and the maximum waste load. It is also discussed that the impacts of changes in the land use among up- stream and down-stream on assimilative capacity and equity, which can provide useful information for the policy making of sustainable watershed management.

  11. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Phase-Shifter Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso T. Miasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the transmission network expansion planning problem. Main idea is to consider phase-shifter (PS transformers as a new element of the transmission system expansion together with other traditional components such as transmission lines and conventional transformers. In this way, PS are added in order to redistribute active power flows in the system and, consequently, to diminish the total investment costs due to new transmission lines. Proposed mathematical model presents the structure of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem and is based on the standard DC model. In this paper, there is also applied a specialized genetic algorithm aimed at optimizing the allocation of candidate components in the network. Results obtained from computational simulations carried out with IEEE-24 bus system show an outstanding performance of the proposed methodology and model, indicating the technical viability of using these nonconventional devices during the planning process.

  12. Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail: MStadler@lbl.gov; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  13. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  14. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  15. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  16. Optimal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the educational applications of experimental psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's theory of peak experience, or optimal flow. Optimal flow refers to the receptive state people achieve when they are engaged in interesting and challenging activity. Includes an insightful critique of multimedia instruction from this perspective. (MJP)

  17. Design Optimization of Internal Flow Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Ingemann

    The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies.......The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies....

  18. On Topology Optimization of Inertia Driven Dosing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how topology optimization can be used to design inertia driven dosing units for the continuous dosage ofone fluid into another. These components often referred to as eductors, utilize the low static pressure in a venturi-type nozzle to drive thedosing flow. The fluids...... are modeled using the steady state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the two fluids are considered havingthe same properties. A Brinkman penalization term is added to the governing equations such that a control problem of the flow topologyis obtained. Optimized component geometries for a range...

  19. Which genetic determinants should be considered for tacrolimus dose optimization in kidney transplantation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckmueller, H; Werk, Anneke Nina; Renders, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    =57%). For the entire sample, the final multiple linear regression model for trough concentration/dose ratio included CYP3A5, CYP3A4 and age. It explained 18.3% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus trough concentration/dose ratios (p=8.8*10). CONCLUSION:: Therapeutic drug monitoring...

  20. Aspects to consider for optimizing a substrate culture system with drainage recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cuervo B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, the soilless system has been implemented in the cut flowers industry, among others, due to soil limitations. The use of substrates as growing media implies to drain around 30% of the applied fertigation solution to avoid the rhizosphere salinization. The drainage solution is spilled out to the soil producing environmental hazards and it might reach the water table; although the drainage solution could be recycled or reuse, depending upon their chemical characteristics. The nutrient uptake by the plants depends upon their phenological stage and the nutrient concentration in the solution; which could lead to ion depletion or accumulation. In general, monovalent ions are withdrawn faster than divalent ones. An efficient drainage treatment involves the automation of sensing and evaluation of ion concentration and recycling the drainage solution. The system should take into account the chemical aspects in the recycled and the new solutions in order to predict the life time of the drainage solution from their EC and pH. The system must be integrated with disinfection methods to avoid the spreading of plant pathogens. This review point out the physiological and technical bases that should be taking into account in a drainage recycling system in established crops under substrates, as a tool to take decisions more efficiently.

  1. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  2. Optimization of a passenger railway transportation plan considering mobility flows and service quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brethome, L.; Bouvet-Agnelli, C.; Chevrier, R.; van Oort, N.; Rodriguez, J

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on designing transportation plan for SNCF Transilien (French rail-way operator for the Parisian suburban mass transit). The objective is to develop methods and decision support tools to propose a timetable adapted to the passenger demand in the Parisian mass transit system,

  3. Optimal Energy Management for SmartGrids Considering Thermal Load and Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Duong Tung

    2016-01-01

    More active participation of the demand side and efficient integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) such as electric vehicles (trVs), energy storage (ES), and renewable energy sources (RESs) into the existing power systems are important design objectives of the future smart grid. In general, effective demand side management (DSM) would benefit both system operators (e.g., peak demand reduction) and electricity customers (e.g., cost saving). For building and home energy scheduling de...

  4. Optimal Capacitor Placement in Wind Farms by Considering Harmonics Using Discrete Lightning Search Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reza Sirjani

    2017-01-01

    .... However, numerous uncertainties remain with respect to the amount of energy generated by wind turbines and other sophisticated operational aspects, such as voltage and reactive power management...

  5. An Improved Optimal Slip Ratio Prediction considering Tyre Inflation Pressure Changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Guoxing; Wang, Tie; Zhang, Ruiliang; Gu, Fengshou; Shen, Jinxian

    2015-01-01

    .... In order to verify and evaluate the performance of the improved prediction, a cosimulation platform is developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim software packages, achieving a comprehensive...

  6. Normalizing shoulder EMG: An optimal set of maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests considering reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Cédric; Tubez, François; Wang, François-Charles; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Brüls, Olivier; Denoël, Vincent; Forthomme, Bénédicte

    2017-08-18

    Normalization of the electromyography (EMG) signal is often performed relatively to maximal voluntary activations (MVA) obtained during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC). The first aim was to provide an inter-session reproducible protocol to normalize the signal of eight shoulder muscles. The protocol should also lead to a level of activation >90% of MVA for >90% of the volunteers. The second aim was to evaluate the influence of the method used to extract the MVA from the EMG envelope on the normalized EMG signal. Thirteen volunteers performed 12 MVICs twice (one week interval). Several time constants (100ms to 2s) were compared when extracting the MVA from the EMG envelope. The EMG activity was also acquired during an arm elevation. Our results show that a combination of nine MVIC tests was required to meet our requirements including reproducibility. Both the number of MVIC tests and the size of the time constant influence the normalized EMG signal during the dynamic activity (variations up to 15%). A time constant of 1s was a good compromise to extract the MVA. These findings are valuable to improve the reproducibility of EMG signal normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  8. Optimal Reorientation Of Spacecraft Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelnokov Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal reorientation of the spacecraft orbit is considered. For solving the problem we used quaternion equations of motion written in rotating coordinate system. The use of quaternion variables makes this consideration more efficient. The problem of optimal control is solved on the basis of the maximum principle. An example of numerical solution of the problem is given.

  9. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  10. Portfolio Methods for Optimal Planning: an Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzini, Mattia; Fawcett, Chris; Vallati, Mauro; Gerevini, Alfonso Emilio; Hoos, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Combining the complementary strengths of several algorithms through portfolio approaches has been demonstrated to be effective in solving a wide range of AI problems. Notably, portfolio techniques have been prominently applied to suboptimal (satisficing) AI planning. Here, we consider the construction of sequential planner portfolios for (domain- independent) optimal planning. Specifically, we introduce four techniques (three of which are dynamic) for per-instance planner schedule generation ...

  11. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  12. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  13. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  14. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN by Considering SHM Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Naresh Babu, Merugu; Raju, Kota Solomon, Dr; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar, Dr; Jain, Vaibhav

    2017-08-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network is composed of a significant number of autonomous nodes deployed in an extensive or remote area. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, processing speed and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. In WSN all nodes are not directly connected. The primary objective for all kind of WSN is to enhance and optimize the network lifetime i.e. to minimize the energy consumption in the WSN. There are lots of applications of WSN out of which this research paper focuses upon the Structural Health Monitoring application in which 50 Meter bridge has been taken as a test application for the simulation purpose.

  15. Developing a conservation strategy to maximize persistence of an endangered freshwater mussel species while considering management effectiveness and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; McRae, Sarah E.; Augspurger, Tom; Ratcliffe, Judith A.; Nichols, Robert B.; Eads, Chris B.; Savidge, Tim; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2015-01-01

    We used a structured decision-making process to develop conservation strategies to increase persistence of Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in North Carolina, USA, while accounting for uncertainty in management effectiveness and considering costs. Alternative conservation strategies were portfolios of management actions that differed by location of management actions on the landscape. Objectives of the conservation strategy were to maximize species persistence, maintain genetic diversity, maximize public support, and minimize management costs. We compared 4 conservation strategies: 1) the ‘status quo’ strategy represented current management, 2) the ‘protect the best’ strategy focused on protecting the best populations in the Tar River basin, 3) the ‘expand the distribution’ strategy focused on management of extant populations and establishment of new populations in the Neuse River basin, and 4) the ‘hybrid’ strategy combined elements of each strategy to balance conservation in the Tar and Neuse River basins. A population model informed requirements for population management, and experts projected performance of alternative strategies over a 20-y period. The optimal strategy depended on the relative value placed on competing objectives, which can vary among stakeholders. The protect the best and hybrid strategies were optimal across a wide range of relative values with 2 exceptions: 1) if minimizing management cost was of overriding concern, then status quo was optimal, or 2) if maximizing population persistence in the Neuse River basin was emphasized, then expand the distribution strategy was optimal. The optimal strategy was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Overall, the structured decision process can help identify the most promising strategies for endangered species conservation that maximize conservation benefit given the constraint of limited funding.

