WorldWideScience

Sample records for range compression channels

  1. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  2. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  3. Compressed Data Structures for Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2015-01-01

    matrices and web graphs. Our contribution is twofold. First, we show how to compress geometric repetitions that may appear in standard range searching data structures (such as K-D trees, Quad trees, Range trees, R-trees, Priority R-trees, and K-D-B trees), and how to implement subsequent range queries...... on the compressed representation with only a constant factor overhead. Secondly, we present a compression scheme that efficiently identifies geometric repetitions in point sets, and produces a hierarchical clustering of the point sets, which combined with the first result leads to a compressed representation...

  4. Quasi-spherical compression of a spark-channel plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarella, E.

    1980-01-01

    An axial spark channel in deuterium has been used as a target for implosive shock waves created with a conventional cylindrical theta-pinch device. The compression of the channel by the implosive waves raised the plasma electron temperature to approximately 120 eV for approximately 6 kJ of condenser bank energy and 1 Torr initial gas pressure. In order to improve the efficiency of compression of the channel plasma and to reduce the end losses inherent in the cylindrical configuration, the theta-pinch geometry was then converted from cylindrical into spherical. Under identical conditions of gas pressure and condenser bank energy, the electron temperature now peaked at approximately 400 eV. When the bank energy was increased to approximately 10 kJ, neutron production was observed. The total neutron output per shot ranged from 10 5 to 10 6 and increased inversely with the pinch discharge volume

  5. Telemetry advances in data compression and channel coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    1990-01-01

    Addressed in this paper is the dependence of telecommunication channel, forward error correcting coding and source data compression coding on integrated circuit technology. Emphasis is placed on real time high speed Reed Solomon (RS) decoding using full custom VLSI technology. Performance curves of NASA's standard channel coder and a proposed standard lossless data compression coder are presented.

  6. Dynamic range compression in a liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Lissauer, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.

    1996-01-01

    The anticipated range of particle energies at the LHC, coupled with the need for precision, low noise calorimetry makes severe demands on the dynamic range of the calorimeter readout. A common approach to this problem is to use shapers with two or more gain scales. In this paper, the authors describe their experience with a new approach in which a preamplifier with dynamic gain compression is used. An unavoidable consequence of dynamic gain adjustment is that the peaking time of the shaper output signal becomes amplitude dependent. The authors have carried out a test of such a readout system in the RD3 calorimeter, a liquid argon device with accordion geometry. The calibration system is used to determine both the gain of the individual channels as well as to map the shape of the waveform as a function of signal amplitude. A new procedure for waveform analysis, in which the fitted parameters describe the impulse response of the system, permits a straightforward translation of the calibration waveform to the waveform generated by a particle crossing the ionization gap. They find that the linearity and resolution of the calorimeter is equivalent to that obtained with linear preamplifiers, up to an energy of 200 GeV

  7. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low

  8. Dynamic-range reduction by peak clipping or compression and its effects on phoneme perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, differences between dynamic-range reduction by peak clipping and single-channel compression for phoneme perception through conventional hearing aids have been investigated. The results from 16 hearing-impaired listeners show that compression limiting yields significantly better

  9. Three-dimensional range data compression using computer graphics rendering pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-06-20

    This paper presents the idea of naturally encoding three-dimensional (3D) range data into regular two-dimensional (2D) images utilizing computer graphics rendering pipeline. The computer graphics pipeline provides a means to sample 3D geometry data into regular 2D images, and also to retrieve the depth information for each sampled pixel. The depth information for each pixel is further encoded into red, green, and blue color channels of regular 2D images. The 2D images can further be compressed with existing 2D image compression techniques. By this novel means, 3D geometry data obtained by 3D range scanners can be instantaneously compressed into 2D images, providing a novel way of storing 3D range data into its 2D counterparts. We will present experimental results to verify the performance of this proposed technique.

  10. Compressive sensing for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2014-09-01

    In multi-antenna broadcast networks, the base stations (BSs) rely on the channel state information (CSI) of the users to perform user scheduling and downlink transmission. However, in networks with large number of users, obtaining CSI from all users is arduous, if not impossible, in practice. This paper proposes channel feedback reduction techniques based on the theory of compressive sensing (CS), which permits the BS to obtain CSI with acceptable recovery guarantees under substantially reduced feedback overhead. Additionally, assuming noisy CS measurements at the BS, inexpensive ways for improving post-CS detection are explored. The proposed techniques are shown to reduce the feedback overhead, improve CS detection at the BS, and achieve a sum-rate close to that obtained by noiseless dedicated feedback channels.

  11. Perceptual Effects of Dynamic Range Compression in Popular Music Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the increasing use of dynamic range compression in music mastering (the loudnesswar) deteriorates sound quality but experimental evidence of perceptual effects is lacking. In this study, normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings in ...

  12. Soil Compressibility Models for a Wide Stress Range

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song-Hun

    2016-03-03

    Soil compressibility models with physically correct asymptotic void ratios are required to analyze situations that involve a wide stress range. Previously suggested models and other functions are adapted to satisfy asymptotic void ratios at low and high stress levels; all updated models involve four parameters. Compiled consolidation data for remolded and natural clays are used to test the models and to develop correlations between model parameters and index properties. Models can adequately fit soil compression data for a wide range of stresses and soil types; in particular, models that involve the power of the stress σ\\'β display higher flexibility to capture the brittle response of some natural soils. The use of a single continuous function avoids numerical discontinuities or the need for ad hoc procedures to determine the yield stress. The tangent stiffness-readily computed for all models-should not be mistaken for the small-strain constant-fabric stiffness. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  13. Image interpolation used in three-dimensional range data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoze; Zhang, Jianqi; Huang, Xi; Liu, Delian

    2016-05-20

    Advances in the field of three-dimensional (3D) scanning have made the acquisition of 3D range data easier and easier. However, with the large size of 3D range data comes the challenge of storing and transmitting it. To address this challenge, this paper presents a framework to further compress 3D range data using image interpolation. We first use a virtual fringe-projection system to store 3D range data as images, and then apply the interpolation algorithm to the images to reduce their resolution to further reduce the data size. When the 3D range data are needed, the low-resolution image is scaled up to its original resolution by applying the interpolation algorithm, and then the scaled-up image is decoded and the 3D range data are recovered according to the decoded result. Experimental results show that the proposed method could further reduce the data size while maintaining a low rate of error.

  14. Effects of dynamic-range compression on temporal acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges that hearing-aid listeners experience with speech perception in complex acoustic environments may originate from limitations in the temporal processing of sounds. To systematically investigate the influence of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on temporal...... processing, temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) and “supra-threshold” modulation-depth discrimination (MDD) thresholds were obtained in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with and without wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC). The TMTFs were obtained using tonal carriers of 1...... with the physical compression of the modulation depth due to the WDRC. Indications of reduced temporal resolution in the HI listeners were observed in the TMTF patterns for the 5 kHz carrier. Significantly higher MDD thresholds were found for the HI group relative to the NH group. No relationship was found between...

  15. Binaural model-based dynamic-range compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Stephan M A; Kortlang, Steffen; Grimm, Giso; Bisitz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2018-01-26

    Binaural cues such as interaural level differences (ILDs) are used to organise auditory perception and to segregate sound sources in complex acoustical environments. In bilaterally fitted hearing aids, dynamic-range compression operating independently at each ear potentially alters these ILDs, thus distorting binaural perception and sound source segregation. A binaurally-linked model-based fast-acting dynamic compression algorithm designed to approximate the normal-hearing basilar membrane (BM) input-output function in hearing-impaired listeners is suggested. A multi-center evaluation in comparison with an alternative binaural and two bilateral fittings was performed to assess the effect of binaural synchronisation on (a) speech intelligibility and (b) perceived quality in realistic conditions. 30 and 12 hearing impaired (HI) listeners were aided individually with the algorithms for both experimental parts, respectively. A small preference towards the proposed model-based algorithm in the direct quality comparison was found. However, no benefit of binaural-synchronisation regarding speech intelligibility was found, suggesting a dominant role of the better ear in all experimental conditions. The suggested binaural synchronisation of compression algorithms showed a limited effect on the tested outcome measures, however, linking could be situationally beneficial to preserve a natural binaural perception of the acoustical environment.

  16. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......This work concerns the analysis of an adaptive analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion channel for use with a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) microphone for audio applications. The adaptive A/D conversion channel uses an automatic gain control (AGC) for adjusting the analog preamplifier gain...... of the conversion channel in comparison to a static A/D conversion channel; this at the cost of a reduced peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The adaptive A/D conversion channel compensates for the change in analog gain by a digital gain, thus achieving a constant channel gain in the full dynamic range. However...

  17. Simulation of channelled ion ranges in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabadayi, Oender; Guemues, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a channelled ion range simulation model based on separation of ion trajectories into three different categories known as random, channelled, and well-channelled. We present this for boron projectiles incident along the Si direction. Stopping powers for channelled particles, well-channelled, and random particles are determined using experimental ratios of random and channelled stopping powers for a boron/silicon system. We have found the particle range distributions and the mean range of particles in crystalline channels. A new program code has been developed for the implementation of the presented model. The results are compared with experimental data as well as Crystal-transport and range of ions in matter, stopping and ranges of ions in matter, and projected range algorithm programs. We have found good agreement between our calculations and experiment, with an average discrepancy of 7%. Our model is also able to simulate the observed shift towards larger depths for the main ion distribution under channelling conditions

  18. Study on the influence of supplying compressed air channels and evicting channels on pneumatical oscillation systems for vibromooshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăvan, D. O.; Radu, I.; Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Kiss, I.; Gaspar, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a pneumatic system with two oscillating masses. The system is composed of a cylinder (framework) with mass m1, which has a piston with mass m2 inside. The cylinder (framework system) has one supplying channel for compressed air and one evicting channel for each work chamber (left and right of the piston). Functionality of the piston position comparatively with the cylinder (framework) is possible through the supplying or evicting of compressed air. The variable force that keeps the movement depends on variation of the pressure that is changing depending on the piston position according to the cylinder (framework) and to the section form that is supplying and evicting channels with compressed air. The paper presents the physical model/pattern, the mathematical model/pattern (differential equations) and numerical solution of the differential equations in hypothesis with the section form of supplying and evicting channels with compressed air is rectangular (variation linear) or circular (variation nonlinear).

  19. Compressible turbulent channel flow with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, Carlo; Bodart, Julien; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2015-03-01

    We have performed large-eddy simulations of isothermal-wall compressible turbulent channel flow with linear acoustic impedance boundary conditions (IBCs) for the wall-normal velocity component and no-slip conditions for the tangential velocity components. Three bulk Mach numbers, Mb = 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, with a fixed bulk Reynolds number, Reb = 6900, have been investigated. For each Mb, nine different combinations of IBC settings were tested, in addition to a reference case with impermeable walls, resulting in a total of 30 simulations. The adopted numerical coupling strategy allows for a spatially and temporally consistent imposition of physically realizable IBCs in a fully explicit compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The IBCs are formulated in the time domain according to Fung and Ju ["Time-domain impedance boundary conditions for computational acoustics and aeroacoustics," Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 18(6), 503-511 (2004)]. The impedance adopted is a three-parameter damped Helmholtz oscillator with resonant angular frequency, ωr, tuned to the characteristic time scale of the large energy-containing eddies. The tuning condition, which reads ωr = 2πMb (normalized with the speed of sound and channel half-width), reduces the IBCs' free parameters to two: the damping ratio, ζ, and the resistance, R, which have been varied independently with values, ζ = 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and R = 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, for each Mb. The application of the tuned IBCs results in a drag increase up to 300% for Mb = 0.5 and R = 0.01. It is shown that for tuned IBCs, the resistance, R, acts as the inverse of the wall-permeability and that varying the damping ratio, ζ, has a secondary effect on the flow response. Typical buffer-layer turbulent structures are completely suppressed by the application of tuned IBCs. A new resonance buffer layer is established characterized by large spanwise-coherent Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers, with a well-defined streamwise wavelength λx, traveling downstream with

  20. Nonlinear dynamic range transformation in visual communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, R

    1996-01-01

    The article evaluates nonlinear dynamic range transformation in the context of the end-to-end continuous-input/discrete processing/continuous-display imaging process. Dynamic range transformation is required when we have the following: (i) the wide dynamic range encountered in nature is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of the display, particularly for spatially varying irradiance (e.g., shadow); (ii) coarse quantization is expanded to the wider dynamic range of the display; and (iii) nonlinear tone scale transformation compensates for the correction in the camera amplifier.

  1. A Novel Range Compression Algorithm for Resolution Enhancement in GNSS-SARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel range compression algorithm for enhancing range resolutions of a passive Global Navigation Satellite System-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GNSS-SAR is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, within each azimuth bin, firstly range compression is carried out by correlating a reflected GNSS intermediate frequency (IF signal with a synchronized direct GNSS base-band signal in the range domain. Thereafter, spectrum equalization is applied to the compressed results for suppressing side lobes to obtain a final range-compressed signal. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results have demonstrated that significant range resolution improvement in GNSS-SAR images can be achieved by the proposed range compression algorithm, compared to the conventional range compression algorithm.

  2. Compression and channel-coding algorithms for high-definition television signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Luciano; Benelli, Giuliano; Fabbri, A. F.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper results of investigations about the effects of channel errors in the transmission of images compressed by means of techniques based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DOT) and Vector Quantization (VQ) are presented. Since compressed images are heavily degraded by noise in the transmission channel more seriously for what concern VQ-coded images theoretical studies and simulations are presented in order to define and evaluate this degradation. Some channel coding schemes are proposed in order to protect information during transmission. Hamming codes (7 (15 and (31 have been used for DCT-compressed images more powerful codes such as Golay (23 for VQ-compressed images. Performances attainable with softdecoding techniques are also evaluated better quality images have been obtained than using classical hard decoding techniques. All tests have been carried out to simulate the transmission of a digital image from HDTV signal over an AWGN channel with P5K modulation.

  3. Effect of Functional Nano Channel Structures Different Widths on Injection Molding and Compression Molding Replication Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Garnaes, J.

    The present study investigates the capabilities of the two employed processes, injection molding (IM) and injection compression molding (ICM) on replicating different channel cross sections. Statistical design of experiment was adopted to optimize replication quality of produced polymer parts wit...

  4. Channel coding/decoding alternatives for compressed TV data on advanced planetary missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The compatibility of channel coding/decoding schemes with a specific TV compressor developed for advanced planetary missions is considered. Under certain conditions, it is shown that compressed data can be transmitted at approximately the same rate as uncompressed data without any loss in quality. Thus, the full gains of data compression can be achieved in real-time transmission.

  5. Phase unwinding for dictionary compression with multiple channel transmission in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Riccardo; Zhang, Bei; Knoll, Florian; Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting reconstructions can become computationally intractable with multiple transmit channels, if the B 1 + phases are included in the dictionary. We describe a general method that allows to omit the transmit phases. We show that this enables straightforward implementation of dictionary compression to further reduce the problem dimensionality. We merged the raw data of each RF source into a single k-space dataset, extracted the transceiver phases from the corresponding reconstructed images and used them to unwind the phase in each time frame. All phase-unwound time frames were combined in a single set before performing SVD-based compression. We conducted synthetic, phantom and in-vivo experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of SVD-based compression in the case of two-channel transmission. Unwinding the phases before SVD-based compression yielded artifact-free parameter maps. For fully sampled acquisitions, parameters were accurate with as few as 6 compressed time frames. SVD-based compression performed well in-vivo with highly under-sampled acquisitions using 16 compressed time frames, which reduced reconstruction time from 750 to 25min. Our method reduces the dimensions of the dictionary atoms and enables to implement any fingerprint compression strategy in the case of multiple transmit channels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

  7. Compressive Sensing Based Bayesian Sparse Channel Estimation for OFDM Communication Systems: High Performance and Low Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  8. Efficient Bayesian Compressed Sensing-based Channel Estimation Techniques for Massive MIMO-OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Salihi, Hayder Qahtan Kshash; Nakhai, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and highly accurate channel state information (CSI) at the base station (BS) is essential to achieve the potential benefits of massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. However, the achievable accuracy that is attainable is limited in practice due to the problem of pilot contamination. It has recently been shown that compressed sensing (CS) techniques can address the pilot contamination problem. However, CS-based channel estimation requires prior knowledge of channel sp...

  9. Compressive sensing for feedback reduction in MIMO broadcast channels

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Bahrami, Hamid Reza Talesh

    2014-01-01

    In multi-antenna broadcast networks, the base stations (BSs) rely on the channel state information (CSI) of the users to perform user scheduling and downlink transmission. However, in networks with large number of users, obtaining CSI from all users

  10. A finite range coupled channel Born approximation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Koshel, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The computer code OUKID calculates differential cross sections for direct transfer nuclear reactions in which multistep processes, arising from strongly coupled inelastic states in both the target and residual nuclei, are possible. The code is designed for heavy ion reactions where full finite range and recoil effects are important. Distorted wave functions for the elastic and inelastic scattering are calculated by solving sets of coupled differential equations using a Matrix Numerov integration procedure. These wave functions are then expanded into bases of spherical Bessel functions by the plane-wave expansion method. This approach allows the six-dimensional integrals for the transition amplitude to be reduced to products of two one-dimensional integrals. Thus, the inelastic scattering is treated in a coupled channel formalism while the transfer process is treated in a finite range born approximation formalism. (Auth.)

  11. Three dimensional range geometry and texture data compression with space-filling curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhang, Song

    2017-10-16

    This paper presents a novel method to effectively store three-dimensional (3D) data and 2D texture data into a regular 24-bit image. The proposed method uses the Hilbert space-filling curve to map the normalized unwrapped phase map to two 8-bit color channels, and saves the third color channel for 2D texture storage. By further leveraging existing 2D image and video compression techniques, the proposed method can achieve high compression ratios while effectively preserving data quality. Since the encoding and decoding processes can be applied to most of the current 2D media platforms, this proposed compression method can make 3D data storage and transmission available for many electrical devices without requiring special hardware changes. Experiments demonstrate that if a lossless 2D image/video format is used, both original 3D geometry and 2D color texture can be accurately recovered; if lossy image/video compression is used, only black-and-white or grayscale texture can be properly recovered, but much higher compression ratios (e.g., 1543:1 against the ASCII OBJ format) are achieved with slight loss of 3D geometry quality.

  12. Effects of dynamic range compression on spatial selective auditory attention in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew H; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2013-04-01

    Many hearing aids introduce compressive gain to accommodate the reduced dynamic range that often accompanies hearing loss. However, natural sounds produce complicated temporal dynamics in hearing aid compression, as gain is driven by whichever source dominates at a given moment. Moreover, independent compression at the two ears can introduce fluctuations in interaural level differences (ILDs) important for spatial perception. While independent compression can interfere with spatial perception of sound, it does not always interfere with localization accuracy or speech identification. Here, normal-hearing listeners reported a target message played simultaneously with two spatially separated masker messages. We measured the amount of spatial separation required between the target and maskers for subjects to perform at threshold in this task. Fast, syllabic compression that was independent at the two ears increased the required spatial separation, but linking the compressors to provide identical gain to both ears (preserving ILDs) restored much of the deficit caused by fast, independent compression. Effects were less clear for slower compression. Percent-correct performance was lower with independent compression, but only for small spatial separations. These results may help explain differences in previous reports of the effect of compression on spatial perception of sound.

  13. High-energy few-cycle pulse compression through self-channeling in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, C.; Merano, M.; Trisorio, A.; Canova, F.; Canova, L.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Ruchon, T.; Engquist, A.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Nonlinear spectral broadening of femtosecond optical pulses by intense propagation in a Kerr medium followed by temporal compression constitutes the Holy Grail for ultrafast science since it allows the generation of intense few-cycle optical transients from longer pulses provided by now commercially available femtosecond lasers. Tremendous progress in high-field and attosecond physics achieved in recent years has triggered the need for efficient pulse compression schemes producing few-cycle pulses beyond the mJ level. We studied a novel pulse compression scheme based on self-channeling in gases, which promises to overcome the energy constraints of hollow-core fiber compression techniques. Fundamentally, self-channeling at high laser powers in gases occurs when the self-focusing effect in the gas is balanced through the dispersion induced by the inhomogeneous refractive index resulting from optically-induced ionization. The high nonlinearity of the ionization process poses great technical challenges when trying to scale this pulse compression scheme to higher energies input energies. Light channels are known to be unstable under small fluctuations of the trapped field that can lead to temporal and spatial beam breakup, usually resulting in the generation of spectrally broad but uncompressible pulses. Here we present experimental results on high-energy pulse compression of self-channeled 40-fs pulses in pressure-gas cells. In the first experiment, performed at the Lund Laser Center in Sweden, we identified a particular self-channeling regime at lower pulse energies (0.8 mJ), in which the ultrashort pulses are generated with negative group delay dispersion (GDD) such that they can be readily compressed down to near 10-fs through simple material dispersion. Pulse compression is efficient (70%) and exhibits exceptional spatial and temporal beam stability. In a second experiment, performed at the LOA-Palaiseau in France, we

  14. A Fast, Open EEG Classification Framework Based on Feature Compression and Channel Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuqi Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior feature extraction, channel selection and classification methods are essential for designing electroencephalography (EEG classification frameworks. However, the performance of most frameworks is limited by their improper channel selection methods and too specifical design, leading to high computational complexity, non-convergent procedure and narrow expansibility. In this paper, to remedy these drawbacks, we propose a fast, open EEG classification framework centralized by EEG feature compression, low-dimensional representation, and convergent iterative channel ranking. First, to reduce the complexity, we use data clustering to compress the EEG features channel-wise, packing the high-dimensional EEG signal, and endowing them with numerical signatures. Second, to provide easy access to alternative superior methods, we structurally represent each EEG trial in a feature vector with its corresponding numerical signature. Thus, the recorded signals of many trials shrink to a low-dimensional structural matrix compatible with most pattern recognition methods. Third, a series of effective iterative feature selection approaches with theoretical convergence is introduced to rank the EEG channels and remove redundant ones, further accelerating the EEG classification process and ensuring its stability. Finally, a classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA model is employed to classify a single EEG trial with selected channels. Experimental results on two real world brain-computer interface (BCI competition datasets demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed framework over state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Image-Based Compression Method of Three-Dimensional Range Data with Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xia; Bell, Tyler; Zhang, Song

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high speed and high accuracy three-dimensional (3D) scanning techniques and commercially available 3D scanning devices have made real-time 3D shape measurement and reconstruction possible. The conventional mesh representation of 3D geometry, however, results in large file sizes, causing difficulties for its storage and transmission. Methods for compressing scanned 3D data therefore become desired. This paper proposes a novel compression method which stores 3D range data within the c...

  16. Channeling of protons in various types of radially compressed carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabarbounis, A.; Sarros, S.; Trikalinos, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Channeling of 10 MeV protons in various types of radially compressed chiral carbon nanotubes is considered. Monte Carlo simulation program is used for the calculation of the trajectories, energy losses and angular distributions of protons in nanotubes of various lengths, where the potential in Doyle–Turner approximation is used to describe the interaction between a proton and a nanotube. Carbon nanotubes, which are considered, are radially compressed at the centre or at both ends. The results show that in some cases a decreased angular distribution of the beam is observed, compared with propagation through a straight nanotube. Furthermore, the energy distribution of channeled protons in nanotubes present a series of small peaks besides a main one, the number of which depends on the nanotube length and the angle of incidence, which in some cases are significantly high

  17. Channeling of protons in various types of radially compressed carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabarbounis, A. [Department of Physics, Section of Nuclear and Particle Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece); Sarros, S., E-mail: stsarros@phys.uoa.gr [Department of Physics, Section of Nuclear and Particle Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece); Trikalinos, Ch. [Department of Philosophy and History of Science, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilissia, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Channeling of 10 MeV protons in various types of radially compressed chiral carbon nanotubes is considered. Monte Carlo simulation program is used for the calculation of the trajectories, energy losses and angular distributions of protons in nanotubes of various lengths, where the potential in Doyle–Turner approximation is used to describe the interaction between a proton and a nanotube. Carbon nanotubes, which are considered, are radially compressed at the centre or at both ends. The results show that in some cases a decreased angular distribution of the beam is observed, compared with propagation through a straight nanotube. Furthermore, the energy distribution of channeled protons in nanotubes present a series of small peaks besides a main one, the number of which depends on the nanotube length and the angle of incidence, which in some cases are significantly high.

  18. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression are reported which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft. In addition to presenting new and potentially significant system considerations, this report attempts to fill a need for a comprehensive tutorial which makes much of this very subject accessible to readers whose disciplines lie outside of communication theory.

  19. Sparse Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Two-Way Relay Network with Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate channel impulse response (CIR is required for equalization and can help improve communication service quality in next-generation wireless communication systems. An example of an advanced system is amplify-and-forward multiple-input multiple-output two-way relay network, which is modulated by orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. Linear channel estimation methods, for example, least squares and expectation conditional maximization, have been proposed previously for the system. However, these methods do not take advantage of channel sparsity, and they decrease estimation performance. We propose a sparse channel estimation scheme, which is different from linear methods, at end users under the relay channel to enable us to exploit sparsity. First, we formulate the sparse channel estimation problem as a compressed sensing problem by using sparse decomposition theory. Second, the CIR is reconstructed by CoSaMP and OMP algorithms. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to confirm the superiority of the proposed methods over traditional linear channel estimation methods.

  20. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kirchberger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings.

  1. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings. PMID:26868955

  2. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-02-10

    Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Extraction from TEV-range accelerators using bent crystal channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Jackson, G.; Murphy, C.T.; Newberger, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans and first results from Fermilab Experiment 853 are presented. E853 is an experiment to test the feasibility and efficiency of extracting a low-intensity beam from the halo of the Tevatron using channeling in a bent silicon crystal. The motivation of the experiment is to apply crystal extraction to trans-TeV accelerators like the SSC. Channeling developments related to crystal extraction and some early results from accelerator studies at the Tevatron are presented

  4. Fast and robust wavelet-based dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement model with color restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unaldi, Numan; Asari, Vijayan K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2009-05-01

    Recently we proposed a wavelet-based dynamic range compression algorithm to improve the visual quality of digital images captured from high dynamic range scenes with non-uniform lighting conditions. The fast image enhancement algorithm that provides dynamic range compression, while preserving the local contrast and tonal rendition, is also a good candidate for real time video processing applications. Although the colors of the enhanced images produced by the proposed algorithm are consistent with the colors of the original image, the proposed algorithm fails to produce color constant results for some "pathological" scenes that have very strong spectral characteristics in a single band. The linear color restoration process is the main reason for this drawback. Hence, a different approach is required for the final color restoration process. In this paper the latest version of the proposed algorithm, which deals with this issue is presented. The results obtained by applying the algorithm to numerous natural images show strong robustness and high image quality.

  5. Fast downscaled inverses for images compressed with M-channel lapped transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, R L; Eschbach, R

    1997-01-01

    Compressed images may be decompressed and displayed or printed using different devices at different resolutions. Full decompression and rescaling in space domain is a very expensive method. We studied downscaled inverses where the image is decompressed partially, and a reduced inverse transform is used to recover the image. In this fashion, fewer transform coefficients are used and the synthesis process is simplified. We studied the design of fast inverses, for a given forward transform. General solutions are presented for M-channel finite impulse response (FIR) filterbanks, of which block and lapped transforms are a subset. Designs of faster inverses are presented for popular block and lapped transforms.

  6. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-10-01

    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  7. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  8. Severe plastic deformation of copper and Al-Cu alloy using multiple channel-die compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parimi, A.K.; Robi, P.S.; Dwivedy, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → SPD of copper and Al-Cu alloy by multiple channel-die compression tests.→ Extensive grain refinement resulting in nano-sized grains after SPD. → Investigation of micro-structure using optical microscope and SEM. → Shear band formation as the failure mechanism in the two phase Al-Cu alloy. → Difficulty in obtaining SPD for Al-Cu alloy in this method. -- Abstract: Severe plastic deformation studies of copper and Al-Cu alloy by multiple channel-die compression tests were investigated. The materials were tested under plane strain condition by maintaining a constant strain rate of 0.001/s. Extensive grain refinement was observed resulting in nano-sized grains after severe plastic deformation with concomitant increase in flow stress and hardness. The microstructural investigation of the severely deformed materials was investigated using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Shear band formation was identified as the failure mechanism in the two phase Al-Cu alloy. The results indicate difficulty in obtaining severe plastic deformation for alloys having two phase micro-structure.

  9. Massive-MIMO Sparse Uplink Channel Estimation Using Implicit Training and Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive multiple-input multiple-output (massive-MIMO is foreseen as a potential technology for future 5G cellular communication networks due to its substantial benefits in terms of increased spectral and energy efficiency. These advantages of massive-MIMO are a consequence of equipping the base station (BS with quite a large number of antenna elements, thus resulting in an aggressive spatial multiplexing. In order to effectively reap the benefits of massive-MIMO, an adequate estimate of the channel impulse response (CIR between each transmit–receive link is of utmost importance. It has been established in the literature that certain specific multipath propagation environments lead to a sparse structured CIR in spatial and/or delay domains. In this paper, implicit training and compressed sensing based CIR estimation techniques are proposed for the case of massive-MIMO sparse uplink channels. In the proposed superimposed training (SiT based techniques, a periodic and low power training sequence is superimposed (arithmetically added over the information sequence, thus avoiding any dedicated time/frequency slots for the training sequence. For the estimation of such massive-MIMO sparse uplink channels, two greedy pursuits based compressed sensing approaches are proposed, viz: SiT based stage-wise orthogonal matching pursuit (SiT-StOMP and gradient pursuit (SiT-GP. In order to demonstrate the validity of proposed techniques, a performance comparison in terms of normalized mean square error (NCMSE and bit error rate (BER is performed with a notable SiT based least squares (SiT-LS channel estimation technique. The effect of channels’ sparsity, training-to-information power ratio (TIR and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on BER and NCMSE performance of proposed schemes is thoroughly studied. For a simulation scenario of: 4 × 64 massive-MIMO with a channel sparsity level of 80 % and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 10 dB , a performance gain of 18 dB and 13 d

  10. The role of medium range order on phase transitions in chain silicates upon compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, G; Chopelas, A; Boehler, R

    2004-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic measurements of the tetrahedrally coordinated crystal MnSiO 3 (rhodonite) in an argon pressure medium show that it becomes amorphous above 33 GPa. This observation consolidates our findings and explanation for the global structural trends exhibited by the extended chain silicate family AA'BO 3 (AA': Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe; B: Si) upon compression. In particular, crystals of this family are made of two types of building blocks coined P and C. Those crystals comprised solely of P blocks transform to dense higher coordinated crystalline phases; those comprised of P and C blocks, such as MnSiO 3 rhodonite, become amorphous; whereas those comprised solely of C blocks show both crystalline and amorphous regions upon compression. The reason that this medium range order length scale (building block scale) classification is correlated with the type of transitions taking place upon compression is due to the instability of C blocks and C-P interfaces with respect to P blocks and P-P interfaces at high pressures

  11. One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.C.

    1976-09-01

    A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment

  12. Occam’s Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic process’ statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process’ cryptic order-a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost-one trades off prediction for generation complexity.

  13. Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2018-03-01

    It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.

