WorldWideScience

Sample records for range causing sudden

  1. Cardiovascular causes of maternal sudden death. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome is leading cause in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7 years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered....... There was a male predominance (56%) and the median age was 33 years. The incidence of sudden death by stroke in individuals aged 1-49 years was 0.19 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Stroke was hemorrhagic in 94% of cases, whereof subarachnoid hemorrhage was the cause of death in 63% of cases. Seventeen (33%) cases...... contacted the healthcare system because of neurological symptoms, whereof one was suspected of having a stroke (6%). Conclusions Sudden death by stroke in children and young adults occurs primarily due to hemorrhagic stroke. We report a high frequency of neurological symptoms prior to sudden death by stroke...

  3. CAUSES OF SUDDEN NATURAL DEATH: A MEDICO-LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    89 No. 10 October 2012 ... The age range of the cases was 19-105 years with a mean age ... majority of cases (39.3%), the cause of death was related to the cardio-vascular ... Six hundred and twenty six cases of sudden natural .... (39/60) and a mean age of 54.2±15years. ..... D. A population-based autopsy study of sudden,.

  4. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    Many nurses will be familiar with the unexpected death of an adult patient following a sudden, life-threatening cardiac event. It is a situation that demands sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults. Possible reactions of those who are suddenly bereaved are described and immediate care interventions aimed at dealing with the grief process are discussed. The article concludes by identifying ways in which the incidence of sudden cardiac death may be reduced.

  5. Systemic Steroid Application Caused Sudden Death of a Patient with Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ogino-Nishimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man, who was diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL, showed severe hypertension 10 hours after prednisolone administration. Subsequently, the patient suddenly died due to pulmonary edema. The autopsy indicated a pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, and the cause of death was determined to be a pheochromocytoma crisis induced by systemic administration of prednisolone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening condition and can result from the use of corticosteroids. Physicians should consider the risk of a pheochromocytoma crisis due to systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  6. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  7. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads

    2015-01-01

    was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through.......3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). CONCLUSION: Sudden death among individuals aged caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence......BACKGROUND: On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...

  8. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR CAUSES OF SUDDEN DEATH- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Thankappan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Present study “Cardiovascular Causes of Sudden Death- An Autopsy Study” was a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, during the time period from June 1 st 2013 to June 1 st 2014. The objective of the study was to find out the cardiovascular causes of sudden deaths and to correlate the postmortem findings with the histopathological examination. 57 cases brought for postmortem examination with history suggestive of sudden natural death were taken into the study and those cases observed to have a cardiovascular cause of sudden death during autopsy were further examined and their heart specimens were subjected to histopathological examination. Then, the sociodemographic factors, postmortem findings and histopathological findings were correlated and analysed. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam from 01.06.2013 to 31.05.2014 were autopsied and subjected to histopathological examination of the heart. The socio-demographic data were collected; they were analyzed and correlated with the postmortem and histopathological findings. RESULTS Out of the 57 subjects who were taken into the study, maximum number of Sudden natural deaths were in the 36-50 year age group (42.2%, 33.3% in the 51-65 year age group and 14% of cases were in the 66-80 year age group. CONCLUSION Histopathological examination of the samples showed myocardial infarction in 33.3% of cases; chronic ischaemic heart disease in 56.1% of cases and myocarditis in 19.3% of cases. The major cardiovascular cause of sudden death was ascertained as Coronary artery disease.

  10. The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of exercise on cardiovascular health is well known. Athletes, who are constantly physically active, are considered to be the healthiest members of our society. That is why their sudden death, during the training or competition, attracts the attention of the general public. Rarely, tragic events of sudden cardiac death (SCD are the reason for questioning if by many positive there are also negative impact of physical exercise. The first case of SCD is recorded as far back as the year 490 BC, when the Greek soldier Pheidippides died after he conveyed news of the great victory of the Greeks over the Persians. Risk of SCD is recognized in the middle of the twentieth century. In our region, discussion about this issue began after the World Basketball Championship, which was held in Ljubljana in 1970, because of the sudden death of the national team member Trajko Rajkovic. One of the important goals of modern sports medicine is to reduce the risk of SCD in athletes to 'inevitable rarity'. Definition of SCD is considered to be any unexpected death due to sudden cardiac arrest. Pedo (Pedoe has divided all causes of SCD in the sport into three categories: Commotio cordis (agitation of the heart, which results from blunt impact to the athletes chest with consequent fatal disorder of heart rhythm; SCD of athletes under the age of 35 because of structural, congenital and inflammatory heart disease, which includes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as the most important cause of sudden cardiac death, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis and other; SCD of athletes older than 35 years which is most common due coronary artery disease - atherosclerosis (the dominant risk in the marathon and half-marathon. .

  11. Causes and prevention of sudden cardiac death in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Patricia; Albert, Christine M

    2013-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in elderly individuals owing to a high prevalence of coronary heart disease, systolic dysfunction, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Although the incidence of SCD increases with age, the proportion of cardiac deaths that are sudden decreases owing to high numbers of other cardiac causes of death in elderly individuals. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been demonstrated to improve survival and prevent SCD in selected patients with systolic dysfunction and CHF. However, ICD therapy in elderly patients might not be effective because of a greater rate of pulseless electrical activity underlying SCD and other competing nonarrhythmic causes of death in this population. Although under-represented in randomized trials of ICD use, elderly patients comprise a substantial proportion of the population that qualifies for and receives an ICD for primary prevention under current guidelines. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which has been demonstrated to reduce mortality in selected populations with heart failure, is also more commonly used in this group of patients than in younger individuals. In this Review, we examine the causes of SCD in elderly individuals, and discuss the existing evidence for effectiveness of ICD therapy and CRT in this growing population.

  12. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years...... in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431...... autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought...

  13. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: a rare cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Susana; Lopes, José Manuel; Oliveira, José Bessa; Santos, Agostinho

    2010-07-27

    Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis) were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  14. Unusual causes of sudden anuria in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, N.; Hamza, A.; Younis, S.; Adem, M.; Obaideen, A.; Zakaria, M.; El-Jubab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sudden unexplained anuria in renal transplant patients could well be secondary to occult internal hemorrhage rather than the usual vascular thrombotic or obstructive event, even in the completely stable patient. Urgent intervention in such bleeding states can save patient's life and graft function. Graft survival is very exceptional in graft artery or vein thrombosis. Contrary to hemorrhagic events, life is usually not threatened by thrombotic events involving the renal graft vasculature. We present here three unfortunate cases that shared the problem of unexpected anuria due to a hemorrhagic event in apparently stable renal transplant patients. (author)

  15. Decomposition and N cycling changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is an emergent pathogen in redwood forests which causes the disease sudden oak death. Although the disease does not kill coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), extensive and rapid mortality of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has removed this...

  16. Sudden death caused by 1,1-difluoroethane inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhenggang; Avella, Joseph; Wetli, Charles V

    2004-05-01

    A 20-year-old man was found dead on the floor next to a computer, with a nearly full can of "CRC Duster" dust remover located next to the deceased on the floor, and an empty can of the same product on the computer desk. Toxicologic evaluation using either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) method identified the active ingredient 1,1-difluoroethane (Freon 152a) in all tissues analyzed. Tissue distribution studies revealed highest concentration in central blood, lung, and liver. It is believed that the 1,1-difluoroethane inhalation was the cause of death.

  17. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  18. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death: A nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads; Jabbari, Reza; Glinge, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD. The median age in the SNCD death population was 32 years. Increasing age was inversely associated with SNCD (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.98). Female sex, in-hospital location, and the absence of cardiac comorbidities were positively associated with SNCD (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). Sudden death among individuals aged caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence of cardiac comorbidities. These data may guide future strategies for the follow-up of family members of nonautopsied sudden death victims, improve risk stratification, and influence public health strategies. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Circumstances and causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in sudden death survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede-Swagemakers, J. J.; Gorgels, A. P.; Dubois-Arbouw, W. I.; Dalstra, J.; Daemen, M. J.; van Ree, J. W.; Stijns, R. E.; Wellens, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the circumstances and medical profile of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) patients in whom resuscitation was attempted by the ambulance service, and to identify causes of SCA in survivors and factors that influence resuscitation success rate. During a five year period (1991-95)

  20. Cardiomyopathies as a Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD in Egypt: Recognition and Preventive Strategies Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fnon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the epidemiological characteristics and pathological features of different types of cardiomyopathies in Egypt, highlighting the role of the forensic pathologist in identifying cases of cardiomyopathies and initiating for their families a possible genetic study aiming at prevention of sudden death. All cases with sudden cardiac death (SCD due to cardiomyopathies during the period from the beginning of January 2010 until the end of December 2014 (5 years were included in this study. All hearts underwent detailed gross and histological examination. Circumstances of death, medical history, and post-mortem pathological findings were thoroughly  investigated. Out of 535 cases of sudden cardiac death, there were 22 cases (4.1% diagnosed as having cardiomyopathies; sudden death was their first presentation. Eighteen cases (81.8% were male, with the 4th decade (11 cases, 50% being the most affected age; severe physical activity and exertion were evident in death circumstances of 14 cases (63.6%; pathological evaluation revealed that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the most frequent type, being diagnosed in 10 cases (45%. Cardiomyopathies are an infrequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Most deaths are in children and adults, so cases are of high social impact that demands multidisciplinary research and resources. In all cases of SCD, forensic autopsy should be done. Forensic study is the key to identifying an affected family and the starting point regarding assessing them.

  1. A cause of Sudden Cardiac Deaths on Autopsy Findings; a Four-Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dinesh; Sood, Divya; Pathak, P; Dongre, Sudhir D

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been steadily increasing all over the world. While knowing the cause of SCD is one of the favorites of the physicians involved with these cases, it is very difficult and challenging task for the forensic physician. The present report is a prospective study regarding cause of SCDs on autopsy examination in four-year period, Bangalore, India. The present prospective study is based on autopsy observations, carried out for four-year period from 2008 to 2011, and analyzed for cause of SCDs. The cases were chosen as per the definition of sudden death and autopsied. The material was divided into natural and unnatural groups. Finally, on histopathology, gross examination, hospital details, circumstantial, and police reports the cause of death was inferred. A total of 2449 autopsy was conducted of which 204 cases were due to SCD. The highest SCDs were reported in 50-60 years age group (62.24%; n-127), followed closely by the age group 60-69 (28.43%; n-58). Male to female ratio was around 10:1. The maximum number of deaths (n=78) was within few hours (6 hours) after the onset of signs and symptoms. In 24 (11.8%) cases major narrowing was noted in both the main coronaries, in 87 (42.6%) cases in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and in 18 (51.5%) cases in the right coronary artery (RCA). The major cardiac pathology resulting in sudden death was coronary artery disease (n-116; 56.86%) and myocardial infarction (n-104; 50.9%). most of the SCDs occurred in the place of residence (n-80; 39.2%) followed closely by death in hospital (n-49; 24.01%). Coronary occlusion was the major contributory cause of sudden death with cardiac origin and the highest number of deaths were reported in the age 50-59 years with male to female ratio of 10:1.

  2. Severe ionosphere disturbances caused by the sudden response of evening subequatorial ionospheres to geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    By monitoring C band beacon signals from geostationary satellites in Japan, we have observed anomalously strong ionospheric scintillations several times during three years from 1978 to 1980. These severe scinitillations occur associated with geomagnetic storms and accompany sudden and intense ionospheric perturbations in the low-latiude region. Through the analysis of these phenomena we have identified a new type of ionospheric disturbances characterized by intensifications of equatorial anomalies and successive severe ionospheric scintillations that extend to the C band range. The events occur only during a limited local time interval after the sunset, when storm time decreases of midlatitude geomagnetic fields in the same meridan take place during the same time interval. From the viewpoint of ionospheric storms, these disturbances precede the occurrence of midlatitude negative phases and storm time depressions of equatorial anomalies to indicate that the cause of the events is different from distrubed thermospheric circulations. The timing and magnitude of substorms at high-latitudes not always correlate with the events. We have concluded that the phenomena are closely related with penetrations toward low-latitudes of electric fields owing to the partial closure of asymmetrical ring currents

  3. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  4. Postmortem computed tomography for detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Retrospective review of cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyake, Yuji; Aoki, Takeshi; Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) in detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Our subjects were 15 nontraumatically deceased patients (nine boys and six girls, ranging in age from 20 days after birth to 12 years old, mean age 1.6 years), who had been in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at our hospital. PMCT was performed within 2 h after certification of death: head (15 cases), chest (11 cases), and abdomen (12 cases). Blood was collected from 11 of the patients at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An autopsy was conducted on two. PMCT did not show any traumatic changes indicating child abuse. It was difficult to presume the cause of death with PMCT alone, but the cause of death in 14 of 15 cases could be presumed by combining information from their medical history, clinical course before death, PMCT findings, laboratory data, and bacterial culture. The remaining subject was classified as cause unknown. The causes of sudden death in infants and children were detected at a high rate when we comprehensively investigated the PMCT and other examination findings. (author)

  5. Incidence and causes of sudden death in U.S. college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J; Haas, Tammy S; Murphy, Caleb J; Ahluwalia, Aneesha; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie

    2014-04-29

    The goal of this study was to reliably define the incidence and causes of sudden death in college student-athletes. The frequency with which cardiovascular-related sudden death occurs in competitive athletes importantly influences considerations for pre-participation screening strategies. We assessed databases (including autopsy reports) from both the U.S. National Registry of Sudden Death in Athletes and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (2002 to 2011). Over the 10-year study period, 182 sudden deaths occurred (age 20 ± 1.7 years; 85% male; 64% white), 52 resulting from suicide (n = 31) or drug abuse (n = 21) and 64 probably or likely attributable to cardiovascular causes (6/year). Of these 64 athletes, 47 had a confirmed post-mortem diagnosis; the most common were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 21 and congenital coronary anomalies in 8. The 4,052,369 athlete participations (in 30 sports over 10 years) incurred mortality risks as follows: suicide and drugs combined, 1.3/100,000 athlete participation-years (5 deaths/year); and documented cardiovascular disease, 1.2/100,000 athlete participation-years (4 deaths/year). Notably, cardiovascular deaths were 5-fold more common in African-American athletes than in white athletes (3.8 vs. 0.7/100,000 athlete participation-years; p death due to cardiovascular disease is relatively low, with mortality rates similar to suicide and drug abuse, but less than expected in the general population, although highest in African-American athletes. A substantial minority of confirmed cardiovascular deaths would not likely have been reliably detected by pre-participation screening with 12-lead electrocardiograms. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sudden Cardiac Death of Young Persons: Risk Factors, Causes, Morphological Equivalents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, M A; Mamedov, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article contains literature review on the problem of causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young people as well as results of author's own retrospective study of deaths of persons before 39 years based on forensic autopsies performed during 10 year period. The study of structure and dynamics of causes of death, its risk factors and the role of connective tissue dysplasia in development of terminal symptomocomlexes allowed to establish that main mechanism of SCD in young people was arrhythmogenic developing as a response to provoking factors--physical effort, psychoemotional stress, consumption of light alcoholic beverages.

  7. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cause of Sudden Cardiac Deaths on Autopsy Findings; a Four-Year Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD has been steadily increasing all over the world. While knowing the cause of SCD is one of the favorites of the physicians involved with these cases, it is very difficult and challenging task for the forensic physician. The present report is a prospective study regarding cause of SCDs on autopsy examination in four-year period, Bangalore, India. Methods: The present prospective study is based on autopsy observations, carried out for four-year period from 2008 to 2011, and analyzed for cause of SCDs. The cases were chosen as per the definition of sudden death and autopsied. The material was divided into natural and unnatural groups. Finally, on histopathology, gross examination, hospital details, circumstantial, and police reports the cause of death was inferred. Results: A total of 2449 autopsy was conducted of which 204 cases were due to SCD. The highest SCDs were reported in 50-60 years age group (62.24%; n-127, followed closely by the age group 60-69 (28.43%; n-58. Male to female ratio was around 10:1. The maximum number of deaths (n=78 was within few hours (6 hours after the onset of signs and symptoms. In 24 (11.8% cases major narrowing was noted in both the main coronaries, in 87 (42.6% cases in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD, and in 18 (51.5% cases in the right coronary artery (RCA. The major cardiac pathology resulting in sudden death was coronary artery disease (n-116; 56.86% and myocardial infarction (n-104; 50.9%. most of the SCDs occurred in the place of residence (n-80; 39.2% followed closely by death in hospital (n-49; 24.01%. Conclusion: Coronary occlusion was the major contributory cause of sudden death with cardiac origin and the highest number of deaths were reported in the age 50-59 years with male to female ratio of 10:1. 

  9. Lack of mitochondrial trifunctional protein in mice causes neonatal hypoglycemia and sudden death

    OpenAIRE

    Ibdah, Jamal A.; Paul, Hyacinth; Zhao, Yiwen; Binford, Scott; Salleng, Ken; Cline, Mark; Matern, Dietrich; Bennett, Michael J.; Rinaldo, Piero; Strauss, Arnold W.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a hetero-octamer of four α and four β subunits that catalyzes the final three steps of mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Human MTP deficiency causes Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or sudden unexpected death. We used gene targeting to generate an MTP α subunit null allele and to produce mice that lack MTP α and β subunits. The Mtpa–/– fetuses accumulate long chain fatty acid metabolites and have low birth weight compared with the...

  10. Positive and negative sudden impulses caused by fast forward and reverse interplanetary shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrioli, Vania Fatima; Savian, Jairo Francisco, E-mail: vaniafatima@gmail.com, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria - LACESM/CT - UFSM, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Centro Tecnologico, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Echer, Ezequiel, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br [National Institute for Space Research - INPE - MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE - MCT, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Fast forward interplanetary shocks (FFS) are characterized by positive jump in all interplanetary plasma parameters (solar wind speed, temperature and density) and interplanetary magnetic field. However the fast reverse interplanetary shocks (FRS) are characterized by negative jump in all mentioned parameters except solar wind speed. Observations show that FFS cause positive sudden impulses (SI) while FRS cause negative SI in the H-component of the geomagnetic field. In this work we investigate the SI caused by interplanetary shocks. We use the observed plasma parameters, upstream and downstream, to calculate the variation of dynamic pressure. We observe that the SI amplitude is larger for positive SI than for negative ones, as a consequence of the fact that FFS have larger dynamic pressure variations as compared to FRS. (author)

  11. Sudden onset odontoid fracture caused by cervical instability in hypotonic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Kitazawa, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Akiko; Maemoto, Tatsuo; Honda, Akihito

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the upper cervical spine rarely occur but carry a high rate of mortality and neurological disabilities in children. Although odontoid fractures are commonly caused by high-impact injuries, cerebral palsy children with cervical instability have a risk of developing spinal fractures even from mild trauma. We herein present the first case of an odontoid fracture in a 4-year-old boy with cerebral palsy. He exhibited prominent cervical instability due to hypotonic cerebral palsy from infancy. He suddenly developed acute respiratory failure, which subsequently required mechanical ventilation. Neuroimaging clearly revealed a type-III odontoid fracture accompanied by anterior displacement with compression of the cervical spinal cord. Bone mineral density was prominently decreased probably due to his long-term bedridden status and poor nutritional condition. We subsequently performed posterior internal fixation surgically using an onlay bone graft, resulting in a dramatic improvement in his respiratory failure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an odontoid fracture caused by cervical instability in hypotonic cerebral palsy. Since cervical instability and decreased bone mineral density are frequently associated with cerebral palsy, odontoid fractures should be cautiously examined in cases of sudden onset respiratory failure and aggravated weakness, especially in hypotonic cerebral palsy patients. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of metabolite disorder in orange trees caused by citrus sudden death disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Rosilene A; Colnago, Luiz A; Forato, Lucimara A; Carrilho, Emanuel; Bassanezi, Renato B; Wulff, Nelson A

    2009-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease of sweet orange and mandarin trees grafted on Rangpur lime and Citrus volkameriana rootstocks. It was first seen in Brazil in 1999, and has since been detected in more than four million trees. The CSD causal agent is unknown and the current hypothesis involves a virus similar to Citrus tristeza virus or a new virus named Citrus sudden death-associated virus. CSD symptoms include generalized foliar discoloration, defoliation and root death, and, in most cases, it can cause tree death. One of the unique characteristics of CSD disease is the presence of a yellow stain in the rootstock bark near the bud union. This region also undergoes profound anatomical changes. In this study, we analyse the metabolic disorder caused by CSD in the bark of sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging results show the presence of a large amount of non-functional phloem in the rootstock bark of affected plants. The spectroscopic analysis shows a high content of triacylglyceride and sucrose, which may be related to phloem blockage close to the bud union. We also propose that, without knowing the causal CSD agent, the determination of oil content in rootstock bark by low-resolution NMR can be used as a complementary method for CSD diagnosis, screening about 300 samples per hour.

  13. Primary postural instability: a cause of recurrent sudden falls in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaldetti, R; Lorberboym, M; Melamed, E

    2006-12-01

    Elderly patients with recurrent falls are frequently diagnosed with an extrapyramidal syndrome. This study aims to characterise a distinct group of patients with recurrent falls and postural instability as a hallmark of the clinical examination. The study took place in the Movement Disorders Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqva, Israel among 26 patients with recurrent falls who had no clinical evidence of a neurodegenerative disease. Medical records, neurological examination and brain imaging studies were assessed. Falls in these patients were sudden, unprovoked, with no vertigo or loss of consciousness. All had postural instability with minimal or no abnormality on the neurological examination. Brain imaging showed diffuse ischaemic changes in 65%. [(123)I]-FPCIT SPECT with the dopamine transporter ligand, performed in five patients, was normal in all. Recurrent falls might be caused by a neurological syndrome that primarily affects balance control. The importance of identifying this disorder is its distinction from other parkinsonian syndromes causing falls.

  14. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N

    1997-01-01

    Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl Co......A dehydrogenase deficiency, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. No over-representation of either homozygous or heterozygous cases was found....