  16. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  17. PTV-based IMPT optimization incorporating planning risk volumes vs robust optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wei; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Ron. X.; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Li Yupeng [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Robust optimization leads to intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans that are less sensitive to uncertainties and superior in terms of organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing, target dose coverage, and homogeneity compared to planning target volume (PTV)-based optimized plans. Robust optimization incorporates setup and range uncertainties, which implicitly adds margins to both targets and OARs and is also able to compensate for perturbations in dose distributions within targets and OARs caused by uncertainties. In contrast, the traditional PTV-based optimization considers only setup uncertainties and adds a margin only to targets but no margins to the OARs. It also ignores range uncertainty. The purpose of this work is to determine if robustly optimized plans are superior to PTV-based plans simply because the latter do not assign margins to OARs during optimization. Methods: The authors retrospectively selected from their institutional database five patients with head and neck (H and N) cancer and one with prostate cancer for this analysis. Using their original images and prescriptions, the authors created new IMPT plans using three methods: PTV-based optimization, optimization based on the PTV and planning risk volumes (PRVs) (i.e., 'PTV+PRV-based optimization'), and robust optimization using the 'worst-case' dose distribution. The PRVs were generated by uniformly expanding OARs by 3 mm for the H and N cases and 5 mm for the prostate case. The dose-volume histograms (DVHs) from the worst-case dose distributions were used to assess and compare plan quality. Families of DVHs for each uncertainty for all structures of interest were plotted along with the nominal DVHs. The width of the 'bands' of DVHs was used to quantify the plan sensitivity to uncertainty. Results: Compared with conventional PTV-based and PTV+PRV-based planning, robust optimization led to a smaller bandwidth for the targets in the face of uncertainties {l

  18. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  19. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  20. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  1. Optimal Taxation with Behavioral Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Xavier Gabaix

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of optimal taxation with behavioral agents. We use a general behavioral framework that encompasses a wide range of behavioral biases such as misperceptions, internalities and mental accounting. We revisit the three pillars of optimal taxation: Ramsey (linear commodity taxation to raise revenues and redistribute), Pigou (linear commodity taxation to correct externalities) and Mirrlees (nonlinear income taxation). We show how the canonical optimal tax formulas are m...

  2. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Frajtova-Michalikova, Katarina; Spuchľakova, Erika; Misankova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  3. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saeed Soltani; Abbas Soltani

    2015-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA) optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  4. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... and sizing of solar CSs using energy storage (ES) options is presented. Also, behavior of EVs in the presence of other loads, electricity price and solar power generation uncertainties are considered. The proposed optimization model maximizes the distribution company (DisCo) benefit by appropriate use of CSs...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  5. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  6. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  9. Rethinking the intensive care environment: considering nature in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  11. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  12. Optimization of seismic isolation systems via harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melih Nigdeli, Sinan; Bekdaş, Gebrail; Alhan, Cenk

    2014-11-01

    In this article, the optimization of isolation system parameters via the harmony search (HS) optimization method is proposed for seismically isolated buildings subjected to both near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. To obtain optimum values of isolation system parameters, an optimization program was developed in Matlab/Simulink employing the HS algorithm. The objective was to obtain a set of isolation system parameters within a defined range that minimizes the acceleration response of a seismically isolated structure subjected to various earthquakes without exceeding a peak isolation system displacement limit. Several cases were investigated for different isolation system damping ratios and peak displacement limitations of seismic isolation devices. Time history analyses were repeated for the neighbouring parameters of optimum values and the results proved that the parameters determined via HS were true optima. The performance of the optimum isolation system was tested under a second set of earthquakes that was different from the first set used in the optimization process. The proposed optimization approach is applicable to linear isolation systems. Isolation systems composed of isolation elements that are inherently nonlinear are the subject of a future study. Investigation of the optimum isolation system parameters has been considered in parametric studies. However, obtaining the best performance of a seismic isolation system requires a true optimization by taking the possibility of both near-fault and far-fault earthquakes into account. HS optimization is proposed here as a viable solution to this problem.

  13. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  14. Study on multi-objective flexible job-shop scheduling problem considering energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Build a multi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem(FJSP optimization model, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered, then Design a Modified Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II based on blood variation for above scheduling model.Design/methodology/approach: A multi-objective optimization theory based on Pareto optimal method is used in carrying out the optimization model. NSGA-II is used to solve the model.Findings: By analyzing the research status and insufficiency of multi-objective FJSP, Find that the difference in scheduling will also have an effect on energy consumption in machining process and environmental emissions. Therefore, job-shop scheduling requires not only guaranteeing the processing quality, time and cost, but also optimizing operation plan of machines and minimizing energy consumption.Originality/value: A multi-objective FJSP optimization model is put forward, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered. According to above model, Blood-Variation-based NSGA-II (BVNSGA-II is designed. In which, the chromosome mutation rate is determined after calculating the blood relationship between two cross chromosomes, crossover and mutation strategy of NSGA-II is optimized and the prematurity of population is overcome. Finally, the performance of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a case study, and the results proved the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. Power management of remote microgrids considering battery lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Currently, 20% (1.3 billion) of the world's population still lacks access to electricity and many live in remote areas where connection to the grid is not economical or practical. Remote microgrids could be the solution to the problem because they are designed to provide power for small communities within clearly defined electrical boundaries. Reducing the cost of electricity for remote microgrids can help to increase access to electricity for populations in remote areas and developing countries. The integration of renewable energy and batteries in diesel based microgrids has shown to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. However, the operational cost remains high due to the low lifetime of batteries, which are heavily used to improve the system's efficiency. In microgrid operation, a battery can act as a source to augment the generator or a load to ensure full load operation. In addition, a battery increases the utilization of PV by storing extra energy. However, the battery has a limited energy throughput. Therefore, it is required to provide balance between fuel consumption and battery lifetime throughput in order to lower the cost of operation. This work presents a two-layer power management system for remote microgrids. First layer is day ahead scheduling, where power set points of dispatchable resources were calculated. Second layer is real time dispatch, where schedule set points from the first layer are accepted and resources are dispatched accordingly. A novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for a dispatch layer, which considers the battery lifetime in optimization and is expected to reduce the operational cost of the microgrid. This method is based on a goal programming approach which has the fuel and the battery wear cost as two objectives to achieve. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated through a simulation study of a PV-diesel hybrid microgrid using deterministic and stochastic approach of optimization.

  16. Feature Selection via Chaotic Antlion Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawbaa, Hossam M; Emary, E; Grosan, Crina

    2016-01-01

    Selecting a subset of relevant properties from a large set of features that describe a dataset is a challenging machine learning task. In biology, for instance, the advances in the available technologies enable the generation of a very large number of biomarkers that describe the data. Choosing the more informative markers along with performing a high-accuracy classification over the data can be a daunting task, particularly if the data are high dimensional. An often adopted approach is to formulate the feature selection problem as a biobjective optimization problem, with the aim of maximizing the performance of the data analysis model (the quality of the data training fitting) while minimizing the number of features used. We propose an optimization approach for the feature selection problem that considers a "chaotic" version of the antlion optimizer method, a nature-inspired algorithm that mimics the hunting mechanism of antlions in nature. The balance between exploration of the search space and exploitation of the best solutions is a challenge in multi-objective optimization. The exploration/exploitation rate is controlled by the parameter I that limits the random walk range of the ants/prey. This variable is increased iteratively in a quasi-linear manner to decrease the exploration rate as the optimization progresses. The quasi-linear decrease in the variable I may lead to immature convergence in some cases and trapping in local minima in other cases. The chaotic system proposed here attempts to improve the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. The methodology is evaluated using different chaotic maps on a number of feature selection datasets. To ensure generality, we used ten biological datasets, but we also used other types of data from various sources. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimizer and with genetic algorithm variants for feature selection using a set of quality metrics.