  14. The temperature dependence of the BK channel activity - kinetics, thermodynamics, and long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Dworakowska, Beata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J

    2017-10-01

    Large-conductance, voltage dependent, Ca 2+ -activated potassium channels (BK) are transmembrane proteins that regulate many biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Here, we investigate to what extent temperature (in the range of 17-37°C with ΔT=5°C step) is a regulating parameter of kinetic properties of the channel gating and memory effect in the series of dwell-time series of subsequent channel's states, at membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. The obtained results indicate that temperature affects strongly the BK channels' gating, but, counterintuitively, it exerts no effect on the long-range correlations, as measured by the Hurst coefficient. Quantitative differences between dependencies of appropriate channel's characteristics on temperature are evident for different regimes of voltage. Examining the characteristics of BK channel activity as a function of temperature allows to estimate the net activation energy (E act ) and changes of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) by channel opening. Larger E act corresponds to the channel activity at membrane hyperpolarization. The analysis of entropy and enthalpy changes of closed to open channel's transition suggest the entropy-driven nature of the increase of open state probability during voltage activation and supports the hypothesis about the voltage-dependent geometry of the channel vestibule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-dynamic range compressive spectral imaging by grayscale coded aperture adaptive filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Diaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging system (CASSI is an imaging architecture which senses the three dimensional informa-tion of a scene with two dimensional (2D focal plane array (FPA coded projection measurements. A reconstruction algorithm takes advantage of the compressive measurements sparsity to recover the underlying 3D data cube. Traditionally, CASSI uses block-un-block coded apertures (BCA to spatially modulate the light. In CASSI the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the design of these coded apertures and the FPA dynamic range. This work presents a new CASSI architecture based on grayscaled coded apertu-res (GCA which reduce the FPA saturation and increase the dynamic range of the reconstructed images. The set of GCA is calculated in a real-time adaptive manner exploiting the information from the FPA compressive measurements. Extensive simulations show the attained improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images when GCA are employed.  In addition, a comparison between traditional coded apertures and GCA is realized with respect to noise tolerance.

  16. Effects of single-channel phonemic compression schemes on the understanding of speech by hearing-impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedegebure, A.; Hulshof, M.; Maas, R. J.; Dreschler, W. A.; Verschuure, H.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of digital processing on speech intelligibility was studied in hearing-impaired listeners with moderate to severe high-frequency losses. The amount of smoothed phonemic compression in a high-frequency channel was varied using wide-band control. Two alternative systems were tested to

  17. Sound velocity of tantalum under shock compression in the 18–142 GPa range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Feng, E-mail: xifeng@caep.cn; Jin, Ke; Cai, Lingcang, E-mail: cai-lingcang@aliyun.com; Geng, Huayun; Tan, Ye; Li, Jun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Waves and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102 Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Dynamic compression experiments of tantalum (Ta) within a shock pressure range from 18–142 GPa were conducted driven by explosive, a two-stage light gas gun, and a powder gun, respectively. The time-resolved Ta/LiF (lithium fluoride) interface velocity profiles were recorded with a displacement interferometer system for any reflector. Sound velocities of Ta were obtained from the peak state time duration measurements with the step-sample technique and the direct-reverse impact technique. The uncertainty of measured sound velocities were analyzed carefully, which suggests that the symmetrical impact method with step-samples is more accurate for sound velocity measurement, and the most important parameter in this type experiment is the accurate sample/window particle velocity profile, especially the accurate peak state time duration. From these carefully analyzed sound velocity data, no evidence of a phase transition was found up to the shock melting pressure of Ta.

  18. Effects of hearing-aid dynamic range compression on spatial perception in a reverberant environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Henrik Gert; Wiinberg, Alan; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fast-acting hearing-aid compression on normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners’ spatial perception in a reverberant environment. Three compression schemes—independent compression at each ear, linked compression between the two ears, and “spatially ideal......” compression operating solely on the dry source signal—were considered using virtualized speech and noise bursts. Listeners indicated the location and extent of their perceived sound images on the horizontal plane. Linear processing was considered as the reference condition. The results showed that both...... independent and linked compression resulted in more diffuse and broader sound images as well as internalization and image splits, whereby more image splits were reported for the noise bursts than for speech. Only the spatially ideal compression provided the listeners with a spatial percept similar...

  19. A diversity compression and combining technique based on channel shortening for cooperative networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2012-02-01

    The cooperative relaying process with multiple relays needs proper coordination among the communicating and the relaying nodes. This coordination and the required capabilities may not be available in some wireless systems where the nodes are equipped with very basic communication hardware. We consider a scenario where the source node transmits its signal to the destination through multiple relays in an uncoordinated fashion. The destination captures the multiple copies of the transmitted signal through a Rake receiver. We analyze a situation where the number of Rake fingers N is less than that of the relaying nodes L. In this case, the receiver can combine N strongest signals out of L. The remaining signals will be lost and act as interference to the desired signal components. To tackle this problem, we develop a novel signal combining technique based on channel shortening principles. This technique proposes a processing block before the Rake reception which compresses the energy of L signal components over N branches while keeping the noise level at its minimum. The proposed scheme saves the system resources and makes the received signal compatible to the available hardware. Simulation results show that it outperforms the selection combining scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Worst configurations (instantons) for compressed sensing over reals: a channel coding approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi K.; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    We consider Linear Programming (LP) solution of a Compressed Sensing (CS) problem over reals, also known as the Basis Pursuit (BasP) algorithm. The BasP allows interpretation as a channel-coding problem, and it guarantees the error-free reconstruction over reals for properly chosen measurement matrix and sufficiently sparse error vectors. In this manuscript, we examine how the BasP performs on a given measurement matrix and develop a technique to discover sparse vectors for which the BasP fails. The resulting algorithm is a generalization of our previous results on finding the most probable error-patterns, so called instantons, degrading performance of a finite size Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code in the error-floor regime. The BasP fails when its output is different from the actual error-pattern. We design CS-Instanton Search Algorithm (ISA) generating a sparse vector, called CS-instanton, such that the BasP fails on the instanton, while its action on any modification of the CS-instanton decreasing a properly defined norm is successful. We also prove that, given a sufficiently dense random input for the error-vector, the CS-ISA converges to an instanton in a small finite number of steps. Performance of the CS-ISA is tested on example of a randomly generated 512 * 120 matrix, that outputs the shortest instanton (error vector) pattern of length 11.

  1. The long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to tensile and compressive stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammenzind, B.F.; Berquist, B.M.; Bajaj, R.; Kreyns, P.H.; Franklin, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Zircaloy-4, which is used widely as a core structural material in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and zirconium hydride phases precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 lattice becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4, degrading its mechanical performance as a structural material. Because hydrogen can move rapidly through the Zircaloy-4 lattice, the potential exists for large concentrations of hydride to accumulate in local regions of a Zircaloy component remote from its point of entry into the component. Much has been reported in the literature regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy under concentration gradients and temperature gradients. Relatively little has been reported, however, regarding the long range migration of hydrogen under stress gradients. This paper presents experimental results regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to both tensile and compressive stress gradients. The importance of this driving force for hydrogen migration relative to concentration and thermal gradients is discussed

  2. A research on radiation calibration of high dynamic range based on the dual channel CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Shi, Zhan; Pan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-10-01

    The dual channel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) can get high dynamic range (HDR) image through extending the gray level of the image by using image fusion with high gain channel image and low gain channel image in a same frame. In the process of image fusion with dual channel, it adopts the coefficients of radiation response of a pixel from dual channel in a same frame, and then calculates the gray level of the pixel in the HDR image. For the coefficients of radiation response play a crucial role in image fusion, it has to find an effective method to acquire these parameters. In this article, it makes a research on radiation calibration of high dynamic range based on the dual channel CMOS, and designs an experiment to calibrate the coefficients of radiation response for the sensor it used. In the end, it applies these response parameters in the dual channel CMOS which calibrates, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of the method mentioned in this paper.

  3. Simultaneous broadband laser ranging and photonic Doppler velocimetry for dynamic compression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Marshall, B. R.; Miller, E. K.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    A diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure both the distance and velocity of rapidly moving surfaces in dynamic compression experiments, specifically non-planar experiments where integrating the velocity in one direction does not always give the material position accurately. The diagnostic is constructed mainly from fiber-optic telecommunications components. The distance measurement is based on a technique described by Xia and Zhang [Opt. Express 18, 4118 (2010)], which determines the target distance every 20 ns and is independent of the target speed. We have extended the full range of the diagnostic to several centimeters to allow its use in dynamic experiments, and we multiplexed it with a photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) system so that distance and velocity histories can be measured simultaneously using one fiber-optic probe. The diagnostic was demonstrated on a spinning square cylinder to show how integrating a PDV record can give an incorrect surface position and how the ranging diagnostic described here obtains it directly. The diagnostic was also tested on an explosive experiment where copper fragments and surface ejecta were identified in both the distance and velocity signals. We show how the distance measurements complement the velocity data. Potential applications are discussed.

  4. The influence of channel anion identity on the high-pressure crystal structure, compressibility, and stability of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Richard; Walker, Andrew M.

    2018-03-01

    The material properties of the common phosphate mineral apatite are influenced by the identity of the channel anion, which is usually F-, Cl-, or (OH)-. Density functional theory calculations have been used to determine the effect of channel anion identity on the compressibility and structure of apatite. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are found to have similar zero pressure bulk moduli, of 79.2 and 82.1 GPa, respectively, while chlorapatite is considerably more compressible, with K 0 = 55.0 GPa. While the space groups of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite do not change between 0 and 25 GPa, symmetrization of the Cl- site in chlorapatite at 7.5 GPa causes the space group to change from P2 1 /b to P6 3 /m. Examination of the valence electron density distribution in chlorapatite reveals that this symmetry change is associated with a change in the coordination of the Cl- anion from threefold to sixfold coordinated by Ca. We also calculate the pressure at which apatite decomposes to form tuite, a calcium orthophosphate mineral, and find that the transition pressure is sensitive to the identity of the channel anion, being lowest for fluorapatite (13.8 GPa) and highest for chlorapatite (26.9 GPa). Calculations are also performed within the DFT-D2 framework to investigate the influence of dispersion forces on the compressibility of apatite minerals.

  5. Compressive effect of the magnetic field on the positron range in commonly used positron emitters simulated using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Cao, Xingzhong; Liu, Fuyan; Tang, Haohui; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Baoyi; Wei, Long

    2017-11-01

    The compressive effect of a magnetic field on the positron range from commonly used positron emitters in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) was simulated using the Geant4 toolkit with H2O as the environmental material. The compression of the positron range, which was different in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, showed finite final variation of relative change rate versus the magnetic field. The variation greatly depended on the positron-emission energy spectrum in the same medium. Furthermore, the volume of the positron annihilation point was dramatically compressed as the magnetic field was set in the range of 3-6T. It was more prominent for 82Rb , which is generally used as a positron source in PET technology.

  6. The dynamical mechanical properties of tungsten under compression at working temperature range of divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, C.C.; Song, Y.T.; Peng, X.B.; Wei, Y.P.; Mao, X.; Li, W.X.; Qian, X.Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the divertor structure of ITER and EAST with mono-block module, tungsten plays not only a role of armor material but also a role of structural material, because electromagnetic (EM) impact will be exerted on tungsten components in VDEs or CQ. The EM loads can reach to 100 MN, which would cause high strain rates. In addition, directly exposed to high-temperature plasma, the temperature regime of divertor components is complex. Aiming at studying dynamical response of tungsten divertors under EM loads, an experiment on tungsten employed in EAST divertors was performed using a Kolsky bar system. The testing strain rates and temperatures is derived from actual working conditions, which makes the constitutive equation concluded by using John-Cook model and testing data very accurate and practical. The work would give a guidance to estimate the dynamical response, fatigue life and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under EM impact loads. - Graphical abstract: From the comparison between the experimental curves and the predicted curves calculated by adopting the corrected m, it is very clear that the new model is of great capability to explain the deformation behavior of the tungsten material under dynamic compression at high temperatures. (EC, PC and PCM refers to experimental curve, predicted curve and predicted curve with a corrected m. Different colors represent different scenarios.). - Highlights: • Test research on dynamic properties of tungsten at working temperature range and strain rate range of divertors. • Constitutive equation descrbing strain hardening, strain rate hardening and temperature softening. • A guidance to estimate dynamical response and damage evolution of tungsten divertor components under impact.

  7. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). In this paper, researchers present a range based dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified...

  8. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  9. Compressing a confined DNA: from nano-channel to nano-cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the behavior of a semiflexible polymer confined in nanochannel under compression in axial direction. Key to our discussion is the identification of two length scales; the correlation length ξ of concentration fluctuation and what we call the segregation length . These length scales, while degenerate in uncompressed state in nanochannel, generally split as upon compression, and the way they compete with the system size during the compression determines the crossover from quasi-1D nanochannel to quasi-0D nanocavity behaviors. For a flexible polymer, the story becomes very simple, which corresponds to a special limit of our description, but a much richer behavior is expected for a semiflexible polymer relevant to DNA in confined spaces. We also briefly discuss the dynamical properties of the compressed polymer.

  10. Quantum-state transfer through long-range correlated disordered channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Guilherme M. A.; de Moura, Francisco A. B. F.; Lyra, Marcelo L.

    2018-05-01

    We study quantum-state transfer in XX spin-1/2 chains where both communicating spins are weakly coupled to a channel featuring disordered on-site magnetic fields. Fluctuations are modeled by long-range correlated sequences with self-similar profile obeying a power-law spectrum. We show that the channel is able to perform almost perfect quantum-state transmissions even in the presence of significant amounts of disorder provided the degree of those correlations is strong enough, with the cost of having long transfer times and unavoidable timing errors. Still, we show that the lack of mirror symmetry in the channel does not affect much the likelihood of having high-quality outcomes. Our results suggest that coexistence between localized and delocalized states can diminish effects of static perturbations in solid-state devices for quantum communication.

  11. Bacterial survival following shock compression in the GigaPascal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazael, Rachael; Fitzmaurice, Brianna C.; Foglia, Fabrizia; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility that life can exist within previously unconsidered habitats is causing us to expand our understanding of potential planetary biospheres. Significant populations of living organisms have been identified at depths extending up to several km below the Earth's surface; whereas laboratory experiments have shown that microbial species can survive following exposure to GigaPascal (GPa) pressures. Understanding the degree to which simple organisms such as microbes survive such extreme pressurization under static compression conditions is being actively investigated. The survival of bacteria under dynamic shock compression is also of interest. Such studies are being partly driven to test the hypothesis of potential transport of biological organisms between planetary systems. Shock compression is also of interest for the potential modification and sterilization of foodstuffs and agricultural products. Here we report the survival of Shewanella oneidensis bacteria exposed to dynamic (shock) compression. The samples examined included: (a) a "wild type" (WT) strain and (b) a "pressure adapted" (PA) population obtained by culturing survivors from static compression experiments to 750 MPa. Following exposure to peak shock pressures of 1.5 and 2.5 GPa the proportion of survivors was established as the number of colony forming units (CFU) present after recovery to ambient conditions. The data were compared with previous results in which the same bacterial samples were exposed to static pressurization to the same pressures, for 15 minutes each. The results indicate that shock compression leads to survival of a significantly greater proportion of both WT and PA organisms. The significantly shorter duration of the pressure pulse during the shock experiments (2-3 μs) likely contributes to the increased survival of the microbial species. One reason for this can involve the crossover from deformable to rigid solid-like mechanical relaxational behavior that occurs for

  12. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John, E-mail: joakey@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique’s effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits

  13. A digitized wide range channel for new instrumentation and control system of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Roslan Md Dan

    2010-01-01

    Wide Range Channel is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current system is using all analog system. The main functions of the new system are to provide Wide-log power and Multi-range linear power. The other functions are to provide Percent power and Power rate of change. The linear power level range is up to 125 % and the log power system to cover from below source level to 150 %. The main function of digital signal processor is for pulse shaping, pulse counting and root mean square signal processing. The system employs automatic on-line self diagnostics and calibration verification. (author)

  14. An End-to-End Model of Plant Pheromone Channel for Long Range Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Bige D; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2017-01-01

    A new track in molecular communication is using pheromones which can scale up the range of diffusion-based communication from μm meters to meters and enable new applications requiring long range. Pheromone communication is the emission of molecules in the air which trigger behavioral or physiological responses in receiving organisms. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new end-to-end model which incorporates pheromone behavior with communication theory for plants. The proposed model includes both the transmission and reception processes as well as the propagation channel. The transmission process is the emission of pheromones from the leaves of plants. The dispersion of pheromones by the flow of wind constitutes the propagation process. The reception process is the sensing of pheromones by the pheromone receptors of plants. The major difference of pheromone communication from other molecular communication techniques is the dispersion channel acting under the laws of turbulent diffusion. In this paper, the pheromone channel is modeled as a Gaussian puff, i.e., a cloud of pheromone released instantaneously from the source whose dispersion follows a Gaussian distribution. Numerical results on the performance of the overall end-to-end pheromone channel in terms of normalized gain and delay are provided.

  15. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  16. Rank-defective millimeter-wave channel estimation based on subspace-compressive sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shakhsi Dastgahian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave communication (mmWC is considered as one of the pioneer candidates for 5G indoor and outdoor systems in E-band. To subdue the channel propagation characteristics in this band, high dimensional antenna arrays need to be deployed at both the base station (BS and mobile sets (MS. Unlike the conventional MIMO systems, Millimeter-wave (mmW systems lay away to employ the power predatory equipment such as ADC or RF chain in each branch of MIMO system because of hardware constraints. Such systems leverage to the hybrid precoding (combining architecture for downlink deployment. Because there is a large array at the transceiver, it is impossible to estimate the channel by conventional methods. This paper develops a new algorithm to estimate the mmW channel by exploiting the sparse nature of the channel. The main contribution is the representation of a sparse channel model and the exploitation of a modified approach based on Multiple Measurement Vector (MMV greedy sparse framework and subspace method of Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC which work together to recover the indices of non-zero elements of an unknown channel matrix when the rank of the channel matrix is defected. In practical rank-defective channels, MUSIC fails, and we need to propose new extended MUSIC approaches based on subspace enhancement to compensate the limitation of MUSIC. Simulation results indicate that our proposed extended MUSIC algorithms will have proper performances and moderate computational speeds, and that they are even able to work in channels with an unknown sparsity level.

  17. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  18. Calibration and assessment of channel-specific biases in microarray data with extended dynamical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Henrik; Jönsson, Göran; Vallon-Christersson, Johan

    2004-11-12

    Non-linearities in observed log-ratios of gene expressions, also known as intensity dependent log-ratios, can often be accounted for by global biases in the two channels being compared. Any step in a microarray process may introduce such offsets and in this article we study the biases introduced by the microarray scanner and the image analysis software. By scanning the same spotted oligonucleotide microarray at different photomultiplier tube (PMT) gains, we have identified a channel-specific bias present in two-channel microarray data. For the scanners analyzed it was in the range of 15-25 (out of 65,535). The observed bias was very stable between subsequent scans of the same array although the PMT gain was greatly adjusted. This indicates that the bias does not originate from a step preceding the scanner detector parts. The bias varies slightly between arrays. When comparing estimates based on data from the same array, but from different scanners, we have found that different scanners introduce different amounts of bias. So do various image analysis methods. We propose a scanning protocol and a constrained affine model that allows us to identify and estimate the bias in each channel. Backward transformation removes the bias and brings the channels to the same scale. The result is that systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios are removed, but also that signal densities become much more similar. The average scan, which has a larger dynamical range and greater signal-to-noise ratio than individual scans, can then be obtained. The study shows that microarray scanners may introduce a significant bias in each channel. Such biases have to be calibrated for, otherwise systematic effects such as intensity dependent log-ratios will be observed. The proposed scanning protocol and calibration method is simple to use and is useful for evaluating scanner biases or for obtaining calibrated measurements with extended dynamical range and better precision. The

  19. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Range resolution improvement in passive bistatic radars using nested FM channels and least squares approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Musa T.; Tofighi, Mohammad; Sevimli, Rasim A.; ćetin, Ahmet E.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using commercial broadcasts in a Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) system is the range resolution. Using multiple broadcast channels to improve the radar performance is offered as a solution to this problem. However, it suffers from detection performance due to the side-lobes that matched filter creates for using multiple channels. In this article, we introduce a deconvolution algorithm to suppress the side-lobes. The two-dimensional matched filter output of a PBR is further analyzed as a deconvolution problem. The deconvolution algorithm is based on making successive projections onto the hyperplanes representing the time delay of a target. Resulting iterative deconvolution algorithm is globally convergent because all constraint sets are closed and convex. Simulation results in an FM based PBR system are presented.

  1. Low-complexity Compression of High Dynamic Range Infrared Images with JPEG compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    data size, then we include the raw residual image instead. If the residual image contains only zero values or the quality factor for it is 0 then we do not include the residual image into the header. Experimental results show that compared with JPEG-XT Part 6 with ’global Reinhard’ tone-mapping....... Then we compress each image by a JPEG baseline encoder and include the residual image bit stream into the application part of JPEG header of the base image. As a result, the base image can be reconstructed by JPEG baseline decoder. If the JPEG bit stream size of the residual image is higher than the raw...

  2. Simulation of unsteady compressible flow in a channel with vibrating walls - Influence of the frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochářová-Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 404-410 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : finite volume method * unsteady flow * low Mach number * viscous compressible fluid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003439

  3. Numerical solution of compressible and incompressible unsteady flows in channel inspired by vocal tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pořízková, P.; Kozel, Karel; Horáček, Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 270, November (2014), s. 323-329 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : compressible * incompressible * unsteady * CFD * acoustic * vocal tract Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042713007188#

  4. Techniques for heavy-ion coupled-channels calculations. I. Long-range Coulomb coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades-Brown, M.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Pieper, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Direct-reaction calculations for heavy ions require special computational techniques that take advantage of the physical peculiarities of heavy-ion systems. This paper is the first of a series on quantum-mechanical coupled-channels calculations for heavy ions. It deals with the problems posed by the long range of the Coulomb coupling interaction. Our approach is to use the Alder-Pauli factorization whereby the channel wave functions are expressed as products of Coulomb functions and modulating amplitudes. The equations for the modulating amplitudes are used to integrate inwards from infinity to a nuclear matching radius ( approx. = 20 fm). To adequate accuracy, the equations for the amplitudes can be reduced to first order and solved in first Born approximation. The use of the Born approximation leads to rapid recursion relations for the solutions of the Alder-Pauli equations and hence to a great reduction in computational labor. The resulting coupled-channels Coulomb functions can then be matched in the usual way to solutions of the coupled radial equations in the interior region of r space. Numerical studies demonstrate the reliability of the various techniques introduced

  5. Joint synthetic aperture radar plus ground moving target indicator from single-channel radar using compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas; Hallquist, Aaron; Anderson, Hyrum

    2017-10-17

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to utilizing an operational single-channel radar to collect and process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) imagery from a same set of radar returns. In an embodiment, data is collected by randomly staggering a slow-time pulse repetition interval (PRI) over a SAR aperture such that a number of transmitted pulses in the SAR aperture is preserved with respect to standard SAR, but many of the pulses are spaced very closely enabling movers (e.g., targets) to be resolved, wherein a relative velocity of the movers places them outside of the SAR ground patch. The various embodiments of image reconstruction can be based on compressed sensing inversion from undersampled data, which can be solved efficiently using such techniques as Bregman iteration. The various embodiments enable high-quality SAR reconstruction, and high-quality GMTI reconstruction from the same set of radar returns.

  6. arXiv Probing compressed dark sectors at 100 TeV in the dileptonic mono-Z channel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahbubani, Rakhi

    We examine the sensitivity at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider to compressed dark sectors whose decay products are invisible due to below-threshold energies and/or small couplings to the Standard Model. This scenario could be relevant to models of WIMP dark matter, where the lightest New Physics state is an (isolated) electroweak multiplet whose lowest component is stable on cosmological timescales. We rely on the additional emission of a hard on-shell $Z$-boson decaying to leptons, a channel with low background systematics, and include a careful estimate of the real and fake backgrounds to this process in our analysis. We show that an integrated luminosity of 30 ab$^{-1}$ would allow exclusion of a TeV-scale compressed dark sector with inclusive production cross section of 0.3 fb, for 1\\% background systematic uncertainty and splittings below 5 GeV. This translates to exclusion of a pure higgsino (wino) multiplet with mass of 500 (970) GeV.

  7. Formulation of anisotropic Hill criteria for the description of an aluminium alloy behaviour during the channel die compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrus, A.; Francillette, H.

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the study of the plastic deformation modes and the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys have been the subject of many investigations. This paper deals with a phenomenological identification of an anisotropic Hill constitutive equation of aluminium AU4G samples using a channel die compression device at room temperature. By considering the different possible orientations of the samples in the channel die device, three initial textures, named ND (normal direction Z), LD (longitudinal direction X) and TD (transverse direction Y), were defined with the corresponding stresses σND, σLD and σTD. To describe the anisotropy of the material, a quadratic Hill criteria is used. An Avrami type equation based on the mixture of the hardening and softening phenomena is used to describe variation of each stress component with the equivalent plastic strain. The identification of the parameters of the law is made using an identification software (OPTPAR) and a good correlation between the experimental stresses and computed ones is obtained. The variation of the Hill parameters with a proposed equivalent strain, describing the deformation history of the material, is analysed. Finally, using the expressions of F, G, H and N, the constitutive equation of the normal anisotropy in the plane XY is obtained

  8. End-to-End Joint Antenna Selection Strategy and Distributed Compress and Forward Strategy for Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vaze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop relay channels use multiple relay stages, each with multiple relay nodes, to facilitate communication between a source and destination. Previously, distributed space-time codes were proposed to maximize the achievable diversity-multiplexing tradeoff; however, they fail to achieve all the points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff. In the presence of a low-rate feedback link from the destination to each relay stage and the source, this paper proposes an end-to-end antenna selection (EEAS strategy as an alternative to distributed space-time codes. The EEAS strategy uses a subset of antennas of each relay stage for transmission of the source signal to the destination with amplifying and forwarding at each relay stage. The subsets are chosen such that they maximize the end-to-end mutual information at the destination. The EEAS strategy achieves the corner points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (corresponding to maximum diversity gain and maximum multiplexing gain and achieves better diversity gain at intermediate values of multiplexing gain, versus the best-known distributed space-time coding strategies. A distributed compress and forward (CF strategy is also proposed to achieve all points of the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for a two-hop relay channel with multiple relay nodes.

  9. Enhancement and creation of secondary channel habitat: Review of project performance across a range of project types and settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J.; Lind, P.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary channels provide critical off-channel habitat for key life stages of aquatic species. In many systems, interruption of natural processes via anthropogenic influences have reduced the quantity of secondary channel habitat and have impaired the processes that help form and maintain them. Creation and enhancement of secondary channels is therefore a key component of stream rehabilitation, particularly in the Pacific Northwest where the focus has been on enhancement of habitat for ESA-listed salmonids. Secondary channel enhancement varies widely in scope, scale, and approach depending on species requirements, hydrology/hydraulics, geomorphologic setting, sediment dynamics, and human constraints. This presentation will review case studies from numerous secondary channel projects constructed over the last 20 years by different entities and in different settings. Lessons learned will be discussed that help to understand project performance and inform future project design. A variety of secondary channel project types will be reviewed, including mainstem flow splits, year-round flow through, seasonally activated, backwater alcove, natural groundwater-fed, and engineered groundwater-fed (i.e. groundwater collection galleries). Projects will be discussed that span a range of project construction intensities, such as full excavation of side channels, select excavation to increase flow, or utilizing mainstem structures to activate channels. Different configurations for connecting to the main channel, and their relative performance, will also be presented. A variety of connection types will be discussed including stabilized channel entrance, free-formed entrance, using bar apex jams to split flows, using `bleeder' jams to limit secondary channel flow, and obstructing the main channel to divert flows into secondary channels. The performance and longevity of projects will be discussed, particularly with respect to the response to sediment mobilizing events. Lessons

  10. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  11. An Empirical Path-Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Indoor Short-Range Office Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel empirical path-loss model for wireless indoor short-range office environment at 4.3–7.3 GHz band is presented. The model is developed based on the experimental datum sampled in 30 office rooms in both line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. The model is characterized as the path loss to distance with a Gaussian random variable X due to the shadow fading by using linear regression. The path-loss exponent n is fitted by the frequency using power function and modeled as a frequency-dependent Gaussian variable as the standard deviation σ of X. The presented works should be available for the research of wireless channel characteristics under universal indoor short-distance environments in the Internet of Things (IOT.

  12. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  13. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels.

  14. Three-dimensional short-range MR angiography and multiplanar reconstruction images in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in hemifacial spasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Lee, Jae Gue; Rhee, Bong Arm

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) short-range MR angiography(MRA) and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR) imaging in hemifacial spasm(HS). Materials and Methods : Two hundreds patients with HS were studied using a 1.5T MRI system with a 3D time-of-flight(TOF) MRA sequence. To reconstruct short-range MRA, 6-10 source images near the 7-8th cranial nerve complex were processed using a maximum-intensity projection technique. In addition, an MPR technique was used to investigate neurovascular compression. We observed the relationship between the root-exit zone(REZ) of the 7th cranial nerve and compressive vessel, and identified the compressive vessels on symptomatic sides. To investigate neurovascular contact, asymptomatic contralateral sides were also evaluated. Results : MRI showed that in 197 of 200 patients there was vascular compression or contact with the facial nerve REZ on symptomatic sides. One of the three remaining patients was suffering from acoustic neurinoma on the symptomatic side, while in two patients there were no definite abnormal findings.Compressive vessels were demonstrated in all 197 patients; 80 cases involved the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA), 74 the posterior cerebellar artery(PICA), 13 the vertebral artery(VA), 16 the VA and AICA, eight the VA and PICA, and six the AICA and PICA. In all 197 patients, compressive vessels were reconstructed on one 3D short-range MRA image without discontinuation from vertebral or basilar arteries. 3D MPR studies provided additional information such as the direction of compression and course of the compressive vessel. In 31 patients there was neurovascular contact on the contralateral side at the 7-8th cranial nerve complex. Conclusion : Inpatients with HS, 3D short-range MRA and MPR images are excellent and very helpful for the investigation of neurovascular compression and the identification of compressive vessels

  15. Software for X-Ray Images Calculation of Hydrogen Compression Device in Megabar Pressure Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Nikolay; Bykov, Alexander; Pavlov, Valery

    2007-06-01

    Software for x-ray images simulation is described. The software is a part of x-ray method used for investigation of an equation of state of hydrogen in a megabar pressure range. A graphical interface that clearly and simply allows users to input data for x-ray image calculation: properties of the studied device, parameters of the x-ray radiation source, parameters of the x-ray radiation recorder, the experiment geometry; to represent the calculation results and efficiently transmit them to other software for processing. The calculation time is minimized. This makes it possible to perform calculations in a dialogue regime. The software is written in ``MATLAB'' system.

  16. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  17. Comparison of Compressive Myofascial Release and the Graston Technique for Improving Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Justin; Sullivan, Taylor; Davis, Samantha

    2018-02-01

      Restricted dorsiflexion (DF) at the ankle joint can cause acute and chronic injuries at the ankle and knee. Myofascial release and instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) techniques have been used to increase range of motion (ROM); however, evidence directly comparing their effectiveness is limited.   To compare the effects of a single session of compressive myofascial release (CMR) or IASTM using the Graston Technique (GT) on closed chain ankle-DF ROM.   Randomized controlled trial.   Laboratory.   Participants were 44 physically active people (53 limbs) with less than 30° of DF.   Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: control, CMR, or GT. Both treatment groups received one 5-minute treatment that included scanning the area and treating specific restrictions. The control group sat for 5 minutes before measurements were retaken.   Standing and kneeling ankle DF were measured before and immediately after treatment. Change scores were calculated for both positions, and two 1-way analyses of variance were conducted.   A difference between groups was found in the standing ( F 2,52 = 13.78, P = .001) and kneeling ( F 2,52 = 5.85, P = .01) positions. Post hoc testing showed DF improvements in the standing position after CMR compared with the GT and control groups (both P = .001). In the kneeling position, DF improved after CMR compared with the control group ( P = .005).   Compressive myofascial release increased ankle DF after a single treatment in participants with DF ROM deficits. Clinicians should consider adding CMR as a treatment intervention for patients with DF deficits.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of range of motion and failure characteristics of osteoporotic spinal compression fractures in human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Heary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebroplasty is a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The optimal location of needle placement for cement injection remains a topic of debate. As such, the authors assessed the effects of location of two types of cement instillations. In addition, the motion and failure modes at the index and adjacent segments were measured. Materials and Methods: Seven human osteoporotic cadaver spines (T1-L4, cut into four consecutive vertebral segments, were utilized. Of these, following the exclusion of four specimens not suitable to utilize for analysis, a total of 24 specimens were evaluable. Segments were randomly assigned into four treatment groups: unipedicular and bipedicular injections into the superior quartile or the anatomic center of the vertebra using confidence (Confidence Spinal Cement System®, DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA or polymethyl methacrylate. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive pure moments of 5 Nm, in 2.5 Nm increments, using pulleys and weights to simulate six degrees of physiological motion. A follower preload of 200 N was applied in flexion extension. Testing sequence: range of motion (ROM of intact specimen, fracture creation, cement injection, ROM after cement, and compression testing until failure. Nonconstrained motion was measured at the index and adjacent levels. Results: At the index level, no significant differences were observed in ROM in all treatment groups (P > 0.05. There was a significant increase in adjacent level motion only for the treatment group that received a unipedicular cement injection at the anatomic center. Conclusion: The location of the needle (superior or central and treatment type (unipedicular or bipedicular had no significant effect on the ROM at the index site. At the adjacent levels, a significant increase occurred with therapy through a unipedicular approach into the centrum of the vertebra at the treated segment.