  15. Congenital and hereditary causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults: diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Garg, Anubhav; Patel, Smita; Melville, David M; Kazerooni, Ella A; Mueller, Gisela C

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is defined as death from unexpected circulatory arrest-usually a result of cardiac arrhythmia-that occurs within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms. Proper and timely identification of individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death and the diagnosis of its predisposing conditions are vital. A careful history and physical examination, in addition to electrocardiography and cardiac imaging, are essential to identify conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Among young adults (18-35 years), sudden cardiac death most commonly results from a previously undiagnosed congenital or hereditary condition, such as coronary artery anomalies and inherited cardiomyopathies (eg, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC], dilated cardiomyopathy, and noncompaction cardiomyopathy). Overall, the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults are, in descending order of frequency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies with an interarterial or intramural course, and ARVC. Often, sudden cardiac death is precipitated by ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and may be prevented with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Risk stratification to determine the need for an ICD is challenging and involves imaging, particularly echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Coronary artery anomalies, a diverse group of congenital disorders with a variable manifestation, may be depicted at coronary computed tomographic angiography or MR angiography. A thorough understanding of clinical risk stratification, imaging features, and complementary diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cardiac disorders that may lead to sudden cardiac death is essential to effectively use imaging to guide diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Holst, Anders G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  17. The anomalous origin of coronary arteries causing sudden death and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiemin; Fan Lijuan; Sun Fengwei; Wu Xuesheng; Ying Yuanning; Dong Zhi; Li Xu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morbidity of anomalous coronary origin from the opposite coronary sinus, which may cause sudden death of young athletes in Chinese population. And to identify the imaging characteristics of this anomaly and its clinical significance combined with literature review. Methods: The computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) database at TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital was reviewed. All of the patients diagnosed with isolated anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus of valsalva (anomalous origin of coronary artery, AOCA) and subsequent coursing between the pulmonary artery and the aorta were collected from 14343 Chinese individuals. The location of anomalous coronary origin, the shape and course of the proximal ectopic arterial segments were identified. The nonatherosclerostic stenotic caliber of the segments and the angle between the ectopic coronary artery and the adjacent aortic wall were assessed. Results: Seventy-four patients of AOCA (including the left or right single coronary artery) were diagnosed using CTCA. Among the 74 cases, the potentially serious course of the ectopic coronary artery between the pulmonary artery and the aorta were identified in 59 individuals. Fifty-six cases of ectopic right coronary with interarterial course (anomalous origin of right coronary artery, AORCA) and three patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (AOLCA) were found, including two cases judged as potentially serious origin of either single left coronary artery (n=1) or single right coronary artery (n=1). The morbidity of the potentially serious anomalous origin of coronary artery in Chinese population was established as 4.1% (59/14343). In the subgroup of AORCA, the lumen of initial ectopic segment was frequently compressed and stenotic. In 29 cases (52.7%) the stenosis of the lumen were more than 50%, and in 3 cases (5.4%) the stenosis of the ectopic coronary artery were more than 70%. The

  18. Gas dispersal potential of bedding as a cause for sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Jun; Kanetake, Jun; Takahashi, Shirushi; Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Funayama, Masato

    2008-09-18

    We assessed the gas dispersal potential of bedding articles used by 14 infants diagnosed with sudden unexpected infant death at autopsy. Of these cases, eight exhibited FiCO(2) values greater than 10% within 2.5 min, six of which were found prone and two supine. The results demonstrated that these eight beddings had a high rebreathing potential if they covered the babies' faces. We did not, however, take into account in our model the large tissue stores of CO(2). As some bicarbonate pools will delay or suppress the increase of FiCO(2), the time-FiCO(2) graphs of this study are not true for living infants. This model, however, demonstrated the potential gas dispersal ability of bedding. The higher the FiCO(2) values, the more dangerous the situation for rebreathing infants. In addition, FiO(2) in the potential space around the model's face can be estimated mathematically using FiCO(2) values. The FiO(2) graph pattern for each bedding item corresponded roughly to the inverse of the FiCO(2) time course. The FiO(2) of the above eight cases decreased by 8.5% within 2.5 min. Recent studies using living infants placed prone to sleep reported that some babies exhibited larger decreases in FiO(2) than increases observed in FiCO(2). While the decrease of FiO(2) in our model is still theoretical, CO(2) accumulation and O(2) deprivation are closely related. If a striking O(2) deficiency occurs in a short period, babies can lose consciousness before an arousal response is evoked and all infants could be influenced by the poor gas dispersal of bedding; the main cause of sudden death in infancy would thus be asphyxia. When the bedding is soft, the potential for trapping CO(2) seems to be high; however, it is impossible to assess it by appearance alone. We sought to provide some objective indices for the assessment of respiratory compromise in relation to bedding using our model. When a baby is found unresponsive with his/her face covered with poor gas dispersal bedding, we should

  19. Sudden oak death-caused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-fir-tanoak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.S. Valachovic; C.A. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    We compared stand structure and fuel loading in northwestern California forests invaded by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to assess whether the continued presence of this pathogen alters surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in ways that may encumber future firefighting response. To attempt to account for these...

  20. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  1. Malignant Course of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery Causing Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Narayanan, Mahesh; DeZorzi, Christopher; Akinapelli, Abhilash; Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Smer, Aiman; Baskaran, Janani; Biddle, William P

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest has been reported to occur in patients with congenital anomalous coronary artery disease. About 80% of the anomalies are benign and incidental findings at the time of catheterization. We present a case of sudden cardiac arrest caused by anomalous left anterior descending artery. 61-year-old African American female was brought to the emergency department after sudden cardiac arrest. Initial EKG showed sinus rhythm with RBBB and LAFB with nonspecific ST-T wave changes. Coronary angiogram revealed no atherosclerotic disease. The left coronary artery was found to originate from the right coronary cusp. Cardiac CAT scan revealed similar findings with interarterial and intramural course. Patient received one-vessel arterial bypass graft to her anomalous coronary vessel along with a defibrillator for secondary prevention. Sudden cardiac arrest secondary to congenital anomalous coronary artery disease is characterized by insufficient coronary flow by the anomalous left coronary artery to meet elevated left ventricular (LV) myocardial demand. High risk defects include those involved with the proximal coronary artery or coursing of the anomalous artery between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Per guidelines, our patient received one vessel bypass graft to her anomalous vessel. It is important for clinicians to recognize such presentations of anomalous coronary artery.

  2. Malignant Course of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery Causing Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Anantha Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest has been reported to occur in patients with congenital anomalous coronary artery disease. About 80% of the anomalies are benign and incidental findings at the time of catheterization. We present a case of sudden cardiac arrest caused by anomalous left anterior descending artery. 61-year-old African American female was brought to the emergency department after sudden cardiac arrest. Initial EKG showed sinus rhythm with RBBB and LAFB with nonspecific ST-T wave changes. Coronary angiogram revealed no atherosclerotic disease. The left coronary artery was found to originate from the right coronary cusp. Cardiac CAT scan revealed similar findings with interarterial and intramural course. Patient received one-vessel arterial bypass graft to her anomalous coronary vessel along with a defibrillator for secondary prevention. Sudden cardiac arrest secondary to congenital anomalous coronary artery disease is characterized by insufficient coronary flow by the anomalous left coronary artery to meet elevated left ventricular (LV myocardial demand. High risk defects include those involved with the proximal coronary artery or coursing of the anomalous artery between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. Per guidelines, our patient received one vessel bypass graft to her anomalous vessel. It is important for clinicians to recognize such presentations of anomalous coronary artery.

  3. Sudden post-traumatic sciatica caused by a thoracic spinal meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariniello, Giuseppe; Malacario, Francesca; Dones, Flavia; Severino, Rocco; Ugga, Lorenzo; Russo, Camilla; Elefante, Andrea; Maiuri, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Spinal meningiomas usually present with slowly progressive symptoms of cord and root compression, while a sudden clinical onset is very rare. A 35-year-old previously symptom-free woman presented sudden right sciatica and weakness of her right leg following a fall with impact to her left foot. A neurological examination showed paresis of the right quadriceps, tibial and sural muscles, increased bilateral knee and ankle reflexes and positive Babinski sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of a spinal T11 meningioma in the left postero-lateral compartment of the spinal canal; at this level, the spinal cord was displaced to the contralateral side with the conus in the normal position. At surgery, a meningioma with dural attachment of the left postero-lateral dural surface was removed. The intervention resulted in rapid remission of both pain and neurological deficits. Spinal meningiomas may exceptionally present with sudden pain and neurological deficits as result of tumour bleeding or post-traumatic injury of the already compressed nervous structures, both in normal patients and in those with conus displacement or tethered cord. In this case, the traumatic impact of the left foot was transmitted to the spine, resulting in stretching of the already compressed cord and of the contralateral lombosacral roots. This case suggests that low thoracic cord compression should be suspected in patients with post-traumatic radicular leg pain with normal lumbar spine MRI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  5. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  6. Risk factors for suicide in offspring bereaved by sudden parental death from external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Lisa Victoria; Mehlum, Lars; Qin, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Parentally bereaved offspring have an increased suicide risk as a group, but the ability to identify specific individuals at risk on the basis of risk and protective factors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate to what degree different risk factors influence suicide risk in offspring bereaved by parental death from external causes. Based on Norwegian registers, individual-level data were retrieved for 375 parentally bereaved suicide cases and 7500 parentally bereaved gender- and age-matched living controls. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Bereaved offspring with low social support, indicated by offspring's single status and repeated changes in marital status and residence, had a significantly increased suicide risk compared to bereaved offspring with high social support. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, having an immigration background, having lost both parents and loss due to suicide significantly increased suicide risk. Several variables relevant to bereavement outcome, such as coping mechanisms and the quality of the parent-offspring relationship are impossible to examine by utilizing population registers. Moreover, the availability of data did not enable the measurement of marital stability and residence stability across the entire lifespan for older individuals. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the additional risk posed by the identified risk factors and incorporate this knowledge into existing practice and risk assessment in order to identify individuals at risk and effectively target bereaved family and friends for prevention and intervention programs. Ideal follow-up for bereaved families should include a specific focus on mobilizing social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Blow/trauma to the chest and sudden cardiac death: Commotio cordis and contusio cordis are leading causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krexi, Lydia; Sheppard, Mary N

    2018-01-01

    Background In forensic practice, a blow to the chest can lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Commotio cordis and contusio cordis are leading causes. Methods From a database of 4678 patients who suffered from SCD, we found three patients with commotio cordis and two patients with contusio cordis. All the patients were examined macroscopically and microscopically and had negative toxicology screen. Results The three patients who died due to commotio cordis were young males (16, 23 and 38 years old). The circumstances of death were: a blow to the chest by a football, by a friend during a party and during an assault. The hearts were completely normal at autopsy. The two patients who had contusio cordis were older males (42 and 63 years old). Both patients died during traffic accidents. At autopsy, one had significant contusion over the left ventricle, and the second had contusion over the right ventricle. Conclusion This study indicates that a blow to the chest is very important to document in the circumstances of death, and a detailed history is vital. It raises the left ventricular intra-cavitary pressure, leading to commotio cordis with immediate death with a normal heart. Blunt chest trauma can cause direct myocardial lesions, with acute changes leading to contusio cordis.

  8. Mitral valve prolapse: an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death-a current review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartalis, Michael; Tzatzaki, Eleni; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Athanasiou, Antonios; Moris, Demetrios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2017-12-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valve abnormality in general population. Despite the general belief of a benign disorder, several articles since the 1980s report sudden cardiac death (SCD) in MVP patients, with a substantial percentage of asymptomatic young individuals. The problem is to detect those patients at increased risk and implement methods that are suitable to prevent cardiac arrest. This review investigates the correlation between MVP and SCD, the understanding of the pathophysiology, the strategies for detecting those at risk and treatment options. A complete literature survey was performed using PubMed database search to gather available information regarding MVP and SCD. A total of 33 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. MVP is an underrated cause of arrhythmic SCD. The subset of patients with malignant MVP who may be at greater risk for SCD is characterized by young women with bileaflet MVP, biphasic or inverted T waves in the inferior leads, and frequent complex ventricular ectopic activity with documented ventricular bigeminy or ventricular tachycardia (VT) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) configurations of outflow tract alternating with fascicular origin or papillary muscle. MVP is a common condition in the general population and is often encountered in asymptomatic individuals. The existing literature continues to generate significant controversy regarding the association of MVP with ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. Early echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are essential, as is a greater understanding of the potential electrophysiological processes of primary arrhythmogenesis and the evaluation of the genetic substrate.

  9. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  10. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  11. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of rare inherited metabolic disorders are known to lead to death in infancy. Deficiency of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase has, on clinical grounds, been related particularly to sudden infant death syndrome. The contribution of this disorder to the etiology of sudden infant death...... syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...... in the general population. A highly specific polymerase chain reaction assay was applied on dried blood spots. No over-representation of homo- or heterozygosity for G985 appears to exist in such a strictly defined population, for which reason it may be more relevant to look at a broader spectrum of clinical...

  12. Evidence against barium in the mushroom Trogia venenata as a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin; Xu, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths.

  13. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by Pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H T T; Black, L L; Sikora, R A

    2003-01-01

    Tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. The plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. Occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of Pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees C). Several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. Three Trichoderma harzianum and two Trichoderma virens isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of the disease in the greenhouse and in the field T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were separately used to treat the seed, potting medium and also incorporated into the soil before transplanting. Field soil was naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum, while greenhouse soil was inoculated with the pathogen 10 days after transplanting. All treatments were flooded for 48 hrs at 32 degrees C soil temperature. Results from this study show that most tested T. harzianum and T. virens isolates have little promise for control of tomato sudden death following flooding. The percentage of tomato plants that wilted after growing in soil treated with either T. harzianum or T. virens and P. aphanidermatum was not significantly different when compared to the soil treated with P. aphanidermatum alone. No wilted plants were observed in the control (non treated soil).

  14. Adaptation of muscles of the lumbar spine to sudden imbalance in patients with lower back pain caused by military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Jian-guo; Ye, Hong; Liu, Zhi-rong; Zheng, Long-bao; Ni, Zhi-ming; Fan, Liang-quan; Wang, Jian; Hou, Zhen-hai

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of sudden load changes (expected and unexpected imbalance) on the activity of muscles of the lumbar spine and their central motor control strategy in military personnel with or without chronic low back pain (LBP). Bilateral sudden imbalance was examined (2 × 2 factorial design). The 117th PLA Hospital, Hangzhou, China Twenty-one male subjects with lower back pain and 21 male healthy control subjects were active members of the Nanjing Military Region land forces. Independent variables: LBP vs. healthy controls and imbalance anticipation (expected and unexpected imbalance). rapid reaction time (RRT) and intensity of rapid reaction (IRR) of bilateral lumbar (L3-L4) erector spinae (ES), lumbar (L5-S1) multifidus (MF), and abdominal external oblique muscles. Results Under expected or unexpected sudden imbalance conditions, subjects with LBP demonstrated significantly greater IRR than healthy controls in ipsilateral and contralateral ES and MF, respectively (P imbalance prolonged RRT of selected trunk muscles in patients with chronic LBP. The activation amplitude increased. The results may provide a theoretical basis for a study on the pathogenesis of chronic LBP.

  15. Expanding the cardiac spectrum of Noonan syndrome with RIT1 variant: Left main coronary artery atresia causing sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Francis; Duband, Sébastien; Croisille, Pierre; Cavé, Hélène; Teyssier, Georges; Adouard, Véronique; Touraine, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    Noonan syndrome is a well-known genetic condition associating congenital heart defects, short stature, and distinctive facial features. Pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are the most frequent cardiac abnormalities, the latter being associated with a higher mortality. Here we report for the first time, a case of congenital left main coronary artery atresia in a Noonan syndrome associated with RIT1 variant, leading to unrescued sudden death. This case-report supports the already-suspected severity of the RIT1-related Noonan syndrome compared to average Noonan syndrome, and should encourage clinicians to be very cautious with these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Sudden death as presenting symptom caused by cardiac primary multicentric left ventricle rhabdomyoma, in an 11-month-old baby. An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Margherita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case report describes a sudden cardiac death in an apparent healthy 11-month-old infant caused by a multifocal cardiac rhabdomyoma. Parents reported that a few days before the child had fallen to the ground getting a little superficial injury to the scalp. The authors hypothesize that it may have been a transient loss of consciousness episode caused by the cardiac tumour. After the gross examination, histological investigation supported by immunohistochemical analysis using antibody anti- Myoglobin, Actin, Vimentin, Desmin, CD34, S-100, Ki-67 was carried out for the diagnosis. Death was attributed to a multifocal cardiac rhabdomyoma, a benign tumour of striated muscle, which has been completely asymptomatic. In particular, one mass filled the entire posterior wall of the left ventricle. The insidious development of benign cardiac tumours also in infants and children is outlined, focusing on the responsible mechanisms of sudden death in such cases and providing a reference for additional study on these subjects. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7163626988365078

  17. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  18. Heart failure and sudden cardiac death in heritable thoracic aortic disease caused by pathogenic variants in the SMAD3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Julie De; Braverman, Alan C

    2018-05-01

    Predominant cardiovascular manifestations in the spectrum of Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease include by default aortic root aneurysms- and dissections, which may be associated with aortic valve disease. Mitral- and tricuspid valve prolapse are other commonly recognized features. Myocardial disease, characterized by heart failure and/or malignant arrhythmias has been reported in humans and in animal models harboring pathogenic variants in the Fibrillin1 gene. Description of clinical history of three cases from one family in Ghent (Belgium) and one family in St. Louis (US). We report on three cases from two families presenting end-stage heart failure (in two) and lethal arrhythmias associated with moderate left ventricular dilatation (in one). All three cases harbor a pathogenic variant in the SMAD3 gene, known to cause aneurysm osteoarthritis syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 3 or isolated Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease. These unusual presentations warrant awareness for myocardial disease in patients harboring pathogenic variants in genes causing Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease and indicate the need for prospective studies in larger cohorts. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Hip: Sudden-Onset Pain Caused by Torsion of the Tumor Pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Fukui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare, benign, but potentially locally aggressive disease that should be considered in younger patients who present with monoarticular joint symptoms and pathology. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman with a mass arising from her right hip joint that was examined using a multimodal radiological approach. Because her clinical presentation mimicked that of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip, surgical dislocation was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of localized pigmented villonodular synovitis, with the mass consisting of proliferation of fibrohistiocytic cells, abundant hemosiderin, foamy histiocytes, and occasional giant cells. Because of the presence of tumor necrosis, we hypothesize that torsion of the tumor pedicle was the cause of acute presentation.

  20. Structural imaging biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate

    2015-10-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of

  1. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  3. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  4. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  5. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cornea (the clear layer in front of the iris and pupil), then the lens, and then the ... sudden start of symptoms may instead be sudden recognition. For example, a person with long-standing reduced ...

  6. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  7. [Sudden death from hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundo, A; Aragona, M; Gualniera, P; Aragona, F

    1995-12-01

    The sudden death by hypoglycemia is an aspect of the forensic pathology frequently neglected. Authors initially described the pathogenesis of different hypoglycemia forms, distinguishing the primary ones due to hyperinsulinism and the secondary ones due to functional insufficiency of other organs (hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, liver); after that Authors described three cases of sudden death induced hypoglycemia by hyperinsulinism: two were unweaned with nesidioblastosis and one adolescent. In any form of hypoglycemia the central nervous system damage is present with evident neuronal degenerative-necrotic phenomena, widespread edema with microhemorrhage, swollen and dissociation of myelin sheath, glial cells hyperplasia. Death caused by primary hypoglycemia is histopathologically different from the secondary one because of the maintenance of hepatic glycogen content in the former, that increase in striated muscles, including the heart, in spite of the constant secretion of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla. Glycogen is depleted in secondary hypoglycemia. In the primary form, behind the adrenal medulla hyperfunction, the increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex is moderate, contrasting with the seriousness of the syndrome, due prevalently to inhibit the gluconeogenesis response conditioned by the persistence of stored glycogen in the liver, heart and striated muscles. The rare anoxic processes coming with resynthesis of hepatic glycogen have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The primary hypoglycemic death, especially in unweaned, is frequently promoted by other processes inducing hypoxia (fetal asphyxia outcome, pneumonia, etc.) or worsening the hypoglycemia (hypothyroidism, etc.). The secondary hypoglycemias are characterized by the normality of exocrine pancreas and by organic alterations that cause glycogen depletion from the liver.

  8. Canalopatías arritmogénicas como causa de muerte súbita en pediatría Arrhythmic canal diseases causing sudden death in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabrera Ortega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La muerte súbita cardíaca de niños con corazón estructuralmente sano está estrechamente relacionada con las canalopatías arritmogénicas. Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las canalopatías y la relación de éstas con la muerte súbita. Se analiza especialmente la aplicación del método clínico y la importancia del trazado electrocardiográfico como herramientas indispensables para el certero diagnóstico de estas entidades.Cardiac sudden death in children with a heart structurally healthy is closely related to arrhythmic canal diseases. An update review on canal diseases and its relation to the sudden death is presented. The application of clinical method is analyzed, as well as the significance of electrocardiographic recordings like essential tools for an accuracy diagnosis of these entities.

  9. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  10. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11-13, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Jones, Eric S.; Harp, Edwin L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    During the second week of September 2013, nearly continuous rainfall caused widespread landslides and flooding in the northern Colorado Front Range. The combination of landslides and flooding was responsible for eight fatalities and caused extensive damage to buildings, highways, and infrastructure. Three fatalities were attributed to a fast moving type of landslide called debris flow. One fatality occurred in Jamestown, and two occurred in the community of Pinebrook Hills immediately west of the City of Boulder. All major canyon roads in the northern Front Range were periodically closed between September 11 and 13, 2013. Some canyon closures were caused by undercutting of roads by landslides and flooding, and some were caused by debris flows and rock slides that deposited material on road surfaces. Most of the canyon roads, with the exceptions of U.S. Highway 6 (Clear Creek Canyon), State Highway 46/Jefferson Co. Rd. 70 (Golden Gate Canyon), and Sunshine Canyon in Boulder County, remained closed at the end of September 2013. A review of historical records in Colorado indicates that this type of event, with widespread landslides and flooding occurring over a very large region, in such a short period of time, is rare.

  11. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  12. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  13. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  14. Snake fungal disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in a free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lisa A; Fenton, Heather; Gonyor-McGuire, Jessica; Moore, Matthew; Yabsley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O. ophiodiicola A skin sample incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded a white-to-tan powdery fungal culture that was confirmed to be O. ophiodiicola by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Heavy infestation with adult tapeworms (Ophiotaenia faranciae) was present within the intestine. Various bacterial and fungal species, interpreted to either be secondary invaders or postmortem contaminants, were associated with oral lesions. Although the role of these other organisms in the overall health of this individual is not known, factors such as concurrent infections or immunosuppression should be considered in order to better understand the overall manifestation of snake fungal disease, which remains poorly characterized in its host range and geographic distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  16. Sport and sudden death in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Makarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.

  17. The sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Hou, Jin-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Si-Yuan

    2018-03-28

    The interaction of quantum system and its environment brings out abundant quantum phenomenons. The sudden death of quantum resources, including entanglement, quantum discord and coherence, have been studied from the perspective of quantum breaking channels (QBC). QBC of quantum resources reveal the common features of quantum resources. The definition of QBC implies the relationship between quantum resources. However, sudden death of quantum resources can also appear under some other quantum channels. We consider the dynamics of Bell-diagonal states under a stochastic dephasing noise along the z-direction, and the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord are investigated. Next we explain this phenomenon from the geometric structure of quantum discord. According to the above results, the states with sudden death and sudden birth can be filtered in three-parameter space. Then we provide two necessary conditions to judge which kind of noise channels can make Bell-diagonal states sudden death and sudden birth. Moreover, the relation between quantum discord and coherence indicates that the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord implies the sudden death and sudden birth of coherence in an optimal basis.