  17. Feature Selection via Chaotic Antlion Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Zawbaa

    Full Text Available Selecting a subset of relevant properties from a large set of features that describe a dataset is a challenging machine learning task. In biology, for instance, the advances in the available technologies enable the generation of a very large number of biomarkers that describe the data. Choosing the more informative markers along with performing a high-accuracy classification over the data can be a daunting task, particularly if the data are high dimensional. An often adopted approach is to formulate the feature selection problem as a biobjective optimization problem, with the aim of maximizing the performance of the data analysis model (the quality of the data training fitting while minimizing the number of features used.We propose an optimization approach for the feature selection problem that considers a "chaotic" version of the antlion optimizer method, a nature-inspired algorithm that mimics the hunting mechanism of antlions in nature. The balance between exploration of the search space and exploitation of the best solutions is a challenge in multi-objective optimization. The exploration/exploitation rate is controlled by the parameter I that limits the random walk range of the ants/prey. This variable is increased iteratively in a quasi-linear manner to decrease the exploration rate as the optimization progresses. The quasi-linear decrease in the variable I may lead to immature convergence in some cases and trapping in local minima in other cases. The chaotic system proposed here attempts to improve the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. The methodology is evaluated using different chaotic maps on a number of feature selection datasets. To ensure generality, we used ten biological datasets, but we also used other types of data from various sources. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimizer and with genetic algorithm variants for feature selection using a set of quality metrics.

  18. Energy methods for hypersonic trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Chang

    A family of near-optimal guidance laws for the ascent and descent trajectories between earth surface and earth orbit of fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal flight path. The method is based on selecting propulsion system modes and flight-path parameters that maximize a certain performance function. This function is derived from consideration of the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. For ascent trajectories of vehicles employing hydrogen fuel, because the density of liquid hydrogen is relatively low, the sensitivity to perturbations in volume needs to be taken into consideration as well as weight sensitivity. The cost functional is then a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize vehicle empty weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit. Both airbreathing/rocket and all rocket propulsion systems are considered. For airbreathing/rocket vehicles, the optimal propulsion switching Mach numbers are determined and the use of liquid oxygen augmentation is investigated. For the vehicles with all rocket power, the desirability of tripropellant systems is investigated. In addition, time and heat load is minimized as well. For descent trajectories, the trade-off between minimizing heat load into the vehicle and maximizing cross range distance is investigated, as well as minimum time and minimum temperature paths. The results show that the optimization methodology can be used to derive a wide variety of near-optimal launch vehicle trajectories.

  19. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  20. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in the simulation. Based on the optimization, an optimal rudder angle is recommended to navigator for collision avoidance. In the simulation example, a crossing encounter situation is simulated, and the NSGA-II searches for the optimal collision avoidance operation under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS. The simulation studies exhibit the validity of the method.

  1. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...

  2. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining an...

  3. Stiffened Composite Fuselage Barrel Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, R. G.; Mittal, A.; Agrawal, K.; Upadhyay, C. S.

    2012-07-01

    In a typical commercial transport aircraft, Stiffened skin panels and frames contribute around 40% of the fuselage weight. In the current study a stiffened composite fuselage skin panel optimization engine is developed for optimization of the layups of composite panels and stringers using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The skin and stringers of the fuselage section are optimized for the strength and the stability requirements. The selection of the GA parameters considered for the optimization is arrived by performing case studies on selected problems. The optimization engine facilitates in carrying out trade studies for selection of the optimum ply layup and material combination for the configuration being analyzed. The optimization process is applied on a sample model and the results are presented.

  4. Multivariate stochastic generation of daily streamflows considering climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    For the optimal planning and derivation of operation rules for multi-purpose reservoir systems very long time series of daily streamflows are required. Stochastic streamflow models can provide these data. While stochastic generation of monthly time series is state of the art, the synthesis of daily flows at multiple sites is still a challenging task. Recently, nonparametric k - nearest neighbor resampling techniques have been applied successfully for the generation of daily streamflows at multiple sites. The objective of this study to employ k-nn resampling for the simulation of multivariate daily streamflows under changed climate conditions. Observed daily streamflows are resampled conditioned on observed and simulated climate variables from regional climate models considering past and future scenarios. The resampling is done in a three step-procedure: 1) annual or biannual flows for an index station representing the flow sum over all considered gauges are generated; 2) the flow sum is spatially disaggregated by resampling station flow proportions from observed data; 3) the individual annual/ biannual flows for all gauges are temporally disaggregated to daily data by resampling daily flow proportions. The method is applied for a reservoir system in the Harz mountains in Germany comprising five streamflow gauges with long daily observations. Climate data from observations and from the regional climate models REMO and WETTREG are used for conditioning. The method is parsimonious, easy to understand and very fast. It simulates all observed statistics well and provides significant change signals concerning future flows. Problems are the restricted ability of the technique to model values not seen in the observations, which however concern only single extreme daily and monthly values.

  5. Optimized aperiodic multilayer structures for use as narrow-angular absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Christopher H., E-mail: cgrani1@lsu.edu; Dowling, Jonathan P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute of Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Afzal, Francis O. [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501,USA (United States); Lorenzo, Simón G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute of Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Reyes, Mario [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, California State University, San Bernardino, California 92407 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute of Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Veronis, Georgios [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    In this paper, we investigate aperiodic multilayer structures for use as narrow-angular absorbers. The layer thicknesses and materials are optimized using a genetic global optimization algorithm coupled to a transfer matrix code to maximize the angular selectivity in the absorptance at a single or multiple wavelengths. We first consider structures composed of alternating layers of tungsten and silicon or silica, and find that it is not possible to achieve angular selectivity in the absorptance with such structures. We next consider structures composed of alternating layers of silicon and silica, and show that when optimized they exhibit high angular selectivity in absorptance. In addition, as the angular selectivity in absorptance increases, the wavelength range of high angular selectivity also decreases. Optimizing the material composition of the multilayer structures, in addition to optimizing the layer thicknesses, leads to marginal improvement in angular selectivity. Finally, we show that by optimizing the absorptance of the multilayer structures at multiple wavelengths, we can obtain structures exhibiting almost perfect absorptance at normal incidence and narrow angular width in absorptance at these wavelengths. Similar to the structures optimized at a single wavelength, the wavelength range of high angularly selective absorptance is narrow.

  6. Study on Material Parameters Identification of Brain Tissue Considering Uncertainty of Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Accurate material parameters are critical to construct the high biofidelity finite element (FE) models. However, it is hard to obtain the brain tissue parameters accurately because of the effects of irregular geometry and uncertain boundary conditions. Considering the complexity of material test and the uncertainty of friction coefficient, a computational inverse method for viscoelastic material parameters identification of brain tissue is presented based on the interval analysis method. Firstly, the intervals are used to quantify the friction coefficient in the boundary condition. And then the inverse problem of material parameters identification under uncertain friction coefficient is transformed into two types of deterministic inverse problem. Finally the intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the two types of deterministic inverse problems quickly and accurately, and the range of material parameters can be easily acquired with no need of a variety of samples. The efficiency and convergence of this method are demonstrated by the material parameters identification of thalamus. The proposed method provides a potential effective tool for building high biofidelity human finite element model in the study of traffic accident injury.

  7. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.

    1994-01-01

    Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... be used in interactive optimization....

  8. Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper structural elements from an optimization point of view are considered, i.e. only the geometry of a structural element is optimized. Reliability modelling of the structural element is discussed both from an element point of view and from a system point of view. The optimization...