  19. Combustion and emission characteristics of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) fuelled with naphtha and gasoline in wide load range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Wang, Zhi; Shuai, Shijin; Yang, Hongqiang; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Naphtha MPCI can operate stably in wide load range from 0.4 MPa to 1.4 MPa of IMEP. • Naphtha MPCI can achieve high thermal efficiency due to low exhaust loss. • Gasoline MPCI has low heat transfer loss than CDC and naphtha MPCI. • MPCI can produce low NO x emissions (<0.4 g/kW h) with the EGR ratio less than 30%. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of naphtha (RON = 65.6) and commercial gasoline (RON = 94.0) on Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) mode. The experiment is conducted on a single cylinder research diesel engine with compression ratio of 16.7. The engine is operated at an engine speed of 1600 rpm for the IMEP from 0.4 to 1.4 MPa. Commercial diesel (CN = 56.5) is also tested in Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) mode as a baseline. At each operating point, the injection strategy and intake conditions are adjusted to meet with the criteria (NO x < 0.4 g/kW h, soot < 0.06 m −1 , MPRR < 1 MPa/deg and CA50 < 20 CAD ATDC). The typical two-stage combustion characteristics of MPCI are obtained in both naphtha and gasoline. Stable combustion is achieved by naphtha in wide load range, while the engine fuelled with gasoline cannot operate stably at 0.4 MPa IMEP. The COV of IMEP of gasoline MPCI is higher than that of naphtha and diesel. However, gasoline has the low MPRR and the retarded CA50 at medium and high loads due to its longest ignition delay. As a result of low exhaust loss for naphtha and low heat transfer loss for gasoline, the thermal efficiencies are higher for both naphtha and gasoline in MPCI mode than diesel in CDC mode, even though diesel has the highest combustion efficiency. The separated combustion in MPCI leads to low cylinder temperature, and moderate EGR ratio (less than 30%) is needed to control NO x emissions under the limit of EURO VI

  20. Continuous fast focusing in trapezoidal void channel based on bidirectional isotachophoresis in wide pH range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Šlais, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 20 (2015), s. 2579-2586 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bidirectional isotachophoresis * trapezoidal void channel * wide pH range * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0250164

  1. Channel heads in mountain catchments subject to human impact - The Skrzyczne range in Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Wałach, Dominika; Żelazny, Mirosław; Małek, Stanisław; Krakowian, Katarzyna; Dąbek, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    Channel heads in mountain catchments are increasingly influenced by human activity. The disturbance of mountain headwater areas in moderate latitudes by the clearing of trees and the associated logging, road building and hydrotechnical constructions contribute to changes in the water cycle and consequently may induce a change in channel head development. Here we examine channel heads in the Beskid Śląski Mts., one of the areas most affected by ecological disaster in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. An ecological disaster associated with the decline of spruce trees in the 1980s and 1990s caused a substantial decrease (of about 50%) in the land area occupied by spruce forest in the Beskid Śląski Mts. As a result, headwater areas were subject to multidirectional changes in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the detailed characteristics of channel heads currently developing in the analyzed headwater areas, as well as to identify independent factors that affect the evolution of channel heads. Geomorphological mapping was conducted in 2012 in the vicinity of springs in the study area. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between mean values calculated for groups identified based on: i) geomorphologic processes (hollows with rock veneer - h, spring niches - sn, gullies - g), ii) location vs. transformation of channel heads (forested areas vs., deforested areas with road constructions). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure and general patterns associated with relationships between the parameters of a channel head and its contribution area, as well as to identify and interpret new (orthogonal) spaces defined using distinct factors. As far as we know, this kind of approach has been never applied before. A total of 80 channel heads surrounding 104 springs were surveyed close to the main ridge in the study area. A total of 14 morphometric parameters were taken into account in this study

  2. Long-Range Channel Measurements on Small Terminal Antennas Using Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Christensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, details are given on a novel measurement device for radio propagation-channel measurements. To avoid measurement errors due to the conductive cables on small terminal antennas, as well as to improve the handling of the prototypes under investigation, an optical measurement device has...

  3. Range extension and channel capacity increase in impulse-radio ultra-wideband communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Yu, Xianbin; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the channel capacity of a 5th-order Gaussian pulse-based ultra-wideband (UWB) system and experimentally demonstrate 2 Gbit/s UWB-over-fiber transmission systems incorporating wireless transmission. Both electrical and photonic UWB pulse generation methods are employed...

  4. Applications of the computer codes FLUX2D and PHI3D for the electromagnetic analysis of compressed magnetic field generators and power flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Oona, H.; Martinez, A.R.; Salon, S.; Wendling, P.; Krahenbuhl, L.; Nicolas, A.; Nicolas, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the results of three electromagnetic field problems for compressed magnetic field generators and their associated power flow channels. The first problem is the computation of the transient magnetic field in a two-dimensional model of a helical generator during loading. The second problem is the three-dimensional eddy current patterns in a section of an armature beneath a bifurcation point of a helical winding. The authors' third problem is the calculation of the three-dimensional electrostatic fields in a region known as the post-hole convolute in which a rod connects the inner and outer walls of a system of three concentric cylinders through a hole in the middle cylinder. While analytic solutions exist for many electromagnetic filed problems in cases of special and ideal geometries, the solution of these and similar problems for the proper analysis and design of compressed magnetic field generators and their related hardware require computer simulations

  5. Direct Ranging in Multi-path Channels Using OFDM Pilot Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Lishuai; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2014-01-01

    OFDM ranging is becoming important for positioning using terrestrial wireless networks. Conventional ranging methods rely on a two-step approach: range related parameters, such as the time of arrival (TOA), the bias induced by non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagations etc., are first estimated, based...

  6. Optimum SNR data compression in hardware using an Eigencoil array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott B; Varosi, Steve M; Duensing, G Randy

    2010-05-01

    With the number of receivers available on clinical MRI systems now ranging from 8 to 32 channels, data compression methods are being explored to lessen the demands on the computer for data handling and processing. Although software-based methods of compression after reception lessen computational requirements, a hardware-based method before the receiver also reduces the number of receive channels required. An eight-channel Eigencoil array is constructed by placing a hardware radiofrequency signal combiner inline after preamplification, before the receiver system. The Eigencoil array produces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an optimal reconstruction using a standard sum-of-squares reconstruction, with peripheral SNR gains of 30% over the standard array. The concept of "receiver channel reduction" or MRI data compression is demonstrated, with optimal SNR using only four channels, and with a three-channel Eigencoil, superior sum-of-squares SNR was achieved over the standard eight-channel array. A three-channel Eigencoil portion of a product neurovascular array confirms in vivo SNR performance and demonstrates parallel MRI up to R = 3. This SNR-preserving data compression method advantageously allows users of MRI systems with fewer receiver channels to achieve the SNR of higher-channel MRI systems. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Application of a compressible flow solver and barotropic cavitation model for the evaluation of the suction head in a low specific speed centrifugal pump impeller channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbach, P; Müller, T; Skoda, R

    2015-01-01

    Commonly, for the simulation of cavitation in centrifugal pumps incompressible flow solvers with VOF kind cavitation models are applied. Since the source/sink terms of the void fraction transport equation are based on simplified bubble dynamics, empirical parameters may need to be adjusted to the particular pump operating point. In the present study a barotropic cavitation model, which is based solely on thermodynamic fluid properties and does not include any empirical parameters, is applied on a single flow channel of a pump impeller in combination with a time-explicit viscous compressible flow solver. The suction head curves (head drop) are compared to the results of an incompressible implicit standard industrial CFD tool and are predicted qualitatively correct by the barotropic model. (paper)

  8. Distributary channel meandering and bifurcation patterns on the Amazon deep-sea fan as revealed by long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damuth, John E.; Kolla, Venkatarathnam; Flood, Roger D.; Kowsmann, Renato O.; Monteiro, Marcelo C.; Gorini, Marcus A.; Palma, Jorge J. C.; Belderson, Robert H.

    1983-02-01

    We mapped the distributary channel system of the Amazon deep-sea fan using the GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar. Individual channels were continuously traced for distances of up to 150 km. Channel bifurcation, although observed in only a few places, results in many cases from breaching of channel levees on the outsides of meander loops. Whether both channels remain active after branching or the original channel is abandoned by avulsion generally cannot be determined. The most striking channel characteristic is high sinuosity that results in extensive, intricate, often recurving meanders. Cutoffs and abandoned meander loops (oxbows) are observed in a few places. These meandering channels are comparable in size and appearance to those of mature fluvial systems on land, such as on the lower Mississippi River. The formation, maintenance, and modification of such extensive, well-developed meander systems would seem to require large volumes of continuous turbidity flow through the channels for relatively long time periods. This may challenge the traditional concept that channel formation and modification are accomplished by intermittent or sporadic turbidity-current events. *Present address: Superior Oil Company, 12401 Westheimer, Houston, Texas 77077

  9. Thermodynamics of aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and methyldiethanolammonium chloride (MDEAH+Cl-) over a wide range of temperature and pressure: Apparent molar volumes, heat capacities, and isothermal compressibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawrylak, B.; Palepu, R.; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes of aqueous methyldiethanolamine and its salt were determined with platinum vibrating tube densitometers over a range of temperatures from 283K= o , heat capacities C p o , and isothermal compressibilities κ T o . The standard partial molar volumes V o for the neutral amine and its salt show increasingly positive and negative values, respectively, at high temperatures and pressures, as predicted by corresponding states and group additivity arguments. The density model and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model have been used to represent the temperature and pressure dependence of the standard partial molar properties to yield a full thermodynamic description of the system

  10. Equations of state and melting curve of boron carbide in the high-pressure range of shock compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molodets, A. M., E-mail: molodets@icp.ac.ru; Golyshev, A. A.; Shakhrai, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    We have constructed the equations of state for crystalline boron carbide B{sub 11}C (C–B–C) and its melt under high dynamic and static pressures. A kink on the shock adiabat for boron carbide has been revealed in the pressure range near 100 GPa, and the melting curve with negative curvature in the pressure range 0–120 GPa has been calculated. The results have been used for interpreting the kinks on the shock adiabat for boron carbide in the pressure range of 0–400 GPa.

  11. Performance and specific emissions contours throughout the operating range of hydrogen-fueled compression ignition engine with diesel and RME pilot fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and emissions contours of a hydrogen dual fueled compression ignition (CI engine with two pilot fuels (diesel and rapeseed methyl ester, and compares the performance and emissions iso-contours of diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME single fueling with diesel and RME piloted hydrogen dual fueling throughout the engines operating speed and power range. The collected data have been used to produce iso-contours of thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific oxides of nitrogen (NOX, specific hydrocarbons (HC and specific carbon dioxide (CO2 on a power-speed plane. The performance and emission maps are experimentally investigated, compared, and critically discussed. Apart from medium loads at lower and medium speeds with diesel piloted hydrogen combustion, dual fueling produced lower thermal efficiency everywhere across the map. For diesel and RME single fueling the maximum specific NOX emissions are centered at the mid speed, mid power region. Hydrogen dual fueling produced higher specific NOX with both pilot fuels as compared to their respective single fueling operations. The range, location and trends of specific NOX varied significantly when compared to single fueling cases. The volumetric efficiency is discussed in detail with the implications of manifold injection of hydrogen analyzed with the conclusions drawn.

  12. X-ray microbeam measurements of long-range internal stresses in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Lee, I-Fang; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Fox, Alan G.; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure long-range internal stresses (LRISs) in the grain/subgrain interiors of commercial-purity aluminum processed by equal-channel angular pressing for up to eight passes. The LRIS values at +4.9° off the axial (pressing) direction show only a slight increase with increasing numbers of passes. The normalized stress remains approximately constant at ∼0.10 of the flow stress

  13. Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction measurements of full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors in commercial-purity aluminum processed by multiple passes of equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Lee, I-Fang; Xu, Ruqing; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction was used to measure the full elastic long range internal strain and stress tensors of low dislocation density regions within the submicrometer grain/subgrain structure of equal-channel angular pressed (ECAP) aluminum alloy AA1050 after 1, 2, and 8 passes using route B C . This is the first time that full tensors were measured in plastically deformed metals at this length scale. The maximum (most tensile or least compressive) principal elastic strain directions for the unloaded 1 pass sample for the grain/subgrain interiors align well with the pressing direction, and are more random for the 2 and 8 pass samples. The measurements reported here indicate that the local stresses and strains become increasingly isotropic (homogenized) with increasing ECAP passes using route B C . The average maximum (in magnitude) LRISs are −0.43 σ a for 1 pass, −0.44 σ a for 2 pass, and 0.14 σ a for the 8 pass sample. These LRISs are larger than those reported previously because those earlier measurements were unable to measure the full stress tensor. Significantly, the measured stresses are inconsistent with the two-component composite model.

  14. Long-range surface plasmon resonance sensor with liquid micro-channels to maintain the symmetry condition of the refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Tetsuo; Kojo, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to maintain the symmetry of the refractive index with respect to an Au film, in which the refractive indices are the same near both surfaces of the Au film, for LRSPR (long-range surface plasmon resonance) sensors. Maintenance of the symmetry is necessary for exciting the LRSPR mode. However, because the buffer layer under the Au film is usually made of a solid dielectric material with a constant refractive index, the quality of the measurement is reduced when the refractive index of the analyte used is dramatically different from that of the buffer layer. To solve this problem, the proposed sensor is equipped with liquid channels under the Au film. The Au film used in this study was supported by a thin (100 nm) polymer film forming parallel, one-dimensional liquid channels with a 29 µm pitch. Because the analyte solution flows in the channels, both surfaces of the Au film face the same analyte. Thus, this configuration automatically satisfies the symmetry condition for analytes with a wide range of refractive indices. We examined the validity of the sensor and compared it to that of a conventional sensor by measuring the LRSPR for five analyte solutions with different refractive indices. LRSPR dips were clearly observed for all of the analytes tested. The dip of the conventional LRSPR sensor became shallow when the refractive index increased, with the final dip depth being 65% of the initial dip depth for a refractive index of 1.358. In contrast, the dip depth of the proposed LRSPR sensor remained constant over the entire measured refractive index range of 1.331 to 1.358. These results indicate that the proposed sensor maintains the symmetry condition and confirm that the proposed method is effective for highly sensitive LRSPR measurements for a wide variety of analyte species

  15. Calculation of Friction Coefficient and Analysis of Fluid Flow in a Stepped Micro-Channel for Wide Range of Knudsen Number Using Lattice Boltzmann (MRT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bakhshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro scale gas flows has attracted significant research interest in the last two decades. In this research, the fluid flow of gases in the stepped micro-channel at a wide range of Knudsen number has been analyzed with using the Lattice Boltzmann (MRT method. In the model, a modified second-order slip boundary condition and a Bosanquet-type effective viscosity are used to consider the velocity slip at the boundaries and to cover the slip and transition regimes of flow and to gain an accurate simulation of rarefied gases. It includes the slip and transition regimes of flow. The flow specifications such as pressure loss, velocity profile, streamline and friction coefficient at different conditions have been presented. The results show good agreement with available experimental data. The calculation shows that the friction coefficient decreases with increasing the Knudsen number and stepping the micro-channel has an inverse effect on the friction coefficient. Furthermore, a new correlation is suggested for calculation of the friction coefficient in the stepped micro-channel as below: C_f Re  = 3.113+2.915/(1 +2 Kn+ 0.641 exp⁡(3.203/(1 + 2 Kn

  16. A two-step ionospheric modeling algorithm considering the impact of GLONASS pseudo-range inter-channel biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yao, Yi-bin; Hu, Yue-ming; Song, Wei-wei

    2017-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System presents a plausible and cost-effective way of computing the total electron content (TEC). But TEC estimated value could be seriously affected by the differential code biases (DCB) of frequency-dependent satellites and receivers. Unlike GPS and other satellite systems, GLONASS adopts a frequency-division multiplexing access mode to distinguish different satellites. This strategy leads to different wavelengths and inter-frequency biases (IFBs) for both pseudo-range and carrier phase observations, whose impacts are rarely considered in ionospheric modeling. We obtained observations from four groups of co-stations to analyze the characteristics of the GLONASS receiver P1P2 pseudo-range IFB with a double-difference method. The results showed that the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB remained stable for a period of time and could catch up to several meters, which cannot be absorbed by the receiver DCB during ionospheric modeling. Given the characteristics of the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB, we proposed a two-step ionosphere modeling method with the priori IFB information. The experimental analysis showed that the new algorithm can effectively eliminate the adverse effects on ionospheric model and hardware delay parameters estimation in different space environments. During high solar activity period, compared to the traditional GPS + GLONASS modeling algorithm, the absolute average deviation of TEC decreased from 2.17 to 2.07 TECu (TEC unit); simultaneously, the average RMS of GPS satellite DCB decreased from 0.225 to 0.219 ns, and the average deviation of GLONASS satellite DCB decreased from 0.253 to 0.113 ns with a great improvement in over 55%.

  17. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage were measured at 0.14−350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm−2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V−1s−1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  18. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hironori; Hirata, Kazuto

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage) were measured at 0.14-350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm-2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V-1s-1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  19. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application

  20. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application.

  1. Performance Analysis of Ultra-Wideband Channel for Short-Range Monopulse Radar at Ka-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiko Iwakiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-range resolution is inherently provided with Ka-band ultra-wideband (UWB vehicular radars. The authors have developed a prototype UWB monopulse radar equipped with a two-element receiving antenna array and reported its measurement results. In this paper, a more detailed verification using these measurements is presented. The measurements were analyzed employing matched filtering and eigendecomposition, and then multipath components were extracted to examine the behavior of received UWB monopulse signals. Next, conventional direction finding algorithms based on narrowband assumption were evaluated using the extracted multipath components, resulting in acceptable angle-of-arrival (AOA from the UWB monopulse signal regardless of wideband signals. Performance degradation due to a number of averaging the received monopulses was also examined to design suitable radar's waveforms.

  2. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  3. Compression stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...

  4. Assessing the role of large wood entrained in the 2013 Colorado Front Range flood in ongoing channel response and reservoir management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgina; Rathburn, Sara; Ryan, Sandra; Wohl, Ellen; Blair, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Considerable quantities of large wood (LW) may be entrained during floods with long lasting impacts on channel morphology, sediment and LW export, and downstream reservoir management. Here we present an analysis of LW entrained by an extensive flood in Colorado, USA. Over a 5 day period commencing 9th September 2013, up to 450 mm of rain, or ~1000% of the monthly average, fell in catchments spanning a 100-km-wide swath of the Colorado Front Range resulting in major flooding. Catchment response was dramatic, with reports of 100s - 1000s of years of erosion, destruction of infrastructure and homes, and sediment and LW loading within reservoirs. One heavily impacted catchment is the North St Vrain, draining 250km2 of the South Platte drainage basin. In addition to widespread channel enlargement, remote imagery reveals hundreds of landslides that delivered sediment and LW to the channel and ultimately to Ralph Price Reservoir, which provides municipal water to Longmont. The City of Longmont facilitated the removal of ~1050 m3 of wood deposited at the reservoir inlet by the flood but the potential for continued movement of large wood in the catchment presents an on-going concern for reservoir management. In collaboration with the City of Longmont, our objectives are (1) to quantify the volume of wood entrained by the flood and still stored along the channel, (2) characterize the size and distribution of LW deposits and (3) determine their role in ongoing catchment flood response and recovery. We utilize freely available pre and post flood NAIP 4-band imagery to calculate a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) difference map with which we calculate the area of vegetation entrained by the flood. We combine this with field assessments and a map of vegetation type automatically classified from optical satellite imagery to estimate the total flood-entrained volume of wood. Preliminary testing of 'stream selfies' - structure from motion imaging of LW deposits using

  5. Search for Supersymmetry with a Highly Compressed Mass Spectrum in the Single Soft Lepton Channel with the CMS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zarucki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Models with compressed mass spectra target a very interesting region of the SUSY parameter space and are very well motivated by theoretical considerations, such as dark matter constraints and naturalness. The presented analysis focuses on signal events containing a single low-momentum lepton and moderate missing transverse energy. The search targets a simplified model in which the signal consists of stop (supersymmetric partner of the top quark) pair-production, followed by 4-body decays into a lepton-neutrino (quark-antiquark) pair, a b-quark and a neutralino, which is considered the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), and with a mass gap between the stop and the LSP that is smaller than the W-boson mass. The LSPs and the neutrino escape the detector, leading to a missing transverse energy signature. Compressed regions are challenging to study, as the visible decay products have low momentum and generally do not pass detector acceptance thresholds. This difficulty can be mitigated by requiring the presen...

  6. SPECTRUM analysis of multispectral imagery in conjunction with wavelet/KLT data compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    The data analysis program, SPECTRUM, is used for fusion, visualization, and classification of multi-spectral imagery. The raw data used in this study is Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 7-channel imagery, with 8 bits of dynamic range per channel. To facilitate data transmission and storage, a compression algorithm is proposed based on spatial wavelet transform coding and KLT decomposition of interchannel spectral vectors, followed by adaptive optimal multiband scalar quantization. The performance of SPECTRUM clustering and visualization is evaluated on compressed multispectral data. 8-bit visualizations of 56-bit data show little visible distortion at 50:1 compression and graceful degradation at higher compression ratios. Two TM images were processed in this experiment: a 1024 x 1024-pixel scene of the region surrounding the Chernobyl power plant, taken a few months before the reactor malfunction, and a 2048 x 2048 image of Moscow and surrounding countryside.

  7. Relating working memory to compression parameters in clinically fit hearing AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela E; Sirow, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    Several laboratory studies have demonstrated that working memory may influence response to compression speed in controlled (i.e., laboratory) comparisons of compression. In this study, the authors explored whether the same relationship would occur under less controlled conditions, as might occur in a typical audiology clinic. Participants included 27 older adults who sought hearing care in a private practice audiology clinic. Working memory was measured for each participant using a reading span test. The authors examined the relationship between working memory and aided speech recognition in noise, using clinically fit hearing aids with a range of compression speeds. Working memory, amount of hearing loss, and age each contributed to speech recognition, but the contribution depended on the speed of the compression processor. For fast-acting compression, the best performance was obtained by patients with high working memory. For slow-acting compression, speech recognition was affected by age and amount of hearing loss but was not affected by working memory. Despite the expectation of greater variability from differences in compression implementation, number of compression channels, or attendant signal processing, the relationship between working memory and compression speed showed a similar pattern as results from more controlled, laboratory-based studies.

  8. Subband Coding Methods for Seismic Data Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The compression technique described could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.

  9. Compression of Infrared images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    best for bits-per-pixel rates below 1.4 bpp, while HEVC obtains best performance in the range 1.4 to 6.5 bpp. The compression performance is also evaluated based on maximum errors. These results also show that HEVC can achieve a precision of 1°C with an average of 1.3 bpp....

  10. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  11. Broad-range TRP channel inhibitors (2-APB, flufenamic acid, SKF-96365) affect differently contraction of resistance and conduit femoral arteries of rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bencze, Michal; Behuliak, Michal; Vavřínová, Anna; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 765, Oct 15 (2015), s. 533-540 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : femoral artery * TRP channel * 2-APB * flufenamic acid * SKF-96365 * vascular contraction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.730, year: 2015

  12. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  13. On Normalized Compression Distance and Large Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Borbely, Rebecca Schuller

    2015-01-01

    Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) is a popular tool that uses compression algorithms to cluster and classify data in a wide range of applications. Existing discussions of NCD's theoretical merit rely on certain theoretical properties of compression algorithms. However, we demonstrate that many popular compression algorithms don't seem to satisfy these theoretical properties. We explore the relationship between some of these properties and file size, demonstrating that this theoretical pro...

  14. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    . The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...... with using compressive sensing in communication systems. The main contribution of this thesis is two-fold: 1) a new compressive sensing hardware structure for spread spectrum signals, which is simpler than the current state-of-the-art, and 2) a range of algorithms for parameter estimation for the class...

  15. Using off-the-shelf lossy compression for wireless home sleep staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Kun-Chan; Chang, Da-Wei; Kuo, Chih-En; Wei, Ming-Zhi; Li, Yu-Hung; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2015-05-15

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development of wireless home sleep staging systems that allow the patient to be monitored remotely while remaining in the comfort of their home. However, transmitting large amount of Polysomnography (PSG) data over the Internet is an important issue needed to be considered. In this work, we aim to reduce the amount of PSG data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to classify sleep stages. We examine the effects of off-the-shelf lossy compression on an all-night PSG dataset from 20 healthy subjects, in the context of automated sleep staging. The popular compression method Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) was used, and a range of compression levels was selected in order to compress the signals with various degrees of loss. In addition, a rule-based automatic sleep staging method was used to automatically classify the sleep stages. Considering the criteria of clinical usefulness, the experimental results show that the system can achieve more than 60% energy saving with a high accuracy (>84%) in classifying sleep stages by using a lossy compression algorithm like SPIHT. As far as we know, our study is the first that focuses how much loss can be tolerated in compressing complex multi-channel PSG data for sleep analysis. We demonstrate the feasibility of using lossy SPIHT compression for wireless home sleep staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K. [Laboratory for X-ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-11

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  17. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  18. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our ...

  19. Evaluation of mammogram compression efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Surowski, P.; Kukula, A.

    2005-01-01

    Lossy image coding significantly improves performance over lossless methods, but a reliable control of diagnostic accuracy regarding compressed images is necessary. The acceptable range of compression ratios must be safe with respect to as many objective criteria as possible. This study evaluates the compression efficiency of digital mammograms in both numerically lossless (reversible) and lossy (irreversible) manner. Effective compression methods and concepts were examined to increase archiving and telediagnosis performance. Lossless compression as a primary applicable tool for medical applications was verified on a set 131 mammograms. Moreover, nine radiologists participated in the evaluation of lossy compression of mammograms. Subjective rating of diagnostically important features brought a set of mean rates given for each test image. The lesion detection test resulted in binary decision data analyzed statistically. The radiologists rated and interpreted malignant and benign lesions, representative pathology symptoms, and other structures susceptible to compression distortions contained in 22 original and 62 reconstructed mammograms. Test mammograms were collected in two radiology centers for three years and then selected according to diagnostic content suitable for an evaluation of compression effects. Lossless compression efficiency of the tested coders varied, but CALIC, JPEG-LS, and SPIHT performed the best. The evaluation of lossy compression effects affecting detection ability was based on ROC-like analysis. Assuming a two-sided significance level of p=0.05, the null hypothesis that lower bit rate reconstructions are as useful for diagnosis as the originals was false in sensitivity tests with 0.04 bpp mammograms. However, verification of the same hypothesis with 0.1 bpp reconstructions suggested their acceptance. Moreover, the 1 bpp reconstructions were rated very similarly to the original mammograms in the diagnostic quality evaluation test, but the

  20. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  1. Large-scale electrophysiology: acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-05-30

    The use of large-scale electrophysiology to obtain high spatiotemporal resolution brain recordings (>100 channels) capable of probing the range of neural activity from local field potential oscillations to single-neuron action potentials presents new challenges for data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Our group is currently performing continuous, long-term electrophysiological recordings in human subjects undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery using hybrid intracranial electrodes composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays. DC-capable amplifiers, sampling at 32kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution are capable of resolving extracellular voltages spanning single-neuron action potentials, high frequency oscillations, and high amplitude ultra-slow activity, but this approach generates 3 terabytes of data per day (at 4 bytes per sample) using current data formats. Data compression can provide several practical benefits, but only if data can be compressed and appended to files in real-time in a format that allows random access to data segments of varying size. Here we describe a state-of-the-art, scalable, electrophysiology platform designed for acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of large-scale data. Data are stored in a file format that incorporates lossless data compression using range-encoded differences, a 32-bit cyclically redundant checksum to ensure data integrity, and 128-bit encryption for protection of patient information.

  2. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, Rowan; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Holland, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform

  3. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  4. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  5. Computer program for compressible flow network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.

  6. Comparison of compression properties of stretchable knitted fabrics and bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Stretchable fabrics have diverse applications ranging from casual apparel to performance sportswear and compression therapy. Compression therapy is the universally accepted treatment for the management of hypertrophic scarring after severe burns. Mostly stretchable knitted fabrics are used in

  7. Dynamic compression and sound quality of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van R.A.J.M.; Wagenaars, W.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.; Stikvoort, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude compression is often used to match the dynamic: range of music to a particular playback situation in order to ensure, e .g ., continuous audibility in a noisy environment or unobtrusiveness if the music is intended as a quiet background. Since amplitude compression is a nonlinear process,

  8. Subjective evaluation of dynamic compression in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, W.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.; Lieshout, van R.A.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Amplitude compression is often used to match the dynamic range of music to a particular playback situation so as to ensure continuous audibility in a noisy environment. Since amplitude compression is a nonlinear process, it is potentially very damaging to sound quality. Three physical parameters of

  9. Mammography parameters: compression, dose, and discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.; Di Risio, C.; Andisco, D.; Rojas, R.R.; Rojas, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To confirm the importance of compression in mammography and relate it to the discomfort expressed by the patients. Materials and methods: Two samples of 402 and 268 mammographies were obtained from two diagnostic centres that use the same mammographic equipment, but different compression techniques. The patient age range was from 21 to 50 years old. (authors) [es

  10. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...

  11. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  12. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  13. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  14. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  15. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  16. The Distinction of Hot Herbal Compress, Hot Compress, and Topical Diclofenac as Myofascial Pain Syndrome Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruab, Jurairat; Nimpitakpong, Netraya; Damjuti, Watchara

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the distinctness after treatment among hot herbal compress, hot compress, and topical diclofenac. The registrants were equally divided into groups and received the different treatments including hot herbal compress, hot compress, and topical diclofenac group, which served as the control group. After treatment courses, Visual Analog Scale and 36-Item Short Form Health survey were, respectively, used to establish the level of pain intensity and quality of life. In addition, cervical range of motion and pressure pain threshold were also examined to identify the motional effects. All treatments showed significantly decreased level of pain intensity and increased cervical range of motion, while the intervention groups exhibited extraordinary capability compared with the topical diclofenac group in pressure pain threshold and quality of life. In summary, hot herbal compress holds promise to be an efficacious treatment parallel to hot compress and topical diclofenac.

  17. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  18. Lossless quantum data compression and variable-length coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Kim; Felbinger, Timo

    2002-01-01

    In order to compress quantum messages without loss of information it is necessary to allow the length of the encoded messages to vary. We develop a general framework for variable-length quantum messages in close analogy to the classical case and show that lossless compression is only possible if the message to be compressed is known to the sender. The lossless compression of an ensemble of messages is bounded from below by its von-Neumann entropy. We show that it is possible to reduce the number of qbits passing through a quantum channel even below the von Neumann entropy by adding a classical side channel. We give an explicit communication protocol that realizes lossless and instantaneous quantum data compression and apply it to a simple example. This protocol can be used for both online quantum communication and storage of quantum data

  19. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  20. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  1. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  2. Compression for radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.