  18. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella Brugada, Georgia; Brugada Terradellas, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano Larrea, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, a...

  19. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  20. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  1. Sudden Oak Death - Eastern (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke; Steve Oak; Bruce Moltzan

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, Phytophthora ramorum. On these hosts, the fungus causes a bleeding canker on...

  2. Causes and consequences of range size variation: the influence of traits, speciation, and extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Vamosi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous variation in species richness observed among related clades across the tree of life has long caught the imagination of biologists. Recently, there has been growing attention paid to the possible contribution of range size variation, either alone or in combination with putative key innovations, to these patterns. Here, we review three related topics relevant to range size evolution, speciation, and extinction. First, we provide a brief overview of the debate surrounding patterns and mechanisms for phylogenetic signal in range size. Second, we discuss some recent findings regarding the joint influence of traits and range size on diversification. Finally, we present the preliminary results of a study investigating whether range size is negatively correlated with contemporary extinction risk in flowering plants.

  3. Upslope agricultural expansion caused mammal range contractions in China over the past two millennia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire) and indu......Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire...

  4. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  5. Pathogenicity and Host Range of Pathogen Causing Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Anthracnose in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Uh Seong Jeong; Ju Hee Kim; Ki Kwon Lee; Seong Soo Cheong; Wang Hyu Lee

    2013-01-01

    The strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. coccodes, C. acutatum isolated from black raspberry werepathogenic to apple and strawberry after dropping inoculation, but showed weak pathogenicity in hot-pepperand tomato. The anthracnose pathogens of C. gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, C. acutatum isolated from apple,hot-pepper and pumpkin showed pathogenicity in black raspberry. Moreover, the anthracnose pathogensisolated from apple caused disease symptoms in non-wounded inoculation.

  6. A mutation in Ihh that causes digit abnormalities alters its signalling capacity and range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; Stricker, Sigmar; Cheung, Martin; Ma, Gang; Law, Kit Fong; Witte, Florian; Briscoe, James; Mundlos, Stefan; He, Lin; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny

    2009-04-30

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) was the first recorded disorder of the autosomal dominant Mendelian trait in humans, characterized by shortened or absent middle phalanges in digits. It is associated with heterozygous missense mutations in indian hedgehog (IHH). Hedgehog proteins are important morphogens for a wide range of developmental processes. The capacity and range of signalling is thought to be regulated by its interaction with the receptor PTCH1 and antagonist HIP1. Here we show that a BDA1 mutation (E95K) in Ihh impairs the interaction of IHH with PTCH1 and HIP1. This is consistent with a recent paper showing that BDA1 mutations cluster in a calcium-binding site essential for the interaction with its receptor and cell-surface partners. Furthermore, we show that in a mouse model that recapitulates the E95K mutation, there is a change in the potency and range of signalling. The mice have digit abnormalities consistent with the human disorder.

  7. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Ali; Afzal, Ahmed J; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; Hemmati, Naghmeh; Simmonds, Daina H; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Miao; Town, Christopher D; Sharma, Hemlata; Arelli, Prakash; Lightfoot, David A

    2012-08-02

    Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.)) resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I.), or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O'Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK) GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence) within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. A BAC (B73p06) encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location) with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30-50%). In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control) as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. The inference that soybean has adapted part of an existing pathogen recognition and

  8. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srour Ali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I., or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS, was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. Results A BAC (B73p06 encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30–50%. In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. Conclusions The inference that soybean has

  9. Secondary sympatry caused by range expansion informs on the dynamics of microendemism in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Nattier

    Full Text Available Islands are bounded areas where high endemism is explained either by allopatric speciation through the fragmentation of the limited amount of space available, or by sympatric speciation and accumulation of daughter species. Most empirical evidence point out the dominant action of allopatric speciation. We evaluate this general view by looking at a case study where sympatric speciation is suspected. We analyse the mode, tempo and geography of speciation in Agnotecous, a cricket genus endemic to New Caledonia showing a generalized pattern of sympatry between species making sympatric speciation plausible. We obtained five mitochondrial and five nuclear markers (6.8 kb from 37 taxa corresponding to 17 of the 21 known extant species of Agnotecous, and including several localities per species, and we conducted phylogenetic and dating analyses. Our results suggest that the diversification of Agnotecous occurred mostly through allopatric speciation in the last 10 Myr. Highly microendemic species are the most recent ones (<2 Myr and current sympatry is due to secondary range expansion after allopatric speciation. Species distribution should then be viewed as a highly dynamic process and extreme microendemism only as a temporary situation. We discuss these results considering the influence of climatic changes combined with intricate soil diversity and mountain topography. A complex interplay between these factors could have permitted repeated speciation events and range expansion.

  10. Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P.C.; Cole, E.K.; Dobson, A.P.; Edwards, W.H.; Hamlin, K.L.; Luikart, G.; Middleton, A.D.; Scurlock, B.M.; White, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    While many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the GYE. These levels of brucellosis are comparable to some herd units where elk are artificially aggregated on supplemental feeding grounds. There are several possible mechanisms for this increase that we evaluated using statistical and population modeling approaches. Simulations of an age-structured population model suggest that the observed levels of seroprevalence are unlikely to be sustained by dispersal from supplemental feeding areas with relatively high seroprevalence or an older age structure. Increases in brucellosis seroprevalence and the total elk population size in areas with feeding grounds have not been statistically detectable. Meanwhile, the rate of seroprevalence increase outside the feeding grounds was related to the population size and density of each herd unit. Therefore, the data suggest that enhanced elk-to-elk transmission in free-ranging populations may be occurring due to larger winter elk aggregations. Elk populations inside and outside of the GYE that traditionally did not maintain brucellosis may now be at risk due to recent population increases. In particular, some neighboring populations of Montana elk were 5-9 times larger in 2007 than in the 1970s, with some aggregations comparable to the Wyoming feeding-ground populations. Addressing the unintended consequences of these increasing populations is complicated by limited hunter access to private lands, which places many ungulate populations out of administrative control. Agency-landowner hunting access

  11. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  12. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  13. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The analysis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined in literature similarly as a sudden and unexpected death of an infant occurring during sleep and, at the same time, causes of which cannot be explained based on anamnesis, circumstances of death or comprehensive post-mortem examinations. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is considered to be the most frequent cause of death among infants in the developed countries. Incidence of SIDS in the whole world ranges from about 0.1 to 6.0/1,000 live births. As much as 90% concerns deaths in the first year of life of a child, whereas 70% stands for deaths for which the cause remains unknown. In SIDS, about 90% of cases concern children under 1 year old and, in particular, at the age of between 2 and 4 months. The aim: The aim of the study was to present the most significant aspects of SIDS as well as description and analysis of risk factors for occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome based on statistical data. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the study, the secondary data analysis and desk research technique have been applied. The analysis is based on statistical data from the time period 2009-2014 released by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In 2009-2014, the highest number of deaths of infants and new-borns was reported in 2009 with the number being as high as 2,327. In the following years, the number of deaths of new-borns and infants systematically decreased. In 2010 it was 2,057 and in 2011 – 1,836, in 2012 – 1,791, in 2013 – 1,684, and in 2014 – 1,583. The highest number of deaths of boys was reported in 2009 – 1,298, while the number of deaths of girls in that year, although it was the highest in the analysed period, was lower – 1,029. Conclusions: cases of death were more frequent among boys rather than girls. The highest number of deaths was reported among infants under the age of one month and the number decreased with an increasing infants’ age. More

  15. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  16. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed

  17. Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.

  18. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulik, Gill T; Arshad, Masood; Noureen, Uzma; Northridge, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1) the spatial pattern of persistence, 2) the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3) the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  19. Habitat fragmentation and species extirpation in freshwater ecosystems; causes of range decline of the Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill T Braulik

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems is increasing rapidly, however the understanding of extinction debt and species decline in riverine habitat fragments lags behind that in other ecosystems. The mighty rivers that drain the Himalaya - the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus, Mekong and Yangtze - are amongst the world's most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems. Many hundreds of dams have been constructed, are under construction, or are planned on these rivers and large hydrological changes and losses of biodiversity have occurred and are expected to continue. This study examines the causes of range decline of the Indus dolphin, which inhabits one of the world's most modified rivers, to demonstrate how we may expect other vertebrate populations to respond as planned dams and water developments come into operation. The historical range of the Indus dolphin has been fragmented into 17 river sections by diversion dams; dolphin sighting and interview surveys show that river dolphins have been extirpated from ten river sections, they persist in 6, and are of unknown status in one section. Seven potential factors influencing the temporal and spatial pattern of decline were considered in three regression model sets. Low dry-season river discharge, due to water abstraction at irrigation barrages, was the principal factor that explained the dolphin's range decline, influencing 1 the spatial pattern of persistence, 2 the temporal pattern of subpopulation extirpation, and 3 the speed of extirpation after habitat fragmentation. Dolphins were more likely to persist in the core of the former range because water diversions are concentrated near the range periphery. Habitat fragmentation and degradation of the habitat were inextricably intertwined and in combination caused the catastrophic decline of the Indus dolphin.

  20. Damage Detection on Sudden Stiffness Reduction Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden stiffness reduction in a structure may cause the signal discontinuity in the acceleration responses close to the damage location at the damage time instant. To this end, the damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction of building structures has been actively investigated in this study. The signal discontinuity of the structural acceleration responses of an example building is extracted based on the discrete wavelet transform. It is proved that the variation of the first level detail coefficients of the wavelet transform at damage instant is linearly proportional to the magnitude of the stiffness reduction. A new damage index is proposed and implemented to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The made observations demonstrate that the proposed damage index can accurately identify the sudden damage events if the noise intensity is limited.

  1. The Spectrum of Epidemiology Underlying Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15–20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly due to inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. Over the past three decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of CHD deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to CHD and/or ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition prior to death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low risk and known high-risk populations will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  2. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases the risk of arrhythmia and SCA. Physical stress, which can cause the heart’s electrical system to stop working. In people who already have heart problems, intense physical activity or exercise can lead to SCA because the release of the hormone adrenalin acts as a trigger ...

  3. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a first symptom of infective endocarditis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, M; Prappa, E; Kokkevi, I

    2018-04-01

    Septic emboli are an unusual cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, for which few reports exist in the literature. This paper presents two cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, initially considered as idiopathic, but which were caused by septic emboli. Hearing loss in these cases was bilateral, sequential and total. The first patient had mild fever one week prior to their presentation with sudden sensorineural hearing loss; the other patient had no additional symptoms at presentation. These patients were later diagnosed with infective endocarditis, at two and seven months following the sudden sensorineural hearing loss respectively, showing that septic emboli had been the cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Septic emboli should be considered as a possible cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in cases of total hearing loss. This form of hearing loss should prompt the otolaryngologist to further investigate for infective endocarditis.

  4. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigan, M.T., E-mail: martinarrigan@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Killeen, R.P. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Dodd, J.D. [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in sudden deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Hugo Valter Lisboa; Barros, Flavia Alencar; Penido, Norma de Oliveira; Souza, Ana Claudia Valerio de; Yamaoka, Wellington Yugo; Yamashita, Helio

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of sudden deafness can remain undetermined despite extensive investigation. This study addresses the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of sudden deafness patients.Study Design: transversal cohort.Material And Method: In a prospective study, 49 patients attended at otolaryngology emergency room of Federal University of Sao Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina, from April 2001 to May 2003, were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging.Results: Magnetic Resonance abnormalities were seen in 23 (46.9%) patients and revealed two tumors suggestive of meningioma, three vestibular schwannomas, thirteen microangiopathic changes of the brain and five (21.7%) pathological conditions of the labyrinth.Conclusion: Sudden deafness should be approached as a symptom common to different diseases. The presence of cerebellopontine angle tumors in 10.2% of our cases, among other treatable causes, justifies the recommendation of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance use, not only to study the auditory peripheral pathway, but to study the whole auditory pathway including the brain. (author)

  6. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arrigan, M T

    2012-02-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  7. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrigan, M.T.; Killeen, R.P.; Dodd, J.D.; Torreggiani, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Urethritis-Associated Neisseria meningitidis Shows that a Wide Range of N. meningitidis Strains Can Cause Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin C; Unemo, Magnus; Jeverica, Samo; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis , typically a resident of the oro- or nasopharynx and the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, is capable of invading and colonizing the urogenital tract. This can result in urethritis, akin to the syndrome caused by its sister species, N. gonorrhoeae , the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. Recently, meningococcal strains associated with outbreaks of urethritis were reported to share genetic characteristics with the gonococcus, raising the question of the extent to which these strains contain features that promote adaptation to the genitourinary niche, making them gonococcus-like and distinguishing them from other N. meningitidis strains. Here, we analyzed the genomes of 39 diverse N. meningitidis isolates associated with urethritis, collected independently over a decade and across three continents. In particular, we characterized the diversity of the nitrite reductase gene ( aniA ), the factor H-binding protein gene ( fHbp ), and the capsule biosynthetic locus, all of which are loci previously suggested to be associated with urogenital colonization. We observed notable diversity, including frameshift variants, in aniA and fHbp and the presence of intact, disrupted, and absent capsule biosynthetic genes, indicating that urogenital colonization and urethritis caused by N. meningitidis are possible across a range of meningococcal genotypes. Previously identified allelic patterns in urethritis-associated N. meningitidis strains may reflect genetic diversity in the underlying meningococcal population rather than novel adaptation to the urogenital tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Cristina; Aguilera, Beatriz; Banner, Jytte

    2017-01-01

    diagnosis of the causes of SCD is now of particular importance. Pathologists are responsible for determining the precise cause and mechanism of sudden death but there is still considerable variation in the way in which they approach this increasingly complex task. The Association for European Cardiovascular...

  10. Causes for torque degradation during deceleration and the effect on the driving range of battery electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieb, Johannes [BMW PEUGEOT CITROEN ELECTRIFICATION, Muenchen (Germany); Wilde, Andreas [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Baeker, Bernard [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Vehicle Mechatronics

    2012-11-01

    The ability to regain considerable amounts of the kinetic energy during deceleration phases is a key aspect to increase the efficiency of battery electric vehicles (BEV). Especially in urban and highly congested areas brake energy recovery (BER) can drastically improve the vehicle's driving range. However, due to the high power peaks that go along even with moderate braking maneuvers, severe requirements are being put on the electric drivetrain. Any limitation of power in one of the components of the powertrain inevitably leads to degradation of the regenerative brake torque, thus limiting the car's energy regeneration capability. Without an integrated brake system that can compensate the torque variations during deceleration, BER may need to be decreased even further to prevent a loss of driving comfort due to dynamic changes in the vehicle's behavior. This paper deals with the causes of these torque restraints within the electric drivetrain and how they affect the energy consumption and therefore the electric driving range. A simulation environment was set up and verified based on an existing BEV to conduct parameter studies and depict the sensitivities towards environmental influences. The calculated efficiencies are based on standard drive cycles and incorporate continuous fading between regenerative braking and the use of friction brakes. Special attention was laid on the battery system since energy storage still poses a particular challenge in the development of electric vehicles. Also through the high mutual dependence of the various parameters of the battery enviromental influences become most evident. (orig.)

  11. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  12. Declining risk of sudden death in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Petrie, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorti......BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta...... cardioverter-defibrillator at the time of trial enrollment were excluded. Weighted multivariable regression was used to examine trends in rates of sudden death over time. Adjusted hazard ratios for sudden death in each trial group were calculated with the use of Cox regression models. The cumulative incidence...... rates of sudden death were assessed at different time points after randomization and according to the length of time between the diagnosis of heart failure and randomization. RESULTS Sudden death was reported in 3583 patients. Such patients were older and were more often male, with an ischemic cause...

  13. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  14. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  15. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  16. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  17. Investigation on cause of outage of Wide Range Monitor (WRM) in High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Transport operation toward investigation for cause of outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Taiki; Saito, Kenji; Takada, Shoji; Yoshida, Naoaki; Isozaki, Ryosuke; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, a post irradiation examination was planned to specify the damaged part causing the event in the WRM was also planned. For the investigation, the X-ray computed tomography scanner in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF). This report describes the preliminary investigation on the cause of outage of the WRM. The results of study for transportation method of the irradiated WRM from HTTR to FMF is also reported with the record to complete the transport operation. (author)

  18. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  19. Investigation on cause of outage of Wide Range Monitor (WRM) in High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) toward investigation of the cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Saito, Kenji; Takada, Shoji; Ishimi, Akihiro; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the past developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, two experimental investigations were carried out to reveal the cause of the outage by specifying the damaged part causing the event in the WRM. The one is a post irradiation examination using the X-ray computed tomography scanner in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF) to specify the damaged part in the WRM. The other is an experiment using a mock-up simulating the WRM fabricated by the fabricator. The characteristic impedance of the damaged WRM was measured by Time Domain Reflectometry, which was compared with that of the mock-up, which could narrow down the damaged part in the WRM. This report summarized the results of the PIE and the experimental investigation using the mock-up to reveal the cause of outage of WRM. (author)

  20. Sudden death amongst people practicing competitive sports (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wrzesiński

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is and unexpected cardiac arrest that may occur both during exercise and also an hour after its completion. It most often occurs in young sportsmen under 35 years of age and is usually associated with improperly performed physical activity proceeded by lack of specialized medical examination and research. Natural and cardiac causes are two basic phenomena that lead to cardiac death. As confirmed by Framingham Heart Study, conducted in the eighties of the twentieth century on the population of Americans, natural causes accounted for 13% while cardiac causes accounted for 88% off all. The statistics of the largest centers of sport medicine are presented as follows: Germany – 1 death per 200,000 people practicing sports (total while United States of America – 1 death per 80,000 people per year. The problem of of sudden deaths is and important topic worthy of a broader and more specific analysis. It should be noted that physical exertion is not is not a direct cause of sudden deaths. Currently the most research concerns professional athletes who have extensive support and knowledge about the exercise they perform. The main problem concerning subject of sudden deaths are not diagnosed hearth defects. Additional topic of interest is rarity of medical tests performed by amateur athletes and athletes at the lower levels of competition. Such athletes do not  have as extensive knowledge as their experienced idols, which may bring tragic consequences.

  1. About a cocaine-associated sudden death casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    A man 24-year-old died suddenly while he was doing shopping. It was supposed that the death was caused by ictus or by cardiac pathology. During the autopsy, some biological samples were taken (hair, urine, blood and lachrymal liquid) for the toxicological analysis and also the heart, some fragments from the liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys for the histo-pathological analysis.

  2. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  3. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  4. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  5. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  6. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...... or unknown risk factors for thrombosis as possible etiological factors for sudden infant death syndrome. It is likely that we must continuously employ the exclusion principle on possible etiological causes in genetic material from a large group of victims of sudden infant death syndrome if the phenomenon...

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  8. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Joery P; Wilbers, Joyce; Aerts, Marjolein B; Leijten, Quinten H; van Dijk, Jan G; Esselink, Rianne A; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies was seen in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia which likely explained the severe autonomic failure. We speculate that this autonomic failure caused sudden death through dysregulation of respiration or heart rhythm, reminiscent of sudden death in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Clinicians should be aware of this complication in patients presenting with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction, and that sudden death may occur in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as it does in MSA.

  9. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  10. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  11. Innovation and dedication underpin management of sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) in California and Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Phytophthoras serves as part of the proceedings from the Sixth Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium held June 21 -23, 2016 at Fort Mason Center in San Francisco, CA, USA. The symposium marked almost 16 years to the day that David Rizzo (UC Davis) and Matteo Garbelotto (UC Berkeley) identified the cause of sudden oak death to be a previously...

  12. Dynamic stability under sudden loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simitses, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of dynamic stability of elastic structures subjected to sudden (step) loads is discussed. The various criteria and related methodologies for estimating critical conditions are presented with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. These are demonstrated by employing a simple mechanical model. Several structural configurations are analyzed, for demonstration purposes, with the intention of comparing critical dynamic loads to critical static loads. These configurations include shallow arches and shallow spherical caps, two bar frames, and imperfect cylindrical shells of metallic as well as laminated composite construction. In the demonstration examples, the effect of static pre loading on the dynamic critical load is presented

  13. Current state of the problem sudden infant death at home

    OpenAIRE

    Berlay Margarita Vasilievna; Kopylov Anatoliy Vasilievich; Karpov Sergey Mikhailovich

    2017-01-01

    The “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” stands for unexpected nonviolent death of apparently healthy chest age child when there is no history or pathomorphological features which can be adequate explanations for death reasons. In Russian Federation, the death rate from this syndrome in the range of 0,06 to 2,8 per 1000 live births. In Stavropol region, average figures are equal to 0,36 per 1000 live births in the period of 2005–2014. Rates of incidence sudden infant death syndrome are similar to t...

  14. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Polymorphisms in Iron Homeostasis Genes: New Insights from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castiglione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even if various pathophysiological events have been proposed as explanations, the putative cause of sudden hearing loss remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate and to reveal associations (if any between the main iron-related gene variants and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design. Case-control study. Materials and Methods. A total of 200 sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients (median age 63.65 years; range 10–92 were compared with 400 healthy control subjects. The following genetic variants were investigated: the polymorphism c.−8CG in the promoter of the ferroportin gene (FPN1; SLC40A1, the two isoforms C1 and C2 (p.P570S of the transferrin protein (TF, the amino acidic substitutions p.H63D and p.C282Y in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE, and the polymorphism c.–582AG in the promoter of the HEPC gene, which encodes the protein hepcidin (HAMP. Results. The homozygous genotype c.−8GG of the SLC40A1 gene revealed an OR for ISSNHL risk of 4.27 (CI 95%, 2.65–6.89; P=0.001, being overrepresented among cases. Conclusions. Our study indicates that the homozygous genotype FPN1 −8GG was significantly associated with increased risk of developing sudden hearing loss. These findings suggest new research should be conducted in the field of iron homeostasis in the inner ear.

  15. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  16. Sudden death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullach, Anders Juul; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease among young adults, and several studies have reported increased mortality rates in patients with asthma. However, no study has described sudden unexpected death in a nationwide setting in patients with uncontrolled asthma. We defined uncontrolled...... in preventing sudden unexpected deaths. We therefore aimed to describe clinical characteristics, symptoms, causes of death, and contact with the healthcare system prior to sudden unexpected death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: Through the review of death certificates, we found 625 sudden...... individuals who suffered from uncontrolled asthma. This corresponds to an incidence rate of 0.32 per 100,000 person-years. The cause of death in 31 cases (63%) was sudden cardiac death, and in 13 cases (27%), it was a fatal asthma attack. Symptoms (chest pain, dyspnea, seizures, general malaise, syncope...