  9. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  10. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  11. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Yew Wong, Kuan

    2013-06-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  12. Channel Coordination in Logistics Service Supply Chain considering Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics service supply chain (LSSC is a new type of service supply chain. This paper investigates the channel coordination issue in a two-echelon LSSC composed of one logistics service integrator (LSI and one functional logistics service provider (FLSP under fairness concerns. The models for a reservation price-only contract under disadvantageous inequality and advantageous inequality are established, respectively, in which the procurement cost, the potential shortage cost, and the operation cost are considered under stochastic market demand. Based on this model, the LSI’s optimal reservation quantity can be determined. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of fairness concerns and the related costs on channel performance and channel coordination. The results are presented in four aspects: (1 channel coordination of the LSSC can be achieved under certain conditions when the LSI experiences advantageous inequality; (2 the spiteful behavior of the LSI leads to the reduction of the channel profit, and channel coordination cannot be achieved when the LSI suffers from disadvantageous inequality; (3 the LSI’s reservation quantity and the channel profit are affected by the LSI’s fairness concerns; (4 motivated by the concerns of fairness, the LSI’s reservation quantity is related not only to his procurement cost and shortage cost but also to the FLSP’s operation cost.

  13. Importance Has Been Considered in Satisfaction Evaluation: An Experimental Examination of Locke's Range-of-Affect Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-huei; Yao, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Importance weighting is a common practice in quality of life (QOL) measurement research. Based on the widespread idea that important domains should make a greater contribution to individuals' QOL total score, the weighting procedure of multiplying item satisfaction by an item's importance has been adopted in many QOL instruments. Locke's [1969,…

  14. On the reformulation of topology optimization problems as linear or convex quadratic mixed 0-1 programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    linear or as convex quadratic mixed 0-1 programs. The reformulations provide new insight into the structure of the problems and may provide a foundation for the development of new methods and heuristics for solving topology optimization problems. The applications considered are maximum stiffness design......We consider equivalent reformulations of nonlinear mixed 0-1 optimization problems arising from a broad range of recent applications of topology optimization for the design of continuum structures and composite materials. It is shown that the considered problems may equivalently be cast as either...... of structures subjected to either static or periodic loads, design of composite materials with prescribed homogenized properties using the inverse homogenization approach, optimization of fluids in Stokes flow, design of band gap structures, and multi-physics problems involving coupled steady-state heat...

  15. On the reformulation of topology optimization problems as linear or convex quadratic mixed 0–1 programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    linear or convex quadratic mixed 0–1 programs. The reformulations provide new insight into the structure of the problems and may provide a foundation for the development of new methods and heuristics for solving topology optimization problems. The applications considered are maximum stiffness design......We consider equivalent reformulations of nonlinear mixed 0–1 optimization problems arising from a broad range of recent applications of topology optimization for the design of continuum structures and composite materials. We show that the considered problems can equivalently be cast as either...... of structures subjected to static or periodic loads, design of composite materials with prescribed homogenized properties using the inverse homogenization approach, optimization of fluids in Stokes flow, design of band gap structures, and multi-physics problems involving coupled steady-state heat conduction...

  16. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  17. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  18. Model predictive control for continuous piecewise affine systems using optimistic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; van den Boom, A.J.J.; Busoniu, L; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Chiu, George; Johnson, Katie; Abramovitch, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers model predictive control for continuous piecewise affine (PWA) systems. In general, this leads to a nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. We introduce an approach based on optimistic optimization to solve the resulting optimization problem. Optimistic optimization is based

  19. Optimization of Image Quality and Dose in Digital Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Agnes M F; Lopes, M C; de Sousa, M C; Furquim, Tânia A C; Mol, Anderson W; Velasco, Fermin G

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, the optimization in digital mammography is one of the most important challenges in diagnostic radiology. The new digital technology has introduced additional elements to be considered in this scenario. A major goal of mammography is related to the detection of structures on the order of micrometers (μm) and the need to distinguish the different types of tissues, with very close density values. The diagnosis in mammography faces the difficulty that the breast tissues and pathological findings have very close linear attenuation coefficients within the energy range used in mammography. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing exposure parameters of digital mammography based on a new Figure of Merit: FOM ≡ (IQF inv ) 2 /AGD, considering the image quality and dose. The study was conducted using the digital mammography Senographe DS/GE, and CDMAM and TORMAM phantoms. The characterization of clinical practice, carried out in the mammography system under study, was performed considering different breast thicknesses, the technical parameters of exposure, and processing options of images used by the equipment's automatic exposure system. The results showed a difference between the values of the optimized parameters and those ones chosen by the automatic system of the mammography unit, specifically for small breast. The optimized exposure parameters showed better results than those obtained by the automatic system of the mammography, for the image quality parameters and its impact on detection of breast structures when analyzed by radiologists.

  20. Derived flood frequency distributions considering individual event hydrograph shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Sonia; Guo, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Derived in this paper is the frequency distribution of the peak discharge rate of a random runoff event from a small urban catchment. The derivation follows the derived probability distribution procedure and incorporates a catchment rainfall-runoff model with approximating shapes for individual runoff event hydrographs. In the past, only simple triangular runoff event hydrograph shapes were used, in this study approximating runoff event hydrograph shapes better representing all the possibilities are considered. The resulting closed-form mathematical equations are converted to the commonly required flood frequency distributions for use in urban stormwater management studies. The analytically determined peak discharge rates of different return periods for a wide range of hypothetical catchment conditions were compared to those determined from design storm modeling. The newly derived equations generated results that are closer to those from design storm modeling and provide a better alternative for use in urban stormwater management studies.

  1. A novel hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer with multi verse optimizer for global numerical optimization and Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Jangir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent trend of research is to hybridize two and more algorithms to obtain superior solution in the field of optimization problems. In this context, a new technique hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-Multi verse Optimizer (MVO is exercised on some unconstraint benchmark test functions and the most common problem of the modern power system named Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch (ORPD is optimized using the novel hybrid meta-heuristic optimization algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization-Multi Verse Optimizer (HPSO-MVO method. Hybrid PSO-MVO is combination of PSO used for exploitation phase and MVO for exploration phase in uncertain environment. Position and Speed of particle is modernised according to location of universes in each iteration. The hybrid PSO-MVO method has a fast convergence rate due to use of roulette wheel selection method. For the ORPD solution, standard IEEE-30 bus test system is used. The hybrid PSO-MVO method is implemented to solve the proposed problem. The problems considered in the ORPD are fuel cost reduction, Voltage profile improvement, Voltage stability enhancement, Active power loss minimization and Reactive power loss minimization. The results obtained with hybrid PSO-MVO method is compared with other techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Multi Verse Optimizer (MVO. Analysis of competitive results obtained from HPSO-MVO validates its effectiveness compare to standard PSO and MVO algorithm.

  2. Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β{sub c} of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment.

  3. Optimal Design of Algae Biorefinery Processing Networks for the production of Protein, Ethanol and Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Vivion, Anthony; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    analysis such as microalgae production cost, composition of microalgae (e.g. oil content) and biodiesel/bioethanol market prices is considered. New optimal processing paths are found with potential of producing higher amount of biodiesel. Last, the methodology is intended as decision support tool for early......In this study, optimal design of algal biorefinery using microalgae with respect to techno-economic criteria is studied. A systematic methodology using superstructure-based optimization is used to this end. A superstructure representing a wide range of technologies developed for processing...... microalgae to produce end products is formulated. The corresponding technical and economic data is collected and structured using a generic input-output mass balance models. An optimization problem is formulated and solved to identify the optimal designs. The effect of uncertainties inherent in economic...

  4. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  5. Numerical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    optimization (as opposed to the so-called "pivotal" methods, such as the simplex method for linear pro- gramming), with special consideration for the...to be of the same order of one step of Karmarkar’s algorithm. While one step of the classical simplex algorithm [13] for linear pro- gramming is much...memoria d; Carlo Cartaneo, maestro ed amkco RIASSUNTO - Si considera un nuovo metodo per la risoluzione numeraca eta di sistern. di eqiuazioni non lineari

  6. Optimal Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joao F; Livdan, Dmitry

    2002-01-01

    In this Paper we show that the main empirical findings about firm diversification and performance are actually consistent with the optimal behavior of a firm that maximizes shareholder value. In our model, diversification allows a firm to explore better productive opportunities while taking advantage of economies of scale. The dynamic structure of our model allows us to examine several aspects of the relationship between firm diversification and performance in a very general setting.