  3. A customizable multi-channel loudness compensation method based on WDRC for digital hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiebin; Wang, Mingjiang; Ma, Min

    2017-08-01

    Loudness compensation is the most significant signal processing algorithm in digital hearing aids at present. An algorithm of multi-channel loudness compensation for embedded system has been put forward in this paper. The number of channels is customizable in this algorithm. The algorithm can set different number and different width of channels for each patient based on frequency domain wide dynamic range compression. First, according to the requirement of patient to divide the frequency domain into multiple unequal frequency bands. And then calculate the gain of each channel according to the input-output curve of sound pressure level. Finally, the time-domain impulse response of gain is computed from Mel filter banks. It is used in conjunction with speech enhancement processing in hearing aids. Simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively enhance the loudness for different frequencies.

  4. Radiological Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict

    The movement toward digital images in radiology presents the problem of how to conveniently and economically store, retrieve, and transmit the volume of digital images. Basic research into image data compression is necessary in order to move from a film-based department to an efficient digital -based department. Digital data compression technology consists of two types of compression technique: error-free and irreversible. Error -free image compression is desired; however, present techniques can only achieve compression ratio of from 1.5:1 to 3:1, depending upon the image characteristics. Irreversible image compression can achieve a much higher compression ratio; however, the image reconstructed from the compressed data shows some difference from the original image. This dissertation studies both error-free and irreversible image compression techniques. In particular, some modified error-free techniques have been tested and the recommended strategies for various radiological images are discussed. A full-frame bit-allocation irreversible compression technique has been derived. A total of 76 images which include CT head and body, and radiographs digitized to 2048 x 2048, 1024 x 1024, and 512 x 512 have been used to test this algorithm. The normalized mean -square-error (NMSE) on the difference image, defined as the difference between the original and the reconstructed image from a given compression ratio, is used as a global measurement on the quality of the reconstructed image. The NMSE's of total of 380 reconstructed and 380 difference images are measured and the results tabulated. Three complex compression methods are also suggested to compress images with special characteristics. Finally, various parameters which would effect the quality of the reconstructed images are discussed. A proposed hardware compression module is given in the last chapter.

  5. Channel Estimation in DCT-Based OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin; Xie, Zhidong; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives the channel estimation of a discrete cosine transform- (DCT-) based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a frequency-selective multipath fading channel. Channel estimation has been proved to improve system throughput and performance by allowing for coherent demodulation. Pilot-aided methods are traditionally used to learn the channel response. Least square (LS) and mean square error estimators (MMSE) are investigated. We also study a compressed sensing (CS) based channel estimation, which takes the sparse property of wireless channel into account. Simulation results have shown that the CS based channel estimation is expected to have better performance than LS. However MMSE can achieve optimal performance because of prior knowledge of the channel statistic. PMID:24757439

  6. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  7. Design of two-dimensional channels with prescribed velocity distributions along the channel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitz, John D

    1953-01-01

    A general method of design is developed for two-dimensional unbranched channels with prescribed velocities as a function of arc length along the channel walls. The method is developed for both compressible and incompressible, irrotational, nonviscous flow and applies to the design of elbows, diffusers, nozzles, and so forth. In part I solutions are obtained by relaxation methods; in part II solutions are obtained by a Green's function. Five numerical examples are given in part I including three elbow designs with the same prescribed velocity as a function of arc length along the channel walls but with incompressible, linearized compressible, and compressible flow. One numerical example is presented in part II for an accelerating elbow with linearized compressible flow, and the time required for the solution by a Green's function in part II was considerably less than the time required for the same solution by relaxation methods in part I.

  8. Watermark Compression in Medical Image Watermarking Using Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) Lossless Compression Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    In teleradiology, image contents may be altered due to noisy communication channels and hacker manipulation. Medical image data is very sensitive and can not tolerate any illegal change. Illegally changed image-based analysis could result in wrong medical decision. Digital watermarking technique can be used to authenticate images and detect as well as recover illegal changes made to teleradiology images. Watermarking of medical images with heavy payload watermarks causes image perceptual degradation. The image perceptual degradation directly affects medical diagnosis. To maintain the image perceptual and diagnostic qualities standard during watermarking, the watermark should be lossless compressed. This paper focuses on watermarking of ultrasound medical images with Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless-compressed watermarks. The watermark lossless compression reduces watermark payload without data loss. In this research work, watermark is the combination of defined region of interest (ROI) and image watermarking secret key. The performance of the LZW compression technique was compared with other conventional compression methods based on compression ratio. LZW was found better and used for watermark lossless compression in ultrasound medical images watermarking. Tabulated results show the watermark bits reduction, image watermarking with effective tamper detection and lossless recovery.

  9. Music preferences with hearing aids: effects of signal properties, compression settings, and listener characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of how to design and fit hearing aids to optimize music listening is limited. Many hearing-aid users listen to recorded music, which often undergoes compression limiting (CL) in the music industry. Therefore, hearing-aid users may experience twofold effects of compression when listening to recorded music: music-industry CL and hearing-aid wide dynamic-range compression (WDRC). The goal of this study was to examine the roles of input-signal properties, hearing-aid processing, and individual variability in the perception of recorded music, with a focus on the effects of dynamic-range compression. A group of 18 experienced hearing-aid users made paired-comparison preference judgments for classical and rock music samples using simulated hearing aids. Music samples were either unprocessed before hearing-aid input or had different levels of music-industry CL. Hearing-aid conditions included linear gain and individually fitted WDRC. Combinations of four WDRC parameters were included: fast release time (50 msec), slow release time (1,000 msec), three channels, and 18 channels. Listeners also completed several psychophysical tasks. Acoustic analyses showed that CL and WDRC reduced temporal envelope contrasts, changed amplitude distributions across the acoustic spectrum, and smoothed the peaks of the modulation spectrum. Listener judgments revealed that fast WDRC was least preferred for both genres of music. For classical music, linear processing and slow WDRC were equally preferred, and the main effect of number of channels was not significant. For rock music, linear processing was preferred over slow WDRC, and three channels were preferred to 18 channels. Heavy CL was least preferred for classical music, but the amount of CL did not change the patterns of WDRC preferences for either genre. Auditory filter bandwidth as estimated from psychophysical tuning curves was associated with variability in listeners' preferences for classical music. Fast

  10. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...

  11. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  12. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  13. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  14. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  15. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branderhorst, W.; Groot, J. E. de; Lier, M. G. J. T. B. van; Grimbergen, C. A.; Neeter, L. M. F. H.; Heeten, G. J. den; Neeleman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. Methods: A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. Results: For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. Conclusions: In mammographic breast

  16. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  17. Experiments with automata compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daciuk, J.; Yu, S; Daley, M; Eramian, M G

    2001-01-01

    Several compression methods of finite-state automata are presented and evaluated. Most compression methods used here are already described in the literature. However, their impact on the size of automata has not been described yet. We fill that gap, presenting results of experiments carried out on

  18. Fast lossless compression via cascading Bloom filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Roye; Shamir, Ron; Halperin, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Data from large Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) experiments present challenges both in terms of costs associated with storage and in time required for file transfer. It is sometimes possible to store only a summary relevant to particular applications, but generally it is desirable to keep all information needed to revisit experimental results in the future. Thus, the need for efficient lossless compression methods for NGS reads arises. It has been shown that NGS-specific compression schemes can improve results over generic compression methods, such as the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler transform, or Arithmetic Coding. When a reference genome is available, effective compression can be achieved by first aligning the reads to the reference genome, and then encoding each read using the alignment position combined with the differences in the read relative to the reference. These reference-based methods have been shown to compress better than reference-free schemes, but the alignment step they require demands several hours of CPU time on a typical dataset, whereas reference-free methods can usually compress in minutes. We present a new approach that achieves highly efficient compression by using a reference genome, but completely circumvents the need for alignment, affording a great reduction in the time needed to compress. In contrast to reference-based methods that first align reads to the genome, we hash all reads into Bloom filters to encode, and decode by querying the same Bloom filters using read-length subsequences of the reference genome. Further compression is achieved by using a cascade of such filters. Our method, called BARCODE, runs an order of magnitude faster than reference-based methods, while compressing an order of magnitude better than reference-free methods, over a broad range of sequencing coverage. In high coverage (50-100 fold), compared to the best tested compressors, BARCODE saves 80-90% of the running time while only increasing space

  19. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  20. Commissioning Results of the Upgraded Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Gilson, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes to the NDCX beamline offer the promise of higher charge compressed bunches (>15nC), with correspondingly large intensities (>500kW/cm 2 ), delivered to the target plane for ion-beam driven warm dense matter experiments. We report on commissioning results of the upgraded NDCX beamline that includes a new induction bunching module with approximately twice the volt-seconds and greater tuning flexibility, combined with a longer neutralized drift compression channel.

  1. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  2. Confounding compression: the effects of posture, sizing and garment type on measured interface pressure in sports compression clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Williams, Ned; Driller, Matthew William; Shing, Cecilia Mary; Fell, James William; Halson, Shona Leigh; Halson, Shona Louise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the interface pressure exerted by lower body sports compression garments, in order to assess the effect of garment type, size and posture in athletes. Twelve national-level boxers were fitted with sports compression garments (tights and leggings), each in three different sizes (undersized, recommended size and oversized). Interface pressure was assessed across six landmarks on the lower limb (ranging from medial malleolus to upper thigh) as athletes assumed sitting, standing and supine postures. Sports compression leggings exerted a significantly higher mean pressure than sports compression tights (P sports compression garments is significantly affected by garment type, size and posture assumed by the wearer.

  3. Tokamak plasma variations under rapid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Lynch, S.J.

    1980-04-01

    Changes in plasmas undergoing large, rapid compressions are examined numerically over the following range of aspect ratios A:3 greater than or equal to A greater than or equal to 1.5 for major radius compressions of circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections; and 3 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 6 for minor radius compressions of circular and D-shaped cross sections. The numerical approach combines the computation of fixed boundary MHD equilibria with single-fluid, flux-surface-averaged energy balance, particle balance, and magnetic flux diffusion equations. It is found that the dependences of plasma current I/sub p/ and poloidal beta anti β/sub p/ on the compression ratio C differ significantly in major radius compressions from those proposed by Furth and Yoshikawa. The present interpretation is that compression to small A dramatically increases the plasma current, which lowers anti β/sub p/ and makes the plasma more paramagnetic. Despite large values of toroidal beta anti β/sub T/ (greater than or equal to 30% with q/sub axis/ approx. = 1, q/sub edge/ approx. = 3), this tends to concentrate more toroidal flux near the magnetic axis, which means that a reduced minor radius is required to preserve the continuity of the toroidal flux function F at the plasma edge. Minor radius compressions to large aspect ratio agree well with the Furth-Yoshikawa scaling laws

  4. Cloud Optimized Image Format and Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.; Plesea, L.; Maurer, T.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud based image storage and processing requires revaluation of formats and processing methods. For the true value of the massive volumes of earth observation data to be realized, the image data needs to be accessible from the cloud. Traditional file formats such as TIF and NITF were developed in the hay day of the desktop and assumed fast low latency file access. Other formats such as JPEG2000 provide for streaming protocols for pixel data, but still require a server to have file access. These concepts no longer truly hold in cloud based elastic storage and computation environments. This paper will provide details of a newly evolving image storage format (MRF) and compression that is optimized for cloud environments. Although the cost of storage continues to fall for large data volumes, there is still significant value in compression. For imagery data to be used in analysis and exploit the extended dynamic range of the new sensors, lossless or controlled lossy compression is of high value. Compression decreases the data volumes stored and reduces the data transferred, but the reduced data size must be balanced with the CPU required to decompress. The paper also outlines a new compression algorithm (LERC) for imagery and elevation data that optimizes this balance. Advantages of the compression include its simple to implement algorithm that enables it to be efficiently accessed using JavaScript. Combing this new cloud based image storage format and compression will help resolve some of the challenges of big image data on the internet.

  5. A Streaming PCA VLSI Chip for Neural Data Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenfeng; Guo, Hongsun; Lim, Hubert H; Yang, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Neural recording system miniaturization and integration with low-power wireless technologies require compressing neural data before transmission. Feature extraction is a procedure to represent data in a low-dimensional space; its integration into a recording chip can be an efficient approach to compress neural data. In this paper, we propose a streaming principal component analysis algorithm and its microchip implementation to compress multichannel local field potential (LFP) and spike data. The circuits have been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology and occupy a silicon area of 0.06 mm. Throughout the experiments, the chip compresses LFPs by 10 at the expense of as low as 1% reconstruction errors and 144-nW/channel power consumption; for spikes, the achieved compression ratio is 25 with 8% reconstruction errors and 3.05-W/channel power consumption. In addition, the algorithm and its hardware architecture can swiftly adapt to nonstationary spiking activities, which enables efficient hardware sharing among multiple channels to support a high-channel count recorder.

  6. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  7. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  8. Mimicking multi-channel scattering with single-channel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multi-channel (MC) problem as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6Li and 87Rb atoms in the ground state and in the ...

  9. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  10. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  11. Improved Sparse Channel Estimation for Cooperative Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Gui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate channel state information (CSI is necessary at receiver for coherent detection in amplify-and-forward (AF cooperative communication systems. To estimate the channel, traditional methods, that is, least squares (LS and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO, are based on assumptions of either dense channel or global sparse channel. However, LS-based linear method neglects the inherent sparse structure information while LASSO-based sparse channel method cannot take full advantage of the prior information. Based on the partial sparse assumption of the cooperative channel model, we propose an improved channel estimation method with partial sparse constraint. At first, by using sparse decomposition theory, channel estimation is formulated as a compressive sensing problem. Secondly, the cooperative channel is reconstructed by LASSO with partial sparse constraint. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the superiority of proposed methods over global sparse channel estimation methods.

  12. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  13. Efficient predictive algorithms for image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Rosário Lucas, Luís Filipe; Maciel de Faria, Sérgio Manuel; Morais Rodrigues, Nuno Miguel; Liberal Pagliari, Carla

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses efficient prediction techniques for the current state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, focusing on the compression of a wide range of video signals, such as 3D video, Light Fields and natural images. The authors begin with a review of the state-of-the-art predictive coding methods and compression technologies for both 2D and 3D multimedia contents, which provides a good starting point for new researchers in the field of image and video compression. New prediction techniques that go beyond the standardized compression technologies are then presented and discussed. In the context of 3D video, the authors describe a new predictive algorithm for the compression of depth maps, which combines intra-directional prediction, with flexible block partitioning and linear residue fitting. New approaches are described for the compression of Light Field and still images, which enforce sparsity constraints on linear models. The Locally Linear Embedding-based prediction method is in...

  14. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  15. Quasi-isochronous muon collection channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankenbrandt, Charles M. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-26

    Intense muon beams have many potential commercial and scientific applications, ranging from low-energy investigations of the basic properties of matter using spin resonance to large energy-frontier muon colliders. However, muons originate from a tertiary process that produces a diffuse swarm. To make useful beams, the swarm must be rapidly captured and cooled before the muons decay. In this STTR project a promising new concept for the collection and cooling of muon beams to increase their intensity and reduce their emittances was investigated, namely, the use of a nearly isochronous helical cooling channel (HCC) to facilitate capture of the muons into RF bunches. The muon beam can then be cooled quickly and coalesced efficiently to optimize the luminosity of a muon collider, or could provide compressed muon beams for other applications. Optimal ways to integrate such a subsystem into the rest of a muon collection and cooling system, for collider and other applications, were developed by analysis and simulation. The application of quasi-isochronous helical cooling channels (QIHCC) for RF capture of muon beams was developed. Innovative design concepts for a channel incorporating straight solenoids, a matching section, and an HCC, including RF and absorber, were developed, and its subsystems were simulated. Additionally, a procedure that uses an HCC to combine bunches for a muon collider was invented and simulated. Difficult design aspects such as matching sections between subsystems and intensity-dependent effects were addressed. The bunch recombination procedure was developed into a complete design with 3-D simulations. Bright muon beams are needed for many commercial and scientific reasons. Potential commercial applications include low-dose radiography, muon catalyzed fusion, and the use of muon beams to screen cargo containers for homeland security. Scientific uses include low energy beams for rare process searches, muon spin resonance applications, muon beams for

  16. Compressible turbulent flows: aspects of prediction and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, R. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Fachgebiet Stroemungsmechanik

    2007-03-15

    Compressible turbulent flows are an important element of high-speed flight. Boundary layers developing along fuselage and wings of an aircraft and along engine compressor and turbine blades are compressible and mostly turbulent. The high-speed flow around rockets and through rocket nozzles involves compressible turbulence and flow separation. Turbulent mixing and combustion in scramjet engines is another example where compressibility dominates the flow physics. Although compressible turbulent flows have attracted researchers since the fifties of the last century, they are not completely understood. Especially interactions between compressible turbulence and combustion lead to challenging, yet unsolved problems. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) represent modern powerful research tools which allow to mimic such flows in great detail and to analyze underlying physical mechanisms, even those which cannot be accessed by the experiment. The present lecture provides a short description of these tools and some of their numerical characteristics. It then describes DNS and LES results of fully-developed channel and pipe flow and highlights effects of compressibility on the turbulence structure. The analysis of pressure fluctuations in such flows with isothermal cooled walls leads to the conclusion that the pressure-strain correlation tensor decreases in the wall layer and that the turbulence anisotropy increases, since the mean density falls off relative to the incompressible flow case. Similar increases in turbulence anisotropy due to compressibility are observed in inert and reacting temporal mixing layers. The nature of the pressure fluctuations is however two-facetted. While inert compressible mixing layers reveal wave-propagation effects in the pressure and density fluctuations, compressible reacting mixing layers seem to generate pressure fluctuations that are controlled by the time-rate of change of heat release and mean density

  17. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  18. Pulsed Compression Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestenberg, T. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-06-07

    The advantages of the Pulsed Compression Reactor (PCR) over the internal combustion engine-type chemical reactors are briefly discussed. Over the last four years a project concerning the fundamentals of the PCR technology has been performed by the University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. In order to assess the feasibility of the application of the PCR principle for the conversion methane to syngas, several fundamental questions needed to be answered. Two important questions that relate to the applicability of the PCR for any process are: how large is the heat transfer rate from a rapidly compressed and expanded volume of gas, and how does this heat transfer rate compare to energy contained in the compressed gas? And: can stable operation with a completely free piston as it is intended with the PCR be achieved?.

  19. Medullary compression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga T, L.; Echegaray, A.; Zaharia, M.; Pinillos A, L.; Moscol, A.; Barriga T, O.; Heredia Z, A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors made a retrospective study in 105 patients treated in the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases from 1973 to 1992. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the influence of radiotherapy in patients with medullary compression syndrome in aspects concerning pain palliation and improvement of functional impairment. Treatment sheets of patients with medullary compression were revised: 32 out of 39 of patients (82%) came to hospital by their own means and continued walking after treatment, 8 out of 66 patients (12%) who came in a wheelchair or were bedridden, could mobilize by their own after treatment, 41 patients (64%) had partial alleviation of pain after treatment. In those who came by their own means and did not change their characteristics, functional improvement was observed. It is concluded that radiotherapy offers palliative benefit in patients with medullary compression syndrome. (authors). 20 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  20. A Proxy Architecture to Enhance the Performance of WAP 2.0 by Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhanping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel proxy architecture for wireless application protocol (WAP 2.0 employing an advanced data compression scheme. Though optional in WAP 2.0 , a proxy can isolate the wireless from the wired domain to prevent error propagations and to eliminate wireless session delays (WSD by enabling long-lived connections between the proxy and wireless terminals. The proposed data compression scheme combines content compression together with robust header compression (ROHC, which minimizes the air-interface traffic data, thus significantly reduces the wireless access time. By using the content compression at the transport layer, it also enables TLS tunneling, which overcomes the end-to-end security problem in WAP 1.x. Performance evaluations show that while WAP 1.x is optimized for narrowband wireless channels, WAP 2.0 utilizing TCP/IP outperforms WAP 1.x over wideband wireless channels even without compression. The proposed data compression scheme reduces the wireless access time of WAP 2.0 by over 45% in CDMA2000 1XRTT channels, and in low-speed IS-95 channels, substantially reduces access time to give comparable performance to WAP 1.x. The performance enhancement is mainly contributed by the reply content compression, with ROHC offering further enhancements.

  1. A Proxy Architecture to Enhance the Performance of WAP 2.0 by Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhanping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel proxy architecture for wireless application protocol (WAP employing an advanced data compression scheme. Though optional in WAP , a proxy can isolate the wireless from the wired domain to prevent error propagations and to eliminate wireless session delays (WSD by enabling long-lived connections between the proxy and wireless terminals. The proposed data compression scheme combines content compression together with robust header compression (ROHC, which minimizes the air-interface traffic data, thus significantly reduces the wireless access time. By using the content compression at the transport layer, it also enables TLS tunneling, which overcomes the end-to-end security problem in WAP 1.x. Performance evaluations show that while WAP 1.x is optimized for narrowband wireless channels, WAP utilizing TCP/IP outperforms WAP 1.x over wideband wireless channels even without compression. The proposed data compression scheme reduces the wireless access time of WAP by over in CDMA2000 1XRTT channels, and in low-speed IS-95 channels, substantially reduces access time to give comparable performance to WAP 1.x. The performance enhancement is mainly contributed by the reply content compression, with ROHC offering further enhancements.

  2. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  3. Structure and Properties of Silica Glass Densified in Cold Compression and Hot Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Michael; Ackerson, Michael R.; Thomas, Jay; Yuan, Fenglin; Bruce Watson, E.; Walker, David; Huang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Silica glass has been shown in numerous studies to possess significant capacity for permanent densification under pressure at different temperatures to form high density amorphous (HDA) silica. However, it is unknown to what extent the processes leading to irreversible densification of silica glass in cold-compression at room temperature and in hot-compression (e.g., near glass transition temperature) are common in nature. In this work, a hot-compression technique was used to quench silica glass from high temperature (1100 °C) and high pressure (up to 8 GPa) conditions, which leads to density increase of ~25% and Young’s modulus increase of ~71% relative to that of pristine silica glass at ambient conditions. Our experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide solid evidences that the intermediate-range order of the hot-compressed HDA silica is distinct from that of the counterpart cold-compressed at room temperature. This explains the much higher thermal and mechanical stability of the former than the latter upon heating and compression as revealed in our in-situ Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiments. Our studies demonstrate the limitation of the resulting density as a structural indicator of polyamorphism, and point out the importance of temperature during compression in order to fundamentally understand HDA silica.

  4. Compressive creep of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.R.M. da; Melo, F.C.L. de; Cairo, C.A.; Piorino Neto, F.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon nitride samples were formed by pressureless sintering process, using neodymium oxide and a mixture of neodymium oxide and yttrio oxide as sintering aids. The short term compressive creep behaviour was evaluated over a stress range of 50-300 MPa and temperature range 1200 - 1350 0 C. Post-sintering heat treatments in nitrogen with a stepwise decremental variation of temperature were performed in some samples and microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the secondary crystalline phase which form from the remnant glass are dependent upon composition and percentage of aditives. Stress exponent values near to unity were obtained for materials with low glass content suggesting grain boundary diffusion accommodation processes. Cavitation will thereby become prevalent with increase in stress, temperature and decrease in the degree of crystallization of the grain boundary phase. (author) [pt

  5. A high compression crystal growth system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, H.F.; Walton, A.A.; Powell, B.M.; Dolling, G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the construction and operating procedure for a high compression crystal growth system, capable of growing single crystals from the fluid phase over the temperature range of 4.2 K to 300 K, at pressures up to 900 MPa. Some experimental results obtained with the system are given for solid β-nitrogen. (auth)

  6. The stability of cassette walls in compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutay, Pierre-Arnaud

    Much research into the behaviour of cold formed steel columns in the last decade has focused on channel sections undergoing local, distortional and overall buckling. Light gauge steel cassette sections are a particular form of channel section which offers an alternative form of load-bearing wall assembly for use in low-rise steel framed construction. Cassette wall sections possess wide and slender flanges so that, by including intermediate stiffeners in these wide flanges, a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity may be achieved. However, the introduction of intermediate stiffeners also increases the number of buckling modes (stiffener buckling) and, therefore complicates the behaviour and increases the risk of interactive buckling between these modes. The work undertaken in this thesis aims to clarify the behaviour of wide flanges in compression with and without intermediate stiffeners. In this research, the distortional mode of web and narrow flange buckling was inhibited by connecting the narrow flanges of the cassettes together at suitable intervals. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT), which allows the individual buckling modes to be considered individually and in predetermined combinations, provides a particularly good tool with which to analyse and understand the buckling behaviour of cassette sections with and without intermediate stiffeners. "Generalised Beam Theory" (GBT) is used throughout this work to determine the elastic buckling stress of the sections studied (simply supported stiffened plates, as well as cassette sections). Since the economic design of cold-formed steel sections requires the consideration of post- buckling behaviour, elastic buckling values are not directly comparable with design code values which are usually based on the concept of effective width. Therefore, finite element analysis with both material and geometric nonlinearity has also been carried out in order to obtain the ultimate strength in the critical mode or mode

  7. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  8. Application of the bilinear compression function to calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W

    2000-01-01

    The energy dynamic range required by a calorimeter may exceed, if high speed is also required, the technical limitations of available ADCs. In this case the use of a dynamic compressor matching the energy range to the ADC range may be an adequate solution. The requirement for the compression function is to add an appropriately small quantization error to the calorimeter resolution. The bilinear compression function is easy to realize, it is therefore interesting to study the conditions under which it is adequate and which are the parameters of the compression curve, the slope ratio and the break point, minimizing the additional error due to quantization.

  9. Application of the bilinear compression function to calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, Paolo Walter

    2000-01-01

    The energy dynamic range required by a calorimeter may exceed, if high speed is also required, the technical limitations of available ADCs. In this case the use of a dynamic compressor matching the energy range to the ADC range may be an adequate solution. The requirement for the compression function is to add an appropriately small quantization error to the calorimeter resolution. The bilinear compression function is easy to realize, it is therefore interesting to study the conditions under which it is adequate and which are the parameters of the compression curve, the slope ratio and the break point, minimizing the additional error due to quantization

  10. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2018-03-01

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  11. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  12. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  13. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  14. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Jones, A.K.; Nimick, K.G.

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10 -5 sec -1 , atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively

  15. Blind Compressed Image Watermarking for Noisy Communication Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Lenna test image [11] for our simulations, and gradient projection for sparse recon- struction (GPSR) [12] to solve the convex optimization prob- lem...E. Candes, J. Romberg , and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty prin- ciples: exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete fre- quency information,” IEEE...Images - Requirements and Guidelines,” ITU-T Recommen- dation T.81, 1992. [6] M. Gkizeli, D. Pados, and M. Medley, “Optimal signature de - sign for

  16. Effects of Instantaneous Multiband Dynamic Compression on Speech Intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzke Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment phenomenon, that is, the reduced dynamic range between threshold and uncomfortable level, is attributed to the loss of instantaneous dynamic compression on the basilar membrane. Despite this, hearing aids commonly use slow-acting dynamic compression for its compensation, because this was found to be the most successful strategy in terms of speech quality and intelligibility rehabilitation. Former attempts to use fast-acting compression gave ambiguous results, raising the question as to whether auditory-based recruitment compensation by instantaneous compression is in principle applicable in hearing aids. This study thus investigates instantaneous multiband dynamic compression based on an auditory filterbank. Instantaneous envelope compression is performed in each frequency band of a gammatone filterbank, which provides a combination of time and frequency resolution comparable to the normal healthy cochlea. The gain characteristics used for dynamic compression are deduced from categorical loudness scaling. In speech intelligibility tests, the instantaneous dynamic compression scheme was compared against a linear amplification scheme, which used the same filterbank for frequency analysis, but employed constant gain factors that restored the sound level for medium perceived loudness in each frequency band. In subjective comparisons, five of nine subjects preferred the linear amplification scheme and would not accept the instantaneous dynamic compression in hearing aids. Four of nine subjects did not perceive any quality differences. A sentence intelligibility test in noise (Oldenburg sentence test showed little to no negative effects of the instantaneous dynamic compression, compared to linear amplification. A word intelligibility test in quiet (one-syllable rhyme test showed that the subjects benefit from the larger amplification at low levels provided by instantaneous dynamic compression. Further analysis showed that the increase

  17. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  18. Compressibility of air in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic compressibility of air in fibrous materials has been computed for two assumed configurations of fibers which are close to the geometry of real fiber materials. Models with parallel cylinders placed in a regular square lattice and placed randomly are treated. For these models...... the compressibility is computed approximately from the diameter and mean distances between cylinders. This requires calculation of the air temperature, which is calculated for cylinders in a regular lattive by the Wigner-Seitz cell approximation. In the case of random placement, the calculation is done by a summation...... over thermal waves from all fibers, and by a self-consistent procedure. Figuren of the compressibility in the frequency range 10-100 000 Hz, are given for diameter of the cylinders of 6.8 µm, and mean distances between them from 50 to 110 µm, which corresponds to glass wool with a density of 40 to 16...

  19. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  20. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m 3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  1. Tourism distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The distribution channels link the customers with the businesses. For many years, the tourism businesses may have distributed their products and services through intermediaries. However, the latest advances in technology have brought significant changes in this regard. More individuals and corporate customers are increasingly benefiting of ubiquitous technologies, including digital media. The development of mobile devices and their applications, are offering a wide range of possibilities to t...

  2. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  3. Toward a Better Compression for DNA Sequences Using Huffman Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Almarri, Badar; Al Yami, Sultan; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2017-04-01

    Due to the significant amount of DNA data that are being generated by next-generation sequencing machines for genomes of lengths ranging from megabases to gigabases, there is an increasing need to compress such data to a less space and a faster transmission. Different implementations of Huffman encoding incorporating the characteristics of DNA sequences prove to better compress DNA data. These implementations center on the concepts of selecting frequent repeats so as to force a skewed Huffman tree, as well as the construction of multiple Huffman trees when encoding. The implementations demonstrate improvements on the compression ratios for five genomes with lengths ranging from 5 to 50 Mbp, compared with the standard Huffman tree algorithm. The research hence suggests an improvement on all such DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. The research suggests an improvement on all DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. Accompanying software is publicly available (AL-Okaily, 2016 ).

  4. Spark channel propagation in a microbubble liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya.; Son, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental study on the development of the spark channel from the anode needle under pulsed electrical breakdown of isopropyl alcohol solution in water with air microbubbles has been performed. The presence of the microbubbles increases the velocity of the spark channel propagation and increases the current in the discharge gap circuit. The observed rate of spark channel propagation in microbubble liquid ranges from 4 to 12 m/s, indicating the thermal mechanism of the spark channel development in a microbubble liquid.

  5. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  6. Partial wave analysis of the reaction πN→Nππ and coupled channel analyses of the reactions πN in the CM energy range 1.38-1.74GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbeau, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The partial wave analysis of 91314 π + -p→Nππ events at nine CM energies between 1.38 and 1.74GeV was performed using the generalized isobar model and assuming the coherent production of Δ, rho and sigma in the final state. A coupled channel analysis (K-matrix formalism) led to the determination of the arbitrary phase at each energy and to smooth the partial wave amplitudes. The paramaters (mass, total and partial widths, signs of coupling constants) of sixteen resonances, among which two new ones, are determined by two different methods. Those results help in classifying the lower-mass excited states of the nucleon in the frame of unitary symmetries, as SU6 [fr

  7. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  8. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  9. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  10. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  11. Digital cinema video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  13. WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouzhou Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.