  17. The association between pro-arrhythmic agents and aortic stenosis in young adults: is it sufficient to clarify the sudden unexpected deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnic, Bojana; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vucinic, Jelena; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa

    2017-07-01

    Most young patients with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis show no symptoms, and sudden death appears only occasionally. We hypothesised that malignant ventricular arrhythmias could be responsible for the high incidence of sudden death in such patients. If multiple factors such as asymptomatic aortic stenosis in association with arrhythmia-provoking agents are involved, could it be sufficient to account for sudden unexpected death? In this study, eight cases of sudden death in young adults, with ages ranging from 22 to 36 years, who had never reported any symptoms that could be related to aortic stenosis, were investigated. Full autopsies were performed, and congenital aortic stenosis in all eight cases was confirmed. DNA testing for channelopathies was negative. Comprehensive toxicological analyses found an electrolyte imbalance, or non-toxic concentrations of amitriptyline, terfenadine, caffeine, and ethanol. Collectively, these results suggest that congenital asymptomatic aortic stenosis without cardiac hypertrophy in young adults is not sufficient to cause sudden death merely on its own; rather, an additional provoking factor is necessary. According to our findings, the provoking factor may be a state of physical or emotional stress, a state of electrolyte imbalance, or even taking a therapeutic dose of a particular drug.

  18. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)

  19. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43.93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont

  20. The sudden success of prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a new model for understanding the sudden success of prose in four literatures: Greek, Latin, French and Old Norse. Through comparison and quantitative observations, and by focusing on the success of prose rather than its invention, it is shown that in all four cases two...... reading aloud) has been underplayed in previous scholarship mostly focused on authorial choices and invention. For two of the literatures (Greek, French) the fast dynamics of the rise of prose has already been identified and discussed, but for the two others (Latin, Old Norse), the observation is new....... It is also suggested that the exactly contemporary rise of French and Old Norse prose (c. 1200-1230) most probably is connected. The four literatures are each shown in chronological charts so as to visualize the timeline and the relation between poetic and prosaic works. The article furthermore reflects...

  1. Sickle cell trait and sudden death--bringing it home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    Sickle cell trait continues to be the leading cause of sudden death for young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. The syndrome may have caused the death of up to 10 college football players since 1974 and, as recently as 2000, was suspected as the cause of death of three U.S. Army recruits. The penal military-style boot camps in the United States and the recent death of two teenagers with sickle cell trait merits renewed vigor in the education of athletic instructors, the military and the public about conditions associated with sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17393956

  2. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  3. DCLRE1C (ARTEMIS) mutations causing phenotypes ranging from atypical severe combined immunodeficiency to mere antibody deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Timo; Pannicke, Ulrich; Reisli, Ismail; Bulashevska, Alla; Ritter, Julia; Björkman, Andrea; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Fliegauf, Manfred; Sayar, Esra H; Salzer, Ulrich; Fisch, Paul; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Di Virgilio, Michela; Cao, Hongzhi; Yang, Fang; Zimmermann, Karin; Keles, Sevgi; Caliskaner, Zafer; Güner, S Ükrü; Schindler, Detlev; Hammarström, Lennart; Rizzi, Marta; Hummel, Michael; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Schwarz, Klaus; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2015-12-20

    Null mutations in genes involved in V(D)J recombination cause a block in B- and T-cell development, clinically presenting as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Hypomorphic mutations in the non-homologous end-joining gene DCLRE1C (encoding ARTEMIS) have been described to cause atypical SCID, Omenn syndrome, Hyper IgM syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease-all with severely impaired T-cell immunity. By whole-exome sequencing, we investigated the molecular defect in a consanguineous family with three children clinically diagnosed with antibody deficiency. We identified perfectly segregating homozygous variants in DCLRE1C in three index patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections, very low B-cell numbers and serum IgA levels. In patients, decreased colony survival after irradiation, impaired proliferative response and reduced counts of naïve T cells were observed in addition to a restricted T-cell receptor repertoire, increased palindromic nucleotides in the complementarity determining regions 3 and long stretches of microhomology at switch junctions. Defective V(D)J recombination was complemented by wild-type ARTEMIS protein in vitro. Subsequently, homozygous or compound heterozygous DCLRE1C mutations were identified in nine patients from the same geographic region. We demonstrate that DCLRE1C mutations can cause a phenotype presenting as only antibody deficiency. This novel association broadens the clinical spectrum associated with ARTEMIS mutations. Clinicians should consider the possibility that an immunodeficiency with a clinically mild initial presentation could be a combined immunodeficiency, so as to provide appropriate care for affected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Among Patients With Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumlele, Kyra; Friedman, Daniel; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Donner, Elizabeth J; Louik, Jay; Devinsky, Orrin

    2017-06-01

    Children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) have traditionally been considered to have a uniformly good prognosis. However, benign may be a misnomer because BECTS is linked to cognitive deficits, a more severe phenotype with intractable seizures, and the potential for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To determine if cases of BECTS are present in the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR). The NASR is a clinical and biospecimen repository established in 2011 to promote SUDEP research. The NASR database, which includes medical records, results of electroencephalographic tests, and interviews with family members of patients with epilepsy who died suddenly without other identifiable causes of death, was queried from June 3, 2011, to June 3, 2016, for cases of BECTS. The patients with epilepsy had died suddenly without other identifiable causes of death (eg, drowning, trauma, exposure to toxic substances, or suicide); SUDEP classification was determined by the consensus of 2 epileptologists. Cases of SUDEP among children who received a diagnosis of BECTS among patients reported in the NASR. Three boys (median age at death, 12 years; range, 9-13 years) who received a diagnosis of BECTS by their pediatric epileptologist or neurologists were identified among 189 cases reported in the NASR. The median age of epilepsy onset was 5 years (range, 3-11 years), and the median duration of epilepsy was 4 years (range, 1-10 years). Two deaths were definite SUDEP, and 1 was probable SUDEP. Independent review of clinical and electroencephalographic data supported the diagnosis of BECTS in all 3 patients. None of the patients was prescribed antiseizure drugs, either owing to physician recommendation or mutual decision by the physician and parents. All 3 patients were found dead in circumstances typical of SUDEP. The 3 patients spanned the spectrum of BECTS severity: 1 had only a few seizures, 1 had more than 30 focal motor seizures, and 1 had 4 witnessed

  5. The use of coroner's autopsy reports to validate the use of targeted swabbing rather than tissue collection for rapid confirmation of virological causes of sudden death in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Jones, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In this study, coroner's autopsy reports were used to validate results obtained from respiratory virus screening of swabs rather than tissue collected during autopsy in cases of adult death of unknown cause. Coroner's autopsy samples collected for respiratory virus screening between October 2010 and February 2011, were identified. Autopsy reports were requested from cases positive for a virus. Each report was reviewed to correlate findings at autopsy with the virology result and to determine whether the virus found was listed as a contributing factor in the death. Sixty-four coroner's autopsy cases were identified and a respiratory virus was found in 25 cases. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was found most frequently, then RSV and influenza B with a dual influenza A and B infection and a parainfluenza type 1. Where multiple sites were swabbed, the virus was detected in all sites. Autopsy reports for 12 cases were obtained each reporting findings consistent with respiratory infection. Influenza A was always listed as a contributing factor in the death whereas RSV was listed once and influenza B was omitted in one case. The quality of the reports was variable and full histology was less likely to be performed in the elderly. While coroner's reports supported the use of swabbing rather than tissue collection, the lack of consistency and omission of the virology findings as contributing factors to death means that the burden of viruses on mortality statistics will remain under-estimated particularly in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  7. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dysplastic changes in musculo-valve structures of the heart, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death. The diagnostic criteria for sudden cardiac death, the events of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, prevention of life-threatening conditions in children are provided.

  8. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  9. Genetic testing to predict sudden cardiac death: current perspectives and future goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia G. Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that monogenic traits may predispose young and otherwise healthy individuals to die suddenly. Diseases such as Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy are well known causes of arrhythmic death in young individuals. For several years the concept of “genetic predisposition” to sudden cardiac death has been limited to these uncommon diseases. In the last few years clinical data have supported the view that risk of dying suddenly may cluster in families, supporting the hypothesis of a genetic component for sudden cardiac death. In this review I will try to provide an overview of current knowledge about genetics of sudden death. I will approach this topic by discussing first where we stand in the use of genetics for risk stratification and therapy selection in monogenic diseases and I will then move to discuss the contribution of genetics to patient profiling in acquired cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  11. The role of pioneers as indicators of biogeographic range expansion caused by global change in southern African coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; James, Nicola C.; Lamberth, Stephen J.; Adams, Janine B.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rajkaran, Anusha; Bornman, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    The South African coastline is just over 3000 km in length yet it covers three major biogeographic regions, namely subtropical, warm temperate and cool temperate. In this review we examine published information to assess the possible role of climate change in driving distributional changes of a wide variety of organisms around the subcontinent. In particular we focus on harmful algal blooms, seaweeds, eelgrass, mangroves, salt marsh plants, foraminiferans, stromatolites, corals, squid, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fish, birds, crocodiles and hippopotamus, but also refer to biota such as pathogens, coralline algae, jellyfish and otters. The role of pioneers or propagules as indicators of an incipient range expansion are discussed, with mangroves, zoobenthos, fishes and birds providing the best examples of actual and imminent distributional changes. The contraction of the warm temperate biogeographic region, arising from the intrusion of cool upwelled waters along the Western Cape shores, and increasingly warm Agulhas Current waters penetrating along the eastern parts of the subcontinent, are highlighted. The above features provide an ideal setting for the monitoring of biotic drivers and responses to global climate change over different spatial and temporal scales, and have direct relevance to similar studies being conducted elsewhere in the world. We conclude that, although this review focuses mainly on the impact of global climate change on South African coastal biodiversity, other anthropogenic drivers of change such as introduced alien invasive species may act synergistically with climate change, thereby compounding both short and long-term changes in the distribution and abundance of indigenous species.

  12. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Dundar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate (OP exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved. OP's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss. Keywords: Organophosphates, Hearing loss, Sudden

  13. Haloperidol and sudden cardiac death in dementia: autopsy findings in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Grudnikoff, Eugene; Koppel, Jeremy; Kremen, Neil; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with haloperidol has been shown, in studies using death certificates and prescription files, to be associated with an excess of sudden cardiac deaths, and regulatory warnings highlight this risk in patients with dementia. We used autopsy findings to determine whether the rate of sudden cardiac death is greater in cases of unexpected deaths of patients with dementia treated with haloperidol. From 1989 through 2013, 1219 patients with a primary diagnosis of dementia with behavioral disturbance were admitted to a psychiatric hospital, and 65 (5.3%) died suddenly. Sixty-five patients (5.3%) died unexpectedly. Complete post-mortem examinations after the sudden death were performed in 55 (84.6%) patients. Twenty-seven of the autopsied cases (49.1%) had been treated with haloperidol orally (2.2 mg ± 2.1 mg/day), the only antipsychotic used in this cohort. Univariable comparisons and multivariable regression analyses compared the groups of patients with or without sudden cardiac death. The leading causes of death were sudden cardiac death (32.7%), myocardial infarction (25.5% of patients), pneumonia (23.6%), and stroke (10.9%). Patients with sudden cardiac death and those with anatomically established cause of death were similar regarding the use of haloperidol (p = 0.5). Sudden cardiac death patients were more likely to suffer from Alzheimer's dementia (p = 0.027) and to have a past history of heart disease (p = 0.0094), and less likely to have been treated with a mood stabilizer (p = 0.024), but none of these variables were independent predictors of sudden cardiac death. Autopsy data suggest that oral haloperidol is not associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in psychiatric inpatients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2017-01-29

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  15. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Causes of sudden natural death: A medicolegal (coroner's) autopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SNDs) that occurred in medical cases in an African referral centre. Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2011. Subjects: Autopsy reports of 626 cases that ...

  17. Genetic mutation in Korean patients of sudden cardiac arrest as a surrogating marker of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoung Kyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Seung-Jung; Huh, June; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2013-07-01

    Mutation or common intronic variants in cardiac ion channel genes have been suggested to be associated with sudden cardiac death caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. This study aimed to find mutations in cardiac ion channel genes of Korean sudden cardiac arrest patients with structurally normal heart and to verify association between common genetic variation in cardiac ion channel and sudden cardiac arrest by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. Study participants were Korean survivors of sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. All coding exons of the SCN5A, KCNQ1, and KCNH2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fifteen survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were included. Three male patients had mutations in SCN5A gene and none in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes. Intronic variant (rs2283222) in KCNQ1 gene showed significant association with sudden cardiac arrest (OR 4.05). Four male sudden cardiac arrest survivors had intronic variant (rs11720524) in SCN5A gene. None of female survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had SCN5A gene mutations despite similar frequencies of intronic variants between males and females in 55 normal controls. Common intronic variant in KCNQ1 gene is associated with sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans.

  18. [Three good reasons to perform a postmortem examination in all cases of juvenile sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amati, Giulia; di Gioia, Cira R T; Silenzi, Paola F; Gallo, Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to underline the reasons why a post-mortem examination has to be performed in all cases of juvenile sudden death. Sudden death in children and young adults can be caused by potentially heritable cardiovascular disorders and fatal outcome is often the first symptom in apparently healthy subjects. In these cases, a careful autopsy, performed according to a standardized protocol, becomes the sole diagnostic tool to guide clinical and molecular genetic family screening and to adopt the proper therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thus, a post-mortem examination is a fundamental part of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of juvenile sudden death.

  19. Sudden death in the first 2 years of life following immunization in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Kim, Jong-Hee; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Duk-hyoung

    2012-12-01

    Because the peak age for incidence of sudden deaths in infancy temporally coincides with the age of infant primary immunization, some have raised the question as to whether immunization is a risk factor for sudden death in infancy. Recent occurrence of two sudden deaths in infants in Korea has renewed concerns about the causal association between immunization and sudden deaths in infants. We carried out a retrospective review of data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System and Vaccine Compensation programs. From 1994 to 2011, a total of 45 cases of sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization were reported in Korea. The causes of death were classified as follows: infectious diseases (n= 13); accidental injuries (n= 7); congenital abnormalities (n= 2); and malignancy (n= 1). Of 20 sudden deaths in infancy, nine deaths met Brighton Collaboration case definition level I and II, and therefore were classified as possible sudden infant death syndrome cases. Hepatitis B vaccine (n= 13) was the most frequent vaccine with temporal association with sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life. Few sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization have been reported, despite the use of universal immunization in Korea. The majority of deaths in infancy did not meet case definition for sudden infant death syndrome. Encouraging investigators to perform thorough investigation, including postmortem autopsy and death scene examination, may promote data comparability and provide guidance on decision-making in the vaccine-safety monitoring and response system in Korea. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...... in Denmark, we were also able to investigate prior disease and symptoms. During the 7-year study period there was an average of 1.11 million persons aged 1-18 years. There were a total of 1504 deaths (214 deaths per year) from 7.78 million person-years. A total of 114 (7.5%) were sudden and unexpected...

  1. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIMH NIMHD NINDS NINR NLM CC CIT CSR FIC NCATS NCCIH OD About NIH Who We ... with sudden deafness should discuss the risks and benefits of both treatments with their doctor.” Related Links ...

  2. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal reaction following sudden inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine L; Hart, Joseph M; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Cross, Kevin M; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2007-11-01

    If ankle joint cryotherapy impairs the ability of the ankle musculature to counteract potentially injurious forces, the ankle is left vulnerable to injury. To compare peroneal reaction to sudden inversion following ankle joint cryotherapy. Repeated measures design with independent variables, treatment (cryotherapy and control), and time (baseline, immediately post treatment, 15 minutes post treatment, and 30 minutes post treatment). University research laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers. An ice bag was secured to the lateral ankle joint for 20 minutes. The onset and average root mean square amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles was calculated following the release of a trap door mechanism causing inversion. There was no statistically significant change from baseline for peroneal reaction time or average peroneal muscle activity at any post treatment time. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal muscle reaction following sudden inversion perturbation.

  3. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths linked with trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Broi, Ugo; Colatutto, Antonio; Sala, Pierguido; Desinan, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Sudden deaths attributed to sniffing trichloroethylene are caused by the abuse of this solvent which produces pleasant inebriating effects with rapid dissipation. In the event of repeated cycles of inhalation, a dangerous and uncontrolled systemic accumulation of trichloroethylene may occur, followed by central nervous system depression, coma and lethal cardiorespiratory arrest. Sometimes death occurs outside the hospital environment, without medical intervention or witnesses and without specific necroscopic signs. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths associated with trichloroethylene demand careful analysis of the death scene and related circumstances, a detailed understanding of the deceased's medical history and background of substance abuse and an accurate evaluation of all autopsy and laboratory data, with close cooperation between the judiciary, coroners and toxicologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  5. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun, Dass; Neha, Goel; Surinder K, Singhal; Ravi, Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, se...

  6. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisatio...

  7. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisat...

  8. Homozygosity for a severe novel medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutation IVS3-1G > C that leads to introduction of a premature termination codon by complete missplicing of the MCAD mRNA and is associated with phenotypic diversity ranging from sudden neonatal death to asymptomatic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, Stanley H; Gutman, Alisa; Brooks, Rivka

    2004-01-01

    Virtually all patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) are homozygous or compound heterozygous for the 985A > G mutation, which limits the study of a possible genotype/phenotype correlation. A newborn Palestinian infant died suddenly on the second day of life. A previo...

  9. Sudden death of a child due to respiratory diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Behera, Chittaranjan; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Kundu, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    A four-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress. Death occurred despite attempted resuscitation. The illness was not clinically diagnosed. Her father revealed that she had a fever and sore throat for the last four days and was not immunised for diphtheria. Characteristic gross and microscopic pathology of respiratory diphtheria and microbiological findings were observed. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure consequent upon upper airway obstruction from diphtheria. Forensic pathologists should remember that the diphtheria cases can cause sudden death especially in developing countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Primary Relatives of Sudden Cardiac Death Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension as risk factors in relatives of sudden death victims. The sample for both studies will be the same. 5 Chapter II The...provided most of the research information on SCD. Pathology of Sudden Cardiac Death There appear to be several different pathologic scenarios which render a...had severe two or three vessel disease. By comparison, 100 age matched controls who died of other causes, had a combined 27% incidence of two and

  11. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelin...

  12. Incidence and other epidemiological characteristics of sudden cardiac death in northwest Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudevenos, J A; Papadimitriou, E D; Papathanasiou, A; Makis, A C; Pappas, K; Sideris, D A

    1995-03-24

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) has not been investigated separately in Greece. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of people dying suddenly out of hospital in an area of Greece. In 1990, a population based study was started to detect the cases of people dying suddenly out of hospital (Greece (Ioannina area: 160,000 inhabitants). During a 3.5 year period, 283 potential cases aged 30-70 years were identified by monitoring the mortality in the emergency rooms of the two hospitals of the area, the coroner's office and the death certificates from the Government Department of Statistics. The diagnosis of SCD was established in 223 (183 men, 40 women; mean ages 59 and 61 years respectively) after visiting and interviewing the relatives and/or the family doctors within 12 days (range 1-28) after the death. SCD in the study accounts for 50% of all cardiovascular deaths and is the most common cause of death after neoplasia. The most common place of death was home (151 cases, 68%), and in 174 cases (78%) deaths occurred while the patients were relaxing or during routine activities. Prodromal symptoms were reported in 57 cases (26%). The time of day of death showed a circadian variation, with a peak in the late morning from 9:00 to 12:00. Ninety four (42%) had a prior history of heart disease. One hundred and ninety one cases (86%) occurred in the subgroup of age 50-70 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle, hypothalamus, and heart: a dangerous link for sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turillazzi Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloid cysts are rare congenital, intracranial neoplasms, commonly located in the third ventricle. Colloid cysts are endodermal congenital malformations. The cysts commonly range in size from 1–2 cm in diameter, although large cysts >3 cm in size have been reported. The components of the cyst include an outer fibrous capsule over an inner epithelium. The epithelium is usually a single layer of mucin-producing or ciliated cells. Such cysts contain mucoid and gelatinous material, which is positive for both Periodic acid Schiff (PAS and mucicarmen staining. Although colloid cysts usually represent histopathologically benign neoplasms, they can result in sudden, unexpected and potentially lethal complications. The mechanism(s of death is still a controversial subject and several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the sudden onset of severe symptoms and of fatal rapid deterioration in patients with colloid cysts. In this case, macroscopic and histological findings addressed the diagnosis of colloid cyst of the third ventricle with diffuse myocardial injury (coagulative myocytolysis or contraction band necrosis, CBN and led us to conclude that acute cardiac arrest due to hypothalamus stimulation in the context of colloid cyst of the third ventricle was the cause of death. As the hypothalamic structures which are involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic regulation playing a key role in cardiovascular control are located close to the walls of the third ventricle which is the most frequent anatomical site of colloid cyst, this may suggest that reflex cardiac effects due to the compression of the hypothalamic cardiovascular regulatory centers by the cyst explain the sudden death in patients harboring a colloid cyst when signs of hydrocephalus or brain herniation are lacking. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915842848034158

  14. Sudden aortic death-proposal for a comprehensive diagnostic approach in forensic and in clinical pathology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hans H.; Dedouit, Fabrice; Chappex, Nina; van der Wal, Allard C.; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease

  15. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Mehboob

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it’s link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  16. Next generation sequencing for molecular confirmation of hereditary sudden cardiac death syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manlio F; Cruz-Robles, David; Ines-Real, Selene; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary sudden cardiac death syndromes comprise a wide range of diseases resulting from alteration in cardiac ion channels. Genes involved in these syndromes represent diverse mutations that cause the altered encoding of the diverse proteins constituting these channels, thus affecting directly the currents of the corresponding ions. In the present article we will briefly review how to arrive to a clinical diagnosis and we will present the results of molecular genetic studies made in Mexican subjects attending the SCD Syndromes Clinic of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on a Sudden Explosion and its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maosheng; Ma, Hui; Ni, Qingwei

    2017-12-01

    A sudden blast was chosen as the studied topic. Also, one computer based virtual experimentation was used to estimate the dimensional impact of initial pollutant plume from blasts. Self-made method using Mathcad code was used to generate the output for the period of the first tenth of a second (1deci-second) to 1minute (60s) of the blast at the point source. It also depicted long-range air pollution travel within the first 1 to 10 minutes. In the case study, it assumed an average directional diffusivity of 1720 m2s-1 which is about 25 per cent of the average generated speed of common explosives. The newly developed model revealed a plume cloud impact of 6.8×107µgm-3 in the first 1millisecond (0.01s) which decayed suddenly to a value of 1.7×107µgm-3 in the first 1decisecond (0.1s). The impact concentration at the point source by the end of the first second (1.0s) was 3.2×105µgm-3 which implied a 99.5% sudden decay when compared to 0.01s concentration value at the emission point source. Computerized experiments observed that air pollutants release from explosives/blasts were dispersed into the atmosphere in the first few seconds by forceful injection instead of by gradual dispersion as is the case with normal air pollutants plume releases.