  7. FPGA based hardware optimized implementation of signal processing system for LFM pulsed radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Noor ul; Jun, Wang

    2016-11-01

    Signal processing is one of the main parts of any radar system. Different signal processing algorithms are used to extract information about different parameters like range, speed, direction etc, of a target in the field of radar communication. This paper presents LFM (Linear Frequency Modulation) pulsed radar signal processing algorithms which are used to improve target detection, range resolution and to estimate the speed of a target. Firstly, these algorithms are simulated in MATLAB to verify the concept and theory. After the conceptual verification in MATLAB, the simulation is converted into implementation on hardware using Xilinx FPGA. Chosen FPGA is Xilinx Virtex-6 (XC6LVX75T). For hardware implementation pipeline optimization is adopted and also other factors are considered for resources optimization in the process of implementation. Focusing algorithms in this work for improving target detection, range resolution and speed estimation are hardware optimized fast convolution processing based pulse compression and pulse Doppler processing.

  8. An adaptive reentry guidance method considering the influence of blackout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yao, Jianyao; Qu, Xiangju

    2018-01-01

    Reentry guidance has been researched as a popular topic because it is critical for a successful flight. In view that the existing guidance methods do not take into account the accumulated navigation error of Inertial Navigation System (INS) in the blackout zone, in this paper, an adaptive reentry guidance method is proposed to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory quickly with the target of minimum aerodynamic heating rate. The terminal error in position and attitude can be also reduced with the proposed method. In this method, the whole reentry guidance task is divided into two phases, i.e., the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phase. In the first phase, the idea of model predictive control (MPC) is used, and the receding optimization procedure ensures the optimal trajectory in the next few seconds. In the trajectory planning phase, after the vehicle has flown out of the blackout zone, the optimal reentry trajectory is obtained by online planning to adapt to the navigation information. An effective swarm intelligence algorithm, i.e. pigeon inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm, is applied to obtain the optimal reentry trajectory in both of the two phases. Compared to the trajectory updating method, the proposed method can reduce the terminal error by about 30% considering both the position and attitude, especially, the terminal error of height has almost been eliminated. Besides, the PIO algorithm performs better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm both in the trajectory updating phase and the trajectory planning phases.

  9. Trends and Cut-Point Changes in Obesity Parameters by Age Groups Considering Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Jun; Hong, Young Ho; Cho, Yun Jung; Lee, Ji Eun; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuktae; Kim, Sang Hyuck

    2018-02-12

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an important issue worldwide. Obesity has a close relationship with NCDs. Various age-related changes should be considered when evaluating obesity. National representative cohort data from the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort from 2012 to 2013 were used. Sex-specific and age group-specific (10-year intervals) means for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) were calculated. Optimal cut-points for obesity parameters were defined as the value predicting two or more components of metabolic syndrome (except WC). The mean value and optimal cut-point for BMI decreased with age for men. The mean BMI value for women increased with age, but optimal cut-points showed no remarkable difference. The mean WC of men increased with age, but the optimal cut-points were similar for age groups. For women, the mean value and optimal cut-point for WC increased with age. Regarding WtHR, the mean value and optimal cut-point increased with age for men and women. Differences across age groups were larger for women. The mean values of the obesity indices and the optimal cut-points were changed according to age groups. This study supports the necessity of applying age group-specific cut-points for the various obesity parameters.

  10. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  11. A Multi-Objective Demand Side Management Considering ENS Cost in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Ghassemzadeh, Saeid; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented to achieve economic exploitation and proper usage of network capacity by exerting controlling actions over flexible loads and energy storage (ES) equipment. Multi-objective planning for demand response programs (DRP) and battery management policies is carried...... out by considering energy not supplied (ENS). In order to achieve an optimal scheduling, charge/discharge control for batteries, demand response programs and dispatch of controllable distributed generations (DGs) are also considered. Then, the balanced cost and benefits of participants are evaluated....... As a whole, the main objective of this paper is to manage the load and energy storage options in a smart grid to reduce ENS, to minimize overall operation cost and to maximize DG operators’ (DGOs) profit. These goals are obtained by considering ENS cost in a multi-objective optimization problem. Distribution...

  12. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  13. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  14. Well-posed optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dontchev, Asen L

    1993-01-01

    This book presents in a unified way the mathematical theory of well-posedness in optimization. The basic concepts of well-posedness and the links among them are studied, in particular Hadamard and Tykhonov well-posedness. Abstract optimization problems as well as applications to optimal control, calculus of variations and mathematical programming are considered. Both the pure and applied side of these topics are presented. The main subject is often introduced by heuristics, particular cases and examples. Complete proofs are provided. The expected knowledge of the reader does not extend beyond textbook (real and functional) analysis, some topology and differential equations and basic optimization. References are provided for more advanced topics. The book is addressed to mathematicians interested in optimization and related topics, and also to engineers, control theorists, economists and applied scientists who can find here a mathematical justification of practical procedures they encounter.

  15. Optimal design of beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  16. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  17. Acoustic design by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...... in the density and bulk modulus. The objective function is the squared sound pressure amplitude. First, room acoustic problems are considered and it is shown that the sound level can be reduced in a certain part of the room by an optimized distribution of reflecting material in a design domain along the ceiling...

  18. Maximin Optimal Designs for Cluster Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Wong, Weng Kee; Crespi, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary We consider design issues for cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with a binary outcome where both unit costs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in the two arms may be unequal. We first propose a design that maximizes cost efficiency (CE), defined as the ratio of the precision of the efficacy measure to the study cost. Because such designs can be highly sensitive to the unknown ICCs and the anticipated success rates in the two arms, a local strategy based on a single set of best guesses for the ICCs and success rates can be risky. To mitigate this issue, we propose a maximin optimal design that permits ranges of values to be specified for the success rate and the ICC in each arm. We derive maximin optimal designs for three common measures of the efficacy of the intervention, risk difference, relative risk and odds ratio, and study their properties. Using a real cancer control and prevention trial example, we ascertain the efficiency of the widely used balanced design relative to the maximin optimal design and show that the former can be quite inefficient and less robust to mis-specifications of the ICCs and the success rates in the two arms. PMID:28182835

  19. Improvement of sampling strategies for randomly distributed hotspots in soil applying a computerized simulation considering the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Pick, Denis; Einax, Jürgen W

    2012-02-01

    The pollution of soil and environment as a result of human activity is a major problem. Nowadays, the determination of local contaminations is of interest for environmental remediation. These hotspots can have various toxic effects on plants, animals, humans, and the whole ecological system. However, economical and juridical consequences are also possible, e.g., high costs for remediation measures. In this study three sampling strategies (simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and systematic sampling) were applied on randomly distributed hotspot contaminations to prove their efficiency in term of finding hotspots. The results were used for the validation of a computerized simulation. This application can simulate the contamination on a field, the sampling pattern, and a virtual sampling. A constant hit rate showed that none of the sampling patterns could reach better results than others. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the results is described by confidence intervals. It is to be considered that the uncertainty during sampling is enormous and will decrease slightly, even the number of samples applied was increased to an unreasonable amount. It is hardly possible to identify the exact number of randomly distributed hotspot contaminations by statistical sampling. But a range of possible results could be calculated. Depending on various parameters such as shape and size of the area, number of hotspots, and sample quantity, optimal sampling strategies could be derived. Furthermore, an estimation of bias arising from sampling methodology is possible. The developed computerized simulation is an innovative tool for optimizing sampling strategies in terrestrial compartments for hotspot distributions.

  20. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  1. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...... to an introductory course in numerical analysis. The algorithms presented in the note appear in any good program library, and implementations can be found via GAMS (Guide to Available Mathematical Software) at the Internet address http://gams.nist.gov The examples in the note were computed in Matlab. The programs...

  2. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  3. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22 years...

  4. Optimal asymptotic cloning machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiribella, Giulio; Yang, Yuxiang

    2014-06-01

    We pose the question whether the asymptotic equivalence between quantum cloning and quantum state estimation, valid at the single-clone level, still holds when all clones are examined globally. We conjecture that the answer is affirmative and present a large amount of evidence supporting our conjecture, developing techniques to derive optimal asymptotic cloners and proving their equivalence with estimation in virtually all scenarios considered in the literature. Our analysis covers the case of arbitrary finite sets of states, arbitrary families of coherent states, arbitrary phase- and multiphase-covariant sets of states, and two-qubit maximally entangled states. In all these examples we observe that the optimal asymptotic cloners enjoy a universality property, consisting in the fact that scaling of their fidelity does not depend on the specific details of the input states, but only on the number of free parameters needed to specify them.