  14. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  15. Modeling Compressed Turbulence with BHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Turbulence undergoing compression or expansion occurs in systems ranging from internal combustion engines to supernovae. One common feature in many of these systems is the presence of multiple reacting species. Direct numerical simulation data is available for the single-fluid, low turbulent Mach number case. Wu, et al. (1985) compared their DNS results to several Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models. They also proposed a three-equation k - ɛ - τ model, in conjunction with a Reynolds-stress model. Subsequent researchers have proposed alternative corrections to the standard k - ɛ formulation. Here we investigate three variants of the BHR model (Besnard, 1992). BHR is a model for multi-species variable-density turbulence. The three variants are the linear eddy-viscosity, algebraic-stress, and full Reynolds-stress formulations. We then examine the predictions of the model for the fluctuating density field for the case of variable-density turbulence.

  16. Fixed-Rate Compressed Floating-Point Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Current compression schemes for floating-point data commonly take fixed-precision values and compress them to a variable-length bit stream, complicating memory management and random access. We present a fixed-rate, near-lossless compression scheme that maps small blocks of 4(d) values in d dimensions to a fixed, user-specified number of bits per block, thereby allowing read and write random access to compressed floating-point data at block granularity. Our approach is inspired by fixed-rate texture compression methods widely adopted in graphics hardware, but has been tailored to the high dynamic range and precision demands of scientific applications. Our compressor is based on a new, lifted, orthogonal block transform and embedded coding, allowing each per-block bit stream to be truncated at any point if desired, thus facilitating bit rate selection using a single compression scheme. To avoid compression or decompression upon every data access, we employ a software write-back cache of uncompressed blocks. Our compressor has been designed with computational simplicity and speed in mind to allow for the possibility of a hardware implementation, and uses only a small number of fixed-point arithmetic operations per compressed value. We demonstrate the viability and benefits of lossy compression in several applications, including visualization, quantitative data analysis, and numerical simulation.

  17. Search for a SM Higgs boson in the H → Z*Z → ℓ+ℓ−qq̅ channel in the mass range 120 - 180 GeV with the ATLAS Detector at √s = 7 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurzolo Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the first study is given for the decay channel H → Z*Z → ℓ+ℓ−qq̅ (ℓ = e, μ in the Higgs boson mass range 120 - 180 GeV, using the pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. Data driven methods to estimate the background and new techniques to improve the mass resolution of the hadronic Z boson decay are used. Events with 0 or 1 b-jets and events with 2 b-jets are treated as separated channels. No significant excess of events above the estimated background is observed; upper limits at 95% C.L. on the Higgs production cross section are derived.

  18. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  19. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  20. Improvement of Strength and Energy Absorption Properties of Porous Aluminum Alloy with Aligned Unidirectional Pores Using Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomonori; Muto, Daiki; Tamai, Tomoya; Suzuki, Shinsuke

    2018-06-01

    Porous aluminum alloy with aligned unidirectional pores was fabricated by dipping A1050 tubes into A6061 semi-solid slurry. The porous aluminum alloy was processed through Equal-channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) while preventing cracking and maintaining both the pore size and porosity by setting the insert material and loading back pressure. The specific compressive yield strength of the sample aged after 13 passes of ECAE was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. Both the energy absorption E V and energy absorption efficiency η V after four passes of ECAE were approximately 1.2 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. The specific yield strength was improved via work hardening and precipitation following dynamic aging during ECAE. E V was improved by the application of high compressive stress at the beginning of the compression owing to work hardening via ECAE. η V was improved by a steep increase of stress at low compressive strain and by a gradual increase of stress in the range up to 50 pct of compressive strain. The gradual increase of stress was caused by continuous shear fracture in the metallic part, which was due to the high dislocation density and existence of unidirectional pores parallel to the compressive direction in the structure.

  1. Improvement of Strength and Energy Absorption Properties of Porous Aluminum Alloy with Aligned Unidirectional Pores Using Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomonori; Muto, Daiki; Tamai, Tomoya; Suzuki, Shinsuke

    2018-04-01

    Porous aluminum alloy with aligned unidirectional pores was fabricated by dipping A1050 tubes into A6061 semi-solid slurry. The porous aluminum alloy was processed through Equal-channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) while preventing cracking and maintaining both the pore size and porosity by setting the insert material and loading back pressure. The specific compressive yield strength of the sample aged after 13 passes of ECAE was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. Both the energy absorption E V and energy absorption efficiency η V after four passes of ECAE were approximately 1.2 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. The specific yield strength was improved via work hardening and precipitation following dynamic aging during ECAE. E V was improved by the application of high compressive stress at the beginning of the compression owing to work hardening via ECAE. η V was improved by a steep increase of stress at low compressive strain and by a gradual increase of stress in the range up to 50 pct of compressive strain. The gradual increase of stress was caused by continuous shear fracture in the metallic part, which was due to the high dislocation density and existence of unidirectional pores parallel to the compressive direction in the structure.

  2. The CCSDS Lossless Data Compression Algorithm for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the late 80's, when the author started working at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), several scientists there were in the process of formulating the next generation of Earth viewing science instruments, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The instrument would have over thirty spectral bands and would transmit enormous data through the communications channel. This was when the author was assigned the task of investigating lossless compression algorithms for space implementation to compress science data in order to reduce the requirement on bandwidth and storage.

  3. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  4. A lossless multichannel bio-signal compression based on low-complexity joint coding scheme for portable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kwon, Jin-San

    2014-09-18

    Research on real-time health systems have received great attention during recent years and the needs of high-quality personal multichannel medical signal compression for personal medical product applications are increasing. The international MPEG-4 audio lossless coding (ALS) standard supports a joint channel-coding scheme for improving compression performance of multichannel signals and it is very efficient compression method for multi-channel biosignals. However, the computational complexity of such a multichannel coding scheme is significantly greater than that of other lossless audio encoders. In this paper, we present a multichannel hardware encoder based on a low-complexity joint-coding technique and shared multiplier scheme for portable devices. A joint-coding decision method and a reference channel selection scheme are modified for a low-complexity joint coder. The proposed joint coding decision method determines the optimized joint-coding operation based on the relationship between the cross correlation of residual signals and the compression ratio. The reference channel selection is designed to select a channel for the entropy coding of the joint coding. The hardware encoder operates at a 40 MHz clock frequency and supports two-channel parallel encoding for the multichannel monitoring system. Experimental results show that the compression ratio increases by 0.06%, whereas the computational complexity decreases by 20.72% compared to the MPEG-4 ALS reference software encoder. In addition, the compression ratio increases by about 11.92%, compared to the single channel based bio-signal lossless data compressor.

  5. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  6. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  7. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  8. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.

  9. SeqCompress: an algorithm for biological sequence compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-10-01

    The growth of Next Generation Sequencing technologies presents significant research challenges, specifically to design bioinformatics tools that handle massive amount of data efficiently. Biological sequence data storage cost has become a noticeable proportion of total cost in the generation and analysis. Particularly increase in DNA sequencing rate is significantly outstripping the rate of increase in disk storage capacity, which may go beyond the limit of storage capacity. It is essential to develop algorithms that handle large data sets via better memory management. This article presents a DNA sequence compression algorithm SeqCompress that copes with the space complexity of biological sequences. The algorithm is based on lossless data compression and uses statistical model as well as arithmetic coding to compress DNA sequences. The proposed algorithm is compared with recent specialized compression tools for biological sequences. Experimental results show that proposed algorithm has better compression gain as compared to other existing algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M R; Ibrahimy, M I; Motakabber, S M A; Ferdaus, M M; Khan, M N H

    2013-01-01

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms

  11. Analysis by compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....

  12. Metal Hydride Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bowman, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anovitz, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional hydrogen compressors often contribute over half of the cost of hydrogen stations, have poor reliability, and have insufficient flow rates for a mature FCEV market. Fatigue associated with their moving parts including cracking of diaphragms and failure of seal leads to failure in conventional compressors, which is exacerbated by the repeated starts and stops expected at fueling stations. Furthermore, the conventional lubrication of these compressors with oil is generally unacceptable at fueling stations due to potential fuel contamination. Metal hydride (MH) technology offers a very good alternative to both conventional (mechanical) and newly developed (electrochemical, ionic liquid pistons) methods of hydrogen compression. Advantages of MH compression include simplicity in design and operation, absence of moving parts, compactness, safety and reliability, and the possibility to utilize waste industrial heat to power the compressor. Beyond conventional H2 supplies of pipelines or tanker trucks, another attractive scenario is the on-site generating, pressuring and delivering pure H2 at pressure (≥ 875 bar) for refueling vehicles at electrolysis, wind, or solar generating production facilities in distributed locations that are too remote or widely distributed for cost effective bulk transport. MH hydrogen compression utilizes a reversible heat-driven interaction of a hydride-forming metal alloy with hydrogen gas to form the MH phase and is a promising process for hydrogen energy applications [1,2]. To deliver hydrogen continuously, each stage of the compressor must consist of multiple MH beds with synchronized hydrogenation & dehydrogenation cycles. Multistage pressurization allows achievement of greater compression ratios using reduced temperature swings compared to single stage compressors. The objectives of this project are to investigate and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a two-stage MH hydrogen (H2) gas compressor with a

  13. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  14. Environmental effects on the compressive properties - Thermosetting vs. thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A.; Jeelani, S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of moisture and temperature on the compressive properties of graphite/epoxy and APC-2 materials systems was investigated to assess the viability of using APC-2 instead of graphite/epoxy. Data obtained indicate that the moisture absorption rate of T-300/epoxy is higher than that of APC-2. Thick plate with smaller surface area absorbs less moisture than thin plate with larger surface area. The compressive strength and modulus of APC-2 are higher than those of T-300/epoxy composite, and APC-2 sustains higher compressive strength in the presence of moisture. The compressive strength and modulus decrease with the increase of temperature in the range of 23-100 C. The compression failure was in the form of delamination, interlaminar shear, and end brooming.

  15. Image Quality Assessment for Different Wavelet Compression Techniques in a Visual Communication Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha A. S. Alwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Images with subband coding and threshold wavelet compression are transmitted over a Rayleigh communication channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, after quantization and 16-QAM modulation. A comparison is made between these two types of compression using both mean square error (MSE and structural similarity (SSIM image quality assessment (IQA criteria applied to the reconstructed image at the receiver. The two methods yielded comparable SSIM but different MSE measures. In this work, we justify our results which support previous findings in the literature that the MSE between two images is not indicative of structural similarity or the visibility of errors. It is found that it is difficult to reduce the pointwise errors in subband-compressed images (higher MSE. However, the compressed images provide comparable SSIM or perceived quality for both types of compression provided that the retained energy after compression is the same.

  16. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  17. Photon compression in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown theoretically that intense microwave radiation is absorbed non-classically by a newly enunciated mechanism when interacting with hydrogen plasma. Fields > 1 Mg, lambda > 1 mm are within this regime. The predicted absorption, approximately P/sub rf/v/sub theta/sup e/, has not yet been experimentally confirmed. The applications of such a coupling are many. If microwave bursts approximately > 5 x 10 14 watts, 5 ns can be generated, the net generation of power from pellet fusion as well as various military applications becomes feasible. The purpose, then, for considering gas-gun photon compression is to obtain the above experimental capability by converting the gas kinetic energy directly into microwave form. Energies of >10 5 joules cm -2 and powers of >10 13 watts cm -2 are potentially available for photon interaction experiments using presently available technology. The following topics are discussed: microwave modes in a finite cylinder, injection, compression, switchout operation, and system performance parameter scaling

  18. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  19. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  20. Generalized massive optimal data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a general procedure for optimally compressing N data down to n summary statistics, where n is equal to the number of parameters of interest. We show that compression to the score function - the gradient of the log-likelihood with respect to the parameters - yields n compressed statistics that are optimal in the sense that they preserve the Fisher information content of the data. Our method generalizes earlier work on linear Karhunen-Loéve compression for Gaussian data whilst recovering both lossless linear compression and quadratic estimation as special cases when they are optimal. We give a unified treatment that also includes the general non-Gaussian case as long as mild regularity conditions are satisfied, producing optimal non-linear summary statistics when appropriate. As a worked example, we derive explicitly the n optimal compressed statistics for Gaussian data in the general case where both the mean and covariance depend on the parameters.

  1. 2D CFD description of the kinematic effects of movable inlet and outlet die wall transport motion and punch shape geometry on the dynamics of viscous flow during ECAE through Segal 2θ-dies for a range of channel angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Perig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the dead zone (DZA in the process of material forming is a materials science problem. Geometric and kinematic approaches to the minimization of the DZA during Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE have been proposed, developed, analyzed, and documented. The present article is focused on a 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD description of the kinematic effects of punch shape geometry and inlet (IDW and outlet (ODW die wall motion on the DZA during ECAE of Viscous Incompressible Continuum (VIC through a Segal 2θ-die for a range of channel angles 60° ≤ 2θ ≤ 135°. Due attention has been given to the independent alternating transport motions of the IDW and ODW. Punch shape geometry and the kinematic modes of IDW and ODW motions for DZA minimization have been determined with a numerical solution of the boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in curl transfer form for VIC. Experimental verification was accomplished with an introduction of initial circular gridlines-based physical simulation techniques. For the first time, experimental verification of CFD-derived results was made through an additional superposition of empirically-derived digital photos with deformed elliptical gridlines in the channel intersection deformation zones and correspondent 2D numerical plots with CFD-derived flow lines and full flow velocities. An empirical DZA localization was experimentally determined as the location of minimally-deformed near circular markers. The computational DZA localization was numerically determined as a flow-lines-free zone (the first hypothesis or as a zone with near-zero values of full flow velocities (the second hypothesis. The relative DZA was estimated as a ratio of the measured DZA with respect to the area of the deformation zone in the channel intersection region. A good agreement was obtained between DZA values obtained with the first hypothesis and experimental results.

  2. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here

  3. A soft compressive sensor using dielectric elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Michael Yu; Li, Jisen; Zhu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to design, analyze and fabricate a soft compressive sensor, made of dielectric elastomers that are able to recover from large strain. Each module of the compressive sensor is modeled as a capacitor, comprising a DE membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. When the sensor modules aligned in an array were subject to a compressive load, the induced deformation on the corresponding module resulted in capacitance increase. By detecting the capacitance signal, not only the position but also the magnitude of the compressive load were obtained. We built an analytical model to simulate the mechanical–electrical responses of two common soft sensor structures, namely with and without an embedded air chamber. The simulation results showed that the air embedded prototype improved the sensitivity of the sensor significantly, which was consistent with the experimental results, where the sensitivity is enhanced from 0.05 N −1 to 0.91 N −1 . Furthermore, the effect of the air chamber dimension on the sensitivity is also discussed theoretically and experimentally. It concluded that the detection range increased with the air chamber height over length ratio. (paper)

  4. Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Compressive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim T. Yousif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Compressive strength of concrete is a commonly used criterion in evaluating concrete. Although testing of the compressive strength of concrete specimens is done routinely, it is performed on the 28th day after concrete placement. Therefore, strength estimation of concrete at early time is highly desirable. This study presents the effort in applying neural network-based system identification techniques to predict the compressive strength of concrete based on concrete mix proportions, maximum aggregate size (MAS, and slump of fresh concrete. Back-propagation neural networks model is successively developed, trained, and tested using actual data sets of concrete mix proportions gathered from literature.    The test of the model by un-used data within the range of input parameters shows that the maximum absolute error for model is about 20% and 88% of the output results has absolute errors less than 10%. The parametric study shows that water/cement ratio (w/c is the most significant factor  affecting the output of the model.     The results showed that neural networks has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting compressive strength of concrete.

  5. Breast compression in mammography: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Ann; McLean, Donald; Rickard, Mary; Heard, Robert

    2003-06-01

    The amount of breast compression that is applied during mammography potentially influences image quality and the discomfort experienced. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between applied compression force, breast thickness, reported discomfort and image quality. Participants were women attending routine breast screening by mammography at BreastScreen New South Wales Central and Eastern Sydney. During the mammographic procedure, an 'extra' craniocaudal (CC) film was taken at a reduced level of compression ranging from 10 to 30 Newtons. Breast thickness measurements were recorded for both the normal and the extra CC film. Details of discomfort experienced, cup size, menstrual status, existing breast pain and breast problems were also recorded. Radiologists were asked to compare the image quality of the normal and manipulated film. The results indicated that 24% of women did not experience a difference in thickness when the compression was reduced. This is an important new finding because the aim of breast compression is to reduce breast thickness. If breast thickness is not reduced when compression force is applied then discomfort is increased with no benefit in image quality. This has implications for mammographic practice when determining how much breast compression is sufficient. Radiologists found a decrease in contrast resolution within the fatty area of the breast between the normal and the extra CC film, confirming a decrease in image quality due to insufficient applied compression force.

  6. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  7. Mammographic compression in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pAsian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.

  8. Wire-wrap bundle compression-characteristics study. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertock, A.J.

    1974-06-01

    An analytical computer comparison was made of the compression characteristics of proposed wire-wrap bundles. The study included analysis of 7- and 37-rod straight-start bundles (base configuration), and softened 37-rod configurations. The softened configurations analyzed were: straight-start with distributed wireless fuel rods, and the staggered wire-wrap start angles of 0 0 -30 0 -60 0 and 0 0 -45 0 -90 0 . The compression of the bundle simulates the bundle-to-channel interference at end-of-life conditions at which high differential swelling between the channel and bundle has been predicted. The computer results do not include the so-called dispersion effects. The effects of other variables such as pitch length, creep, axial variations in swelling, and degree of swelling were not studied. These analytic studies give an indication of trends only. No credence should be given to specific quantitative load or deflection results quoted in this report

  9. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan......In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known...... to be standard KCNQ potassium channel blockers. These compounds have been used in many different tissues as specific pharmacological tools to discern native currents conducted by KCNQ channels from other potassium currents. In this article, we demonstrate that ERG1-2 channels are also reversibly inhibited by XE......991 in the micromolar range (EC(50) 107 microM for ERG1). The effect has been characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ERG1-2 and in the mammalian HEK293 cell line stably expressing ERG1 channels. The IC(50) values for block of KCNQ channels by XE991 range 1-65 microM. In conclusion, great...

  10. Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape

  11. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  12. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  13. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zhaohua; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin; Meng Bin; Chen Kangwu; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P 0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P 0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  14. Design of a Hydraulic Motor System Driven by Compressed Air

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Dein; Yu, Jyun-Jhe; Chieh, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low to provide sufficient operating range for the vehicle. In this study, the energy contained in compressed air/pressurized hydraulic oil is transformed by a hydraulic motor to mechanical energy to enhance the efficiency of using air power....

  15. Behaviour of soil-cement specimens in unconfined dynamic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.; Fendukly, L. M.

    1994-06-01

    The response of the cement-stabilized red marl to dynamic loading in compression has been investigated over a range of cement contents and curing times. Specimens were subjected to different stress levels below unconfined compressive strength, at a frequency of 5 Hz, and a fatigue relationship for the material was developed. The value of resilient modulus was found to be greater than the modulus of elasticity for the same cement content and curing time.

  16. Unstable oscillation of tubular cantilevered beams conveying a compressible fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.O.; Stoneking, J.E.; Carley, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with establishing the conditions of stability of a cantilevered tube conveying a compressible fluid. Solutions to Niordson's eigenvalue problem associated with the equations of motion are computed using Muller's method. The effects on critical velocity of compressibility which are accommodated by specifying the tube aspect ratio and fluid sonic velocity are parametrically studied. Aspect ratio is found to have a more pronounced effect on critical velocity than sonic velocity over the parameter range that was considered. (orig.)

  17. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  18. Compressibility and rarefaction effects on entropy and entropy generation in micro/nano Couette flow using DSMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejtehadi, Omid; Esfahani, Javad Abolfazli; Roohi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, compressible flow of argon gas in the famous problem of Couette flow in micro/nano-scale is considered and numerically analyzed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The effects of compressibility and rarefaction on entropy and entropy generation in terms of viscous dissipation and thermal diffusion are studied in a wide range of Mach and Knudsen numbers and the observed physics are discussed. In this regard, we computed entropy by using its kinetic theory formulation in a microscopic way while the entropy generation distribution is achieved by applying a semi-microscopic approach and thoroughly free from equilibrium assumptions. The results of our simulations demonstrated that the entropy profiles are in accordance with the temperature profiles. It is also illustrated that the increase of Mach number will result in non-uniform entropy profiles with increase in the vicinity of the central regions of the channel. Moreover, generation of entropy in all regions of the domain stages clear growth. By contrast, increasing the Knudsen number has inverse effects such as: uniform entropy profiles and a falling off in entropy generation amount throughout the channel.

  19. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  20. Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin

    2013-01-01

    Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.

  1. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  2. Data Compression with Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Etler, David

    2015-01-01

    A presentation on the applications of linear algebra to image compression. Covers entropy, the discrete cosine transform, thresholding, quantization, and examples of images compressed with DCT. Given in Spring 2015 at Ocean County College as part of the honors program.

  3. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  4. Light-weight reference-based compression of FASTQ data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Li, Linsen; Yang, Yanli; Yang, Xiao; He, Shan; Zhu, Zexuan

    2015-06-09

    The exponential growth of next generation sequencing (NGS) data has posed big challenges to data storage, management and archive. Data compression is one of the effective solutions, where reference-based compression strategies can typically achieve superior compression ratios compared to the ones not relying on any reference. This paper presents a lossless light-weight reference-based compression algorithm namely LW-FQZip to compress FASTQ data. The three components of any given input, i.e., metadata, short reads and quality score strings, are first parsed into three data streams in which the redundancy information are identified and eliminated independently. Particularly, well-designed incremental and run-length-limited encoding schemes are utilized to compress the metadata and quality score streams, respectively. To handle the short reads, LW-FQZip uses a novel light-weight mapping model to fast map them against external reference sequence(s) and produce concise alignment results for storage. The three processed data streams are then packed together with some general purpose compression algorithms like LZMA. LW-FQZip was evaluated on eight real-world NGS data sets and achieved compression ratios in the range of 0.111-0.201. This is comparable or superior to other state-of-the-art lossless NGS data compression algorithms. LW-FQZip is a program that enables efficient lossless FASTQ data compression. It contributes to the state of art applications for NGS data storage and transmission. LW-FQZip is freely available online at: http://csse.szu.edu.cn/staff/zhuzx/LWFQZip.

  5. Multiscale electrophysiology format: an open-source electrophysiology format using data compression, encryption, and cyclic redundancy check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Continuous, long-term (up to 10 days) electrophysiological monitoring using hybrid intracranial electrodes is an emerging tool for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and fundamental investigations of seizure generation. Detection of high-frequency oscillations and microseizures could provide valuable insights into causes and therapies for the treatment of epilepsy, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Our group is currently using hybrid arrays composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays sampled at 32 kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution. Such recordings produce approximately 3 terabytes of data per day. Existing file formats have limited data compression capabilities, and do not offer mechanisms for protecting patient identifying information or detecting data corruption during transmission or storage. We present a novel file format that employs range encoding to provide a high degree of data compression, a three-tiered 128-bit encryption system for patient information and data security, and a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check to verify the integrity of compressed data blocks. Open-source software to read, write, and process these files are provided.

  6. Efficient Joins with Compressed Bitmap Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Computational Research Division; Madduri, Kamesh; Wu, Kesheng

    2009-08-19

    We present a new class of adaptive algorithms that use compressed bitmap indexes to speed up evaluation of the range join query in relational databases. We determine the best strategy to process a join query based on a fast sub-linear time computation of the join selectivity (the ratio of the number of tuples in the result to the total number of possible tuples). In addition, we use compressed bitmaps to represent the join output compactly: the space requirement for storing the tuples representing the join of two relations is asymptotically bounded by min(h; n . cb), where h is the number of tuple pairs in the result relation, n is the number of tuples in the smaller of the two relations, and cb is the cardinality of the larger column being joined. We present a theoretical analysis of our algorithms, as well as experimental results on large-scale synthetic and real data sets. Our implementations are efficient, and consistently outperform well-known approaches for a range of join selectivity factors. For instance, our count-only algorithm is up to three orders of magnitude faster than the sort-merge approach, and our best bitmap index-based algorithm is 1.2x-80x faster than the sort-merge algorithm, for various query instances. We achieve these speedups by exploiting several inherent performance advantages of compressed bitmap indexes for join processing: an implicit partitioning of the attributes, space-efficiency, and tolerance of high-cardinality relations.

  7. Velocity and Magnetic Compressions in FEL Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, L

    2005-01-01

    We will compare merits and issues of these two techniques suitable for increasing the peak current of high brightness electron beams. The typical range of applicability is low energy for the velocity bunching and middle to high energy for magnetic compression. Velocity bunching is free from CSR effects but requires very high RF stability (time jitters), as well as a dedicated additional focusing and great cure in the beam transport: it is very well understood theoretically and numerical simulations are pretty straightforward. Several experiments of velocity bunching have been performed in the past few years: none of them, nevertheless, used a photoinjector designed and optimized for that purpose. Magnetic compression is a much more consolidated technique: CSR effects and micro-bunch instabilities are its main drawbacks. There is a large operational experience with chicanes used as magnetic compressors and their theoretical understanding is quite deep, though numerical simulations of real devices are still cha...

  8. Likelihood and consequences of fuel string compression at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, P.J.; Gibb, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident which results in fuel heatup, axial thermal expansion of the fuel string relative to the pressure tube will occur. If the temperature transient is sufficiently severe, the fuel string may contact the shieled plugs at both ends of the channel. Any additional axial thermal expansion will result in deformation of fuel and fuel channel components, leading to tensile or compressive stresses in the different fuel channel components. If these loads become sufficiently large, they could result in failure of a fuel channel component or to channel failure due to bending of a fuel element under load. The analysis described in this paper demonstrates that this process would not result in fuel channel failure for a design basis accident at Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS), even if the station were retubed to 'as-built' channel lengths. (author)

  9. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    . This package can be adopted as a general element in the simulation of thermal-hydraulic situations of complex systems consisting of a number of special channels. Such systems can represent different types of steam generators, 3D nuclear reactor cores with special attention to the calculation of the mass flow distribution into different parallel channels after non-symmetric perturbations, each of them distinguished by their key numbers. The resulting set of equations can be combined with other ODE-s and constitutive equations from additional parts of such a comprehensive model. The complete system of equations can then (outside of the CCM) be solved by applying appropriate integration routines. Verification and validation test runs over a wide application range have yielded very satisfactory results demonstrating therefore in a convincing way the quality of the CCM. This approach offers an alternative to the currently dominant 'Separate-Phase Models' where each phase within a coolant channel is treated separately. The advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches are discussed in this paper

  10. Study of gas-water flow in horizontal rectangular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnov, E. A.; Ron'shin, F. V.; Kabov, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The two-phase flow in the narrow short horizontal rectangular channels 1 millimeter in height was studied experimentally. The features of formation of the two-phase flow were studied in detail. It is shown that with an increase in the channel width, the region of the churn and bubble regimes increases, compressing the area of the jet flow. The areas of the annular and stratified flow patterns vary insignificantly.

  11. The comparative analysis of the compressible plasma streams generated in QSPA from the various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.N.; Drukarenko, S.P.; Seytkhalilova, E.I.; Velichkin, M.A.; Solyakov, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The numerical research of streams dynamics in the channel and the compressible flows at the QSPA output is carried out for the plasma generated from hydrogen, helium, argon and xenon. The MHD equations in the one-fluid approach taking into account the final conductivity of medium, the heat conductivity and the effective losses of radiation energy underlie the numerical model of the two-dimensional axisymmetric plasma flows. Features of the compressible plasma streams generated from various gases are revealed.

  12. Moving image compression and generalization capability of constructive neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar

    2001-03-01

    To date numerous techniques have been proposed to compress digital images to ease their storage and transmission over communication channels. Recently, a number of image compression algorithms using Neural Networks NNs have been developed. Particularly, several constructive feed-forward neural networks FNNs have been proposed by researchers for image compression, and promising results have been reported. At the previous SPIE AeroSense conference 2000, we proposed to use a constructive One-Hidden-Layer Feedforward Neural Network OHL-FNN for compressing digital images. In this paper, we first investigate the generalization capability of the proposed OHL-FNN in the presence of additive noise for network training and/ or generalization. Extensive experimental results for different scenarios are presented. It is revealed that the constructive OHL-FNN is not as robust to additive noise in input image as expected. Next, the constructive OHL-FNN is applied to moving images, video sequences. The first, or other specified frame in a moving image sequence is used to train the network. The remaining moving images that follow are then generalized/compressed by this trained network. Three types of correlation-like criteria measuring the similarity of any two images are introduced. The relationship between the generalization capability of the constructed net and the similarity of images is investigated in some detail. It is shown that the constructive OHL-FNN is promising even for changing images such as those extracted from a football game.

  13. Effect of Kollidon VA®64 particle size and morphology as directly compressible excipient on tablet compression properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, R S; Patel, C; Sevak, V; Chan, M

    2018-01-01

    The study evaluates use of Kollidon VA ® 64 and a combination of Kollidon VA ® 64 with Kollidon VA ® 64 Fine as excipient in direct compression process of tablets. The combination of the two grades of material is evaluated for capping, lamination and excessive friability. Inter particulate void space is higher for such excipient due to the hollow structure of the Kollidon VA ® 64 particles. During tablet compression air remains trapped in the blend exhibiting poor compression with compromised physical properties of the tablets. Composition of Kollidon VA ® 64 and Kollidon VA ® 64 Fine is evaluated by design of experiment (DoE). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of two grades of Kollidon VA ® 64 exhibits morphological differences between coarse and fine grade. The tablet compression process is evaluated with a mix consisting of entirely Kollidon VA ® 64 and two mixes containing Kollidon VA ® 64 and Kollidon VA ® 64 Fine in ratio of 77:23 and 65:35. A statistical modeling on the results from the DoE trials resulted in the optimum composition for direct tablet compression as combination of Kollidon VA ® 64 and Kollidon VA ® 64 Fine in ratio of 77:23. This combination compressed with the predicted parameters based on the statistical modeling and applying main compression force between 5 and 15 kN, pre-compression force between 2 and 3 kN, feeder speed fixed at 25 rpm and compression range of 45-49 rpm produced tablets with hardness ranging between 19 and 21 kp, with no friability, capping, or lamination issue.

  14. Shock compression profiles in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    An investigation of the shock compression properties of high-strength ceramics has been performed using controlled planar impact techniques. In a typical experimental configuration, a ceramic target disc is held stationary, and it is struck by plates of either a similar ceramic or by plates of a well-characterized metal. All tests were performed using either a single-stage propellant gun or a two-stage light-gas gun. Particle velocity histories were measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR) at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a calibrated VISAR window material. Peak impact stresses achieved in these experiments range from about 3 to 70 GPa. Ceramics tested under shock impact loading include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. This report compiles the VISAR wave profiles and experimental impact parameters within a database-useful for response model development, computational model validation studies, and independent assessment of the physics of dynamic deformation on high-strength, brittle solids.

  15. Full-frame compression of discrete wavelet and cosine transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Li, Huai; Krasner, Brian; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1995-04-01

    At the foreground of computerized radiology and the filmless hospital are the possibilities for easy image retrieval, efficient storage, and rapid image communication. This paper represents the authors' continuous efforts in compression research on full-frame discrete wavelet (FFDWT) and full-frame discrete cosine transforms (FFDCT) for medical image compression. Prior to the coding, it is important to evaluate the global entropy in the decomposed space. It is because of the minimum entropy, that a maximum compression efficiency can be achieved. In this study, each image was split into the top three most significant bit (MSB) and the remaining remapped least significant bit (RLSB) images. The 3MSB image was compressed by an error-free contour coding and received an average of 0.1 bit/pixel. The RLSB image was either transformed to a multi-channel wavelet or the cosine transform domain for entropy evaluation. Ten x-ray chest radiographs and ten mammograms were randomly selected from our clinical database and were used for the study. Our results indicated that the coding scheme in the FFDCT domain performed better than in FFDWT domain for high-resolution digital chest radiographs and mammograms. From this study, we found that decomposition efficiency in the DCT domain for relatively smooth images is higher than that in the DWT. However, both schemes worked just as well for low resolution digital images. We also found that the image characteristics of the `Lena' image commonly used in the compression literature are very different from those of radiological images. The compression outcome of the radiological images can not be extrapolated from the compression result based on the `Lena.'