  18. Recent advances in understanding and prevention of sudden cardiac death [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Vandenberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, it remains the number one cause of death. About half of heart-related deaths occur suddenly, and in about half of these cases the person was unaware that they had underlying heart disease. Genetic heart disease accounts for only approximately 2% of sudden cardiac deaths, but as it typically occurs in younger people it has been a particular focus of activity in our quest to not only understand the underlying mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmogenesis but also develop better strategies for earlier detection and prevention. In this brief review, we will highlight trends in the recent literature focused on sudden cardiac death in genetic heart diseases and how these studies are contributing to a broader understanding of sudden death in the community.

  19. Sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Scott D; Zelenkofske, Steve; McMurray, John J V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden death from cardiac causes is increased among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular systolic function. We assessed the risk and time course of sudden death in high-risk patients after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We studied 14......,609 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction to assess the incidence and timing of sudden unexpected death or cardiac arrest with resuscitation in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Of 14,609 patients, 1067 (7 percent) had an event...... percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.18 percent) after 2 years. Patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30 percent or less were at highest risk in this early period (rate, 2.3 percent per month; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 2.8 percent). Nineteen percent of all sudden deaths...

  20. Relationship between sudden natural death and abdominal fat evaluated on postmortem CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaichi, Y; Sakane, H; Higashibori, H; Honda, Y; Tatsugami, F; Baba, Y; Iida, M; Awai, K

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the association between sudden natural death and abdominal fat using postmortem computed tomography (CT) scans. Postmortem CT images at the umbilical level of 241 subjects were used to measure abdominal areas of subcutaneous- and visceral fat, the rate of visceral fat and the waist circumference. Of the study subjects, 174 died of sudden natural death (130 men and 44 women), and 67 died of different causes (46 men and 21 women). All were between 40 and 75 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent abdominal parameters associated with sudden natural death. By univariate analysis, the areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat were significantly larger in sudden natural death than who died of different causes (subcutaneous fat, odds ratio [OR] = 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.000-1.007, p  = 0.03; visceral fat, OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.003-1.013, p  fat was an independent factor associated with the risk of sudden natural death (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.002-1.015, p  = 0.02). Postmortem CT revealed that sudden natural death was related to abdominal fat deposits.

  1. An emergent disease causes directional changes in forest species composition in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Metz; Kerri Frangioso; Allison Wickland; Ross Meentemeyer; David Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Non-native forest pathogens can cause dramatic and long-lasting changes to the composition of forests, and these changes may have cascading impacts on community interactions and ecosystem functioning. Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of the emergent forest disease sudden oak death (SOD), has a wide host range, but mortality is concentrated in...

  2. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  3. Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Patients with Epilepsy: Experience of Tertiary Referral Hospital in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kei; Ochi, Satoko; Enatsu, Rei; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shuji; Tanno, Katsuhiko; Narimatsu, Eichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Usui, Keiko; Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2016-05-15

    It has been reported that epilepsy patients had higher risk of sudden death than that of the general population. However, in Japan, there is very little literature on the observational research conducted on sudden fatal events in epilepsy. We performed a single-center, retrospective study on all the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated in our emergency department between 2007 and 2013. Among the OHCA patients, we extracted those with a history of epilepsy and then analyzed the characteristics of the fatal events and the background of epilepsy. From 1,823 OHCA patients, a total of 10 cases were enrolled in our study. The median age was 34 years at the time of the incident [9-52 years; interquartile range (IQR), 24-45]. We determined that half of our cases resulted from external causes of death such as drowning and suffocation and the other half were classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In addition, asphyxia was implicated as the cause in eight cases. Only the two near-drowning patients were immediately resuscitated, but the remaining eight patients died. The median age of first onset of epilepsy was 12 years (0.5-30; IQR, 3-21), and the median disease duration was 25 years (4-38; IQR, 6-32). Patients with active epilepsy accounted for half of our series and they were undergoing poly anti-epileptic drug therapy. The fatal events related to epilepsy tended to occur in the younger adult by external causes. An appropriate therapeutic intervention and a thorough observation were needed for its prevention.

  4. Evidence of the dynamic response of housing values to a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the non-indigenous forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causes substantial mortality in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Quasi-experimental hedonic models examine the effect of SOD on property...

  5. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  6. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  7. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  8. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  9. First report of a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type 11 causing sepsis in a free-ranging beaver (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Paola; Vogt, Debora; Origgi, Francesco C; Endimiani, Andrea; Peterson, Susanne; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae of sequence type (ST) 11 is a hyper-epidemic nosocomial clone spreading worldwide among humans and also emerging in pets. In this report, we describe a clinical case of fatal sepsis due to this multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen in a Eurasian beaver. The isolate showed resistance to six different classes of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. This is the first report describing the detection of a MDR K. pneumoniae ST11 in a free-ranging animal. Our finding highlights the potential for environmental dissemination of hyper-epidemic clones of K. pneumoniae and possible spread in wildlife and cause epizootics. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk and Causes of Death in Patients After Alcohol Septal Ablation for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Josef; Zemánek, David; Jahnlová, Denisa; Krejčí, Jan; Januška, Jaroslav; Dabrowski, Maciej; Bartel, Thomas; Tomašov, Pavol

    2015-10-01

    Because the final myocardial scar might be theoretically associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, the long-term clinical course of patients who undergo alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is still a matter of debate. In this retrospective multicentre study, we report outcomes after ASA, including survival, analysis of causes of deaths, and association between time and cause of death. We enrolled 366 consecutive patients (58 ± 12 years, 54% women) who were treated using ASA and followed-up for 5.1 ± 4.5 years. The in-hospital and 30-day mortality were 0.5% and 0.8%, respectively; the ASA-related morbidity was cause mortality rate was 2.8% per year. The mortality rates of sudden death and sudden death with an appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) discharge were 0.4% and 1% per year, respectively. Patients with sudden death or appropriate ICD discharge experienced these mortality events at younger age than patients who died of other hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy-related causes (60.8 years [range, 52-71.5 years] vs 72.4 years [range, 64.2-75.2 years]; P = 0.048). A total of 292 patients (80%) had an outflow gradient ≤ 30 mm Hg, and 327 patients (89%) were in New York Heart Association class ≤ II at the last clinical check-up. ASA had low procedure-related mortality, with subsequent 1% occurrence of sudden mortality events per year and 2.8% mortality rate per year in the long-term follow-up. Patients with sudden death or ICD discharge experienced the mortality events approximately 1 decade earlier than patients who died from other causes not related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  12. Sarcomeric gene mutations in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Maria; Allegue, Catarina; Santori, Montserrat; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Poster, Simone; Madea, Burkhard; Campuzano, Oscar; Brugada, Ramon; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-06-10

    In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) represents the most prevalent cause of death in children between 1 month and 1 year of age. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, a negative autopsy which requires the absence of structural organ disease. Although investigators have confirmed that a significant percentage of SIDS cases are actually channelopathies, no data have been made available as to whether other sudden cardiac death-associated diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), could be responsible for some cases of SIDS. The presence of a genetic mutation in the sarcomeric protein usually affects the force of contraction of the myocyte, whose weakness is compensated with progressive hypertrophy and disarray. However, it is unclear whether in the most incipient forms, that is, first years of life, the lack of these phenotypes still confers a risk of arrhythmogenesis. The main goal of the present study is to wonder whether genetic defects in the sarcomeric proteins, previously associated with HCM, could be responsible for SIDS. We have analysed 286 SIDS cases for the most common genes implicated in HCM in adults. A total of 680 mutations localised in 16 genes were analysed by semi-automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF-MS) using the Sequenom MassARRAY(®) System. Ten subjects with completely normal hearts showed mutated alleles at nine of the genetic variants analysed, and one additional novel mutation was detected by conventional sequencing. Therefore, a genetic mutation associated with HCM may cause sudden cardiac death in the absence of an identifiable phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Sudden visual loss after cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vitis, Luigi A; Marchese, Alessandro; Giuffrè, Chiara; Carnevali, Adriano; Querques, Lea; Tomasso, Livia; Baldin, Giovanni; Maestranzi, Gisella; Lattanzio, Rosangela; Querques, Giuseppe; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-03-10

    To report a case of sudden decrease in visual acuity possibly due to a cardiogenic embolism in a patient who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. A 62-year-old man with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a left bundle branch block was referred to our department because of a sudden decrease in visual acuity. Nine days earlier, he had undergone cardiac transapical implantation of a CRT device, which was followed, 2 days later, by an inflammatory reaction. The patient underwent several general and ophthalmologic examinations, including multimodal imaging. At presentation, right eye (RE) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers and RE pupil was hyporeactive. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhagic dots suggestive of Roth spots. Fluorescein angiography showed delay in vascular perfusion during early stage, late hyperfluorescence of the macula and optic disk, and peripheral perivascular leakage. The first visual field test showed complete loss of vision RE and a normal left eye. Due to suspected giant cell arteritis, temporal artery biopsy was performed. Thirty minutes after the procedure, an ischemic stroke with right hemisyndrome and aphasia occurred. The RE BCVA worsened to hands motion. Four months later, RE BCVA did not improve, despite improvement in fluorescein angiography inflammatory sign. We report a possible cardiogenic embolism secondary to undiagnosed infective endocarditis causing monocular visual loss after CRT device implantation. It remains unclear how the embolus caused severe functional damage without altering the retinal anatomical structure.

  15. Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death in US Competitive Athletes: A 2-Year Prospective Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Danielle F; Siebert, David M; Kucera, Kristen L; Thomas, Leah Cox; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Lopez-Anderson, Martha; Suchsland, Monica Z; Harmon, Kimberly G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2018-04-09

    To determine the etiology of sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) in competitive athletes through a prospective national surveillance program. Sudden cardiac arrest and death cases in middle school, high school, college, and professional athletes were identified from July 2014 to June 2016 through traditional and social media searches, reporting to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research, communication with state and national high school associations, review of the Parent Heart Watch database, and search of student-athlete deaths on the NCAA Resolutions List. Autopsy reports and medical records were reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel to determine the underlying cause. US competitive athletes with SCA/D. Etiology of SCA/D. A total of 179 cases of SCA/D were identified (74 arrests with survival, 105 deaths): average age 16.6 years (range 11-29), 149 (83.2%) men, 94 (52.5%) whites, and 54 (30.2%) African American. One hundred seventeen (65.4%) had an adjudicated diagnosis, including 83 deaths and 34 survivors. The most common etiologies included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (19, 16.2%), coronary artery anomalies (16, 13.7%), idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy/possible cardiomyopathy (13, 11.1%), autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (8, 6.8%), Wolff-Parkinson-White (8, 6.8%), and long QT syndrome (7, 6.0%). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was more common in male basketball (23.3%), football (25%), and African American athletes (30.3%). An estimated 56.4% of cases would likely demonstrate abnormalities on an electrocardiogram. The etiology of SCA/D in competitive athletes involves a wide range of clinical disorders. More robust reporting mechanisms, standardized autopsy protocols, and accurate etiology data are needed to better inform prevention strategies.

  16. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10......% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during...

  17. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. PMID:26559684

  18. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Dass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied.   Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age, having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery.   Conclusion:  Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators.

  19. Classification of sudden and arrhythmic death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H

    1997-01-01

    was nearly abolished by the implantable defibrillator, indicating that arrhythmic death by this classification is meaningful, at least in the population studied. For future investigations, a call is made for committees to present data in a way that allows the reader to examine the quality of the data used......Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...

  20. Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Deirdre E; Cowell, Annie; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W; Morhaime, Jacquelyn; Reed, Sharon L

    2016-12-07

    A 58-year-old Korean-born woman with a history of seizures and psychiatric issues was found dead at home. Autopsy was notable for large, calcified nodules that had nearly replaced her right temporal lobe. Histologic examination revealed the presence of Paragonimus eggs. This case demonstrates a rare manifestation of an aberrantly migrated lung fluke that resulted in epilepsy and sudden death years after the initial infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Sudden hearing loss after an explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of bilateral hearing loss after a home-made firework exploded near the right side of his scalp. The hearing loss was associated with tinnitus. Examination revealed an area of skin loss on the right pinna. There was mild bleeding from the right pinna and scalp at the mastoid region, which spontaneously resolved. An otoscopic examination is shown in Figure 1.

  2. Systematic review of the incidence of sudden cardiac death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Melissa H; Fonarow, Gregg C; Peterson, Eric D; Curtis, Anne B; Hernandez, Adrian F; Sanders, Gillian D; Thomas, Kevin L; Hayes, David L; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2011-02-15

    The need for consistent and current data describing the true incidence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and/or sudden cardiac death (SCD) was highlighted during the most recent Sudden Cardiac Arrest Thought Leadership Alliance's (SCATLA) Think Tank meeting of national experts with broad representation of key stakeholders, including thought leaders and representatives from the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society. As such, to evaluate the true magnitude of this public health problem, we performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE using the MeSH headings, "death, sudden" OR the terms "sudden cardiac death" OR "sudden cardiac arrest" OR "cardiac arrest" OR "cardiac death" OR "sudden death" OR "arrhythmic death." Study selection criteria included peer-reviewed publications of primary data used to estimate SCD incidence in the U.S. We used Web of Science's Cited Reference Search to evaluate the impact of each primary estimate on the medical literature by determining the number of times each "primary source" has been cited. The estimated U.S. annual incidence of SCD varied widely from 180,000 to >450,000 among 6 included studies. These different estimates were in part due to different data sources (with data age ranging from 1980 to 2007), definitions of SCD, case ascertainment criteria, methods of estimation/extrapolation, and sources of case ascertainment. The true incidence of SCA and/or SCD in the U.S. remains unclear, with a wide range in the available estimates that are badly dated. As reliable estimates of SCD incidence are important for improving risk stratification and prevention, future efforts are clearly needed to establish uniform definitions of SCA and SCD and then to prospectively and precisely capture cases of SCA and SCD in the overall U.S. population. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudden cardiac death and coronary disease in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasardóttir, Sára; Risgaard, Bjarke; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons ..., CAD-SCD victims aged 36-49years had more severe atherosclerosis in all coronary arteries, more multi-vessel disease (29% vs. 15%, p=0.049) and less commonly (38% vs. 54%, p=0.039) acute coronary occlusion than victims ... to death. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study found several differences in the pathologic lesions of the heart in victims aged 18-35 and 36-49years, which might be associated with different disease progression leading to death in these age groups. We also report a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior...

  4. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  5. The causes and clinical significance of exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia evaluated by ischemic range and intensity with exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriai, Naoki; Nakai, Kenji; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the causes and long-term prognosis of exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) by means of exercise Tl-201 myocardial SPECT (Ex-SPECT) in 97 patients with effort angina or old myocardial infarction (OMI). These patients were proven to have significant stenosis by coronary angiography. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the presence or absence of Tl-201 redistribution (RD) or angina during exercise testing. Group one consisted of 34 patients who had RD on Ex-SPECT and angina during exercise testing: the painful myocardial ischemia (PMI) group. The second group consisted of 38 patients who had RD on Ex-SPECT, but no angina during exercise testing: the SMI group. The third group consisted of 25 patients who had no RD: the RD (-) group. The ischemic range and intensity were quantified by the defect volume ratio (DVR) and defect severity index (DSI), respectively. Comparison of the DVR and DSI values for the PMI and SMI groups revealed that the DVR and DSI values for the SMI group were lower than those of the PMI group. Also the prognosis of the SMI group tended to be worse than that of the RD (-) group. Thus, we concluded that the SMI and PMI groups should receive identical treatment. (author)

  6. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2013-12-01

    Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

  7. Discordance in investigator-reported and adjudicated sudden death in TIOSPIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Wise

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and consistent determination of cause of death is challenging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. TIOSPIR (N=17 135 compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat 5/2.5 µg with HandiHaler 18 µg in COPD patients. All-cause mortality was a primary end-point. A mortality adjudication committee (MAC assessed all deaths. We aimed to investigate causes of discordance in investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated causes of death and their impact on results, especially cardiac and sudden death. The MAC provided independent, blinded assessment of investigator-reported deaths (n=1302 and assigned underlying cause of death. Discordance between causes of death was assessed descriptively (shift tables. There was agreement between investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated deaths in 69.4% of cases at the system organ class level. Differences were mainly observed for cardiac deaths (16.4% investigator, 5.1% MAC and deaths assigned to general disorders including sudden death (17.4% investigator, 24.6% MAC. Reasons for discrepancies included investigator attribution to the immediate (e.g. myocardial infarction (MI over the underlying cause of death (e.g. COPD and insufficient information for a definitive cause. Cause-specific mortality varies in COPD, depending on the method of assignment. Sudden death, witnessed and unwitnessed, is common in COPD and often attributed to MI without supporting evidence.

  8. Phytophthora ramorum and sudden oak death in California: III. preliminary studies in pathogen genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; David M. Rizzo; Katie Hayden; Monica Meija-Chang; Jennifer M. Davidson; Steven Tjosvold

    2002-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has been shown to be caused by a new species of Phytophthora, P. ramorum. A basic understanding of the genetics of P. ramorum is critical to any management strategy. We have initiated a number of studies to examine species concepts, population biology and mating behavior of the pathogen....

  9. Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel, a key foliar host of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...

  10. Assessing Methods to Protect Susceptible Oak and Tanoak Stands from Sudden Oak Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Landowners and managers have been seeking ways to protect susceptible oak (Quercus) species and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) from sudden oak death (SOD) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Because disease epidemiology differs between tanoaks and susceptible oaks, we are testing different control strategies...

  11. Contribution of inherited heart disease to sudden cardiac death in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L.; Clur, Sally-Ann; Alders, Mariel; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In children aged 1 to 18 years, the causes of sudden cardiac death may remain unresolved when autopsy results are negative. Because inherited cardiac diseases are likely, cardiologic and genetic investigations of relatives may still yield the diagnosis in these cases. Moreover, these

  12. Managing redwood ecosystems using Sudden Oak Death as a silvicultural tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick D. Euphrat

    2015-01-01

    In response to the wave of sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, sweeping the redwood forest ecosystems of California's North Coast, the role of foresters and other ecosystem managers is being tested. On Bear Flat Tree Farm, near Healdsburg, California, Forest, Soil & Water, Inc. (FSW) has conducted a multi-year,...

  13. Six years of aerial and ground monitoring surveys for sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Bell; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Erik Haunreiter; Lisa M. Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Aerial surveys have been conducted since 2001 to map recent hardwood mortality and consequently target ground visits for detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD). Each year the aerial and ground surveys monitored much of California?s forests at risk for SOD resulting in new maps of hardwood mortality,...

  14. Fire behavioral changes as a result of sudden oak death in coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Vlachovic; C. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Field observations and anecdotal evidence suggest that sudden oak death (SOD), a disease caused by the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, may alter fuel loading in affected forests. Though it is reasonable to assume that a disease resulting in leaf blight, dead branches, and tree mortality would increase forest fuels, little work has been done to...

  15. SUDDEN NATURAL DEATHS IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES- AN AUTOPSY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Death occurring in apparently healthy individual in a case of natural death may arise suspicion of foul play. In these circumstances these cases may be subjected to medicolegal autopsy. The disease condition may be unknown to the individual and the relatives. This study was done to review the exact cause of death in sudden unexpected deaths, and enabling or assisting the legal authorities in detection of crime, to prove or disprove the foul play. Body mass index is the most frequently used indicator of body fatness. An attempt is made to find out whether there is any significant relationship between BMI and the risk for sudden cardiac death. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data of 50 cases of sudden unexpected death brought for medicolegal autopsy at govt. T.D. medical college Alappuzha in the year 2010 were studied and information were collected from the postmortem records. Data was entered in the proforma. The histopathological examination findings of relevant cases were studied. Analysis was done using MS EXCEL and Chi-square test was used as the test of significance in the comparison between two categorical variables. RESULTS In 50 cases, male predominance was observed and 88% were males in which 50% of males died of atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery disease and among females 33% died of myocardial infarction. While considering the systemic distribution of cause of death, the cardiovascular system was found to be most commonly affected, 33 cases (66% followed by respiratory system 7 cases (14%. In 4 (8% cases gastrointestinal system was affected. In Two cases (4% central nervous system was affected and others were generalized infection, which constituted 2 cases. Out of 33 cases observed in cardiovascular system the commonest cause being the atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery diseases involving 27 cases (81.81% in which the predominant involvement was seen in left anterior descending artery 21 cases (77.77% followed by right

  16. [Sudden death in Versailles: A review of a cardiovascular treatrise by Dionis (1710)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P

    2018-02-01

    In 1710, the surgeon Pierre Dionis publishes a Dissertation on sudden death. Echoing and expanding the work of his Roman colleague Jean Marie Lancisi, he describes and analyzes dozens of cases of sudden death observed by him. A large number of cases was followed by autopsies allowing clinicopathological confrontation. Are proposed causes of death (pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic stroke, arterial rupture, etc.), pathophysiological mechanisms based on the ancient theory of humors, and preventive actions to avoid these unexpected deaths. In this article, we oppose these old data to those of current literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sudden Cardiac Arrest due to Brugada Syndrome: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soleimanirad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada Syndrome is a rare cause of sudden cardiac arrest and has a unique ECG pattern. In fact, with ST-segment elevation down sloping in the right precordial leads (v1-v3, RBBB pattern in lateral leads and J-point elevation is revealed. We must notice and avoid trigger factors of this syndrome during general anesthesia. Patient is a 39 old man who attended to emergency department with sudden cardiac arrest and resuscitate. He was transferred to ICU for management of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Complementary studies concluded the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome. We must consider Brugada syndrome within patients with family history of sudden cardiac arrest. Moreover, we must avoid trigger factors of this syndrome such as fever, bradicardia and electrolyte abnormality (specialy Na, Ca abnormalities during general anesthesia and if they appear, we should treat them.

  18. Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

    2013-11-01

    A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought.

  19. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death?: Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; van Langen, I. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; van den Bout, J.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  1. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death? : Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, FJM; van Tintelen, JP; van Langen, IM; Wilde, AAM; van den Bout, J; ten Kroode, HFJ

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  2. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation......%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. CONCLUSION: In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced...

  3. Takayasu Arteritis of the Coronary Arteries Presenting as Sudden Death in a White Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Diaz, Francisco; Sung, LokMan

    2015-09-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease that expresses chronic, large vessel inflammation. The etiology remains unclear and its presentation depends on the affected arteries. With coronary artery involvement, manifestations range from chest pain and shortness of breath to sudden death. We report a case of a 15-year-old white girl who presented with syncope immediately before passing. On autopsy, all 3 major coronary arteries grossly contained multiple proximal lesions that were consistent with Takayasu arteritis, microscopically. Takayasu arteritis solely affecting multiple coronary arteries is exceedingly rare. This report discusses the significance of coronary involvement in Takayasu arteritis at autopsy and sudden death.

  4. On a fine structure of a primary impulse of a magnetic storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A fine structure of a primary reverse impulse of a sudden commencement (SSC*) of a magnetic storm is analyzed. 200 cases of SSC* recorded in 1965-79 have been chosen for the investigation. It is shown that the preliminary impulse of the sudden copmencement of magnetic storms has a fine structure in the form of the train of damped oscillations in Pc2-3 range of < or approximately 2 min durations. The excitation of oscillations is related with the propagation of the fast magnetoacoustic wave which is generated during interaction of the interplanetary shock wave with the earth magnetosphere

  5. Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens, but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests.