  5. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  6. A Strategy of Minimising Wind Power Curtailment by Considering Operation Capacity Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    An optimal wind power curtailment strategy considering operation capacity credit is proposed in this paper to minimize the uncertain wind power curtailment and minimize the system operation cost. The relevant definitions in capacity credit assessment are applied in the power system operation...... situation. Based on operation capacity credit prediction, the optimal operation control strategy is defined and implemented for hourly system operation and control. Multi-agent system based control structure is adopted to coordinate the diverse system components to work together and realize the system wide...

  7. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  8. Pulsed ion hall accelerator for investigation of reactions between light nuclei in the astrophysical energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritsky, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    The factors defining the constraints on the current characteristics of the magnetically insulated ion diode (IDM) are considered. The specific current parameters close to the maximum possible ones are obtained for the particular IDM-40 design assigned for acceleration of light ions and investigation of nuclear reactions with small cross sections in the astrophysical energy range (2-40 keV) in the entrance channel. It is experimentally demonstrated that the chosen optimal operation conditions for IDM-40 units provide high stability of the parameters (energy distribution and composition of accelerated particle beams, degree of neutralization) of the accelerated particle flux, which increases during the working pulse.

  9. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  10. The adhesion model considering capillarity for gecko attachment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-03-06

    Geckos make use of approximately a million microscale hairs (setae) that branch off into hundreds of nanoscale spatulae to cling to different smooth and rough surfaces and detach at will. This hierarchical surface construction gives the gecko the adaptability to create a large real area of contact with surfaces. It is known that van der Waals force is the primary mechanism used to adhere to surfaces, and capillary force is a secondary effect that can further increase adhesive force. To investigate the effects of capillarity on gecko adhesion, we considered the capillary force as well as the solid-to-solid interaction. The capillary force expressed in terms of elliptical integral is calculated by numerical method to cope with surfaces with a wide range of contact angles. The adhesion forces exerted by a single gecko spatula in contact with planes with different contact angles for various relative humidities are calculated, and the contributions of capillary force to total adhesion force are evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Finally, using the three-level hierarchical model recently developed to simulate a gecko seta contacting with random rough surface, the effect of the relative humidity and the hydrophobicity of surface on the gecko adhesion is investigated.

  11. Optimal superluminal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard; Wielonsky, Franck

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that significant effects in the "superluminal propagation" of light pulses cannot be observed without involving systems whose gain explodes outside the pulse spectrum. We explicitly determine the minimum norm of the gain to attain given superluminal effects and the transfer function of the corresponding optimal system. The gain norms, which would be required with the most efficient systems considered up to now (dispersive media, photonic barriers) to attain the same effects, are shown to exceed the minimum by several orders of magnitude. We finally estimate the largest superluminal advances which could be attained in a realistic experiment.

  12. MODIS Vegetation Indices time series improvement considering real acquisition dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S.; Borgogno Mondino, E.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite Vegetation Indices (VI) time series images are widely used for the characterization phenology, which requires a high temporal accuracy of the satellite data. The present work is based on the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD13Q1 product - Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 250m, which is generated through a maximum value compositing process that reduces the number of cloudy pixels and excludes, when possible, off-nadir ones. Because of its 16-days compositing period, the distance between two adjacent-in-time values within each pixel NDVI time series can range from 1 to 32 days, thus not acceptable for phenologic studies. Moreover, most of the available smoothing algorithms, which are widely used for phenology characterization, assume that data points are equidistant in time and contemporary over the image. The objective of this work was to assess temporal features of NDVI time series over a test area, composed by Castanea sativa (chestnut) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) pure pixels within the Piemonte region in Northwestern Italy. Firstly, NDVI, Pixel Reliability (PR) and Composite Day of the Year (CDOY) data ranging from 2000 to 2011 were extracted from MOD13Q1 and corresponding time series were generated (in further computations, 2000 was not considered since it is not complete because acquisition began in February and calibration is unreliable until October). Analysis of CDOY time series (containing the actual reference date of each NDVI value) over the selected study areas showed NDVI values to be prevalently generated from data acquired at the centre of each 16-days period (the 9th day), at least constantly along the year. This leads to consider each original NDVI value nominally placed to the centre of its 16-days reference period. Then, a new NDVI time series was generated: a) moving each NDVI value to its actual "acquisition" date, b) interpolating the obtained temporary time series through SPLINE functions, c) sampling such

  13. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices....... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  14. Remote sensing applications for range management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  15. Optimal produktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öje Danell

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Production in Reindeer Husbandry.There are three ways to optimize the reindeer herd: 1 Adjusting the reindeer number to pasture resources. 2 Keeping as many productive animals in the herd as possible through slaughter. 3 Increasing the herd quality through selection.Renhjorden bör optimeras så att den fungerar som en "skördeapparat" for bete och lämnar största möjliga bidrag till försörjningen för dem som lever av renskötsel. Det finns minst tre sätt att optimera renhjorden, nämligen (1 anpassning av djurantalet till betesresurserna så att djurens kondition och därmed produktiviteten kan bibehållas på hög nivå, (2 utforma renhjordens struktur med hjalp av slaktuttaget så att den innehåller så stor andel produktiva djur som möjligt, och (3 förbättra djurmaterialets produktionsmässiga kvalitet genom urval baserat på registrerad produktion. Betesanpassningen är den mest grundläggande åtgärden och ger den snabbaste effekten. Även hjordstrukturering är en åtgärd som ger relativt snabb effekt och som dessutom kan beslutas och utforas av den enskilde djuraägaren utan att störa den kollektiva renskötseln. Urval är en åtgärd som ger effekt först på längre sikt och därför kräver en konsekvent insats under en längre tid.

  16. Considering lost sale in inventory routing problems for perishable goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    to optimality for small instances and is used to obtain lower bounds for larger instances. We have also devised an efficient meta-heuristic algorithm to find good solutions for this class of problems based on Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS). Computational results indicate that, for small problems......, the average optimality gaps are less than 10.9% and 13.4% using linear and exponential lost sale functions, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the optimality gaps found by CPLEX grow exponentially with the problem size while those obtained by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm increase linearly....

  17. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  18. TFCX shielding optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Design analyses and tradeoff studies for the bulk shield of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) were performed. Several shielding options were considered to lower the capital cost of the shielding system. Optimization analyses were carried out to reduce the nuclear responses in the TF coils and the dose equivalent in the reactor hall one day after shutdown. Two TFCX designs with different toroidal field (TF) coil configurations were considered during this work. The materials for the shield were selected based upon tradeoff studies and the results from the previous design studies. The main shielding materials are water, concrete, and steel balls (Fe1422 or Nitronic 33). Small amounts of boron carbide and lead are employed to reduce activation, nuclear heating in the TF coils, and dose equivalent after shutdown.

  19. A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Feng; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a recently developed optimization method, which has attracted interest of researchers in various areas due to its simplicity and effectiveness, and many variants have been proposed. In this paper, a novel Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is presented, in which the information of the best neighbor of each particle and the best particle of the entire population in the current iteration is considered. Meanwhile, to avoid premature, an abandoned mechanism is used. Furthermore, for improving the global convergence speed of our algorithm, a chaotic search is adopted in the best solution of the current iteration. To verify the performance of our algorithm, standard test functions have been employed. The experimental results show that the algorithm is much more robust and efficient than some existing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms.