  16. HEVC for high dynamic range services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hwan; Zhao, Jie; Misra, Kiran; Segall, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Displays capable of showing a greater range of luminance values can render content containing high dynamic range information in a way such that the viewers have a more immersive experience. This paper introduces the design aspects of a high dynamic range (HDR) system, and examines the performance of the HDR processing chain in terms of compression efficiency. Specifically it examines the relation between recently introduced Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) ST 2084 transfer function and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. SMPTE ST 2084 is designed to cover the full range of an HDR signal from 0 to 10,000 nits, however in many situations the valid signal range of actual video might be smaller than SMPTE ST 2084 supported range. The above restricted signal range results in restricted range of code values for input video data and adversely impacts compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose a code value remapping method that extends the restricted range code values into the full range code values so that the existing standards such as HEVC may better compress the video content. The paper also identifies related non-normative encoder-only changes that are required for remapping method for a fair comparison with anchor. Results are presented comparing the efficiency of the current approach versus the proposed remapping method for HM-16.2.

  17. Compression etiology in tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almekinders, Louis C; Weinhold, Paul S; Maffulli, Nicola

    2003-10-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that the etiology of tendinopathy is not as simple as was once thought. The etiology is likely to be multifactorial. Etiologic factors may include some of the traditional factors such as overuse, inflexibility, and equipment problems; however, other factors need to be considered as well, such as age-related tendon degeneration and biomechanical considerations as outlined in this article. More research is needed to determine the significance of stress-shielding and compression in tendinopathy. If they are confirmed to play a role, this finding may significantly alter our approach in both prevention and in treatment through exercise therapy. The current biomechanical studies indicate that certain joint positions are more likely to place tensile stress on the area of the tendon commonly affected by tendinopathy. These joint positions seem to be different than the traditional positions for stretching exercises used for prevention and rehabilitation of tendinopathic conditions. Incorporation of different joint positions during stretching exercises may exert more uniform, controlled tensile stress on these affected areas of the tendon and avoid stresshielding. These exercises may be able to better maintain the mechanical strength of that region of the tendon and thereby avoid injury. Alternatively, they could more uniformly stress a healing area of the tendon in a controlled manner, and thereby stimulate healing once an injury has occurred. Additional work will have to prove if a change in rehabilitation exercises is more efficacious that current techniques.

  18. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  19. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  20. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately

  1. Mammography image compression using Wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa

    2004-01-01

    Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)

  2. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  3. Tight connection between fission gas discharge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.; Peehs, M.; Rau, P.; Krug, W.; Stechemesser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the tight connection between the fission gas discharge channel, leading away from the support plate of a gas-cooled reactor, and the top of the fuel element suspended from this support plate. The closure is designed to be gas-tight for the suspended as well as for the released fuel element. The tight connection has got an annular body resting on the core support plate in the mouth region of the fission gas discharge channel. This body is connected with the fission gas discharge channel in the fuel element top fitting via a gas-tight part and supported by a compression spring. Care is taken for sealing if the fuel element is removal. (RW) [de

  4. Context-Aware Image Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky C K Chan

    Full Text Available We describe a physics-based data compression method inspired by the photonic time stretch wherein information-rich portions of the data are dilated in a process that emulates the effect of group velocity dispersion on temporal signals. With this coding operation, the data can be downsampled at a lower rate than without it. In contrast to previous implementation of the warped stretch compression, here the decoding can be performed without the need of phase recovery. We present rate-distortion analysis and show improvement in PSNR compared to compression via uniform downsampling.

  5. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  6. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Telemedicine + OCT: toward design of optimized algorithms for high-quality compressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahta; Lurie, Kristen; Land, Julian; Javidi, Tara; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Telemedicine is an emerging technology that aims to provide clinical healthcare at a distance. Among its goals, the transfer of diagnostic images over telecommunication channels has been quite appealing to the medical community. When viewed as an adjunct to biomedical device hardware, one highly important consideration aside from the transfer rate and speed is the accuracy of the reconstructed image at the receiver end. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established imaging technique that is ripe for telemedicine, the effects of OCT data compression, which may be necessary on certain telemedicine platforms, have not received much attention in the literature. We investigate the performance and efficiency of several lossless and lossy compression techniques for OCT data and characterize their effectiveness with respect to achievable compression ratio, compression rate and preservation of image quality. We examine the effects of compression in the interferogram vs. A-scan domain as assessed with various objective and subjective metrics.

  8. Compressing a spinodal surface at fixed area: bijels in a centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Katherine A; Thijssen, Job H J; Schofield, Andrew B; Clegg, Paul S

    2016-05-11

    Bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels (bijels) are solid-stabilised emulsions with two inter-penetrating continuous phases. Employing the method of centrifugal compression we find that macroscopically the bijel yields at relatively low angular acceleration. Both continuous phases escape from the top of the structure, making any compression immediately irreversible. Microscopically, the bijel becomes anisotropic with the domains aligned perpendicular to the compression direction which inhibits further liquid expulsion; this contrasts strongly with the sedimentation behaviour of colloidal gels. The original structure can, however, be preserved close to the top of the sample and thus the change to an anisotropic structure suggests internal yielding. Any air bubbles trapped in the bijel are found to aid compression by forming channels aligned parallel to the compression direction which provide a route for liquid to escape.

  9. Free-beam soliton self-compression in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Pugžlys, A.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Shumakova, V.; Ališauskas, S.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    We identify a physical scenario whereby soliton transients generated in freely propagating laser beams within the regions of anomalous dispersion in air can be compressed as a part of their free-beam spatiotemporal evolution to yield few-cycle mid- and long-wavelength-infrared field waveforms, whose peak power is substantially higher than the peak power of the input pulses. We show that this free-beam soliton self-compression scenario does not require ionization or laser-induced filamentation, enabling high-throughput self-compression of mid- and long-wavelength-infrared laser pulses within a broad range of peak powers from tens of gigawatts up to the terawatt level. We also demonstrate that this method of pulse compression can be extended to long-range propagation, providing self-compression of high-peak-power laser pulses in atmospheric air within propagation ranges as long as hundreds of meters, suggesting new ways towards longer-range standoff detection and remote sensing.

  10. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  11. Compressive MIMO Beamforming of Data Collected in a Refractive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark; Nannuru, Santosh; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of ducting is caused by abnormal atmospheric refractivity patterns and is known to allow electromagnetic waves to propagate over the horizon with unusually low propagation loss. It is unknown what effect ducting has on multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels, particularly its effect on multipath propagation in MIMO channels. A high-accuracy angle-of-arrival and angle-of-departure estimation technique for MIMO communications, which we will refer to as compressive MIMO beamforming, was tested on simulated data then applied to experimental data taken from an over the horizon MIMO test bed located in a known ducting hot spot in Southern California. The multipath channel was estimated from the receiver data recorded over a period of 18 days, and an analysis was performed on the recorded data. The goal is to observe the evolution of the MIMO multipath channel as atmospheric ducts form and dissipate to gain some understanding of the behavior of channels in a refractive environment. This work is motivated by the idea that some multipath characteristics of MIMO channels within atmospheric ducts could yield important information about the duct.

  12. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Context. Several barriers have been proposed in planetesimal formation theory: bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. Understanding the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they are fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self-gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to a density of 10-3 g/cm3 in coagulation, which is more compact than is the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self-gravity to 10-1 g/cm3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerates the growth, the aggregates grow rapidly enough to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is ≲6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose a fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

  13. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  14. n-Gram-Based Text Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hieu N.; Snasel, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for compressing Vietnamese text using n-gram dictionaries. It has a significant compression ratio in comparison with those of state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. Given a text, first, the proposed method splits it into n-grams and then encodes them based on n-gram dictionaries. In the encoding phase, we use a sliding window with a size that ranges from bigram to five grams to obtain the best encoding stream. Each n-gram is encoded by two to four bytes accordingly based on its corresponding n-gram dictionary. We collected 2.5 GB text corpus from some Vietnamese news agencies to build n-gram dictionaries from unigram to five grams and achieve dictionaries with a size of 12 GB in total. In order to evaluate our method, we collected a testing set of 10 different text files with different sizes. The experimental results indicate that our method achieves compression ratio around 90% and outperforms state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27965708

  15. Buckling a Semiflexible Polymer Chain under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Pilyugina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Instability and structural transitions arise in many important problems involving dynamics at molecular length scales. Buckling of an elastic rod under a compressive load offers a useful general picture of such a transition. However, the existing theoretical description of buckling is applicable in the load response of macroscopic structures, only when fluctuations can be neglected, whereas membranes, polymer brushes, filaments, and macromolecular chains undergo considerable Brownian fluctuations. We analyze here the buckling of a fluctuating semiflexible polymer experiencing a compressive load. Previous works rely on approximations to the polymer statistics, resulting in a range of predictions for the buckling transition that disagree on whether fluctuations elevate or depress the critical buckling force. In contrast, our theory exploits exact results for the statistical behavior of the worm-like chain model yielding unambiguous predictions about the buckling conditions and nature of the buckling transition. We find that a fluctuating polymer under compressive load requires a larger force to buckle than an elastic rod in the absence of fluctuations. The nature of the buckling transition exhibits a marked change from being distinctly second order in the absence of fluctuations to being a more gradual, compliant transition in the presence of fluctuations. We analyze the thermodynamic contributions throughout the buckling transition to demonstrate that the chain entropy favors the extended state over the buckled state, providing a thermodynamic justification of the elevated buckling force.

  16. Compression and expansion in central collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, P.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of central collisions of heavy nuclei in the energy range from few tens of MeV/nucleon to a couple of GeV/nucleon is discussed. As the beam energy increases and/or the impact parameter decreases, the maximum compression increases. It is argued that the hydrodynamic behaviour of matter sets in the vicinity of balance energy. At higher energies shock fronts are observed to form within head-on reaction simulations, perpendicular to beam axis and separating hot compressed matter from cold. In the semi-central reactions a weak tangential discontinuity develops in-between these fronts. The hot compressed matter exposed to the vacuum in directions parallel to the shock front begin to expand collectively into these directions. The expansion affects particle angular distributions and mean energy components and further shapes of spectra and mean energies of particles emitted into any one direction. The variation of slopes and the relative yields measured within the FOPI collaboration are in a general agreement with the results of simulations. As to the FOPI data on stopping, they are consistent with the preference for transverse over the longitudinal motion in the head-on Au + Au collisions. Unfortunately, though, the data can not be used to decide directly on that preference due to acceptance cuts. Tied to the spatial and temporal changes in the reactions are changes in the entropy per nucleon. (authors)

  17. Mechanisms of anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2014-11-01

    The anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica has been known for nearly a century, but the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Using GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic wave travel times at pressures up to 5 GPa in vitreous silica with fictive temperatures (Tf) ranging between 985 °C and 1500 °C. The maximum in ultrasonic wave travel times-corresponding to a minimum in acoustic velocities-shifts to higher pressure with increasing Tf for both acoustic waves, with complete reversibility below 5 GPa. These relationships reflect polyamorphism in the supercooled liquid, which results in a glassy state possessing different proportions of domains of high- and low-density amorphous phases (HDA and LDA, respectively). The relative proportion of HDA and LDA is set at Tf and remains fixed on compression below the permanent densification pressure. The bulk material exhibits compression behavior systematically dependent on synthesis conditions that arise from the presence of floppy modes in a mixture of HDA and LDA domains.

  18. Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch

  19. n-Gram-Based Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu H. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method for compressing Vietnamese text using n-gram dictionaries. It has a significant compression ratio in comparison with those of state-of-the-art methods on the same dataset. Given a text, first, the proposed method splits it into n-grams and then encodes them based on n-gram dictionaries. In the encoding phase, we use a sliding window with a size that ranges from bigram to five grams to obtain the best encoding stream. Each n-gram is encoded by two to four bytes accordingly based on its corresponding n-gram dictionary. We collected 2.5 GB text corpus from some Vietnamese news agencies to build n-gram dictionaries from unigram to five grams and achieve dictionaries with a size of 12 GB in total. In order to evaluate our method, we collected a testing set of 10 different text files with different sizes. The experimental results indicate that our method achieves compression ratio around 90% and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  1. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  2. Nonlinear compression of optical solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linear pulse propagation is the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation [1]. There are ... Optical pulse compression finds important applications in optical fibres. The pulse com ..... to thank CSIR, New Delhi for financial support in the form of SRF.

  3. Quinary excitation method for pulse compression ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, D M J; Freear, S

    2008-04-01

    A novel switched excitation method for linear frequency modulated excitation of ultrasonic transducers in pulse compression systems is presented that is simple to realise, yet provides reduced signal sidelobes at the output of the matched filter compared to bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation. Pulse compression signal sidelobes are reduced through the use of simple amplitude tapering at the beginning and end of the excitation duration. Amplitude tapering using switched excitation is realised through the use of intermediate voltage switching levels, half that of the main excitation voltages. In total five excitation voltages are used creating a quinary excitation system. The absence of analogue signal generation and power amplifiers renders the excitation method attractive for applications with requirements such as a high channel count or low cost per channel. A systematic study of switched linear frequency modulated excitation methods with simulated and laboratory based experimental verification is presented for 2.25 MHz non-destructive testing immersion transducers. The signal to sidelobe noise level of compressed waveforms generated using quinary and bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation are investigated for transmission through a 0.5m water and kaolin slurry channel. Quinary linear frequency modulated excitation consistently reduces signal sidelobe power compared to bipolar excitation methods. Experimental results for transmission between two 2.25 MHz transducers separated by a 0.5m channel of water and 5% kaolin suspension shows improvements in signal to sidelobe noise power in the order of 7-8 dB. The reported quinary switched method for linear frequency modulated excitation provides improved performance compared to pseudo-chirp excitation without the need for high performance excitation amplifiers.

  4. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of pre-compressed layered polymeric composite under oscillatory compression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2018-05-03

    Describing nonlinear viscoelastic properties of polymeric composites when subjected to dynamic loading is essential for development of practical applications of such materials. An efficient and easy method to analyze nonlinear viscoelasticity remains elusive because the dynamic moduli (storage modulus and loss modulus) are not very convenient when the material falls into nonlinear viscoelastic range. In this study, we utilize two methods, Fourier transform and geometrical nonlinear analysis, to quantitatively characterize the nonlinear viscoelasticity of a pre-compressed layered polymeric composite under oscillatory compression. We discuss the influences of pre-compression, dynamic loading, and the inner structure of polymeric composite on the nonlinear viscoelasticity. Furthermore, we reveal the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanism by combining with other experimental results from quasi-static compressive tests and microstructural analysis. From a methodology standpoint, it is proved that both Fourier transform and geometrical nonlinear analysis are efficient tools for analyzing the nonlinear viscoelasticity of a layered polymeric composite. From a material standpoint, we consequently posit that the dynamic nonlinear viscoelasticity of polymeric composites with complicated inner structures can also be well characterized using these methods.

  5. Quasi-isentropic compression using compressed water flow generated by underwater electrical explosion of a wire array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, V.; Virozub, A.; Rososhek, A.; Bland, S.; Spielman, R. B.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2018-05-01

    A major experimental research area in material equation-of-state today involves the use of off-Hugoniot measurements rather than shock experiments that give only Hugoniot data. There is a wide range of applications using quasi-isentropic compression of matter including the direct measurement of the complete isentrope of materials in a single experiment and minimizing the heating of flyer plates for high-velocity shock measurements. We propose a novel approach to generating quasi-isentropic compression of matter. Using analytical modeling and hydrodynamic simulations, we show that a working fluid composed of compressed water, generated by an underwater electrical explosion of a planar wire array, might be used to efficiently drive the quasi-isentropic compression of a copper target to pressures ˜2 × 1011 Pa without any complex target designs.

  6. Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, J.H.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Baca, G.P.; Beason, J.D.; Bell, D.E.; Dearborn, M.E.; Dietz, D.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Hackett, K.E.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Sovinec, C.R.; Turchi, P.J.; Bird, G.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Chen, Y.G.; Gale, D.; Graham, J.D.; Scott, M.; Sommars, W.

    1993-01-01

    Research on forming, compressing, and accelerating milligram-range compact toroids using a meter diameter, two-stage, puffed gas, magnetic field embedded coaxial plasma gun is described. The compact toroids that are studied are similar to spheromaks, but they are threaded by an inner conductor. This research effort, named MARAUDER (Magnetically Accelerated Ring to Achieve Ultra-high Directed Energy and Radiation), is not a magnetic confinement fusion program like most spheromak efforts. Rather, the ultimate goal of the present program is to compress toroids to high mass density and magnetic field intensity, and to accelerate the toroids to high speed. There are a variety of applications for compressed, accelerated toroids including fast opening switches, x-radiation production, radio frequency (rf) compression, as well as charge-neutral ion beam and inertial confinement fusion studies. Experiments performed to date to form and accelerate toroids have been diagnosed with magnetic probe arrays, laser interferometry, time and space resolved optical spectroscopy, and fast photography. Parts of the experiment have been designed by, and experimental results are interpreted with, the help of two-dimensional (2-D), time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. When not driven by a second discharge, the toroids relax to a Woltjer--Taylor equilibrium state that compares favorably to the results of 2-D equilibrium calculations and to 2-D time-dependent MHD simulations. Current, voltage, and magnetic probe data from toroids that are driven by an acceleration discharge are compared to 2-D MHD and to circuit solver/slug model predictions. Results suggest that compact toroids are formed in 7--15 μsec, and can be accelerated intact with material species the same as injected gas species and entrained mass ≥1/2 the injected mass

  7. Mechanosensitive Piezo Channels in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, C; Farrugia, G; Beyder, A

    2017-01-01

    Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling. Several mechanosensitive ionic conductances have been identified in the mechanosensory GI cells, ranging from mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels to the mechanogated ion channels, such as the two-pore domain potassium channels K2P (TREK-1) and nonselective cation channels from the transient receptor potential family. The recently discovered Piezo channels are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to cellular mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 are nonselective cationic ion channels that are directly activated by mechanical forces and have well-defined biophysical and pharmacologic properties. The role of Piezo channels in the GI epithelium is currently under investigation and their role in the smooth muscle syncytium and enteric neurons is still not known. In this review, we outline the current state of knowledge on mechanosensitive ion channels in the GI tract, with a focus on the known and potential functions of the Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  9. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  10. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  11. Effect of compressive force on PEM fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Colin Stephen

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells possess the potential, as a zero-emission power source, to replace the internal combustion engine as the primary option for transportation applications. Though there are a number of obstacles to vast PEM fuel cell commercialization, such as high cost and limited durability, there has been significant progress in the field to achieve this goal. Experimental testing and analysis of fuel cell performance has been an important tool in this advancement. Experimental studies of the PEM fuel cell not only identify unfiltered performance response to manipulation of variables, but also aid in the advancement of fuel cell modelling, by allowing for validation of computational schemes. Compressive force used to contain a fuel cell assembly can play a significant role in how effectively the cell functions, the most obvious example being to ensure proper sealing within the cell. Compression can have a considerable impact on cell performance beyond the sealing aspects. The force can manipulate the ability to deliver reactants and the electrochemical functions of the cell, by altering the layers in the cell susceptible to this force. For these reasons an experimental study was undertaken, presented in this thesis, with specific focus placed on cell compression; in order to study its effect on reactant flow fields and performance response. The goal of the thesis was to develop a consistent and accurate general test procedure for the experimental analysis of a PEM fuel cell in order to analyse the effects of compression on performance. The factors potentially affecting cell performance, which were a function of compression, were identified as: (1) Sealing and surface contact; (2) Pressure drop across the flow channel; (3) Porosity of the GDL. Each factor was analysed independently in order to determine the individual contribution to changes in performance. An optimal degree of compression was identified for the cell configuration in

  12. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed a...

  13. Double-compression method for biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Yevhenii A.; Mustetsov, Timofey N.; Hamdi, Rami R.; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Orshubekov, Nurbek; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a double compression method (DCM) of biomedical images. A comparison of image compression factors in size JPEG, PNG and developed DCM was carried out. The main purpose of the DCM - compression of medical images while maintaining the key points that carry diagnostic information. To estimate the minimum compression factor an analysis of the coding of random noise image is presented.

  14. Perceptual Image Compression in Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Eckstein, Miguel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The next era of space exploration, especially the "Mission to Planet Earth" will generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery: in collection, pre-processing, transmission to earth, archiving, and distribution to scientists at remote locations. Expected requirements in most of these areas clearly exceed current technology. Part of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. For much of this imagery, the ultimate consumer is the human eye. In this case image compression should be designed to match the visual capacities of the human observer. We have developed three techniques for optimizing image compression for the human viewer. The first consists of a formula, developed jointly with IBM and based on psychophysical measurements, that computes a DCT quantization matrix for any specified combination of viewing distance, display resolution, and display brightness. This DCT quantization matrix is used in most recent standards for digital image compression (JPEG, MPEG, CCITT H.261). The second technique optimizes the DCT quantization matrix for each individual image, based on the contents of the image. This is accomplished by means of a model of visual sensitivity to compression artifacts. The third technique extends the first two techniques to the realm of wavelet compression. Together these two techniques will allow systematic perceptual optimization of image compression in NASA imaging systems. Many of the image management challenges faced by NASA are mirrored in the field of telemedicine. Here too there are severe demands for transmission and archiving of large image databases, and the imagery is ultimately used primarily by human observers, such as radiologists. In this presentation I will describe some of our preliminary explorations of the applications

  15. Cryotherapy with dynamic intermittent compression for analgesia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Cassard, X

    2014-05-01

    Cryotherapy is a useful adjunctive analgesic measure in patients with postoperative pain following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Either static permanent compression or dynamic intermittent compression can be added to increase the analgesic effect of cryotherapy. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of these two compression modalities combined with cryotherapy in relieving postoperative pain and restoring range of knee motion after ligament reconstruction surgery. When combined with cryotherapy, a dynamic and intermittent compression is associated with decreased analgesic drug requirements, less postoperative pain, and better range of knee motion compared to static compression. We conducted a case-control study of consecutive patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at a single institution over a 3-month period. Both groups received the same analgesic drug protocol. One group was managed with cryotherapy and dynamic intermittent compression (Game Ready(®)) and the other with cryotherapy and static compression (IceBand(®)). Of 39 patients, 20 received dynamic and 19 static compression. In the post-anaesthesia recovery unit, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was 2.4 (range, 0-6) with dynamic compression and 2.7 (0-7) with static compression (P=0.3); corresponding values were 1.85 (0-9) vs. 3 (0-8) (P=0.16) after 6 hours and 0.6 (0-3) vs. 1.14 (0-3) (P=0.12) at discharge. The cumulative mean tramadol dose per patient was 57.5mg (0-200mg) with dynamic compression and 128.6 mg (0-250 mg) with static compression (P=0.023); corresponding values for morphine were 0mg vs. 1.14 mg (0-8 mg) (Pcryotherapy decreases analgesic drug requirements after ACL reconstruction and improves the postoperative recovery of range of knee motion. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a new image compression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen

  17. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  18. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  19. Iterative dictionary construction for compression of large DNA data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Shanika; Beresford-Smith, Bryan; Conway, Thomas; Zobel, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Genomic repositories increasingly include individual as well as reference sequences, which tend to share long identical and near-identical strings of nucleotides. However, the sequential processing used by most compression algorithms, and the volumes of data involved, mean that these long-range repetitions are not detected. An order-insensitive, disk-based dictionary construction method can detect this repeated content and use it to compress collections of sequences. We explore a dictionary construction method that improves repeat identification in large DNA data sets. Our adaptation, COMRAD, of an existing disk-based method identifies exact repeated content in collections of sequences with similarities within and across the set of input sequences. COMRAD compresses the data over multiple passes, which is an expensive process, but allows COMRAD to compress large data sets within reasonable time and space. COMRAD allows for random access to individual sequences and subsequences without decompressing the whole data set. COMRAD has no competitor in terms of the size of data sets that it can compress (extending to many hundreds of gigabytes) and, even for smaller data sets, the results are competitive compared to alternatives; as an example, 39 S. cerevisiae genomes compressed to 0.25 bits per base.

  20. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q F; Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Y L; Cai, L C; Shen, Z J

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  1. Thermal fluid dynamic behavior of coolant helium gas in a typical reactor VHTGR channel of prismatic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, Allan Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    The current studies about the thermal fluid dynamic behavior of the VHTGR core reactors of 4 th generation are commonly developed in 3-D analysis in CFD (computational fluid dynamics), which often requires considerable time and complex mathematical calculations for carrying out these analysis. The purpose of this project is to achieve thermal fluid dynamic analysis of flow of gas helium refrigerant in a typical channel of VHTGR prismatic core reactor evaluating magnitudes of interest such as temperature, pressure and fluid velocity and temperature distribution in the wall of the coolant channel from the development of a computer code in MATLAB considering the flow on one-dimensional channel, thereby significantly reducing the processing time of calculations. The model uses three different references to the physical properties of helium: expressions given by the KTA (German committee of nuclear safety standards), the computational tool REFPROP and a set of constant values for the entire channel. With the use of these three references it is possible to simulate the flow treating the gas both compressible and incompressible. The results showed very close values for the interest quantities and revealed that there are no significant differences in the use of different references used in the project. Another important conclusion to be observed is the independence of helium in the gas compressibility effects on thermal fluid dynamic behavior. The study also indicated that the gas undergoes no severe effects due to high temperature variations in the channel, since this goes in the channel at 914 K and exits at approximately 1263 K, which shows the excellent use of helium as a refrigerant fluid in reactor channels VHTGR. The comparison of results obtained in this work with others in the literature served to confirm the effectiveness of the one-dimensional consideration of method of gas flow in the coolant channel to replace the models made in 3-D for the pressure range and

  2. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  3. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  4. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  5. Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2016-01-01

    Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black......, Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...

  6. Compression of Probabilistic XML Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Irma; de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    Database techniques to store, query and manipulate data that contains uncertainty receives increasing research interest. Such UDBMSs can be classified according to their underlying data model: relational, XML, or RDF. We focus on uncertain XML DBMS with as representative example the Probabilistic XML model (PXML) of [10,9]. The size of a PXML document is obviously a factor in performance. There are PXML-specific techniques to reduce the size, such as a push down mechanism, that produces equivalent but more compact PXML documents. It can only be applied, however, where possibilities are dependent. For normal XML documents there also exist several techniques for compressing a document. Since Probabilistic XML is (a special form of) normal XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In this paper, we show that existing compression mechanisms can be combined with PXML-specific compression techniques. We also show that best compression rates are obtained with a combination of PXML-specific technique with a rather simple generic DAG-compression technique.

  7. Plasma heating by adiabatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.A. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    These two lectures will cover the following three topics: (i) The application of adiabatic compression to toroidal devices is reviewed. The special case of adiabatic compression in tokamaks is considered in more detail, including a discussion of the equilibrium, scaling laws, and heating effects. (ii) The ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) device which was completed in May 1972, is described in detail. Compression of a tokamak plasma across a static toroidal field is studied in this device. The device is designed to produce a pre-compression plasma with a major radius of 17 cm, toroidal field of 20 kG, and current of 90 kA. The compression leads to a plasma with major radius of 38 cm and minor radius of 10 cm. Scaling laws imply a density increase of a factor 6, temperature increase of a factor 3, and current increase of a factor 2.4. An additional feature of ATC is that it is a large tokamak which operates without a copper shell. (iii) Data which show that the expected MHD behavior is largely observed is presented and discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Concurrent data compression and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data compression techniques involve transforming data of a given format, called source message, to data of a smaller sized format, called codeword. The primary objective of data encryption is to ensure security of data if it is intercepted by an eavesdropper. It transforms data of a given format, called plaintext, to another format, called ciphertext, using an encryption key or keys. Thus, combining the processes of compression and encryption together must be done in this order, that is, compression followed by encryption because all compression techniques heavily rely on the redundancies which are inherently a part of a regular text or speech. The aim of this research is to combine two processes of compression (using an existing scheme) with a new encryption scheme which should be compatible with encoding scheme embedded in encoder. The novel technique proposed by the authors is new, unique and is highly secured. The deployment of sentinel marker' enhances the security of the proposed TR-One algorithm from 2/sup 44/ ciphertexts to 2/sup 44/ +2/sub 20/ ciphertexts thus imposing extra challenges to the intruders. (author)

  9. Radiologic image compression -- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Huang, H.K.; Zaremba, L.; Gooden, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of radiologic image compression is to reduce the data volume of and to achieve a lot bit rate in the digital representation of radiologic images without perceived loss of image quality. However, the demand for transmission bandwidth and storage space in the digital radiology environment, especially picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and teleradiology, and the proliferating use of various imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed radiography, and digital subtraction angiography, continue to outstrip the capabilities of existing technologies. The availability of lossy coding techniques for clinical diagnoses further implicates many complex legal and regulatory issues. This paper reviews the recent progress of lossless and lossy radiologic image compression and presents the legal challenges of using lossy compression of medical records. To do so, the authors first describe the fundamental concepts of radiologic imaging and digitization. Then, the authors examine current compression technology in the field of medical imaging and discuss important regulatory policies and legal questions facing the use of compression in this field. The authors conclude with a summary of future challenges and research directions. 170 refs

  10. Measurements of the equations of state and spectrum of nonideal xenon plasma under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Chen, Q. F.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental equations of state on generation of nonideal xenon plasma by intense shock wave compression was presented in the ranges of pressure of 2-16 GPa and temperature of 31-50 kK, and the xenon plasma with the nonideal coupling parameter Γ range from 0.6-2.1 was generated. The shock wave was produced using the flyer plate impact and accelerated up to ∼6 km/s with a two-stage light gas gun. Gaseous specimens were shocked from two initial pressures of 0.80 and 4.72 MPa at room temperature. Time-resolved spectral radiation histories were recorded by using a multiwavelength channel pyrometer. The transient spectra with the wavelength range of 460-700 nm were recorded by using a spectrometer to evaluate the shock temperature. Shock velocity was measured and particle velocity was determined by the impedance matching methods. The equations of state of xenon plasma and ionization degree have been discussed in terms of the self-consistent fluid variational theory.

  11. Measurements of the equations of state and spectrum of nonideal xenon plasma under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Chen, Q. F.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental equations of state on generation of nonideal xenon plasma by intense shock wave compression was presented in the ranges of pressure of 2-16 GPa and temperature of 31-50 kK, and the xenon plasma with the nonideal coupling parameter Γ range from 0.6-2.1 was generated. The shock wave was produced using the flyer plate impact and accelerated up to ˜6km/s with a two-stage light gas gun. Gaseous specimens were shocked from two initial pressures of 0.80 and 4.72 MPa at room temperature. Time-resolved spectral radiation histories were recorded by using a multiwavelength channel pyrometer. The transient spectra with the wavelength range of 460-700 nm were recorded by using a spectrometer to evaluate the shock temperature. Shock velocity was measured and particle velocity was determined by the impedance matching methods. The equations of state of xenon plasma and ionization degree have been discussed in terms of the self-consistent fluid variational theory.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped with...