  6. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden cardiac death in athletes and its preventive strategies: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Halabchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in sport, although rare, but is a tragic event, attracting the media and public attention. Sport and exercise may act as a trigger for sudden cardiac death. Risk of sudden death in young athletes with cardiovascular disease is 2.5 times more frequent than non-athlete individuals. More than 90% of cases of sudden death occur during or immediately after training or competition. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in any population, including athletes, is related to multiple factors such as gender, age, race, nationality, diagnostic screening methods and preventive measures for sudden cardiac death. Otherwise, incidence rate of sudden cardiac death is linked to the used definition and method of diagnosis. Different cardiovascular disorders may result in death of young athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary anomalies, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and aortic rupture are among the most common causes. Marfan syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome, congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and commotio cordis are reported as other etiologies. In older athletes (more than 35 years, ischemic coronary heart disease is responsible for majority of the cases similar to the general population. Because the outcome of sudden cardiac arrest in sports is very poor except in few cases, proper national strategies are needed to diminish the burden of sudden death in young athletes. It seems that there are two main strategies to achieve this goal: A Primary prevention with use of purposeful pre-participation evaluation programs. This evaluation should focuss on the proper history and physical examination. Nevertheless, there is significant debate between American and European countries regarding the use of paraclinical investigations (especially ECG. American heart association does not recommend ECG as an essential part of evaluation. In contrast, European

  8. Otolaryngological aspects of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C

    2012-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  10. Initial conditions and entanglement sudden death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Eberly, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report results bearing on the behavior of non-local decoherence and its potential for being managed or even controlled. The decoherence process known as entanglement sudden death (ESD) can drive prepared entanglement to zero at the same time that local coherences and fidelity remain non-zero. For a generic ESD-susceptible Bell superposition state, we provide rules restricting the occurrence and timing of ESD, amounting to management tools over a continuous variation of initial conditions. These depend on only three parameters: initial purity, entanglement and excitation. Knowledge or control of initial phases is not needed. -- Highlights: ► We study the possibility of managing disentanglement through initial conditions. ► The initial parameters are the amount of entanglement, excitation, and purity. ► Entanglement sudden death (ESD) free and ESD susceptible phases are identified. ► ESD onset time is also presented in the ESD susceptible phase. ► Our results may guide experiments to prepare ESD free or delayed ESD states.

  11. Residual entanglement and sudden death: A direct connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.G.G. de; Peixoto de Faria, J.G.; Nemes, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the results of [V. Coffman, et al., Phys. Rev. A 61 (2000) 052306] derived for general tripartite states in a dynamical context. We study a class of physically motivated tripartite systems. We show that whenever entanglement sudden death occurs in one of the partitions residual entanglement will appear. For fourpartite systems however, the appearance of residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death of entanglement. We can only say that if sudden death of entanglement occurs in some partition there will certainly be residual entanglement. -- Highlights: ► For tripartite systems we show there exists residual entanglement if sudden death occurs. ► For fourpartite systems, the residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death. ► If sudden death of entanglement occurs there will certainly be residual entanglement.

  12. Thyroid gland and cerebella lesions: New risk factors for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Cavalheiro, Esper A; de Albuquerque, Marly; de Albuquerque, Juliana; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; Arida, Ricardo M

    2011-02-01

    People with schizophrenia show a two to threefold increased risk to die prematurely than those without schizophrenia. Patients' life style, suicide, premature development of cardiovascular disease, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and sudden cardiac death are well-known causes of the excess mortality. The exact pathophysiological cause of sudden death in schizophrenia is unknown, but it is likely that cardiac arrhythmia and respiratory abnormalities play potential role. Some antipsychotics may be associated with cardiovascular adverse events (e.g., QT interval prolongation) and lesions in specific brain regions, such as cerebella may be associated with respiratory abnormalities, suggesting that metabolic and brain dysfunction could lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of these findings and schizophrenia is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cerebella progressive atrophy has been observed in patients with schizophrenia, we propose in this paper that subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cerebella volume loss could be considered as new risk factor for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Good news is bad news: Leverage cycles and sudden stops

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Ozge; Chahrour, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    We show that a model with imperfectly forecastable changes in future productivity and an occasionally binding collateral constraint can match a set of stylized facts about “sudden stop” events. “Good” news about future productivity raises leverage during times of expansion, increasing the probability that the constraint binds, and a sudden stop occurs, in future periods. The economy exhibits a boom period in the run-up to the sudden stop, with output, consumption, and investment all above tre...

  14. Distillability Sudden Birth of Entanglement for Qutrit-Qutrit Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Ali Mazhar

    2014-01-01

    We report the sudden appearance of distillability between two statistically independent reservoirs modelled as qutrit-qutrit systems. This feature of bipartite quantum systems is different from the previously observed phenomenon of entanglement sudden birth. It is found that the states of reservoirs first become bound entangled, thus exhibiting entanglement sudden birth, consequently followed by the sudden birth of distillability, and it is shown that whenever distillability is lost abruptly from principal system, it also necessarily appears abruptly among reservoirs' degrees of freedom. This surprising observation reflects yet another peculiarity of dynamical aspects of quantum entanglement

  15. Sudden cardiac death in the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael; Atkins, Dianne L; Triedman, John K

    2016-01-01

    Although the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young person is a rare event, it is traumatic and often widely publicized. In recent years, SCD in this population has been increasingly seen as a public health and safety issue. This review presents current knowledge relevant to the epidemiology of SCD and to strategies for prevention, resuscitation and identification of those at greatest risk. Areas of active research and controversy include the development of best practices in screening, risk stratification approaches and post-mortem evaluation, and identification of modifiable barriers to providing better outcomes after resuscitation of young SCD victims. Institution of a national registry of SCD in the young will provide data that will help to answer these questions. PMID:26951821

  16. Investigation on cause of malfunction of wide range monitor (WRM) in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Sample tests and destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Saito, Kenji; Haga, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shinji; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro; Takada, Kiyoshi; Higashimura, Keisuke; Fujii, Junichi; Ukai, Takayuki; Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the past developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, two experimental investigations were carried out to reveal the cause of the malfunction by specifying the damaged part causing the event in the WRM. One is an experiment using a mock-up sample test which strength degradation at assembly process and heat cycle to specify the damaged part in the WRM. The other is a destructive test in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF) to specify the damaged part in the WRM. This report summarized the results of the destructive test and the experimental investigation using the mock-up to reveal the cause of malfunction of WRM. (author)

  17. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm 3 . Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  18. Sudden cardiac arrest in people with epilepsy in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert J.; Blom, Marieke T.; Wassenaar, Merel; Bardai, Abdennasser; Leijten, Frans S.; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Sander, Josemir W.; Thijs, Roland D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether characteristics of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) differed between people with epilepsy and those without and which individuals with epilepsy were at highest risk. Methods: We ascertained 18 people with active epilepsy identified in a community-based registry of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with ECG-confirmed VT/VF (cases). We compared them with 470 individuals with VT/VF without epilepsy (VT/VF controls) and 54 individuals with epilepsy without VT/VF (epilepsy controls). Data on comorbidity, epilepsy severity, and medication use were collected and entered into (conditional) logistic regression models to identify determinants of VT/VF in epilepsy. Results: In most cases, there was an obvious (10/18) or presumed cardiovascular cause (5/18) in view of preexisting heart disease. In 2 of the 3 remaining events, near–sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was established after successful resuscitation. Cases had a higher prevalence of congenital/inherited heart disease (17% vs 1%, p = 0.002), and experienced VT/VF at younger age (57 vs 64 years, p = 0.023) than VT/VF controls. VT/VF in cases occurred more frequently at/near home (89% vs 58%, p = 0.009), and was less frequently witnessed (72% vs 89%, p = 0.048) than in VT/VF controls. Cases more frequently had clinically relevant heart disease (50% vs 15%, p = 0.005) and intellectual disability (28% vs 1%, p epilepsy controls. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease rather than epilepsy characteristics is the main determinant of VT/VF in people with epilepsy in the community. SCA and SUDEP are partially overlapping disease entities. PMID:26092917

  19. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  20. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  1. Mutations in WNT7A cause a range of limb malformations, including Fuhrmann syndrome and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, C G; Stricker, S; Seemann, P; Stern, R; Cox, J; Sherridan, E; Roberts, E; Springell, K; Scott, S; Karbani, G; Sharif, S M; Toomes, C; Bond, J; Kumar, D; Al-Gazali, L; Mundlos, S

    2006-08-01

    Fuhrmann syndrome and the Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome are considered to be distinct limb-malformation disorders characterized by various degrees of limb aplasia/hypoplasia and joint dysplasia in humans. In families with these syndromes, we found homozygous missense mutations in the dorsoventral-patterning gene WNT7A and confirmed their functional significance in retroviral-mediated transfection of chicken mesenchyme cell cultures and developing limbs. The results suggest that a partial loss of WNT7A function causes Fuhrmann syndrome (and a phenotype similar to mouse Wnt7a knockout), whereas the more-severe limb truncation phenotypes observed in Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndrome result from null mutations (and cause a phenotype similar to mouse Shh knockout). These findings illustrate the specific and conserved importance of WNT7A in multiple aspects of vertebrate limb development.

  2. Sudden birth versus sudden death of entanglement for the extended Werner-like state in a dissipative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-Jia, Shan; Tao, Chen; Ji-Bing, Liu; Wei-Wen, Cheng; Tang-Kun, Liu; Yan-Xia, Huang; Hong, Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival. (general)

  3. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, S.M.J.M.; Bleumink, G.S.; Dieleman, J.P.; van der Lei, J.; 't Jong, G.W.; Kingma, J. Herre; Sturkenboom, M.C J M; Stricker, B.H C

    2004-01-01

    Background Antipsychotics have been associated with prolongation of the corrected QT interval and sudden cardiac death. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated this association. We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics and sudden

  4. Mobile phone usage does not affect sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, D; Migirov, L; Madgar, O; Nakache, G; Wolf, M; Shapira, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found that mobile phone users had a significantly greater risk of having elevated thresholds in speech frequencies. This study investigated the correlation between the laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, handedness and the preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study included all patients who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss to the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery in our tertiary referral medical centre between 2014 and 2016. Patients were asked to indicate their dominant hand and preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study comprised 160 patients. No correlation was found between the dominant hand or preferred ear for mobile phone use and the side of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. There was no correlation between the side of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (preferable or non-preferable for mobile phone use) and audiometric characteristics. No correlation was found between the laterality of ears used for mobile phone and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Livolsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [(3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled B(max value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls. On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism.

  6. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  7. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  8. Ependymal alterations in sudden intrauterine unexplained death and sudden infant death syndrome: possible primary consequence of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matturri Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ependyma, the lining providing a protective barrier and filtration system separating brain parenchyma from cerebrospinal fluid, is still inadequately understood in humans. In this study we aimed to define, by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, the sequence of developmental steps of the human ependyma in the brainstem (ventricular ependyma and thoracic spinal cord (central canal ependyma of a large sample of fetal and infant death victims, aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months. Additionally, we investigated a possible link between alterations of this structure, sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and maternal smoking. Results Our results demonstrate that in early fetal life the human ependyma shows a pseudostratified cytoarchitecture including many tanycytes and ciliated cells together with numerous apoptotic and reactive astrocytes in the subependymal layer. The ependyma is fully differentiated, with a monolayer of uniform cells, after 32 to 34 gestational weeks. We observed a wide spectrum of ependymal pathological changes in sudden death victims, such as desquamation, clusters of ependymal cells in the subventricular zone, radial glial cells, and the unusual presence of neurons within and over the ependymal lining. These alterations were significantly related to maternal smoking in pregnancy. Conclusions We conclude that in smoking mothers, nicotine and its derivatives easily reach the cerebrospinal fluid in the fetus, immediately causing ependymal damage. Consequently, we suggest that the ependyma should be examined in-depth first in victims of sudden fetal or infant death with mothers who smoke.

  9. Definition of Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes (SIDS and SIUDS with Regard to the Anatomo-Pathological Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ottaviani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists will become necessary.

  10. Syncope and the risk of sudden cardiac death: Evaluation, management, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Koene, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is a clinical syndrome defined as a relatively brief self-limited transient loss of consciousness (TLOC caused by a period of inadequate cerebral nutrient flow. Most often the trigger is an abrupt drop of systemic blood pressure. True syncope must be distinguished from other common non-syncope conditions in which real or apparent TLOC may occur such as seizures, concussions, or accidental falls. The causes of syncope are diverse, but in most instances, are relatively benign (e.g., reflex and orthostatic faints with the main risks being accidents and/or injury. However, in some instances, syncope may be due to more worrisome conditions (particularly those associated with cardiac structural disease or channelopathies; in such circumstances, syncope may be an indicator of increased morbidity and mortality risk, including sudden cardiac death (SCD. Establishing an accurate basis for the etiology of syncope is crucial in order to initiate effective therapy. In this review, we focus primarily on the causes of syncope that are associated with increased SCD risk (i.e., sudden arrhythmic cardiac death, and the management of these patients. In addition, we discuss the limitations of our understanding of SCD in relation to syncope, and propose future studies that may ultimately address how to improve outcomes of syncope patients and reduce SCD risk. Keywords: Syncope, Sudden cardiac death, Risk assessment

  11. Nationwide survey of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro; Ihira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus can cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis and sudden unexpected death. The incidence of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis or sudden unexpected death remains unknown. To clarify the clinical features of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, we conducted a nationwide survey in Japan. A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number of the cases and the clinical features of severe cases of rotavirus infection, including encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, between 2009 and 2011. Of the 1365 questionnaires sent to hospitals, 963 (70.5%) were returned and eligible for analysis. We determined 58 cases of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and 7 cases of sudden unexpected death. These patients were diagnosed with rotavirus infection by immunochromatography. Although 36/58 (62.1%) encephalitis/encephalopathy patients had no sequelae, 15/58 (25.9%) patients had neurological sequelae, and 7/58 (12.1%) patients had fatal outcomes. Pleocytosis was observed in 9/40 (22.5%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were elevated in only 4/40 (10%) patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pHdeath were 44.0 and 4.9 cases in Japan, respectively. Elevated LDH (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pH<7.15) were related to a poor prognosis of the encephalitis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sudden death in paediatrics as a traumatic experience for critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lígia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Pinto, Cândida

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that nurses working in critical care units and in particular, paediatric units, are at risk of developing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS). However, little attention has been given to this phenomenon when associated with situations of sudden death in paediatrics. This study aimed to examine the impact of sudden death in paediatrics on nurses working in paediatrics critical care units and to explore nurses' experiences of this event. This study used a mixed-methods design. The Impact of Event Scale - Revised was used for investigating the presence of STS symptoms. In addition, an interview was conducted with six nurses. Fifty-seven percent of nurses responded to the surveys and six nurses were interviewed. The results showed that the sudden death of children and adolescents is an event that elicits symptoms of STS in nurses. The quantitative assessment, revealed that 19·4% presented total scores indicating high impact. The participants interviewed described experiences of subjective distress, such as intrusive thoughts, avoidance and hyperarousal. Other factors were also reported as influencing the experience of the sudden death of a child/adolescent, namely, the child's age, the cause of death and the family's reaction to the loss. According to the participants, the emotional impact was also determined by parenthood, previous training and professional experience. Sudden death in paediatric critical care units is one of the most difficult situations in nursing practice and elicits STS symptoms, which may severely impact the physical and psychological health of nurses and ultimately affect the quality of the provided care. This study emphasizes the need for promoting better conditions for professional practice, namely, with regard to emotional support, as well as training programmes for skills development in the area of management of traumatic situations and of communication with clients. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care

  13. Alcohol, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P

    1998-01-01

    Studies in experimental animals have shown varying and apparently opposite effects of alcohol on cardiac rhythm and conduction. Given acutely to non-alcoholic animals, ethanol may even have anti-arrhythmic properties whereas chronic administration clearly increases the animals' susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic heavy alcohol use has been incriminated in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias in humans. The evidence has come from clinical observations, retrospective case-control studies, controlled studies of consecutive admissions for arrhythmias, and prospective epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies have shown that acute alcohol administration facilitates the induction of tachyarrhythmias in selected heavy drinkers. The role of alcohol appears particularly conspicuous in idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Occasionally, ventricular tachyarrhythmias have also been provoked by alcohol intake. Several lines of evidence suggest that heavy drinking increases the risk of sudden cardiac death with fatal arrhythmia as the most likely mechanism. According to epidemiological studies this effect appears most prominent in middle-aged men and is only partly explained by confounding traits such as smoking and social class. The basic arrhythmogenic effects of alcohol are still insufficiently delineated. Subclinical heart muscle injury from chronic heavy use may be instrumental in producing patchy delays in conduction. The hyperadrenergic state of drinking and withdrawal may also contribute, as may electrolyte abnormalities, impaired vagal heart rate control, repolarization abnormalities with prolonged QT intervals and worsening of myocardial ischaemia or sleep apnoea. Most of what we know about alcohol and arrhythmias relates to heavy drinking. The effect of social drinking on clinical arrhythmias in non-alcoholic cardiac patients needs to be addressed further.

  14. Noninvasive risk stratification for sudden death in asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, John; DeBiasi, Ralph M; Coplan, Neil L; Suri, Ranji; Keller, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the first clinical manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a well-documented, although rare occurrence. The incidence of SCD in patients with WPW ranges from 0% to 0.39% annually. Controversy exists regarding risk stratification for patients with preexcitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly in those who are asymptomatic. This article focuses on the role of risk stratification using exercise and pharmacologic testing in patients with WPW pattern on ECG.

  15. Social phobia with sudden onset--post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...... recruited as part of an etiological study. Patients with SP with sudden onset did, as hypothesized, differ from patients with SP without sudden onset with regard to age of onset and extraversion, but not with regard to symptoms. They did not differ markedly from patients with comorbid SP and PD. The concept...

  16. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pitman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide. Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.93–3.89 and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33–3.18 than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.

  17. Electrocardiographic features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyou, Janice Y; Friedman, Daniel; Cerrone, Marina; Slater, William; Guo, Yu; Taupin, Daniel; O'Rourke, Sean; Priori, Silvia G; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related mortality. We hypothesized that electrocardiography (ECG) features may distinguish SUDEP cases from living subjects with epilepsy. Using a matched case-control design, we compared ECG studies of 12 consecutive cases of SUDEP over 10 years and 22 epilepsy controls matched for age, sex, epilepsy type (focal, generalized, or unknown/mixed type), concomitant antiepileptic, and psychotropic drug classes. Conduction intervals and prevalence of abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis (QRS ≥110 msec), abnormal ventricular conduction pattern (QRS <110 msec, morphology of incomplete right or left bundle branch block or intraventricular conduction delay), early repolarization, and features of inherited cardiac channelopathies were assessed. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis and pattern distinguished SUDEP cases from matched controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis was present in two cases and no controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction pattern was more common in cases than controls (58% vs. 18%, p = 0.04). Early repolarization was similarly prevalent in cases and controls, but the overall prevalence exceeded that of published community-based cohorts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Preferences of Patients for Discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sūna Normunds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP. Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.

  19. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Prisk of SCD. Regarding the latest admission, electrocardiographic abnormalities (aRR=5.46, Prisk for SCD. Consistently, aggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Prisk as well. Apart from cardiovascular profiles and antipsychotics, physical aggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  1. Immunization safety review: vaccinations and sudden unexpected death in infancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Immunization Safety Review Committee; Stratton, Kathleen R

    2003-01-01

    ...), and neonatal death (infant death, whether sudden or not, during the first 4 weeks of life). Based on this review, the committee concluded that the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between some vaccines and SIDS...

  2. Next of kin’s experiences of sudden and unexpected death from stroke - a study of narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Death always evokes feelings in those close to the afflicted person. When death comes suddenly the time for preparation is minimal and the next of kin have to cope with the situation despite their own sorrow. The suddenness is found to be stressful for the next of kin and communication both with healthcare professionals and information about what has happened has been found helpful. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences of next of kin from the sudden and unexpected death of a relative from acute stroke. Methods Data was collected over a 12-month period in 2009–2010. Twelve next of kin of patients cared for in stroke units who died suddenly and unexpectedly from stroke were interviewed using a narrative method. The narratives were analyzed using narrative thematic analysis. Results Three themes emerged showing facets of next of kin’s experiences of a relative’s sudden and unexpected death from stroke: Divided feelings about the sudden and unexpected death; Perception of time and directed attention when keeping vigil; Contradictions and arbitrary memories when searching for understanding. Conclusions To have to live in the aftermath of severe stroke is absolute horror in people’s imagination and death is seen as the lesser of two evils. The sudden and unexpected death totally pervades the next of kin’s life, directs their attention to the dying person and even causes them to forget themselves and their own needs, and leads to difficulties in information intake. It is a challenge for the healthcare professionals to be able to identify the individual needs of the next of kin in this situation. PMID:23590246

  3. Intraspecific variation in host susceptibility and climatic factors mediate epidemics of sudden oak death in western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Huberli; K.J. Hayden; M. Calver; M. Garbelotto

    2011-01-01

    Umbellularia californica is one of the key infectious hosts of the exotic Phytophthora ramorum, which causes sudden oak death (SOD) in California and Oregon forests. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the epidemiologically relevant parameters for SOD in California and southern Oregon, including potential differences between the two...

  4. Is It Time for a Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Awareness Campaign? Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of SIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollenberg, Audra; Fendley, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains a leading cause of infant death in the United States, and in Virginia. We sought to gauge the perceptions among community-identified stakeholders regarding community resource needs to reduce SIDS. Snowball sampling identified important community stakeholders to be interviewed as key informants. A…

  5. A case-crossover analyses of fine particulate matter and out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out-of-hospital sudden unexpected deaths (OHSUD) are natural deaths that occur without obvious underlying causes and account for nearly 1 in 6 deaths in the United States. Ambient air pollution is known to be causally related to overall mortality, therefore, we hypothesized that ...

  6. The dynamic response of housing values to a forst invasive disease: evidence from a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice Alexander

    2011-01-01

    "Sudden Oak Death" (Phytophthora ramorum) is a non-indigenous forest pathogen which causes substantialmortality of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimated the time path of residential property values subject to oak mortality using a...

  7. Predicting the economic costs and property value losses attributed to sudden oak death damage in California (2010-2020)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Tomas Václavík; Robert G. Haight; Arwin Pang; Nik J. Cunniffe; Christopher A. Gilligan; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, is a quarantined, non-native, invasive forest pathogen resulting in substantial mortality in coastal live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other related tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimate the discounted cost of oak treatment, removal, and...