  20. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the certainty of the grade block model, it is necessary to increase the number of exploratory drillholes and collect more data from the deposit. The inputs of the process of locating these additional drillholes include the variogram model parameters, locations of the samples taken from the initial drillholes, and the geological block model. The uncertainties of these inputs will lead to uncertainties in the optimal locations of additional drillholes. Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  1. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  2. [SIAM conference on optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  3. Multiobjective muffler shape optimization with hybrid acoustics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Tuomas; Heikkola, Erkki

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers the combined use of a hybrid numerical method for the modeling of acoustic mufflers and a genetic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. The hybrid numerical method provides accurate modeling of sound propagation in uniform waveguides with non-uniform obstructions. It is based on coupling a wave based modal solution in the uniform sections of the waveguide to a finite element solution in the non-uniform component. Finite element method provides flexible modeling of complicated geometries, varying material parameters, and boundary conditions, while the wave based solution leads to accurate treatment of non-reflecting boundaries and straightforward computation of the transmission loss (TL) of the muffler. The goal of optimization is to maximize TL at multiple frequency ranges simultaneously by adjusting chosen shape parameters of the muffler. This task is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem with the objectives depending on the solution of the simulation model. NSGA-II genetic algorithm is used for solving the multiobjective optimization problem. Genetic algorithms can be easily combined with different simulation methods, and they are not sensitive to the smoothness properties of the objective functions. Numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy and feasibility of the model-based optimization method in muffler design. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Exergy optimization in a steady moving bed heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Verdugo, A; Almendros-Ibáñez, J A; Ruiz-Rivas, U; Santana, D

    2009-04-01

    This work provides an energy and exergy optimization analysis of a moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE). The exchanger is studied as a cross-flow heat exchanger where one of the phases is a moving granular medium. The optimal MBHE dimensions and the optimal particle diameter are obtained for a range of incoming fluid flow rates. The analyses are carried out over operation data of the exchanger obtained in two ways: a numerical simulation of the steady-state problem and an analytical solution of the simplified equations, neglecting the conduction terms. The numerical simulation considers, for the solid, the convection heat transfer to the fluid and the diffusion term in both directions, and for the fluid only the convection heat transfer to the solid. The results are compared with a well-known analytical solution (neglecting conduction effects) for the temperature distribution in the exchanger. Next, the analytical solution is used to derive an expression for the exergy destruction. The optimal length of the MBHE depends mainly on the flow rate and does not depend on particle diameter unless they become very small (thus increasing sharply the pressure drop). The exergy optimal length is always smaller than the thermal one, although the difference is itself small.

  5. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is considered a child. 416.1856 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We consider you to be a child if— (a)(1) You are under 18 years old; or (2) You are under 22 years old and you...

  6. Rapid indirect trajectory optimization on highly parallel computing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Thomas

    long range weapon system. The techniques used to construct an initial guess from an analytic near-ballistic trajectory and the methods used to formulate the necessary conditions of optimality in a manner that is transparent to the designer are discussed. Various hypothetical mission scenarios that enforce different combinations of initial, terminal, interior point and path constraints demonstrate the rapid construction of complex trajectories without requiring any a-priori insight into the structure of the solutions. Trajectory problems of this kind were previously considered impractical to solve using indirect methods. The performance of the GPU-accelerated solver is found to be 2x--4x faster than MATLAB's bvp4c, even while running on GPU hardware that is five years behind the state-of-the-art.

  7. Biofuel supply chain considering depreciation cost of installed plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabbani, Masoud; Ramezankhani, Farshad; Giahi, Ramin; Farshbaf-Geranmayeh, Amir

    2016-01-01

    .... Nowadays there has been a growing interest for biofuels. Thus, this paper reveals a general optimization model which enables the selection of preprocessing centers for the biomass, biofuel plants, and warehouses to store the biofuel...

  8. Dynamic Pricing for Demand Response Considering Market Price Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Ali Fotouhi Ghazvini; João Soares; Hugo Morais; Rui Castro; Zita Vale

    2017-01-01

    ...) units to avoid financial losses in the volatile electricity markets. In this paper, the problem of setting dynamic retail sales price by a REP is addressed with a robust optimization technique...

  9. Simulation-based process windows simultaneously considering two and three conflicting criteria in injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Alicia Berenice; Méndez-Vázquez, Yaileen; Cabrera-Ríos, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Process windows in injection molding are habitually built with only one performance measure in mind. In reality, a more realistic picture can be obtained when considering multiple performance measures at a time, especially in the presence of conflict. In this work, the construction of process windows for injection molding (IM) is undertaken considering two and three performance measures in conflict simultaneously. The best compromises between the criteria involved are identified through the direct application of the concept of Pareto-dominance in multiple criteria optimization. The aim is to provide a formal and realistic strategy to set processing conditions in IM operations. The resulting optimization approach is easily implementable in MS Excel. The solutions are presented graphically to facilitate their use in manufacturing plants.

  10. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based recreation...

  11. Factors to consider in the transition to digital radiological imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacDonald, David

    2009-02-01

    The dentist considering adopting digital radiological technology should consider more than the type of detector with which to capture the image. He\\/she should also consider the mode of display, image enhancement, radiation dose reduction, how the image can be stored long term, and infection control.

  12. Selective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Rossi, S. Smriglio, and A. Sassano. Models and algorithms for terrestrial digital broadcasting. Annals of Operations Research, 107(1):267–283, 2001...consists of a combination of person types t ∈ T , e.g., child, adult, or elderly . A vaccination policy v ∈ V is a delivery of vaccine to certain types of...w ∈ F , proving the forward inclusion . For the reverse inclusion , consider F ∈ FX . By definition, F is a face of P that does not intersectX , and

  13. Optimal Policy in OG Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiglino, Christian; Tvede, Mich

    2000-01-01

    for generations, through fiscal policy, i.e., monetary transfers and taxes. Situations both with and without time discounting are considered. It is shown that if the discount factor is sufficiently close to one then the optimal policy stabilizes the economy, i.e. the equilibrium path has the turnpike property....... Moreover the fiscal policy is shown to be time-consistent...

  14. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...

  15. Optimal Policy in OG Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiglino, Christian; Tvede, Mich

    for generations, through fiscal policy, i.e. monetary transfers and taxes. Both situations with and without time discounting are considered. It is shown that if the discount factor is suffciently close to one then the optimal policy stabilizes the economy, i.e. the equilibrium path has the turnpike property...

  16. The Chebyshev Hyperplane Optimization Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Still, Georg J.; Streng, Martin; Streng, M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the following problem. Given a finite set of pointsyj inR n we want to determine a hyperplane H such that the maximum Euclidean distance betweenH and the pointsyj is minimized. This problem(CHOP) is a non-convex optimization problem with a special structure. Forexample, all local minima

  17. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  18. Should an implanted defibrillator be considered in patients with vasospastic angina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschalier, Romain; Souteyrand, Géraud; Jean, Frédéric; Roux, Antoine; Combaret, Nicolas; Saludas, Yannick; Clerfond, Guillaume; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Citron, Bernard; Lusson, Jean-René; Brugada, Pedro; Motreff, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Vasospastic angina is a frequent and well-recognized pathology with a high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of vasospastic angina requires the combination of clinical and electrocardiographic variables and the results of provocation tests, such as ergonovine administration. Smoking cessation is the first step in the management of vasospastic angina. Optimal medical treatment using calcium-channel blockers and/or nitrate derivatives can provide protection, but life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias may occur despite optimal medical treatment and several years after the start of treatment. In this review, we evaluate the role of implantable defibrillators as a complement to optimal medical management in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias due to vasospastic angina; this role is not well characterized in the literature or guidelines. We discuss the role of implantable defibrillators in secondary prevention in light of three recent cases managed in our departments and a review of the literature. An implantable defibrillator was implanted in two of the three cases of vasospastic angina with ventricular arrhythmias that we managed. We considered secondary prevention by implantable defibrillator to be justified even in the absence of any obvious risk factor. Ventricular arrhythmias recurred during implantable defibrillator follow-up in the two patients implanted. In patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias due to vasospastic angina, an implantable defibrillator should be considered because of the risk of recurrence despite optimal medical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1993-11-09

    I consider here the optimization of the two component neutron source, allowing beam species and energy to vary. A simple model is developed, based on the earlier publications, that permits the optimum to be obtained simply. The two component plasma, with one species of hot ion (D{sup +} or T{sup +}) and the complementary species of cold ion, is easy to analyze in the case of a spatially uniform cold plasma, as to good approximation the total number of hot ions is important but not their spatial distribution. Consequently, the optimization can ignore spatial effects. The problem of a plasma with both types of hot ions and cold ions is rather more difficult, as the neutron production by hot-hot interactions is sensitive to their spatial distributions. Consequently, consideration of this problem will be delayed to a future memorandum. The basic model is that used in the published articles on the two-component, beam-plasma mirror source. I integrate the Fokker-Planck equation analytically, obtaining good agreement with previous numerical results. This simplifies the optimization, by providing a functional form for the neutron production. The primary result is expressed in terms of the power efficiency: watts of neutrons/watts of primary power. The latter includes the positive ion neutralization efficiency. At 150 keV, the present model obtains an efficiency of 0.66%, compared with 0.53% of the earlier calculation.