  13. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  14. A compressibility based model for predicting the tensile strength of directly compressed pharmaceutical powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gavin K; Campbell, Jacqueline I; Roberts, Ron J

    2017-10-05

    A new model to predict the compressibility and compactability of mixtures of pharmaceutical powders has been developed. The key aspect of the model is consideration of the volumetric occupancy of each powder under an applied compaction pressure and the respective contribution it then makes to the mixture properties. The compressibility and compactability of three pharmaceutical powders: microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate have been characterised. Binary and ternary mixtures of these excipients have been tested and used to demonstrate the predictive capability of the model. Furthermore, the model is shown to be uniquely able to capture a broad range of mixture behaviours, including neutral, negative and positive deviations, illustrating its utility for formulation design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Channel Responses and Hydromodification in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. J.; Dust, D. W.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydromodification (changes in watershed hydrologic characteristics, and the resulting hydraulics and channel forms due to urbanization) is ubiquitous in Southern California. In this region, the effects of hydromodification are driven and compounded by the arid/semiarid climate, high relief, erodible soils, high urbanization rates, and relatively low frequency of retention/detention. We conducted a preliminary survey of over 50 stream reaches along a gradient from least disturbed to fully urbanized. All stages of the Channel Evolution Model (CEM) of Schumm et al. (1984) were observed, from stable to degrading, widening, aggrading, and quasi-equilibrium channels. Several sites have CEM stages II through V in close proximity due to headcutting, hardpoints, and infrastructure. We also observed channels in undeveloped watersheds impacted by downstream urbanization via headcutting. A range of intervention measures was observed, with the frequent evolutionary endpoint as a concrete engineered flood control channel. We also observed multiple channel evolution sequences that deviate from the CEM for single-thread, incising channels. An alternative channel response, particularly on smaller urbanized streams is a stabilized, vegetation encroached low-flow channel with regular baseflow supplied by residential irrigation runoff. The limited cases of unimpacted streams that remain tend to be high gradient, high energy systems that are naturally proximate to the transition between braided and meandering form for a given sediment size.

  16. Compression of Index Term Dictionary in an Inverted-File-Oriented Database: Some Effective Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Janusz L.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of a new method of index term dictionary compression in an inverted-file-oriented database highlights a technique of word coding, which generates short fixed-length codes obtained from the index terms themselves by analysis of monogram and bigram statistical distributions. Substantial savings in communication channel utilization are…

  17. Rectal perforation by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin

    2017-07-01

    As the use of compressed air in industrial work has increased, so has the risk of associated pneumatic injury from its improper use. However, damage of large intestine caused by compressed air is uncommon. Herein a case of pneumatic rupture of the rectum is described. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room complaining of abdominal pain and distension. His colleague triggered a compressed air nozzle over his buttock. On arrival, vital signs were stable but physical examination revealed peritoneal irritation and marked distension of the abdomen. Computed tomography showed a large volume of air in the peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous emphysema at the perineum. A rectal perforation was found at laparotomy and the Hartmann procedure was performed.

  18. Compact torus compression of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Langdon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that a compact torus (CT) might be accelerated to large velocities has been suggested by Hartman and Hammer. If this is feasible one application of these moving CTs might be to compress microwaves. The proposed mechanism is that a coaxial vacuum region in front of a CT is prefilled with a number of normal electromagnetic modes on which the CT impinges. A crucial assumption of this proposal is that the CT excludes the microwaves and therefore compresses them. Should the microwaves penetrate the CT, compression efficiency is diminished and significant CT heating results. MFE applications in the same parameters regime have found electromagnetic radiation capable of penetrating, heating, and driving currents. We report here a cursory investigation of rf penetration using a 1-D version of a direct implicit PIC code

  19. Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.

  20. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... cannot be expected to code losslessly at a rate of 125 Mbit/s. We investigate the rate and quality effects of quantization using standard JPEG-LS quantization and two new techniques: visual quantization and trellis quantization. Visual quantization is not part of baseline JPEG-LS, but is applicable...... in the framework of JPEG-LS. Visual tests show that this quantization technique gives much better quality than standard JPEG-LS quantization. Trellis quantization is a process by which the original image is altered in such a way as to make lossless JPEG-LS encoding more effective. For JPEG-LS and visual...

  1. Efficient access of compressed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, S.J.; Shoshani, A.

    1980-06-01

    A compression technique is presented that allows a high degree of compression but requires only logarithmic access time. The technique is a constant suppression scheme, and is most applicable to stable databases whose distribution of constants is fairly clustered. Furthermore, the repeated use of the technique permits the suppression of a multiple number of different constants. Of particular interest is the application of the constant suppression technique to databases the composite key of which is made up of an incomplete cross product of several attribute domains. The scheme for compressing the full cross product composite key is well known. This paper, however, also handles the general, incomplete case by applying the constant suppression technique in conjunction with a composite key suppression scheme

  2. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  3. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  4. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  5. Semi-confined compression of microfabricated polymerized biomaterial constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Christopher; Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Simmons, Craig A; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Ruogang

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical parameters in engineering functional tissue because of their established influence on cellular behaviour. However, identifying ideal combinations of mechanical, biomaterial and chemical stimuli to obtain a desired cellular response requires high-throughput screening technologies, which may be realized through microfabricated systems. This paper reports on the development and characterization of a MEMS device for semi-confined biomaterial compression. An array of these devices would enable studies involving mechanical deformation of three-dimensional biomaterials, an important parameter in creating physiologically relevant microenvironments in vitro. The described device has the ability to simultaneously apply a range of compressive mechanical stimuli to multiple polymerized hydrogel microconstructs. Local micromechanical strains generated within the semi-confined hydrogel cylinders are characterized and compared with those produced in current micro- and macroscale technologies. In contrast to previous work generating unconfined compression in microfabricated devices, the semi-confined compression model used in this work generates uniform regions of strain within the central portion of each hydrogel, demonstrated here to range from 20% to 45% across the array. The uniform strains achieved simplify experimental analysis and improve the utility of the compression platform. Furthermore, the system is compatible with a wide variety of polymerizable biomaterials, enhancing device versatility and usability in tissue engineering and fundamental cell biology studies

  6. Correlations between quality indexes of chest compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ling; Yan, Li; Huang, Su-Fang; Bai, Xiang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a kind of emergency treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest, and chest compression is the most important and necessary part of CPR. The American Heart Association published the new Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care in 2010 and demanded for better performance of chest compression practice, especially in compression depth and rate. The current study was to explore the relationship of quality indexes of chest compression and to identify the key points in chest compression training and practice. Totally 219 healthcare workers accepted chest compression training by using Laerdal ACLS advanced life support resuscitation model. The quality indexes of chest compression, including compression hands placement, compression rate, compression depth, and chest wall recoil as well as self-reported fatigue time were monitored by the Laerdal Computer Skills and Reporting System. The quality of chest compression was related to the gender of the compressor. The indexes in males, including self-reported fatigue time, the accuracy of compression depth and the compression rate, the accuracy of compression rate, were higher than those in females. However, the accuracy of chest recoil was higher in females than in males. The quality indexes of chest compression were correlated with each other. The self-reported fatigue time was related to all the indexes except the compression rate. It is necessary to offer CPR training courses regularly. In clinical practice, it might be better to change the practitioner before fatigue, especially for females or weak practitioners. In training projects, more attention should be paid to the control of compression rate, in order to delay the fatigue, guarantee enough compression depth and improve the quality of chest compression.

  7. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  8. Bandwidth efficient channel estimation method for airborne hyperspectral data transmission in sparse doubly selective communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, Vahid; Saberinia, Ebrahim; Regentova, Emma E.

    2017-10-01

    A channel estimation (CE) method based on compressed sensing (CS) is proposed to estimate the sparse and doubly selective (DS) channel for hyperspectral image transmission from unmanned aircraft vehicles to ground stations. The proposed method contains three steps: (1) the priori estimate of the channel by orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), (2) calculation of the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimate of the received pilots given the estimated channel, and (3) estimate of the complex amplitudes and Doppler shifts of the channel using the enhanced received pilot data applying a second round of a CS algorithm. The proposed method is named DS-LMMSE-OMP, and its performance is evaluated by simulating transmission of AVIRIS hyperspectral data via the communication channel and assessing their fidelity for the automated analysis after demodulation. The performance of the DS-LMMSE-OMP approach is compared with that of two other state-of-the-art CE methods. The simulation results exhibit up to 8-dB figure of merit in the bit error rate and 50% improvement in the hyperspectral image classification accuracy.

  9. Compressive Failure Mechanisms in Layered Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim Dalsten

    Two important failure modes in fiber reinforced composite materials in cluding layers and laminates occur under loading conditions dominated by compression in the layer direction. These two distinctly different failure modes are 1. buckling driven delamination 2. failure by strain localization...... or on cylindrical substrates modeling the delamination as an interface fracture mechanical problem. Here attention is directed towards double-curved substrates, which introduces a new non-dimensional combination of geometric parameters. It is shown for a wide range of parameters that by choosing the two....... This has some impact on the convergence rate for decreasing mesh size in the load vs. end shortening response for a rectangular block of material. Especially in the immediate post critical range the convergence rate may be slow. The capabilities of the model to deal with more complicated structural...

  10. Compressive and flexural strength of cement mortar stabilized with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortar is a material with wide range of applications in the construction industry. However, plain mortar matrices are usually brittle and often cracks and fails more suddenly than reinforced mortars. In this study, the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar stabilized with Raffia Palm Fruit Peel (RPFP) as fibre were ...

  11. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...

  12. From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.…

  13. Compressive sensing for high resolution profiles with enhanced Doppler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Hoogeboom, P.; Chevalier, F. Le; Otten, M.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Compressive Sensing (CS) can be used in pulse-Doppler radars to improve the Doppler performance while preserving range resolution. We investigate here two types of stepped frequency waveforms, the coherent frequency bursts and successive frequency ramps, which can be

  14. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Compression tests were performed on heat-treated Shea-butter nuts to study the effects of ... the only source of vegetable oil. It was also .... the longitudinal axis, while in the lateral loading position ... Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to.

  15. Excessive chest compression rate is associated with insufficient compression depth in prehospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; De Regge, Melissa; Vansteelandt, Kristof; De Smet, Jeroen; Annaert, Emmanuel; Lemoyne, Sabine; Kalmar, Alain F.; Calle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and goal of study: The relationship between chest compression rate and compression depth is unknown. In order to characterise this relationship, we performed an observational study in prehospital cardiac arrest patients. We hypothesised that faster compressions are associated with

  16. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  17. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Recordings of the output of

  18. Information theory and rate distortion theory for communications and compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the cover

  19. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions : a manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Richard A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P.; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty healthcare professionals performed two minutes of co...

  20. Finite element analysis of BWR fuel channel buckling during a seismic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mika; Iwamoto, Yuji; Ledford, Kevin; Cantonwine, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the predicted response of three BWR fuel channel designs in bending using a typical moment profile for GNF fuel designs. The bending performance of the fuel channel is predicted using ANSYS, a finite element modeling tool. Specifically, linear and non-linear buckling analyses were performed to determine the onset of elastic buckling, which causes a wavy structure on the compression face in bending that might also increase channel – control blade friction, and to determine to onset of channel collapse, which causes permanent deformation and would inhibit control rod insertion. The three channel designs considered in this paper are the 0.080 inch uniform channel, the 0.100 inch uniform channel and the 0.120 inch uniform channel at the beginning of fuel life (BOL) and at the end of fuel life (EOL). (author)

  1. Compressing Data Cube in Parallel OLAP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dehne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient algorithm to compress the cubes in the progress of the parallel data cube generation. This low overhead compression mechanism provides block-by-block and record-by-record compression by using tuple difference coding techniques, thereby maximizing the compression ratio and minimizing the decompression penalty at run-time. The experimental results demonstrate that the typical compression ratio is about 30:1 without sacrificing running time. This paper also demonstrates that the compression method is suitable for Hilbert Space Filling Curve, a mechanism widely used in multi-dimensional indexing.

  2. CEPRAM: Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM

    OpenAIRE

    González Alberquilla, Rodrigo; Castro Rodríguez, Fernando; Piñuel Moreno, Luis; Tirado Fernández, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    We deal with the endurance problem of Phase Change Memories (PCM) by proposing Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM (CEPRAM), a technique to elongate the lifespan of PCM-based main memory through compression. We introduce a total of three compression schemes based on already existent schemes, but targeting compression for PCM-based systems. We do a two-level evaluation. First, we quantify the performance of the compression, in terms of compressed size, bit-flips and how they are affected by e...

  3. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  4. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  5. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  6. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression. S Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 35-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0035-0045 ...

  7. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  8. Compression of Probabilistic XML documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic XML (PXML) files resulting from data integration can become extremely large, which is undesired. For XML there are several techniques available to compress the document and since probabilistic XML is in fact (a special form of) XML, it might benefit from these methods even more. In

  9. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  10. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  11. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  12. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of selected electrolytes in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warminska, Dorota; Grzybkowski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and sound velocities at T = 298.15 K of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, sodium bromide, and sodium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide have been measured over the composition range from (0 to 0.3) mol . kg -1 . From these data, apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The results have been discussed in terms of employing tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate as a reference electrolyte in splitting the limiting apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities into ionic contributions.

  13. The mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, F.; Tabourier, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the mechanical vapour compression process applied to sea water desalination. As an example, the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process : a 1,500 m3/day unit installed in the Nuclear Power Plant of Flamanville in France which supplies a high quality process water to that plant. The authors outline the advantages of this process and present also the serie of mechanical vapour compression unit that SIDEM has developed in a size range in between 25 m3/day and 2,500 m3/day

  14. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    is essential for understanding the fracture mechanism of concrete in compression. In this paper a series of tests is reported, carried out for the purpose of studying the fracture mechanical properties of concrete in compression. Including the measurement and study of the descending branch, a new experimental...... method has been used to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, loading rate, size effects and the influence of the strength on the fracture energy of high-strength concrete over the range 70 MPa to 150 MPa, expressed in nominal values....

  15. Compression-based geometric pattern discovery in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of musical analysis is to find the best possible explanations for musical objects, where such objects may range from single chords or phrases to entire musical corpora. Kolmogorov complexity theory suggests that the best possible explanation for an object is represented by the shortest...... possible description of it. Two compression algorithms, COSIATEC and SIATECCompress, are described that take point-set representations of musical objects as input and generate compressed encodings of these point sets as output. The algorithms were evaluated on a task in which 360 folk songs were classified...

  16. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent cavitating flow in a rectangular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iben, Uwe; Makhnov, Andrei; Schmidt, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Cavitation is a phenomenon of formation of bubbles (cavities) in liquid as a result of pressure drop. Cavitation plays an important role in a wide range of applications. For example, cavitation is one of the key problems of design and manufacturing of pumps, hydraulic turbines, ship's propellers, etc. Special attention is paid to cavitation erosion and to performance degradation of hydraulic devices (noise, fluctuations of the mass flow rate, etc.) caused by the formation of a two-phase system with an increased compressibility. Therefore, development of a model to predict cavitation inception and collapse of cavities in high-speed turbulent flows is an important fundamental and applied task. To test the algorithm three-dimensional simulations of turbulent flow of a cavitating liquid in a rectangular channel have been conducted. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the formulated model and the algorithm.

  17. Mammographic compression – A need for mechanical standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, Woutjan, E-mail: w.branderhorst@amc.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, 1105 BA Amsterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Jerry E. de, E-mail: jerry.degroot@sigmascreening.com [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Highnam, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.highnam@volparasolutions.com [Volpara Solutions Limited, P.O. Box 24404, Manners St Central, Wellington 6142 (New Zealand); Chan, Ariane, E-mail: ariane.chan@volparasolutions.com [Volpara Solutions Limited, P.O. Box 24404, Manners St Central, Wellington 6142 (New Zealand); Böhm-Vélez, Marcela, E-mail: marcelabvelez@gmail.com [Weinstein Imaging Associates, 5850 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15206 (United States); Broeders, Mireille J.M., E-mail: mireille.broeders@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Department for Health Evidence, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); LRCB Dutch Reference Center for Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Heeten, Gerard J. den, E-mail: g.denheeten@lrcb.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); LRCB Dutch Reference Center for Screening, P.O. Box 6873, 6503 GJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Grimbergen, Cornelis A., E-mail: c.a.grimbergen@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, 1105 BA Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    centre in Pittsburgh, PA (US data set). Both sets were processed using VolparaAnalytics and VolparaDensity to obtain the applied average force, pressure, breast thickness, breast volume, breast density and average glandular dose (AGD) as a function of the size of the contact area between the breast and the paddle. Results: On average, the forces and pressures applied in the NL data set were significantly higher than in the US data set. The relative standard deviation was larger in the US data set than in the NL data set. Breasts were compressed with a force in the high range of >15 daN for 31.1% and >20 kPa for 12.3% of the NL data set versus, respectively, 1.5% and 1.7% of the US data set. In the low range we encountered compressions with a pressure of <5 daN for 21.1% and <5 kPa for 21.7% of the US data set versus, respectively, 0.05% and 0.6% in the NL data set. Both the average and the standard deviation of the AGD were higher in the US data set. Conclusion: (1) Current mammographic breast compression policies lead to a wide range of applied forces and pressures, with large variations both within and between clinical sites. (2) Pressure standardization could decrease variation, improve reproducibility, and reduce the risk of unnecessary pain, unnecessary high radiation doses and inadequate image quality.

  18. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor; Nie Ke; Lin Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Liu Dongxu; Sun Lizhi, E-mail: shih@mail.cmu.edu.t [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo (registered) 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc (registered) software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under

  19. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  20. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  1. ClC-3 Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cell After Dynamic Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Kun; Dong, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    ClC-3 chloride channel has been proved to have a relationship with the expression of osteogenic markers during osteogenesis, persistent static compression can upregulate the expression of ClC-3 and regulate osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts. However, there was no study about the relationship between the expression of ClC-3 and osteodifferentiation after dynamic compression. In this study, we applied dynamic compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression of ClC-3, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), nuclear-associated antigen Ki67 (Ki67), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in biopress system, then we investigated the expression of these genes after dynamic compression with Chlorotoxin (specific ClC-3 chloride channel inhibitor) added. Under transmission electron microscopy, there were more cell surface protrusions, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, abundant glycogen, and lysosomes scattered in the cytoplasm in MC3T3-E1 cells after dynamic compression. The nucleolus was more obvious. We found that ClC-3 was significantly up-regulated after dynamic compression. The compressive force also up-regulated Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression for 2, 4 and 8 h. The proliferation gene Ki67 and PCNA did not show significantly change after dynamic compression for 8 h. Chlorotoxin did not change the expression of ClC-3 but reduced the expression of Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression compared with the group without Cltx added. The data from the current study suggested that ClC-3 may promotes osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cell after dynamic compression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1606-1613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modeling DPOAE input/output function compression: comparisons with hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Shaum P

    2014-09-01

    Basilar membrane input/output (I/O) functions in mammalian animal models are characterized by linear and compressed segments when measured near the location corresponding to the characteristic frequency. A method of studying basilar membrane compression indirectly in humans involves measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) I/O functions. Previous research has linked compression estimates from behavioral growth-of-masking functions to hearing thresholds. The aim of this study was to compare compression estimates from DPOAE I/O functions and hearing thresholds at 1 and 2 kHz. A prospective correlational research design was performed. The relationship between DPOAE I/O function compression estimates and hearing thresholds was evaluated with Pearson product-moment correlations. Normal-hearing adults (n = 16) aged 22-42 yr were recruited. DPOAE I/O functions (L₂ = 45-70 dB SPL) and two-interval forced-choice hearing thresholds were measured in normal-hearing adults. A three-segment linear regression model applied to DPOAE I/O functions supplied estimates of compression thresholds, defined as breakpoints between linear and compressed segments and the slopes of the compressed segments. Pearson product-moment correlations between DPOAE compression estimates and hearing thresholds were evaluated. A high correlation between DPOAE compression thresholds and hearing thresholds was observed at 2 kHz, but not at 1 kHz. Compression slopes also correlated highly with hearing thresholds only at 2 kHz. The derivation of cochlear compression estimates from DPOAE I/O functions provides a means to characterize basilar membrane mechanics in humans and elucidates the role of compression in tone detection in the 1-2 kHz frequency range. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. Electrical conductivity measurements in shock compressed liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of shock compressed liquid nitrogen was measured in the pressure range 20 to 50 GPa using a two-stage light-gas gun. The conductivities covered a range 4 x 10 -2 to 1 x 10 2 ohm -1 cm -1 . The data are discussed in terms of a liquid semiconductor model below the onset of the dissociative phase transition at 30 GPa. 15 refs., 1 fig

  4. Optimization of the multilinear compression function applied to calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, P.W.Paolo Walter

    2002-01-01

    The energy dynamic range required by a calorimeter with high speed readout may exceed existing ADC capability. A solution may be a dynamic compressor matching the energy span to the ADC range, such as to contribute at most a predefinite amount to the calorimeter resolution. A multilinear compression function is the easiest to implement, therefore it is interesting to optimize the input to output relation and fix the break points

  5. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2001-12-01

    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  7. Compressed sensing in imaging mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Andreas; Dülk, Patrick; Trede, Dennis; Alexandrov, Theodore; Maaß, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique of analytical chemistry for spatially resolved, label-free and multipurpose analysis of biological samples that is able to detect the spatial distribution of hundreds of molecules in one experiment. The hyperspectral IMS data is typically generated by a mass spectrometer analyzing the surface of the sample. In this paper, we propose a compressed sensing approach to IMS which potentially allows for faster data acquisition by collecting only a part of the pixels in the hyperspectral image and reconstructing the full image from this data. We present an integrative approach to perform both peak-picking spectra and denoising m/z-images simultaneously, whereas the state of the art data analysis methods solve these problems separately. We provide a proof of the robustness of the recovery of both the spectra and individual channels of the hyperspectral image and propose an algorithm to solve our optimization problem which is based on proximal mappings. The paper concludes with the numerical reconstruction results for an IMS dataset of a rat brain coronal section. (paper)

  8. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  9. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  10. Compressive Sensing: Analysis of Signals in Radio Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigals G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive sensing (CS theory says that for some kind of signals there is no need to keep or transfer all the data acquired accordingly to the Nyquist criterion. In this work we investigate if the CS approach is applicable for recording and analysis of radio astronomy (RA signals. Since CS methods are applicable for the signals with sparse (and compressible representations, the compressibility of RA signals is verified. As a result, we identify which RA signals can be processed using CS, find the parameters which can improve or degrade CS application to RA results, describe the optimum way how to perform signal filtering in CS applications. Also, a range of virtual LabVIEW instruments are created for the signal analysis with the CS theory.

  11. A Study on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Gasoline Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Morikawa, Koji; Itoh, Jin; Saishu, Youhei

    A new engine concept consisting of HCCI combustion for low and midrange loads and spark ignition combustion for high loads was introduced. The timing of the intake valve closing was adjusted to alter the negative valve overlap and effective compression ratio to provide suitable HCCI conditions. The effect of mixture formation on auto-ignition was also investigated using a direct injection engine. As a result, HCCI combustion was achieved with a relatively low compression ratio when the intake air was heated by internal EGR. The resulting combustion was at a high thermal efficiency, comparable to that of modern diesel engines, and produced almost no NOx emissions or smoke. The mixture stratification increased the local A/F concentration, resulting in higher reactivity. A wide range of combustible A/F ratios was used to control the compression ignition timing. Photographs showed that the flame filled the entire chamber during combustion, reducing both emissions and fuel consumption.

  12. Flux compression generators as plasma compression power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of applications where explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators have been or can be used to directly power devices that produce dense plasmas. Representative examples are discussed that are specific to the theta pinch, the plasma gun, the dense plasma focus and the Z pinch. These examples are used to illustrate the high energy and power capabilities of explosive generators. An application employing a rocket-borne, generator-powered plasma gun emphasizes the size and weight potential of flux compression power supplies. Recent results from a local effort to drive a dense plasma focus are provided. Imploding liners ae discussed in the context of both the theta and Z pinches

  13. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  14. Near-lossless multichannel EEG compression based on matrix and tensor decompositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwels, Justin; Srinivasan, K; Reddy, M Ramasubba; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2013-05-01

    A novel near-lossless compression algorithm for multichannel electroencephalogram (MC-EEG) is proposed based on matrix/tensor decomposition models. MC-EEG is represented in suitable multiway (multidimensional) forms to efficiently exploit temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously. Several matrix/tensor decomposition models are analyzed in view of efficient decorrelation of the multiway forms of MC-EEG. A compression algorithm is built based on the principle of “lossy plus residual coding,” consisting of a matrix/tensor decomposition-based coder in the lossy layer followed by arithmetic coding in the residual layer. This approach guarantees a specifiable maximum absolute error between original and reconstructed signals. The compression algorithm is applied to three different scalp EEG datasets and an intracranial EEG dataset, each with different sampling rate and resolution. The proposed algorithm achieves attractive compression ratios compared to compressing individual channels separately. For similar compression ratios, the proposed algorithm achieves nearly fivefold lower average error compared to a similar wavelet-based volumetric MC-EEG compression algorithm.

  15. The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryon densities. The experiment is being laid out for nuclear collision rates from 0.1 to 10 MHz to access a unique wide spectrum of probes, including rarest particles like hadrons containing charm quarks, or multi-strange hyperons. The physics programme will be performed with ion beams of energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon. Those will be delivered by the SIS-300 synchrotron at the completed FAIR accelerator complex. Parts of the research programme can already be addressed with the SIS-100 synchrotron at the start of FAIR operation in 2018. The initial energy range of up to 11 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons, allows addressing the equation of state of compressed nuclear matter, the properties of hadrons in a dense medium, the production and propagation of charm near the production threshold, and exploring the third, strange dimension of the nuclide chart. In this article we summarize the CBM physics programme, the preparation of the detector, and give an outline of the recently begun construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research

  16. Exact Theory of Compressible Fluid Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivas, Theodore; Eyink, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    We obtain exact results for compressible turbulence with any equation of state, using coarse-graining/filtering. We find two mechanisms of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation: scale-local energy cascade and ``pressure-work defect'', or pressure-work at viscous scales exceeding that in the inertial-range. Planar shocks in an ideal gas dissipate all kinetic energy by pressure-work defect, but the effect is omitted by standard LES modeling of pressure-dilatation. We also obtain a novel inverse cascade of thermodynamic entropy, injected by microscopic entropy production, cascaded upscale, and removed by large-scale cooling. This nonlinear process is missed by the Kovasznay linear mode decomposition, treating entropy as a passive scalar. For small Mach number we recover the incompressible ``negentropy cascade'' predicted by Obukhov. We derive exact Kolmogorov 4/5th-type laws for energy and entropy cascades, constraining scaling exponents of velocity, density, and internal energy to sub-Kolmogorov values. Although precise exponents and detailed physics are Mach-dependent, our exact results hold at all Mach numbers. Flow realizations at infinite Reynolds are ``dissipative weak solutions'' of compressible Euler equations, similarly as Onsager proposed for incompressible turbulence.

  17. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  18. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  19. The task of control digital image compression

    OpenAIRE

    TASHMANOV E.B.; МАМАTOV М.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relationship of control tasks and image compression losses. The main idea of this approach is to allocate structural lines simplified image and further compress the selected data

  20. Discrete Wigner Function Reconstruction and Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Ning; Fang, Lei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A new reconstruction method for Wigner function is reported for quantum tomography based on compressed sensing. By analogy with computed tomography, Wigner functions for some quantum states can be reconstructed with less measurements utilizing this compressed sensing based method.

  1. Compressibility Analysis of the Tongue During Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unay, Devrim

    2001-01-01

    .... In this paper, 3D compression and expansion analysis of the tongue will be presented. Patterns of expansion and compression have been compared for different syllables and various repetitions of each syllable...

  2. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  3. The effects of processing parameters on the properties of micro-scale porous surface for a micro-channel reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yanbing; Mei, Deqing; Qian, Miao; Yi, Zoudongyi; Chen, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    To improve the performance of hydrogen production via a microchannel reactor with a porous surface, the process of layered powder sintering and dissolution method is optimized, and the effects of processing parameters on the morphological and mechanical properties of the porous surface structure are studied. Based on the preliminary experiments, three key parameters in the process are the size of the NaCl particle, the compaction pressure, and the sintering temperature. Besides, the porous surface structures are evaluated by the specific surface area and compression strength to optimize the influencing variables. Results show that the specific surface area of porous surface structure is determined mainly by the size of NaCl particle, while the pressure and temperature have little influence unexpectedly within the range of experimental condition. With the increase of temperature and pressure, the compression strength will be enhanced, but the increase of the size of NaCl particles will cause the decrease of compression strength. The optimum compaction pressure, sintering temperature, and size of the NaCl particle are obtained respectively. Finally, the optimum parameters have been used to manufacture the micro-channel catalyst support with a porous surface, and its hydrogen production can be maximumly enhanced by 90% compared with the surface fabricated with NaCl particles of 125–150 µ m. (paper)

  4. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  5. Permeability and compression characteristics of municipal solid waste samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu, Ertan; Sanchez, Itza M.; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    2006-08-01

    Four series of laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the permeability and compression characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples. While the two series of tests were conducted using a conventional small-scale consolidometer, the two others were conducted in a large-scale consolidometer specially constructed for this study. In each consolidometer, the MSW samples were tested at two different moisture contents, i.e., original moisture content and field capacity. A scale effect between the two consolidometers with different sizes was investigated. The tests were carried out on samples reconsolidated to pressures of 123, 246, and 369 kPa. Time settlement data gathered from each load increment were employed to plot strain versus log-time graphs. The data acquired from the compression tests were used to back calculate primary and secondary compression indices. The consolidometers were later adapted for permeability experiments. The values of indices and the coefficient of compressibility for the MSW samples tested were within a relatively narrow range despite the size of the consolidometer and the different moisture contents of the specimens tested. The values of the coefficient of permeability were within a band of two orders of magnitude (10-6-10-4 m/s). The data presented in this paper agreed very well with the data reported by previous researchers. It was concluded that the scale effect in the compression behavior was significant. However, there was usually no linear relationship between the results obtained in the tests.

  6. Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)

  7. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai; Li Yingjun

    2011-01-01

    We present an energy-conserving multiple-relaxation-time finite difference lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows. The collision step is first calculated in the moment space and then mapped back to the velocity space. The moment space and corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the group representation theory. Equilibria of the nonconserved moments are chosen according to the need of recovering compressible Navier-Stokes equations through the Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical experiments showed that compressible flows with strong shocks can be well simulated by the present model. The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. It contains more physical information and has better numerical stability and accuracy than its single-relaxation-time version. - Highlights: → We present an energy-conserving MRT finite-difference LB model. → The moment space is constructed according to the group representation theory. → The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. → It has better numerical stability and wider applicable range than its SRT version.

  8. Low complexity lossless compression of underwater sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Partan, Jim; Hurst, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous listening devices are increasingly used to study vocal aquatic animals, and there is a constant need to record longer or with greater bandwidth, requiring efficient use of memory and battery power. Real-time compression of sound has the potential to extend recording durations and bandwidths at the expense of increased processing operations and therefore power consumption. Whereas lossy methods such as MP3 introduce undesirable artifacts, lossless compression algorithms (e.g., flac) guarantee exact data recovery. But these algorithms are relatively complex due to the wide variety of signals they are designed to compress. A simpler lossless algorithm is shown here to provide compression factors of three or more for underwater sound recordings over a range of noise environments. The compressor was evaluated using samples from drifting and animal-borne sound recorders with sampling rates of 16-240 kHz. It achieves >87% of the compression of more-complex methods but requires about 1/10 of the processing operations resulting in less than 1 mW power consumption at a sampling rate of 192 kHz on a low-power microprocessor. The potential to triple recording duration with a minor increase in power consumption and no loss in sound quality may be especially valuable for battery-limited tags and robotic vehicles.

  9. Compressive sensing scalp EEG signals: implementations and practical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Amir M; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2012-11-01

    Highly miniaturised, wearable computing and communication systems allow unobtrusive, convenient and long term monitoring of a range of physiological parameters. For long term operation from the physically smallest batteries, the average power consumption of a wearable device must be very low. It is well known that the overall power consumption of these devices can be reduced by the inclusion of low power consumption, real-time compression of the raw physiological data in the wearable device itself. Compressive sensing is a new paradigm for providing data compression: it has shown significant promise in fields such as MRI; and is potentially suitable for use in wearable computing systems as the compression process required in the wearable device has a low computational complexity. However, the practical performance very much depends on the characteristics of the signal being sensed. As such the utility of the technique cannot be extrapolated from one application to another. Long term electroencephalography (EEG) is a fundamental tool for the investigation of neurological disorders and is increasingly used in many non-medical applications, such as brain-computer interfaces. This article investigates in detail the practical performance of different implementations of the compressive sensing theory when applied to scalp EEG signals.

  10. Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.