  8. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  9. Sudden and unexpected childhood deaths investigated at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa, 2007 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deventer, B S; Rossouw, S H; Du Toit-Prinsloo, L

    2016-09-06

     Sudden and unexpected death is well known to occur in infants, and although sudden deaths are less frequent after the first birthday, they still account for a significant proportion of childhood deaths. In 2009, 1.9% of the total deaths in the USA were childhood deaths. In South Africa (SA) this proportion was much higher at 11.85%. According to the law, sudden and unexpected deaths are generally investigated as unnatural deaths. Establishing an exact underlying anatomical cause of death will depend on available resources and can be difficult in a substantial proportion of cases.  A retrospective descriptive case audit was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL), SA, from 1 January 2007 through to 31 December 2011. All children aged 1 - 18 years who died suddenly and unexpectedly were included.  Ninety-eight cases were identified, which constituted nearly 1% of total admissions to the PMLL. The majority of the deaths were of children aged 1 - 5 years, and the male/female ratio was 1.04:1. In the largest proportion of cases (n=28, 28.6%), the medicolegal investigation, including autopsy and ancillary investigations, did not establish an underlying anatomical cause of death. In the cases where a cause of death was established, pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (n=22, 22.4%).  The fact that the cause of the largest proportion of deaths could not be ascertained emphasises the need for consideration of additional investigative techniques, such as molecular/genetic screening, which have provided an underlying cause of death in a significant number of cases in other countries. There is a lack of published research on the causes and incidence of sudden unexpected deaths in children in SA, and further research in this area is needed.

  10. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in athletes, sportspersons and marathoners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD in athletes is significantly lower than the general population. However, when SCD occurs in an athlete during sporting event or training, it sends shockwaves in the society and raises questions about cardiovascular effects of sports and exercise. This document reviews the causes and mechanism of SCD in sports and exercise in young and older athletes. In the Indian context, we suggest a ‘pre-participation screening’ of young and older athletes and consider a ‘supervised, graded exercise regime’ for the uninitiated, older sports participant. Finally, the document proposes medical infrastructure required to successfully revive a victim of sudden cardiac arrest during a sporting event.

  11. On the Question of the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Nisevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is one of the leading causes of postneonatal mortality of infants in most developed countries. This paper presents data on terminology and on the study of SIDS in developed countries, and also examines problems of SIDS diagnostic inRussia in comparison with the results of own researches, analyzes risk factors, which are universal as for SIDS, and also for perinatal and infant death in general. The large variability of SIDS diagnosis in Russia suggests that this diagnosis often does not comply with international standard: post-mortem examination of community-acquired sudden death cases is often carried out by a forensic expert, but not by a children's pathologist, and they do not use virological and microbiological methods of investigation. In some cases, there is no infant's record or case record from children's polyclinic.

  12. Labyrinthine enhancement of Gd-MR in patients with sudden hearing loss and vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.; Mark, A.S.; Chapman, J.C.; Nelson-Drake, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, no definitive diagnostic study was available to assess causes of sudden-onset hearing loss and vertigo. Our observations have led to an interesting new finding: labyrinthine enhancement on Gd-enhanced MR imaging in four patients with sudden unilateral hearing loss and/or vertigo. MR findings were correlated with audiologic and vestibular studies. All patients were studied with T2-weighted axial images through the whole brain and with Gd-DTPA-enhanced, 3-mm, axial, T1-weighted images through the temporal bone. No labyrinthine enhancement was seen in 20 control patients referred for other clinical problems. Gd-MR imaging might be able to distinguish patients with retrocochlear lesions from those in whom the abnormal process is in the labyrinth or is intraaxial

  13. Gender differences in sudden cardiac death in the young-a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Bjune, Thea

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young has been described with no distinction between genders. SCD occurs more often in men (SCDm) than women (SCDw), but this disparity is not understood and has not been investigated systematically in a nationwide setting. Our objective......=0.02) and died less often in a public place (16 vs. 26%, p=0.01). Age at death, ratios of autopsies and sudden unexplained deaths, and comorbidities, did not differ. Causes of SCD were largely comparable between genders. The incidence rate of SCDw was half of that of SCDm (1.8 vs. 3.6 per 100...... was to report gender differences in SCD in the young in a nationwide (Denmark) setting. Methods: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years nationwide in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 were included. Death certificates and autopsy reports were obtained. The extensive health care registries in Denmark were used...

  14. Sudden fetal death due to dualism of the sino-atrial node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Roncati, Luca; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Taddei, Fabrizio; Piscioli, Francesco; Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    First, we report a sudden fetal death at 33(+3)weeks due to sino-atrial node dualism. The female stillborn was delivered by induced labor. The postmortem examination of the cardiac conduction system revealed a dualism of the sino-atrial node, associated with fragmentation of the atrio-ventricular node and His bundle. These abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system represent the morphological substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. In particular, the dualism of the sino-atrial node can cause the dissociation of the longitudinal nodal impulse into two distinct ways of different pulse generation, resulting in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This observation suggests new avenues of research on the pathogenesis of the sudden unexpected fetal death. Moreover, our findings confirm the need for an accurate postmortem examination, including serial sectioning of the cardiac conduction system, in every case of unexplained fetal death, following standardized autoptic protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy using next-generation sequencing of 100 genes associated with cardiac diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Christin Loeth; Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2016-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most frequent manner of post-perinatal death among infants. One of the suggested causes of the syndrome is inherited cardiac diseases, mainly channelopathies, that can trigger arrhythmias and sudden death. The purpose of this study was to investigate cases...... frequency, in one or more of the genes screened. The possible effects of the variants were not verified with family or functional studies. Eight (17%) of the SUDI cases had variants in genes affecting ion channel functions. The remaining eight cases had variants in genes associated with cardiomyopathies...

  16. Sudden f/sub min/ enhancements and sudden cosmic noise absorptions associated with solar X-ray flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-01-01

    Sudden fsub(min) enhancements (SFsub(m)E's) and sudden cosmic noise absorptions (SCNA's) associated with increments of X-ray fluxes during solar flares are studied on the basis of X-ray flux data measured by SOLRAD 9 and 10 satellites. Some statistical analyses on SFsub(m)E's observed at five observatories in Japan, corresponding to increased X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band are made for 50 solar flare events during the period January 1972 to December 1973, and value of fsub(min) is expressed as functions of cos x(x; solar zenith angle) and 1-8 A band X-ray flux. Similar study is also made for SCNA's observed by 30 MHz riometer at Hiraiso for 15 great solar flare events during the same period, together with 27.6 MHz riometer data reported by Schwentek (1973) and 18 MHz data published by Deshpande and Mitra (1972b). It is found that fsub(min) value (MHz) and SCNA value (L, dB) of a radio wave with frequency f(MHz) are related to X-ray flux (F/sub 0/, erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) in the 1-8 A band and to cos x, by following approximate expressions, fsub(min)(MHz)=10F/sub 0/sup(1/4) cossup(1/2) x, and L(dB)=4.37x10/sup 3/f/sup -2/F/sub 0/sup(1/2) cos x, respectively. Blackout seems to occur for F/sub 0/ values causing fsub(min)'s greater than about 5 MHz. It is shown that these expressions can be derived from a brief theoretical calculation of radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere. Also it is suggested that threshold X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band which may produce a minimum SFsub(m)E (2 MHz), blackout and minimum SCNA (0.27-0.36 dB for 30 MHz noise) are 1.6x10/sup -3/, 6.2x10/sup -2/ and (3-8) x 10/sup -3/ erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/, respectively, for cos x=1.

  17. Oscillating flow and heat transfer in a channel with sudden cross section change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Hashim, Waqar

    1993-01-01

    We have computationally examined oscillating flow (zero mean) between two parallel plates with a sudden change in cross section. The flow was assumed to be laminar incompressible with the inflow velocity uniform over the channel cross section but varying sinusoidally with time. The cases studied cover wide ranges of Re(sub max) (from 187.5 to 2000), Va (from 1 to 10.66), the expansion ratio (1:2 and 1:4) and A(sub r) (2 and 4). Also, three different geometric cases were discussed: (1) asymmetric expansion/contraction; (2) symmetric expansion/contraction; and (3) symmetric blunt body. For these oscillating flow conditions, the fluid undergoes sudden expansion in one-half of the cycle and sudden contraction inthe other half. The instantaneous friction factor, for some ranges of Re(sub max) and Va, deviated substantially from the steady-state friction factor for the same flow parameters. A region has been identified below which the flow is laminar quasi-steady. A videotape showing computer simulations of the oscillating flow demonstrates the usefulness of the current analyses in providing information on the transient hydraulic phenomena.

  18. Heat transfer in oscillating flows with sudden change in cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Hashim, Waqar; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Oscillating fluid flow (zero mean) with heat transfer, between two parallel plates with a sudden change in cross section, was examined computationally. Over 30 different cases were examined; these cases cover wide ranges of Re sub max (187.5 to 30,000), Va (1 to 350), expansion ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:12) and A sub r (0.68 to 4). Three different geometric cases were considered (asymmetric expansion and/or contraction, symmetric expansion/contraction, and symmetric blunt body). The heat transfer cases were based on constant wall temperature at higher (heating) or lower (cooling) value than the inflow fluid temperature. As a result of the oscillating flow, the fluid undergoes sudden expansion in one half of the cycle and sudden contraction in the other half. Instantaneous friction factors and heat transfer coefficients, for some ranges of Re sub max and Va, deviated substantially from those predicted with steady state correlations.

  19. Strong, sudden cooling alleviates the inflammatory responses in heat-stressed dairy cows based on iTRAQ proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Fan, Caiyun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of sudden cooling on the physiological responses of 12 heat-stressed Holstein dairy cows using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling approach. Plasma samples were collected from these cows during heat stress (HS), and after strong, sudden cooling in the summer (16 days later). We compared plasma proteomic data before and after sudden cooling to identify the differentially abundant proteins. The results showed that sudden cooling in summer effectively alleviated the negative consequences of HS on body temperature and production variables. Expressions of plasma hemoglobin alpha and hemoglobin beta were upregulated, whereas lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and haptoglobin were downregulated in this process. The increase of hemoglobin after cooling may improve oxygen transport and alleviate the rise in respiration rates in heat-stressed dairy cows. The decrease of LBP and haptoglobin suggests that the inflammatory responses caused by HS are relieved after cooling. Our findings provide new insight into the physiological changes that occur when heat-stressed dairy cows experience strong, sudden cooling.

  20. Sudden shrinkage of free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 15 years after maxilla reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mochizuki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male displayed sudden shrinkage of a left free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, which had been grafted to his left maxilla 15 years previously. No post-reconstructive irradiation had been performed, and no late occlusion of the vascular anastomosis, local infection, recurrence of the maxillary cancer, or body weight loss was observed. However, the shrinkage amounted to approximately 50%. This is considerably more than previously reported cases of shrinkage of various free flaps, which ranged between 10% and 25%. The resultant depression was successfully augmented with a right free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. The residual fat volume of the previously grafted shrunken flap was revealed to be compatible with that of the newly harvested contralateral perforator flap. Thus, the volume of the previously grafted flap may reflect the status of the intact contralateral donor site, although the mechanism of sudden flap shrinkage is unclear.

  1. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300,000 to 400,000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD...... of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. CONCLUSION...... in Africa. METHODS: The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as 'witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms...

  2. Obesity paradox and risk of sudden death in heart failure results from the MUerte Subita en Insuficiencia cardiaca (MUSIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Vazquez, Rafael; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Shamagian, Lillian Grigorian; Puig, Teresa; Ferrero, Andreu; Cinca, Juan; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    among patients with heart failure (HF), body mass index (BMI) has been inversely associated with mortality, giving rise to the so-called obesity paradox. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and two modes of cardiac death: pump failure death and sudden death. nine hundred seventy-nine patients with mild to moderate chronic symptomatic HF from the MUSIC (MUerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) Study, a prospective, multicenter, and longitudinal study designed to assess risk predictors of cardiac mortality, were followed up during a median of 44 months. Independent predictors of death were identified by a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. higher BMI emerged as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-0.97, P = .0003) and pump failure death (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88-0.98, P = .004). Sudden death accounted for 45% of deaths in obese patients, 53% in overweight patients, and 37% in lean patients. No significant relationship between BMI and sudden death was observed (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02, P = .28). The only independent predictors of sudden death were prior history of myocardial infarction (HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.23-2.90, P = .004), hypertension (HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.05-2.63, P = .03), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96, P = .006), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02, P = .048). the obesity paradox in HF affects all-cause mortality and pump failure death but not sudden death. The risk of dying suddenly was similar across BMI categories in this cohort of ambulatory patients with HF.

  3. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...

  4. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with β-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the β-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs. (author)

  5. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs. Influence of some drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G. (Department of Pharmacology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping, Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs.

  6. Numerical Investigation of magnetohydrodynamic flow through Sudden expansion pipes in Liquid Metal Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jingchao; He, Qingyun; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Ye, Minyou

    2016-11-01

    In fusion liquid metal blanket, sudden expansions and sudden contractions are very common geometries. Changing of the cross-section causes 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, which will affect the flow pattern, current distribution and pressure drop. In this paper the numerical code based on OpenFOAM platform developed by University of Science and Technology of China was used to investigate and optimize the sudden expansion pipe. The code has been validated by the recommended benchmark cases including Shercliff, Hunt, ALEX experiments (rectangular duct and round pipe) and KIT experiment cases. The obtained numerical results agreed well with those of all the benchmark cases. Previous and valuable analytical and experimental works have been done by L. Buhler, et. el. Based on these works, in the present paper, further investigation of different expansion lengths between the upstream pipe and downstream pipe at high Hartmann number and Reynolds number were conducted. Besides, different expansion ratios with a specific expansion length were conducted. The numerical results showed that with the increasing of expansion length, the 3D MHD effects gradually weakened. Especially, the 3D pressure drop decreases with the increasing of expansion length. Whereas, the expansion ratio factor shows no obvious influences on the total MHD pressure drop but greatly influence the local pressure distribution. These numerical simulations can be used to evaluate the MHD flow inside the expansion and contraction pipes.

  7. [Forensic Analysis of 6 Cases of Sudden Death due to Hyperthyroid Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Z; Li, B X; Zhao, R; Guan, D W; Zhang, G H; Wu, X; Zhu, B L; Li, R B

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease, and explore the general information of deaths and the forensic pathological characteristics to provide reference evidence for forensic identification of such cases. Six cases of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease between 2001 and 2016 were selected from School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University. The general information (gender and age), clinical manifestations, medical history, anatomical and histopathological findings, biochemical parameters and cause of death were analysed retrospectively. Most of the 6 patients had definite history of hyperthyroidism, and they all showed certain degrees of symptoms of cardiovascular disease; had obvious incentive factors of death; histopathological examination of thyroid conformed to the performances of diffuse toxic goiter; with increase of cardiac weight, dilatation of cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy and focal necrosis; postmortem biochemical analyses of pericardial fluid could be used as an additional method for diagnostic of sudden death due to hyperthyroid heart disease. The identification of death due to hyperthyroid heart disease should be based on the clinical history and the results of autopsy, histopathological examination, postmortem toxicology tests. The postmortem biochemical detection of thyroid and cardiac function should be performed if necessary. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  8. Control of trunk motion following sudden stop perturbations during cart pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2011-01-04

    External perturbations during pushing tasks have been suggested to be a risk factor for low-back symptoms. An experiment was designed to investigate whether self-induced and externally induced sudden stops while pushing a high inertia cart influence trunk motions, and how flexor and extensor muscles counteract these perturbations. Twelve healthy male participants pushed a 200 kg cart at shoulder height and hip height. Pushing while walking was compared to situations in which participants had to stop the cart suddenly (self-induced stop) or in which the wheels of the cart were unexpectedly blocked (externally induced stop). For the perturbed conditions, the peak values and the maximum changes from the reference condition (pushing while walking) of the external moment at L5/S1, trunk inclination and electromyographic amplitudes of trunk muscles were determined. In the self-induced stop, a voluntary trunk extension occurred. Initial responses in both stops consisted of flexor and extensor muscle cocontraction. In self-induced stops this was followed by sustained extensor activity. In the externally induced stops, an external extension moment caused a decrease in trunk inclination. The opposite directions of the internal moment and trunk motion in the externally induced stop while pushing at shoulder height may indicate insufficient active control of trunk posture. Consequently, sudden blocking of the wheels in pushing at shoulder height may put the low back at risk of mechanical injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in sudden deafness; Ressonancia magnetica em surdez subita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Hugo Valter Lisboa; Barros, Flavia Alencar; Penido, Norma de Oliveira; Souza, Ana Claudia Valerio de; Yamaoka, Wellington Yugo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Otorinolaringologia e Cirurgia da Cabeca e Pescoco; Yamashita, Helio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem e Diagnostico]. E-mail: hvlramos@gmail.com

    2005-07-15

    The etiology of sudden deafness can remain undetermined despite extensive investigation. This study addresses the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of sudden deafness patients.Study Design: transversal cohort.Material And Method: In a prospective study, 49 patients attended at otolaryngology emergency room of Federal University of Sao Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina, from April 2001 to May 2003, were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging.Results: Magnetic Resonance abnormalities were seen in 23 (46.9%) patients and revealed two tumors suggestive of meningioma, three vestibular schwannomas, thirteen microangiopathic changes of the brain and five (21.7%) pathological conditions of the labyrinth.Conclusion: Sudden deafness should be approached as a symptom common to different diseases. The presence of cerebellopontine angle tumors in 10.2% of our cases, among other treatable causes, justifies the recommendation of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance use, not only to study the auditory peripheral pathway, but to study the whole auditory pathway including the brain. (author)

  10. Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacandritsos, N; Granato, A; Budge, G; Papanastasiou, I; Roinioti, E; Caldon, M; Falcaro, C; Gallina, A; Mutinelli, F

    2010-11-01

    During June and July of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of Peloponnesus (Mt. Mainalo), Greece. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. In total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. The samples were tested for a range of pests, pathogens and pesticides. Symptomatic adult honey bees tested positive for Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae, Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Acute paralysis virus (ABPV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), but negative for Acarapis woodi. American Foulbrood was absent from the brood samples. Chemical analysis revealed that amitraz, thiametoxan, clothianidin and acetamiprid were all absent from symptomatic adult bees, sugar and sugar patty samples. However, some bee samples, were contaminated with imidacloprid in concentrations between 14 ng/g and 39 ng/g tissue. We present: the infection of Greek honey bees by multiple viruses; the presence of N. ceranae in Greek honey bees and the first record of imidacloprid (neonicotonoid) residues in Greek honey bee tissues. The presence of multiple pathogens and pesticides made it difficult to associate a single specific cause to the depopulation phenomena observed in Greece, although we believe that viruses and N. ceranae synergistically played the most important role. A follow-up in-depth survey across all Greek regions is required to provide context to these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertigo with sudden hearing loss: audio-vestibular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, Jacob M; Taylor, Rachael L; Young, Allison S; McGarvie, Leigh A; Flanagan, Sean; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-01

    Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0.45 ± 0.20). Only 41 % showed impairment of the horizontal canal gains (0.78 ± 0.27) and 30 % of the anterior canal gains (0.79 ± 0.26), while 38 % of oVEMPs [asymmetry ratio (AR) = 41.0 ± 41.3 %] and 33 % of cVEMPs (AR = 47.3 ± 41.2 %) were significantly asymmetrical. Twenty-three subjects were diagnosed with labyrinthitis/labyrinthine infarction in the absence of evidence for an underlying pathology. Four subjects had a definitive diagnosis [Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, vestibular schwannoma, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction, and traction injury]. Ischemia involving the common-cochlear or vestibulo-cochlear branches of the labyrinthine artery could be the simplest explanation for vertigo with SSNHL. Audio-vestibular tests did not provide easy separation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic causes of vertigo with SSNHL.

  12. Sudden unexpected death in infancy: place and time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.

  13. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.

  14. Major life events as potential triggers of sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, April F; Lumley, Thomas; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara; Strogatz, David S; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Siscovick, David S

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in association with the recent loss of, or separation from, a family member or friend. Our case-crossover study included 490 apparently healthy married residents of King County, Washington, who suffered sudden cardiac arrest between 1988 and 2005. We compared exposure to spouse-reported family/friend events occurring ≤ 1 month before sudden cardiac arrest with events occurring in the previous 5 months. We evaluated potential effect modification by habitual vigorous physical activity. Recent family/friend events were associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.4). ORs for cases with and without habitual vigorous physical activity were 1.1 (0.6-2.2) and 2.0 (1.2-3.1), respectively (interaction P = 0.02). These results suggest family/friend events may trigger sudden cardiac arrest and raise the hypothesis that habitual vigorous physical activity may lower susceptibility to these potential triggers.

  15. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children: Etiology, management, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitaro, Jacob; Bechor-Fellner, Avital; Gavriel, Haim; Marom, Tal; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is uncommon, and the current guidelines for its management refer to adults. Our objective was to review cases of SSNHL in children and examine their etiologies, management, and outcome. We performed a retrospective chart review of all children under the age of 18 years treated for SSNHL between January 2003 and September 2014. Data recorded included age, gender, symptoms, onset of hearing loss, audiometric results, diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Nineteen children were included. Mean age was 14 years (range 7-18 years). Male: female ratio was 9:10. Degree of hearing loss varied from mild to profound across the tested frequencies. Most common accompanying symptom was tinnitus. Serologic tests demonstrated recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in one patient and previous cytomegalovirus infection in six patients. Imaging studies included computed tomography scan (n=3) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (n=12). All imaging studies did not demonstrate any pathology. Treatment included systemic steroids in 19 (100%) children and intratympanic steroids in eight (42%). Hearing completely improved in three (16%) children, partially improved in nine (47%), and there was no improvement in six (32%). One child was lost to follow-up. Viral infection was a common finding in children with SSNHL and no pathological changes were demonstrated on imaging studies. In most patients (63%), hearing improvement was observed. Intratympanic steroid injection can benefit these children. Further studies are required to investigate the etiologies and establish guidelines for the management of SSNHL in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  17. Can sudden cardiac death in the young be predicted and prevented? Lessons from autopsy for the emergency physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer L; Chang, Anna Marie; Cesar, Sergi; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia

    2018-06-01

    Sudden unexpected death in the young, though rare, is devastating for both the family and the community. Although only 1.3 to 8.5 cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) occur per 100 000 young people, autopsy is often inconclusive. Many causes of SCD are related to autosomal dominant inherited risk, however; therefore, answers are important for survivors. Causes of autopsy-positive SCD in young patients include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Autopsy-negative SCD has been related to inherited arrhythmogenic causes such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Wolff- Parkinson-White syndrome, and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. The important question for the emergency physician is how SCD can be predicted and prevented in the young so that there is no need for an autopsy.