  20. Range contraction in large pelagic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P

    2011-07-19

    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range-abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11-29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range.

  1. Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by

  2. Aeroelastic Wingbox Stiffener Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This work considers an aeroelastic wingbox model seeded with run-out blade stiffeners along the skins. Topology optimization is conducted within the shell webs of the stiffeners, in order to add cutouts and holes for mass reduction. This optimization is done with a global-local approach in order to moderate the computational cost: aeroelastic loads are computed at the wing-level, but the topology and sizing optimization is conducted at the panel-level. Each panel is optimized separately under stress, buckling, and adjacency constraints, and periodically reassembled to update the trimmed aeroelastic loads. The resulting topology is baselined against a design with standard full-depth solid stiffener blades, and found to weigh 7.43% less.

  3. Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup

    allows for a higher degree of tailoring of the resulting material. To enable better utilization of the composite materials, optimum design procedures can be used to assist the engineer. This PhD thesis is focused on developing numerical methods for optimization of laminated composite structures...... nonlinear analysis of structures, buckling and post-buckling analysis of structures, and formulations for optimization of structures considering stiffness, buckling, and post-buckling criteria. Lastly, descriptions, main findings, and conclusions of the papers are presented. The papers forming the basis...... of the contributions of the PhD project are included in the second part of the thesis. Paper A presents a framework for free material optimization where commercially available finite element analysis software is used as analysis tool. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures by including...

  4. Method for Determining the Maximum Allowable Capacity of Wind Farm Based on Box Set Robust Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.

  5. Collaboration pathway(s) using new tools for optimizing operational climate monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Selva, Daniel; Dwyer, Morgan M.

    2014-10-01

    Consistently collecting the earth's climate signatures remains a priority for world governments and international scientific organizations. Architecting a solution requires transforming scientific missions into an optimized robust `operational' constellation that addresses the needs of decision makers, scientific investigators and global users for trusted data. The application of new tools offers pathways for global architecture collaboration. Recent (2014) rulebased decision engine modeling runs that targeted optimizing the intended NPOESS architecture, becomes a surrogate for global operational climate monitoring architecture(s). This rule-based systems tools provide valuable insight for Global climate architectures, through the comparison and evaluation of alternatives considered and the exhaustive range of trade space explored. A representative optimization of Global ECV's (essential climate variables) climate monitoring architecture(s) is explored and described in some detail with thoughts on appropriate rule-based valuations. The optimization tools(s) suggest and support global collaboration pathways and hopefully elicit responses from the audience and climate science shareholders.

  6. Usage of ensemble geothermal models to consider geological uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Steiner, Sarah; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The usage of geothermal energy for instance by borehole heat exchangers (BHE) is a promising concept for a sustainable supply of heat for buildings. BHE are closed pipe systems, in which a fluid is circulating. Heat from the surrounding rocks is transferred to the fluid purely by conduction. The fluid carries the heat to the surface, where it can be utilized. Larger arrays of BHE require typically previous numerical models. Motivations are the design of the system (number and depth of the required BHE) but also regulatory reasons. Especially such regulatory operating permissions often require maximum realistic models. Although such realistic models are possible in many cases with today's codes and computer resources, they are often expensive in terms of time and effort. A particular problem is the knowledge about the accuracy of the achieved results. An issue, which is often neglected while dealing with highly complex models, is the quantification of parameter uncertainties as a consequence of the natural heterogeneity of the geological subsurface. Experience has shown, that these heterogeneities can lead to wrong forecasts. But also variations in the technical realization and especially of the operational parameters (which are mainly a consequence of the regional climate) can lead to strong variations in the simulation results. Instead of one very detailed single forecast model, it should be considered, to model numerous more simple models. By varying parameters, the presumed subsurface uncertainties, but also the uncertainties in the presumed operational parameters can be reflected. Finally not only one single result should be reported, but instead the range of possible solutions and their respective probabilities. In meteorology such an approach is well known as ensemble-modeling. The concept is demonstrated at a real world data set and discussed.

  7. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  8. A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2001-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and economical way of exploring the concept of Robust inlet design, where the mission variables are brought directly into the inlet design process and insensitivity or robustness to the mission variables becomes a

  9. Generalized Benders’ Decomposition for topology optimization problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munoz Queupumil, Eduardo Javier; Stolpe, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the non-linear mixed 0–1 optimization problems that appear in topology optimization of load carrying structures. The main objective is to present a Generalized Benders’ Decomposition (GBD) method for solving single and multiple load minimum compliance (maximum stiffness......) problems with discrete design variables to global optimality. We present the theoretical aspects of the method, including a proof of finite convergence and conditions for obtaining global optimal solutions. The method is also linked to, and compared with, an Outer-Approximation approach and a mixed 0......–1 semi definite programming formulation of the considered problem. Several ways to accelerate the method are suggested and an implementation is described. Finally, a set of truss topology optimization problems are numerically solved to global optimality....

  10. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component taxa are well documented, studies considering range sizes are absent. This study considers range size frequencies and distribution patterns of seven major marine invertebrate taxa. The most commonly observed pattern of size frequency ...

  11. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    of points in the query range. As a corollary, we also obtain the first approximate 3-d halfspace range counting and 3-d dominance counting data structures with a worst-case query time of O(log(N/K)) in internal memory. An easy but important consequence of our main result is the existence of -space cache...... counting queries. This class includes three-sided range counting in the plane, 3-d dominance counting, and 3-d halfspace range counting. The constructed data structures use linear space and answer queries in the optimal query bound of O(logB(N/K)) block transfers in the worst case, where K is the number......-oblivious data structures with an optimal query bound of O(logBN+K/B) block transfers for the reporting versions of the above problems. Using standard reductions, these data structures allow us to obtain the first cache-oblivious data structures that use almost linear space and achieve the optimal query bound...

  12. Design Optimization Toolkit: Users' Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics

    2014-07-01

    The Design Optimization Toolkit (DOTk) is a stand-alone C++ software package intended to solve complex design optimization problems. DOTk software package provides a range of solution methods that are suited for gradient/nongradient-based optimization, large scale constrained optimization, and topology optimization. DOTk was design to have a flexible user interface to allow easy access to DOTk solution methods from external engineering software packages. This inherent flexibility makes DOTk barely intrusive to other engineering software packages. As part of this inherent flexibility, DOTk software package provides an easy-to-use MATLAB interface that enables users to call DOTk solution methods directly from the MATLAB command window.

  13. Optimization parameters system maintenance transport aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.І. Ліннік

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The algorithm of unconditional and conditional optimization Markov models of maintenance systems of transport airplanes of their programs of technical operation used at improvement is considered.

  14. Optimization problems in the Bulgarian electoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Mihail; Yanev, Kostadin; Pelova, Galina; Boneva, Juliana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we consider several optimization problems for the Bulgarian bi-proportional electoral systems. Experiments with data from real elections are presented. In this way a series of previous investigations of the authors is further developed.

  15. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  16. Optimizing the next generation optical access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Soto, Ana Cardenas; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Several issues in the design and optimization of the next generation optical access network (NG-OAN) are presented. The noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities are considered to optimize the video distribution link in a passive optical network (PON). A discussion of the effect of...

  17. On optimal coverage with unreliable sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasca, Paolo; Garin, Federica

    This paper regards the problem of placing unreliable sensors in a given one-dimensional environment, in such a way to optimize a given coverage cost. We specifically consider the disk-coverage cost, whose optimal solution for reliable sensors is simply an equally-spaced configuration of the sensors.

  18. Dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A principle for dynamic optimization of artificial lighting in greenhouses is presented, where the optimization criterion is maximization of the term . To this purpose it is important to consider the break-even point for artificial lighting, which can be

  19. Optimal sensor configuration for complex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Spall, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of sensor configuration for complex systems with the aim of maximizing the useful information about certain quantities of interest. Our approach involves: 1) definition of an appropriate optimality criterion or performance measure; and 2) description of an efficient...... illustrate the approach with the optimal placement of acoustic sensors for signal detection in structures...

  20. Modern Transport Management Technologies. Transportation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ugnenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of modern transport management technologies and transport optimization. The paper demonstrates that the quantitative characteristics of transportation should be used for establishing an optimum criterion for making decisions on route optimization.Article in Russian