  11. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  12. Using X-ray microbeam diffraction to study the long-range internal stresses in aluminum processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Fang; Phan, Thien Q.; Levine, Lyle E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Geantil, Peter T.; Huang, Yi; Langdon, Terence G.; Kassner, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 1050 was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) using a single pass (equivalent uniaxial strain of about 0.88). Long-range internal stresses (LRISs) were assessed in the grain/subgrain interiors using X-ray microbeam diffraction to measure the spacing of {5 3 1} planes, with normals oriented approximately +27.3°, +4.9° and −17.5° off the pressing (axial) direction. The results are consistent with mechanical analysis that suggests the maximum tensile plastic-strain after one pass is expected for +22.5°, roughly zero along the pressing axis, and maximum compressive strain for the −67.5° direction. The magnitude of the measured maximum compressive long-range internal stress is about 0.13σ a (applied stress) in low-dislocation regions within the grain/subgrain interiors. This work is placed in the context of earlier work where convergent beam electron diffraction was used to analyze LRISs in close proximity to the deformation-induced boundaries. The results are complementary and the measured stresses are consistent with a composite model for long-range internal stresses

  13. Bronchoscopic guidance of endovascular stenting limits airway compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mohammad; Hagood, James; Moore, John; El-Said, Howaida

    2015-04-01

    Bronchial compression as a result of pulmonary artery and aortic arch stenting may cause significant respiratory distress. We set out to limit airway narrowing by endovascular stenting, by using simultaneous flexible bronchoscopy and graduated balloon stent dilatation, or balloon angioplasty to determine maximum safe stent diameter. Between August 2010 and August 2013, patients with suspected airway compression by adjacent vascular structures, underwent CT or a 3D rotational angiogram to evaluate the relationship between the airway and the blood vessels. If these studies showed close proximity of the stenosed vessel and the airway, simultaneous bronchoscopy and graduated stent re-dilation or graduated balloon angioplasty were performed. Five simultaneous bronchoscopy and interventional catheterization procedures were performed in four patients. Median age/weight was 33 (range 9-49) months and 14 (range 7.6-24) kg, respectively. Three had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and one had coarctation of the aorta (CoA). All had confirmed or suspected left main stem bronchial compression. In three procedures, serial balloon dilatation of a previously placed stent in the CoA was performed and bronchoscopy was used to determine the safest largest diameter. In the other two procedures, balloon testing with simultaneous bronchoscopy was performed to determine the stent size that would limit compression of the adjacent airway. In all cases, simultaneous bronchoscopy allowed selection of an ideal caliber of the stent that optimized vessel diameter while minimizing compression of the adjacent airway. In cases at risk for airway compromise, flexible bronchoscopy is a useful tool to guide endovascular stenting. Maximum safe stent diameter can be determined without risking catastrophic airway compression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  15. Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Kekre; Tanuja K. Sarode

    2008-01-01

    Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table s...

  16. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a novel...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  17. A biological compression model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Dix, Trevor I; Allison, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    A biological compression model, expert model, is presented which is superior to existing compression algorithms in both compression performance and speed. The model is able to compress whole eukaryotic genomes. Most importantly, the model provides a framework for knowledge discovery from biological data. It can be used for repeat element discovery, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. We demonstrate that the model can handle statistically biased sequences and distantly related sequences where conventional knowledge discovery tools often fail.

  18. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  19. Wireless EEG System Achieving High Throughput and Reduced Energy Consumption Through Lossless and Near-Lossless Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo Dufort Y; Favaro, Federico; Lecumberry, Federico; Martin, Alvaro; Oliver, Juan P; Oreggioni, Julian; Ramirez, Ignacio; Seroussi, Gadiel; Steinfeld, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a wireless multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system featuring lossless and near-lossless compression of the digitized EEG signal. Two novel, low-complexity, efficient compression algorithms were developed and tested in a low-power platform. The algorithms were tested on six public EEG databases comparing favorably with the best compression rates reported up to date in the literature. In its lossless mode, the platform is capable of encoding and transmitting 59-channel EEG signals, sampled at 500 Hz and 16 bits per sample, at a current consumption of 337 A per channel; this comes with a guarantee that the decompressed signal is identical to the sampled one. The near-lossless mode allows for significant energy savings and/or higher throughputs in exchange for a small guaranteed maximum per-sample distortion in the recovered signal. Finally, we address the tradeoff between computation cost and transmission savings by evaluating three alternatives: sending raw data, or encoding with one of two compression algorithms that differ in complexity and compression performance. We observe that the higher the throughput (number of channels and sampling rate) the larger the benefits obtained from compression.

  20. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  1. H.264/AVC Video Compression on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabayko, M. P.; Markov, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the usage of H.264/AVC video compression tools by the flagship smartphones. The results show that only a subset of tools is used, meaning that there is still a potential to achieve higher compression efficiency within the H.264/AVC standard, but the most advanced smartphones are already reaching the compression efficiency limit of H.264/AVC.

  2. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  3. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  4. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  5. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  6. Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Vedharaj, S; An, Yanzhao; Sim, Jaeheon; Chang, Junseok; Johansson, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI

  7. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  8. Local buckling of composite channel columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Czesław; Kujawa, Marcin

    2018-05-01

    The investigation concerns local buckling of compressed flanges of axially compressed composite channel columns. Cooperation of the member flange and web is taken into account here. The buckling mode of the member flange is defined by rotation angle a flange about the line of its connection with the web. The channel column under investigation is made of unidirectional fibre-reinforced laminate. Two approaches to member orthotropic material modelling are performed: the homogenization with the aid of theory of mixture and periodicity cell or homogenization upon the Voigt-Reuss hypothesis. The fundamental differential equation of local buckling is derived with the aid of the stationary total potential energy principle. The critical buckling stress corresponding to a number of buckling half-waves is assumed to be a minimum eigenvalue of the equation. Some numerical examples dealing with columns are given here. The analytical results are compared with the finite element stability analysis carried out by means of ABAQUS software. The paper is focused on a close analytical solution of the critical buckling stress and the associated buckling mode while the web-flange cooperation is assumed.

  9. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  10. Using autoencoders for mammogram compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Chet; Eswaran, Chikkannan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained for medical image compression using autoencoder neural networks. Since mammograms (medical images) are usually of big sizes, training of autoencoders becomes extremely tedious and difficult if the whole image is used for training. We show in this paper that the autoencoders can be trained successfully by using image patches instead of the whole image. The compression performances of different types of autoencoders are compared based on two parameters, namely mean square error and structural similarity index. It is found from the experimental results that the autoencoder which does not use Restricted Boltzmann Machine pre-training yields better results than those which use this pre-training method.

  11. Culture: copying, compression, and conventionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, ; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, ). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning (storing patterns in memory) and reproducing (producing the patterns again). This paper manipulates the presence of learning in a simple iterated drawing design experiment. We find that learning seems to be the causal factor behind the increase in compressibility observed in the transmitted information, while reproducing is a source of random heritable innovations. Only a theory invoking these two aspects of cultural learning will be able to explain human culture's fundamental balance between stability and innovation. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  13. Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Andreisek, G.

    2007-01-01

    Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In other patients with peripheral neuropathies of the foot and ankle, imaging may establish the etiology of the condition and provide information crucial for management and/or surgical planning. MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  14. [Medical image compression: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.

  15. Compressed optimization of device architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frees, Adam [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gamble, John King [Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA (United States). Quantum Architectures and Computation Group; Ward, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Blume-Kohout, Robin J [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Eriksson, M. A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Friesen, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coppersmith, Susan N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to control individual quantum mechanical objects with unprecedented accuracy, opening the door for both quantum and extreme- scale conventional computation applications. As these devices become more complex, designing for facility of control becomes a daunting and computationally infeasible task. Here, motivated by ideas from compressed sensing, we introduce a protocol for the Compressed Optimization of Device Architectures (CODA). It leads naturally to a metric for benchmarking and optimizing device designs, as well as an automatic device control protocol that reduces the operational complexity required to achieve a particular output. Because this protocol is both experimentally and computationally efficient, it is readily extensible to large systems. For this paper, we demonstrate both the bench- marking and device control protocol components of CODA through examples of realistic simulations of electrostatic quantum dot devices, which are currently being developed experimentally for quantum computation.

  16. The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhne Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The CBM experiment will investigate highly compressed baryonic matter created in A+A collisions at the new FAIR research center. With a beam energy range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei at the SIS 100 accelerator, CBM will investigate the QCD phase diagram in the intermediate range, i.e. at moderate temperatures but high net-baryon densities. This intermediate range of the QCD phase diagram is of particular interest, because a first order phase transition ending in a critical point and possibly new highdensity phases of strongly interacting matter are expected. In this range of the QCD phase diagram only exploratory measurements have been performed so far. CBM, as a next generation, high-luminosity experiment, will substantially improve our knowledge of matter created in this region of the QCD phase diagram and characterize its properties by measuring rare probes such as multi-strange hyperons, dileptons or charm, but also with event-by-event fluctuations of conserved quantities, and collective flow of identified particles. The experimental preparations with special focus on hadronic observables and strangeness is presented in terms of detector development, feasibility studies and fast track reconstruction. Preparations are progressing well such that CBM will be ready with FAIR start. As quite some detectors are ready before, they will be used as upgrades or extensions of already running experiments allowing for a rich physics program prior to FAIR start.

  17. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  18. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    such that the most common spatio-temporal queries can still be answered approximately after the compression has taken place. In the process, we develop an implementation of the Douglas–Peucker path-simplification algorithm which works efficiently even in the case where the polygonal path given as input is allowed...... to self-intersect. For a polygonal path of size n, the processing time is O(nlogkn) for k=2 or k=3 depending on the type of simplification....

  19. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR using direct wideband radio frequency (RF digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. The Effect of Inhomogeneous Compression on Water Transport in the Cathode of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multicomponent, two-fluid model developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS Inc.) is used to investigate the effect of porous media compression on water transport in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model only consist of the cathode channel, gas....... Furthermore, the presence of irreducible liquid water is taken into account. In order to account for compression, porous media morphology variations are specified based on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) through-plane strain and intrusion which are stated as a function of compression. These morphology...... variations affect gas and liquid water transport, and hence liquid water distribution and the risk of blocking active sites. Hence, water transport is studied under GDL compression in order to investigate the qualitative effects. Two simulation cases are compared; one with and one without compression....

  1. Omni channel fashion shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; van Delft, L.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Pantano, E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives insight into consumers' online and offline fashion shopping behavior, consumers' omni-channel usage during the shopping process, and consumer fashion shopper segments. Based on a literature review, omni-channel shopping behavior during the shopping process was operationalized.

  2. Simulation-Based Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis of a Mach 4.5 Mixed-Compression Intake Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Ito, K.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of a supersonic mixed-compression intake of a variable-cycle turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) engine is presented. The TBCC engine is de- signed to power a long-range Mach 4.5 transport capable of antipodal missions studied in the framework of an EU FP6 project, LAPCAT. The nominal intake geometry was designed using DLR abpi cycle analysis pro- gram by taking into account various operating require- ments of a typical mission profile. The intake consists of two movable external compression ramps followed by an isolator section with bleed channel. The compressed air is then diffused through a rectangular-to-circular subsonic diffuser. A multi-block Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) solver with Srinivasan-Tannehill equilibrium air model was used to compute the total pressure recovery and mass capture fraction. While RANS simulation of the nominal intake configuration provides more realistic performance characteristics of the intake than the cycle analysis program, the intake design must also take into account in-flight uncertainties for robust intake performance. In this study, we focus on the effects of the geometric uncertainties on pressure recovery and mass capture fraction, and propose a practical approach to simulation-based sensitivity analysis. The method begins by constructing a light-weight analytical model, a radial-basis function (RBF) network, trained via adaptively sampled RANS simulation results. Using the RBF network as the response surface approximation, stochastic sensitivity analysis is performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique by Sobol. This approach makes it possible to perform a generalized multi-input- multi-output sensitivity analysis based on high-fidelity RANS simulation. The resulting Sobol's influence indices allow the engineer to identify dominant parameters as well as the degree of interaction among multiple parameters, which can then be fed back into the design cycle.

  3. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  4. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Image compression of bone images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetian, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Chan, K.K.; Ho, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiment conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of a compressed bone image with the original. The compression was done on custom hardware that implements an algorithm based on full-frame cosine transform. The compression ratio in this study is approximately 10:1, which was decided after a pilot experiment. The image set consisted of 45 hand images, including normal images and images containing osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa. Each image was digitized with a laser film scanner to 2,048 x 2,048 x 8 bits. Six observers, all board-certified radiologists, participated in the experiment. For each ROC session, an independent ROC curve was constructed and the area under that curve calculated. The image set was randomized for each session, as was the order for viewing the original and reconstructed images. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data and derive statistically significant results. The preliminary results indicate that the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed image is comparable to that of the original image

  6. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  7. A seismic data compression system using subband coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A. B.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The algorithm includes three stages: a decorrelation stage, a quantization stage that introduces a controlled amount of distortion to allow for high compression ratios, and a lossless entropy coding stage based on a simple but efficient arithmetic coding method. Subband coding methods are particularly suited to the decorrelation of nonstationary processes such as seismic events. Adaptivity to the nonstationary behavior of the waveform is achieved by dividing the data into separate blocks that are encoded separately with an adaptive arithmetic encoder. This is done with high efficiency due to the low overhead introduced by the arithmetic encoder in specifying its parameters. The technique could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.

  8. Sparse BLIP: BLind Iterative Parallel imaging reconstruction using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Huajun; Chen, Rong-Rong; Liang, Dong; DiBella, Edward V R; Ying, Leslie

    2014-02-01

    To develop a sensitivity-based parallel imaging reconstruction method to reconstruct iteratively both the coil sensitivities and MR image simultaneously based on their prior information. Parallel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction problem can be formulated as a multichannel sampling problem where solutions are sought analytically. However, the channel functions given by the coil sensitivities in parallel imaging are not known exactly and the estimation error usually leads to artifacts. In this study, we propose a new reconstruction algorithm, termed Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel, for blind iterative parallel imaging reconstruction using compressed sensing. The proposed algorithm reconstructs both the sensitivity functions and the image simultaneously from undersampled data. It enforces the sparseness constraint in the image as done in compressed sensing, but is different from compressed sensing in that the sensing matrix is unknown and additional constraint is enforced on the sensitivities as well. Both phantom and in vivo imaging experiments were carried out with retrospective undersampling to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experiments show improvement in Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel reconstruction when compared with Sparse SENSE, JSENSE, IRGN-TV, and L1-SPIRiT reconstructions with the same number of measurements. The proposed Sparse BLind Iterative Parallel algorithm reduces the reconstruction errors when compared to the state-of-the-art parallel imaging methods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adult-like processing of time-compressed speech by newborns: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issard, Cécile; Gervain, Judit

    2017-06-01

    Humans can adapt to a wide range of variations in the speech signal, maintaining an invariant representation of the linguistic information it contains. Among them, adaptation to rapid or time-compressed speech has been well studied in adults, but the developmental origin of this capacity remains unknown. Does this ability depend on experience with speech (if yes, as heard in utero or as heard postnatally), with sounds in general or is it experience-independent? Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we show that the newborn brain can discriminate between three different compression rates: normal, i.e. 100% of the original duration, moderately compressed, i.e. 60% of original duration and highly compressed, i.e. 30% of original duration. Even more interestingly, responses to normal and moderately compressed speech are similar, showing a canonical hemodynamic response in the left temporoparietal, right frontal and right temporal cortex, while responses to highly compressed speech are inverted, showing a decrease in oxyhemoglobin concentration. These results mirror those found in adults, who readily adapt to moderately compressed, but not to highly compressed speech, showing that adaptation to time-compressed speech requires little or no experience with speech, and happens at an auditory, and not at a more abstract linguistic level. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.

    1976-01-01

    A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described

  11. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  12. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  13. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy of meningiomas compressing optical pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Klaus-Detlef; Henzel, Martin; Gross, Markus W.; Surber, Gunnar; Kleinert, Gabriele; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Microsurgical resection is usually the treatment of choice for meningiomas, especially for those that compress the optical pathways. However, in many cases of skull-base meningiomas a high risk of neurological deficits and recurrences exist in cases where the complete tumor removal was not possible. In such cases (fractionated) stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) can offer an alternative treatment option. We evaluated the local control rate, symptomatology, and toxicity. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2003, 183 patients with skull-base meningiomas were treated with SRT, among them were 65 patients with meningiomas that compressed optical pathways (64 benign, 1 atypical). Of these 65 cases, 20 were treated with SRT only, 27 were subtotally resected before SRT, and 18 underwent multiple tumor resections before SRT. We investigated the results until 2005, with a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 22-83 months). The tumor volume (TV = gross tumor volume) ranged from 0.61 to 90.20 cc (mean, 18.9 cc). Because of the risk of new visual disturbances, the dose per fraction was either 2 or 1.8 Gy for all patients, to a total dose of 50 to 60 Gy. Results: The overall survival and the progression-free survival rates for 5 years were assessed to 100% in this patient group. To date, no progression for these meningiomas have been observed. Quantitatively, tumor shrinkage of more than 20%, or more than 2 mm in diameter, was proved in 35 of the 65 cases after SRT. In 29 of the 65 patients, at least 1 of the symptoms improved. On application of the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), acute toxicity (Grade 3) was seen in 1 case (worsening of conjunctivitis). Another 2 patients developed late toxicity by LENT-SOMA score, 1 x Grade 1 and 1 x Grade 3 (field of vision loss). Conclusion: As a low-risk and effective treatment option for tumor control, SRT with 1.8 to 2.0 Gy per fraction can also be recommended in case of meningiomas that compress optical pathways. An

  15. Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 μm circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)

  16. Micro-channel convective boiling heat transfer with flow instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consolini, L.; Thome, J.R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse], e-mail: lorenzo.consolini@epfl.ch, e-mail: john.thome@epfl.ch

    2009-07-01

    Flow boiling heat transfer in micro-channels has attracted much interest in the past decade, and is currently a strong candidate for high performance compact heat sinks, such as those required in electronics systems, automobile air conditioning units, micro-reactors, fuel cells, etc. Currently the literature presents numerous experimental studies on two-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, providing an extensive database that covers many different fluids and operating conditions. Among the noteworthy elements that have been reported in previous studies, is the sensitivity of micro-channel evaporators to oscillatory two-phase instabilities. These periodic fluctuations in flow and pressure drop either result from the presence of upstream compressibility, or are simply due to the interaction among parallel channels in multi-port systems. An oscillating flow presents singular characteristics that are expected to produce an effect on the local heat transfer mechanisms, and thus on the estimation of the two-phase heat transfer coefficients. The present investigation illustrates results for flow boiling of refrigerants R-134a, R-236fa, and R-245fa in a 510 {mu}m circular micro-channel, exposed to various degrees of oscillatory compressible volume instabilities. The data describe the main features of the fluctuations in the temperatures of the heated wall and fluid, and draw attention to the differences in the measured unstable time-averaged heat transfer coefficients with respect to those for stable flow boiling. (author)

  17. Quality and loudness judgments for music subjected to compression limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic-range compression (DRC) is used in the music industry to maximize loudness. The amount of compression applied to commercial recordings has increased over time due to a motivating perspective that louder music is always preferred. In contrast to this viewpoint, artists and consumers have argued that using large amounts of DRC negatively affects the quality of music. However, little research evidence has supported the claims of either position. The present study investigated how DRC affects the perceived loudness and sound quality of recorded music. Rock and classical music samples were peak-normalized and then processed using different amounts of DRC. Normal-hearing listeners rated the processed and unprocessed samples on overall loudness, dynamic range, pleasantness, and preference, using a scaled paired-comparison procedure in two conditions: un-equalized, in which the loudness of the music samples varied, and loudness-equalized, in which loudness differences were minimized. Results indicated that a small amount of compression was preferred in the un-equalized condition, but the highest levels of compression were generally detrimental to quality, whether loudness was equalized or varied. These findings are contrary to the "louder is better" mentality in the music industry and suggest that more conservative use of DRC may be preferred for commercial music.

  18. Stability of Bifurcating Stationary Solutions of the Artificial Compressible System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yuka

    2018-02-01

    The artificial compressible system gives a compressible approximation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system. The latter system is obtained from the former one in the zero limit of the artificial Mach number ɛ which is a singular limit. The sets of stationary solutions of both systems coincide with each other. It is known that if a stationary solution of the incompressible system is asymptotically stable and the velocity field of the stationary solution satisfies an energy-type stability criterion, then it is also stable as a solution of the artificial compressible one for sufficiently small ɛ . In general, the range of ɛ shrinks when the spectrum of the linearized operator for the incompressible system approaches to the imaginary axis. This can happen when a stationary bifurcation occurs. It is proved that when a stationary bifurcation from a simple eigenvalue occurs, the range of ɛ can be taken uniformly near the bifurcation point to conclude the stability of the bifurcating solution as a solution of the artificial compressible system.

  19. Entropy and Compression Capture Different Complexity Features: The Case of Fetal Heart Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Monteiro-Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and compression have been used to distinguish fetuses at risk of hypoxia from their healthy counterparts through the analysis of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR. Low correlation that was observed between these two approaches suggests that they capture different complexity features. This study aims at characterizing the complexity of FHR features captured by entropy and compression, using as reference international guidelines. Single and multi-scale approaches were considered in the computation of entropy and compression. The following physiologic-based features were considered: FHR baseline; percentage of abnormal long (%abLTV and short (%abSTV term variability; average short term variability; and, number of acceleration and decelerations. All of the features were computed on a set of 68 intrapartum FHR tracings, divided as normal, mildly, and moderately-severely acidemic born fetuses. The correlation between entropy/compression features and the physiologic-based features was assessed. There were correlations between compressions and accelerations and decelerations, but neither accelerations nor decelerations were significantly correlated with entropies. The %abSTV was significantly correlated with entropies (ranging between −0.54 and −0.62, and to a higher extent with compression (ranging between −0.80 and −0.94. Distinction between groups was clearer in the lower scales using entropy and in the higher scales using compression. Entropy and compression are complementary complexity measures.

  20. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A. [Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large tt̄ background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line m{sub t̃}−m{sub χ̃}≈m{sub t}. With 300 fb{sup −1}, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  1. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  2. JPEG and wavelet compression of ophthalmic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, Robert H.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J.; Barry, Christopher J.

    1999-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and methods of digital image compression to produce ophthalmic imags of sufficient quality for transmission and diagnosis. The photographs of 15 subjects, which inclined eyes with normal, subtle and distinct pathologies, were digitized to produce 1.54MB images and compressed to five different methods: (i) objectively by calculating the RMS error between the uncompressed and compressed images, (ii) semi-subjectively by assessing the visibility of blood vessels, and (iii) subjectively by asking a number of experienced observers to assess the images for quality and clinical interpretation. Results showed that as a function of compressed image size, wavelet compressed images produced less RMS error than JPEG compressed images. Blood vessel branching could be observed to a greater extent after Wavelet compression compared to JPEG compression produced better images then a JPEG compression for a given image size. Overall, it was shown that images had to be compressed to below 2.5 percent for JPEG and 1.7 percent for Wavelet compression before fine detail was lost, or when image quality was too poor to make a reliable diagnosis.

  3. Pilotless recovery of clipped OFDM signals by compressive sensing over reliable data carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids using reserved tones or channel-estimation pilots. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver (in the frequency domain), and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the sparse nonlinear distortion in the time domain. As such, the method provides a practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, and the ability to recover the distorted signal in one shot. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Pilotless recovery of clipped OFDM signals by compressive sensing over reliable data carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Safadi, Ebrahim B.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method of clipping mitigation in OFDM using compressive sensing that completely avoids using reserved tones or channel-estimation pilots. The method builds on selecting the most reliable perturbations from the constellation lattice upon decoding at the receiver (in the frequency domain), and performs compressive sensing over these observations in order to completely recover the sparse nonlinear distortion in the time domain. As such, the method provides a practical solution to the problem of initial erroneous decoding decisions in iterative ML methods, and the ability to recover the distorted signal in one shot. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Hardware Implementation of Lossless Adaptive Compression of Data From a Hyperspectral Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didlier; Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Klimesh, Matthew A.; Bakhshi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Efficient onboard data compression can reduce the data volume from hyperspectral imagers on NASA and DoD spacecraft in order to return as much imagery as possible through constrained downlink channels. Lossless compression is important for signature extraction, object recognition, and feature classification capabilities. To provide onboard data compression, a hardware implementation of a lossless hyperspectral compression algorithm was developed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The underlying algorithm is the Fast Lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral- Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), p. 26 with the modification reported in Lossless, Multi-Spectral Data Comressor for Improved Compression for Pushbroom-Type Instruments (NPO-45473), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008) p. 63, which provides improved compression performance for data from pushbroom-type imagers. An FPGA implementation of the unmodified FL algorithm was previously developed and reported in Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System (NPO-46867), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 36, No. 5 (May 2012) p. 42. The essence of the FL algorithm is adaptive linear predictive compression using the sign algorithm for filter adaption. The FL compressor achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of stateof- the-art techniques currently in use. The modification changes the predictor structure to tolerate differences in sensitivity of different detector elements, as occurs in pushbroom-type imagers, which are suitable for spacecraft use. The FPGA implementation offers a low-cost, flexible solution compared to traditional ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and can be integrated as an intellectual property (IP) for part of, e.g., a design that manages the instrument interface. The FPGA implementation was benchmarked on the Xilinx

  6. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  7. CANDU channel flow verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazalu, N.; Negut, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain accurate information on each channel flow that enables us to assess precisely the level of reactor thermal power and, for reasons of safety, to establish which channel is boiling. In order to assess the channel flow parameters, computer simulations were done with the NUCIRC code and the results were checked by measurements. The complete channel flow measurements were made in the zero power cold condition. In hot conditions there were made flow measurements using the Shut Down System 1 (SDS 1) flow devices from 0.1 % F.P. up to 100 % F.P. The NUCIRC prediction for CANDU channel flows and the measurements by Ultrasonic Flow Meter at zero power cold conditions and SDS 1 flow channel measurements at different reactor power levels showed an acceptable agreement. The 100 % F.P. average errors for channel flow of R, shows that suitable NUCIRC flow assessment can be made. So, it can be done a fair prediction of the reactor power distribution. NUCIRC can predict accurately the onset of boiling and helps to warn at the possible power instabilities at high powers or it can detect the flow blockages. The thermal hydraulic analyst has in NUCIRC a suitable tool to do accurate predictions for the thermal hydraulic parameters for different steady state power levels which subsequently leads to an optimal CANDU reactor operation. (authors)

  8. Mobility-limiting mechanisms in single and dual channel strained Si/SiGe MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, S.H.; Dobrosz, P.; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; Bull, S.J.; O'Neill, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dual channel strained Si/SiGe CMOS architectures currently receive great attention due to maximum performance benefits being predicted for both n- and p-channel MOSFETs. Epitaxial growth of a compressively strained SiGe layer followed by tensile strained Si can create a high mobility buried hole channel and a high mobility surface electron channel on a single relaxed SiGe virtual substrate. However, dual channel n-MOSFETs fabricated using a high thermal budget exhibit compromised mobility enhancements compared with single channel devices, in which both electron and hole channels form in strained Si. This paper investigates the mobility-limiting mechanisms of dual channel structures. The first evidence of increased interface roughness due to the introduction of compressively strained SiGe below the tensile strained Si channel is presented. Interface corrugations degrade electron mobility in the strained Si. Roughness measurements have been carried out using AFM and TEM. Filtering AFM images allowed roughness at wavelengths pertinent to carrier transport to be studied and the results are in agreement with electrical data. Furthermore, the first comparison of strain measurements in the surface channels of single and dual channel architectures is presented. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study channel strain both before and after processing and indicates that there is no impact of the buried SiGe layer on surface macrostrain. The results provide further evidence that the improved performance of the single channel devices fabricated using a high thermal budget arises from improved surface roughness and reduced Ge diffusion into the Si channel

  9. The thermoviscoplastic response of polycrystalline tungsten in compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, A.M.; Ramesh, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermomechanical response of commercially pure polycrystalline tungsten was investigated over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. The material was examined in two forms: one an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure and the other a heavily deformed extruded microstructure that was loaded in compression along the extrusion axis. Low strain rate (10 -3 -10 0 s -1 ) compression experiments were conducted on an MTS servo-hydraulic load frame equipped with an infra-red furnace capable of sustaining specimen temperatures in excess of 600 C. High strain rate (10 3 -10 4 s -1 ) experiments were performed on a compression Kolsky bar equipped with an infra-red heating system capable of developing specimen temperatures as high as 800 C. Pressure-shear plate impact experiments were used to obtain shear stress versus shear strain curves at very high rates (∝10 4 -10 5 s -1 ). The recrystallized material was able to sustain very substantial plastic deformations in compression (at room temperature), with a flow stress that appears to be rate-dependent. Intergranular microcracks were developed during the compressive deformations. Under quasi-static loadings a few relatively large axial splitting cracks were formed, while under dynamic loadings a very large number of small, uniformly distributed microcracks (that did not link up to form macrocracks) were developed. The rate of nucleation of microcracks increased dramatically with strain rate. The extruded tungsten is also able to sustain large plastic deformations in compression, with a flow stress that increases with the rate of deformation. The strain hardening of the extruded material is lower than that of the recrystallized material, and is relatively insensitive to the strain rate. (orig.)

  10. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  12. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  13. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  14. Long Channel Carbon Nanotube as an Alternative to Nanoscale Silicon Channels in Scaled MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loong Peng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long channel carbon nanotube transistor (CNT can be used to overcome the high electric field effects in nanoscale length silicon channel. When maximum electric field is reduced, the gate of a field-effect transistor (FET is able to gain control of the channel at varying drain bias. The device performance of a zigzag CNTFET with the same unit area as a nanoscale silicon metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET channel is assessed qualitatively. The drain characteristic of CNTFET and MOSFET device models as well as fabricated CNTFET device are explored over a wide range of drain and gate biases. The results obtained show that long channel nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL effects in silicon MOSFET while sustaining the same unit area at higher current density.

  15. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  16. Magnetic compression into Brillouin flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.

    1977-01-01

    The trajectories of beam edge electrons are calculated in the transition region between an electrostatic gun and an increasing magnetic field for various field shapes, transition length, and cathode fluxes, assuming that the resultant beam is of Brillouin flow type. The results give a good physical interpretation to the axial gradient of the magnetic field being responsible for the amount of magnetic compression and also for the proper injection conditions. Therefore it becomes possible to predict from the known characteristics of any fairly laminary electrostatic gun the necessary axial gradient of the magnetic field and the axial position of the gun with respect to the field build-up. (orig.) [de

  17. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  18. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  19. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  20. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Predicting New Compression Fractures Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a technique that structurally stabilizes a fractured vertebral body. However, some patients return to the hospital due to recurrent back pain following PVP, and such pain is sometimes caused by new compression fractures. Purpose: To investigate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of adjacent vertebral bodies as assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging before PVP could predict the onset of new compression fractures following PVP. Material and Methods: 25 patients with osteoporotic compression fractures who underwent PVP were enrolled in this study. ADC was measured for 49 vertebral bodies immediately above and below each vertebral body injected with bone cement before and after PVP. By measuring ADC for each adjacent vertebral body, ADC was compared between vertebral bodies with a new compression fracture within 1 month and those without new compression fractures. In addition, the mean ADC of adjacent vertebral bodies per patient was calculated. Results: Mean preoperative ADC for the six adjacent vertebral bodies with new compression fractures was 0.55x10 -3 mm 2 /s (range 0.36-1.01x10 -3 mm 2 /s), and for the 43 adjacent vertebral bodies without new compression fractures 0.20x10 -3 mm 2 /s (range 0-0.98x10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s (range 0.21-1.01x10 -3 mm 2 /s), and that for the 19 patients without new compression fractures 0.17x10 -3 mm 2 /s (range 0.01-0.43x10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). Conclusion: The ADC of adjacent vertebral bodies as assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging before PVP might be one of the predictors for new compression fractures following PVP