  18. Sudden entanglement death, and ways to avoid it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Ting Yu

    2005-01-01

    We report that non-communicating but entangled qubit pairs are almost universally liable to sudden entanglement death. In the presence of minor and purely local environmental noises their mixed-state entanglement may abruptly become zero long before the noises are able to destroy the local qubit coherence. Despite the inability of unitary transformations to alter entanglement, for example of Werner states, unitary transformations have been found to delay or defeat the sudden death event. These results upset the conventional understanding that entanglement lifetime can be estimated from qubit lifetime. This is not even approximately or qualitatively true. (author)

  19. Sudden switching in two-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakov, Kh Kh; McGuire, J H; Kaplan, L; Uskov, D; Chalastaras, A

    2006-01-01

    Analytic solutions are developed for two-state systems (e.g. qubits) strongly perturbed by a series of rapidly changing pulses, called 'kicks'. The evolution matrix may be expressed as a time-ordered product of evolution matrices for single kicks. Single, double and triple kicks are explicitly considered, and the onset of observability of time ordering is examined. The effects of different order of kicks on the dynamics of the system are studied and compared with effects of time ordering in general. To determine the range of validity of this approach, the effect of using pulses of finite widths for 2s-2p transitions in atomic hydrogen is examined numerically

  20. [Analyses of clinical features and efficacy of sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Demin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Yongxin; Gong, Shusheng; Chen, Xiuwu; Meng, Xixi; Tang, Junxiang; Xiang, Jie; Jiang, Xuejun; Yang, Ning; Tian, Ying; Hui, Lian; Feng, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and the effect of drug treatment for sudden hearing loss with vertigo or dizziness. In a prospective, randomized, single blinded randomized multicenter clinical study, patients with sudden deafness, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years old, with a duration less than 2 weeks, and with no any medical treatments were collected. In accordance with the hearing curve, those patients were divided into four types, i.e., low and intermediate frequency descent type; high frequency descent type; fall flat type; and total deafness type. Each type was treated by four different treatment options, according to the unified design of the random table, and randomly selected one of the options for treatment. The efficacy of the patients with sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness was analyzed statistically after the follow-up for 4 weeks. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. In August 2007 to October 2011, 33 hospitals in the country included 1 024 patients with sudden deafness in line with the inclusion criteria, of whom 296 (28.91%) were accompanied by vertigo/dizziness symptoms, 126 were males and 170 were females, with an average age of (41.2 ± 13.5) years old. types of the different audiometric curves of sudden deafness, the occurrence of complete deafness with vertigo/dizziness was the highest (44.93%), followed by flat down type (25.87%), high frequency descent type (21.28%) and low intermediate frequency descent type (18.54%). After the standard treatment, the vertigo and dizziness symptoms of the sudden deafness patients could disappear, and the hearing in each group was obviously improved. The hearing curative effect on patients accompanied by vertigo/dizziness of low frequency and intermediate frequency descent type was the best, and the total efficiency can reach up to 94.74%, with the cure rate of 68.42%; followed by flat type, in which the total effective rate was 80.76%, with the recovery rate of 22.12%; and

  1. Sudden cardiac arrest as a rare presentation of myxedema coma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhan, Divya; Sapkota, Deepak; Verma, Prakash; Kandel, Saroj; Abdulfattah, Omar; Lixon, Antony; Zwenge, Deribe; Schmidt, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Myxedema coma is a decompensated hypothyroidism which occurs due to long-standing, undiagnosed, or untreated hypothyroidism. Untreated hypothyroidism is known to affect almost all organs including the heart. It is associated with a decrease in cardiac output, stroke volume due to decreased myocardial contractility, and an increase in systemic vascular resistance. It can cause cardiac arrhythmias and the most commonly seen conduction abnormalities are sinus bradycardia, heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and torsade de pointes. The authors report a case of an elderly man who presented with sudden cardiac arrest and myxedema coma and who was successfully revived.

  2. The role of Coxsackievirus A16 in a case of sudden unexplained death in an infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, B. S.; Johnsen, I. B. G.; Engsbro, Anne Line

    2016-01-01

    The Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) is one of the main pathogens causing hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children. It is a low-virulence virus rarely involved in serious illness. It is seen sporadically or in outbreaks all over the world. We report a case of sudden unexplained death in infancy......, SUDI, in a 3 and 1/2 months old infant, in which a thorough post mortem investigation pointed at a fatal infection with CV-A16 as the most likely cause of death. Only five cases of fatal CV-A16 infection have been published and none of these presented as sudden death. The fatal cases involved two...... infants, two young children and an elderly man. Post mortem, pre-autopsy CT-scan and C-reactive protein analysis allowed for an autopsy procedure targeted at a microbiological cause of death. The case illustrates the usefulness of supplementary testing during autopsy. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd....

  3. Sudden oak death disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; N. Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    In March 2000, we established twenty disease progression plots in Marin County to monitor the progress of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (McPherson and others 2005). Plots were located to encompass a...

  4. Vasculopathic Cranial Ocular Motor Neuropathy Following Sudden Emotional Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Purvin, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe three patients who experienced onset of a microvascular ocular motor nerve palsy in the setting of sudden emotional stress. Such emotional states are accompanied by a marked increase in sympathetic tone in some individuals. Mechanisms by which these autonomic changes might produce an ischemic cranial nerve palsy include intra-cranial vasoconstriction and transient systemic hypotension due to alterations in cardiac function.

  5. Picture quiz: a case of sudden severe chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mustafa Abu; Sullivan, P; Stivaros, Stavros M

    2007-01-01

    An 18-year-old male with no previous medical history presented to hospital with sudden onset of acute epigastric pain radiating to the anterior chest wall and both shoulders. There was no history of recent trauma and he had not been vomiting.

  6. Relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and 'sudden cardiac death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.E.; Sundbom, L.; Lundholm, L.

    1989-01-01

    Coronary arteriosclerosis in mini-pigs was produced by combination of hypercholesterolemia and twofold X irradiation of the cardiac region. 15-21 weeks following irradiation 40% of the adult animals and 58% of the juvenils died of 'sudden cardiac death'. The mortality rate decreased significantly after application of the calcium-channel blocking agent nifedipine

  7. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  8. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I.

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  9. Sudden oak death effects on the dynamics of dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Jo& atilde; o Filipe A.N.; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death has impacted forests notable for high-fire risk and contiguous host communities in California and Oregon coastal forest ecosystems. The disease continues to emerge in stands and landscapes with a large biomass of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.&Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H.Oh), and we show that woody debris also...

  10. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  11. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, C.; Burke, M.; Fornes, P.; Gallagher, P. J.; de Gouveia, R. H.; Sheppard, M.; Thiene, G.; van der Wal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of

  12. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2008-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  13. Solar flare effects and storm sudden commencement even in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-05-08

    Variations in the three components of geomagnetic field were observed at the twenty-two geomagnetic Euro-African Observatories during the solar flare that occurred on the 6 May, 1998 at 0080UT and storm sudden commencement that took place on May 8, 1998 at 15.00 UT. The geomagnetic field on 6 May, 1998 was ...

  14. Temporal epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson; Everett M. Hansen; Alan Kanaskie

    2015-01-01

    An effort to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death, has been underway since its discovery in Oregon forests. Using an information-theoretical approach, we sought to model yearly variation in the size of newly infested areas and dispersal distance. Maximum dispersal distances were best modeled by spring and winter...

  15. Collaboratively managing sudden oak death using tangible geospatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Francesco Tonini; Douglas Shoemaker; Richard C. Cobb; Brendan A. Harmon; Vaclav Petras; Anna Petrasova; Helena Mitasova

    2017-01-01

    Failure to build consensus amongst stakeholders has been a primary obstacle barring progress in developing and implementing strategies to manage sudden oak death (SOD). Consensus as to the goals of in situ management of SOD has rarely been reached, because stakeholders’ visions of success vary widely and often compete with each other...

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  17. Sudden cardiac death and acute pathology of coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dantzig, J. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of sudden cardiac death still is a matter of controversy, particularly with respect to the state of the coronary arteries. A recent study has shown a high incidence of acute lesions and suggests a causal relationship. The present study has been designed to verify whether or not acute

  18. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in community-based cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Ding, Ding; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bin; Wang, Taiping; Li, Beixu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Jianfeng; Kwan, Patrick; Wang, Wenzhi; Hong, Zhen; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-11-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is associated with the high premature mortality observed among people with epilepsy. It is, however, considered a rare event in China, probably because of lack of awareness and limitation of studies in the country. We aimed to provide some initial estimation of the burden of SUDEP in China. We established a large Chinese community-based cohort of people with epilepsy between January 2010 and December 2011. For any participant who died during follow-up, detailed information on cause of death was obtained using a specifically designed Verbal Autopsy Questionnaire. All cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel and reinvestigated if necessary. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates were estimated and case details provided. The cohort consisted of 1562 people and during a median 5years follow-up, 72 deaths were reported. The all-causes death incidence was 11.23 (95% CI 8.86-14.07) per 1000 person-years. Fifteen died suddenly and unexpectedly in a reasonable state of health in the week preceding death. We recorded detailed information of these 15 deaths. Thirteen were considered to be probable SUDEP and two possible SUDEP. The incidence of probable SUDEP was 2.03 (95% CI 1.13-3.38) per 1000 person-years, and the incidence of all suspected (probable and possible) SUDEP was 2.34 (95% CI 1.36-3.77) per 1000 person-years. The incidence of SUDEP was relatively high among Chinese people with epilepsy when compared with that in previous community-based studies from high-income countries. The burden of SUDEP in China requires further assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased mast cell tryptase in sudden infant death - anaphylaxis, hypoxia or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edston, E; Gidlund, E; Wickman, M; Ribbing, H; Van Hage-Hamsten, M

    1999-12-01

    Increased concentrations of mast cell tryptase in post mortem blood have frequently been observed in sudden infant deaths but the cause of this has not yet been clarified. The aim was to evaluate factors (immunological, morphological and anamnestic data) behind the observed increase in mast cell tryptase in sudden infant deaths with elevated tryptase. Mast cell tryptase and total immunoglobulin (Ig) E were measured in post mortem sera from 44 infants younger than 1.5 years. Radioallergosorbent tests were performed for possible allergens (mixture for relevant food allergens, Phadiatop and latex). IgG subclasses, IgM, and complement factors (C3, C4 and factor B) were measured with radial immunodiffusion. Mast cells, labelled with antibodies against mast cell tryptase, were counted in the lungs and heart. The circumstances of death and medical history of the deceased infant and family were obtained through police and hospital records. In 40% of the SIDS cases tryptase was elevated (>10 microg/L). Total IgE in serum was increased in 33% compared with clinical reference values but showed no association with mast cell tryptase. RAST tests were positive in three cases. In one of these cases both tryptase and total IgE were elevated. The only variable that was associated with high tryptase values was prone position at death (P Children with elevated total IgE also displayed high concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2. Infants who died in the spring had significantly higher IgE than the others (P < or = 0.05). The results do not support the hypothesis that the elevated tryptase concentrations in sudden infant death are caused by allergy. The association between prone position at death and elevated tryptase could hypothetically be explained by mast cell degranulation due to, for example, a hypoxic stimulus in these infants.

  20. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  1. Analysis of Pre-participation Screening Protocols for Football Players in Europe, USA, and Libya: Possible Implications for Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death in sport participants and may result from undiagnosed cardiac diseases. It has been universally agreed upon that pre-participation screening can identify those athletes at risk of sudden cardiac death, and yet, there is no commonly accepted protocol to screen athletes. Although the European Society of Cardiology (ESC and the American Heart Association (AHA recommend the routine screening of athletes to prevent sudden death, there is significant disagreement regarding the guidelines of the protocols. The American Heart Association protocol includes a detailed medical history and a physical examination, whereas the European Society of Cardiology protocol includes 12-lead electrocardiography with a detailed medical history and a physical examination. The cost benefit of using electrocardiography is debatable, particularly if the screening is used to prevent sudden death associated with uncommon diseases. The Libyan Football Federation established a new seasonal pre-competition medical assessment protocol for Libyan football athletes during the 2013-2014 season, which includes a medical history, physical examination, 12 lead electrocardiography, echocardiography, and blood test. Regardless of cost and differences in protocol, there is a significant value in pre-participation screening for athletes in order to decrease the incidence of sudden cardiac death, and this report examines some of these different protocols as well as their potential for identifying athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death.

  2. Strategy for clinical evaluation and screening of sudden cardiac death relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrero-Miliani, Laura; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Pehrson, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be the first and final manifestation of several heart diseases. In the young, SCD is often caused by a hereditary cardiac disease. As the most frequently seen inherited cardiac diseases have an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance, half of the first......-degree relatives are at risk of having or developing the same disease. Therefore, screening of these high-risk relatives is a rational approach to reduce the incidence of SCD. To offer family screening and counseling, the cause of death should be carefully established. Autopsy is only performed in a limited number...... a limited number of inherited cardiac diseases associated with SCD are without any structural changes. In other cases, the autopsy may reveal noncardiac causes of death, which is also important for reassuring the relatives. However, in cases with no autopsy or negative findings, thorough clinical...

  3. Equatorial storm sudden commencements and interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison is made of the signatures of interplanetary (IP) shocks in the B and theta plots of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data of satellites Explorer 33, 34 and 35 and in the H magnetograms at ground observatories within the equatorial electrojet belt, Huancayo, Addis Ababa and Trivandrum associated with major storm sudden commencements during 1967-70. The IP shocks showing sudden increase of the scalar value of IMF, i.e. B without any change of the latitude theta or with the southward turning of theta, were followed by a purely positive sudden increase of H, at any of the magnetic observatories, either on the dayside or the nightside of the earth. The IP shocks identified by a sudden increase of B and with the northward turning of the latitude theta (positive ΔBsub(z)) were associated with purely positive sudden commencement (SC) at the observatories in the nightside, but at the equatorial observatories in the dayside of the earth the signature of the shock was a SC in H with a preliminary negative impulse followed by the main positive excursion (SC-+). It is suggested that the SCs in H at low latitudes are composed of two effects, viz. (i) one due to hydromagnetic pressure on the magnetosphere by the solar plasma and (ii) the other due to the induced electric field associated with the solar wind velocity, V and the Z-component of the IP magnetic field (E = - V x Bsub(z)). The effect of magnetosphere electric field is faster than the effect due to the compression of the magnetosphere by the impinging solar plasma. The negative impulse of SC-+ at low latitude is seen at stations close to the dip equator and only during daytime due to the existence of high ionospheric conductivities in the equatorial electrojet region. (author)

  4. Effects of pushing height on trunk posture and trunk muscle activity when a cart suddenly starts or stops moving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected sudden (un)loading of the trunk may induce inadequate responses of trunk muscles and uncontrolled trunk motion. These unexpected perturbations may occur in pushing tasks, when the cart suddenly starts moving (unloading) or is blocked by an obstacle (loading). In pushing, handle height affects the user's working posture, which may influence trunk muscle activity and trunk movement in response to the perturbation. Eleven healthy male subjects pushed a 200 kg cart with handles at shoulder and hip height in a start condition (sudden release of brakes) and a stop condition (bumping into an obstacle). Before the perturbation, the baseline of the trunk inclination, internal moment and trunk extensor muscle activity were significantly higher when pushing at hip height than at shoulder height. After the perturbation, the changes in trunk inclination and internal moment were significantly larger when pushing at shoulder height than at hip height in both conditions. The opposite directions of changes in trunk inclination and internal moment suggest that the unexpected perturbations caused uncontrolled trunk motion. Pushing at shoulder height may impose a high risk of low-back injury due to the low trunk stiffness and large involuntary trunk motion occurring after carts suddenly move or stop.

  5. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.

    1994-04-01

    The catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel containing a liquefied substance, leading to an instantaneous release of its whole contents is considered as one of the major technological hazards. Due to the rapid depressurization caused by vessel failure, the fluid becomes superheated and unstable. Part of the fluid will evaporate using its internal energy and the two-phase mixture forming will be accelerated. This flashing process can be very violent, as experiments and incidents actually happened have shown. In the past, a number of dispersion models were developed to predict the history of an instantaneous release. In most of these models the source term is considered to be a gas volume at rest and not a rapidly expanding aerosol, as could be observed. Furthermore, it is usually assumed that all of the remaining fluid is entrained into the expanding cloud and nothing is deposited on the ground to form a pool. This work concentrates on the initial phase of the sudden release of superheated liquids with the aim to gain a better understanding of the flashing process and of the physical mechanisms involved, leading to a reliable prediction of the source term. Therefore, more than 400 experiments with propane, butane, refrigerant 12 and 114 were conducted. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical glass flasks of different sizes. The main parameters varied were the liquid superheat and the filling level of the vessel. Using high-speed video and movie recordings and very fast responding measurement devices, it was possible to study the initial phase of such releases during which gravity plays no role. For sufficiently large released internal energy, the initial evolution of the release was always spherical with a constant radial expansion velocity during he first milliseconds until instabilities appeared at the surface of the droplet/vapor cloud that was formed. For all the experimental conditions, the fraction of the initial liquid falling on the ground

  6. The risk of sudden death in sport in patients with signs of connective tissue dysplasia (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekhanevych O.B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature review indicates that, despite the disclosure of a number of causes and mechanisms of sudden death in people performing physical activities, this issue remains relevant today. The main cause of sudden death in sport is pathological conditions and heart diseases. Par¬ticular risk group during follow-up over persons involved in physical activity are those with the presence of small anomalies; this may be a ma¬nifestation of connective tissue dysplasia. With all the variety of affected organs and systems in patients with connective tissue dysplasia, cardio¬vascular disorders are the leading pathology determining the quality and pro¬gnosis of life.

  7. Sudden Unexpected Death During Sleep in Familial Dysautonomia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Perez, Miguel A; Spalink, Christy L; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death during sleep (SUDS) is the most common cause of death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunction. It remains unknown what causes SUDS in these patients and who is at highest risk. We tested the hypothesis that SUDS in FD is linked to sleep-disordered breathing. We retrospectively identified patients with FD who died suddenly and unexpectedly during sleep and had undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before death. For each case, we sampled one age-matched surviving subject with FD that had also undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before study. Data on polysomnography, EKG, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, arterial blood gases, blood count, and metabolic panel were analyzed. Thirty-two deceased cases and 31 surviving controls were included. Autopsy was available in six cases. Compared with controls, participants with SUDS were more likely to be receiving treatment with fludrocortisone (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval) (OR 29.7; 4.1-213.4), have untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OR 17.4; 1.5-193), and plasma potassium levels Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The dynamic response of housing values to a forest invasive disease: evidence from a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Thomas P Holmes; Jeffrey E Englin; Janice Alexander

    2011-01-01

    “Sudden Oak Death” (Phytophthora ramorum) is a non-indigenous forest pathogen which causes substantial mortality of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimated the time path of residential property values subject to oak mortality using a dataset that spans more than two decades—including...

  9. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  10. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  11. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  12. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Marina L; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S; Grahn, Bruce H; Sandmeyer, Lynne S

    2017-11-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test.

  13. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Marina L.; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S.; Grahn, Bruce H.; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test. PMID:29089658

  14. Familial Atrial Septal Defect and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Johansen, Morten Munk; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect (CHD) and is observed in families as an autosomal dominant trait as well as in nonfamilial CHD. Mutations in the NKX2-5 gene, located on chromosome 5, are associated with ASD, often combined with conduction...... disturbances, cardiomyopathies, complex CHD, and sudden cardiac death as well. Here, we show that NKX2-5 mutations primarily occur in ASD patients with conduction disturbances and heritable ASD. Furthermore, these families are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: We screened 39 probands...... with familial CHD for mutations in NKX2-5 and discovered a novel mutation in one family (2.5%) with ASD and atrioventricular block. A review of the literature revealed 59 different NKX2-5 mutations in 202 patients. Mutations were significantly more common in familial cases compared to nonfamilial cases (P = 7...

  15. Statistical inferences for bearings life using sudden death test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu Cristin-Olimpiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a calculus method for reliability indicators estimation and a complete statistical inferences for three parameters Weibull distribution of bearings life. Using experimental values regarding the durability of bearings tested on stands by the sudden death tests involves a series of particularities of the estimation using maximum likelihood method and statistical inference accomplishment. The paper detailing these features and also provides an example calculation.

  16. A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings

    OpenAIRE

    Matthewman, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...

  17. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.G.; Bowman, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities P/sub n/1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=such thatub f/-n/sub i/ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison

  18. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  19. Electromagnetic mode conversion: understanding waves that suddenly change their nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D B; Berry, L A; Bonoli, P T; Carter, M D; Choi, M; D'Azevedo, E; D'Ippolito, D A; Gorelenkov, N; Harvey, R W; Jaeger, E F; Myra, J R; Okuda, H; Phillips, C K; Smithe, D N; Wright, J C

    2005-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma, such as in fusion devices or the Earth's magnetosphere, several different kinds of waves can simultaneously exist, having very different physical properties. Under the right conditions one wave can quite suddenly convert to another type. Depending on the case, this can be either a great benefit or a problem for the use of waves to heat and control fusion plasmas. Understanding and accurately modeling such behavior is a major computational challenge

  20. Reduced cerebral perfusion on sudden immersion in ice water: a possible cause of drowning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo; Pedersen, Lars M

    2007-01-01

    Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored the immediate changes...... in cerebral blood flow velocity (Vmean) during cold-water immersion since cold shock induced hyperventilation may diminish Vmean and lead to syncope and drowning....

  1. Resuscitation of sudden cardiac death caused by acute epileptic seizures: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana-Oliviana Geavlete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic long QT syndrome in pediatric patients is a life-threatening condition. Sometimes, this pathology can be misdiagnosed and erroneously managed as generalized epilepsy due to similar clinical manifestations. The presented case discusses a 13-year-old female patient with generalized epilepsy since the age of 4, admitted for two episodes of resuscitated cardiac arrest due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. The final diagnosis of congenital long QT was established and due to the patient's high-risk profile for future cardiac events, implantable cardiac defibrillator was subsequently indicated. Early recognition of congenital long QT and timing of cardiac therapy were crucial and potentially lower the incidence of fatal dysrhythmias commonly associated this condition. In high-risk patients, both medical and interventional therapy can be life-saving.

  2. Indicators of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as a Cause of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Zachariah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may present with cardiac arrest (SAH-CA. We report a case of SAH-CA to assist providers in distinguishing SAH as an etiology of cardiac arrest despite electrocardiogram findings that may be suggestive of a cardiac etiology. SAH-CA is associated with high rates of return of spontaneous circulation, but overall poor outcome. An initially non-shockable cardiac rhythm and the absence of brain stem reflexes are important clues in indentifying SAH-CA.

  3. Reduced cerebral perfusion on sudden immersion in ice water: a possible cause of drowning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo; Pedersen, Lars M

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored the imme......INTRODUCTION: Near-drowning incidents and drowning deaths after accidental immersion in open waters have been linked to cold shock response. It consists of inspiratory gasps, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and hypertension in the first 2-3 min of cold-water immersion. This study explored...... cerebral artery (MCA) was measured together with ventilatory parameters and heart rate before, during, and after immersion. RESULTS: Within seconds after immersion in ice water, heart rate increased from 74 +/- 16 to 107 +/- 18 bpm (mean +/- SD; p elevation...

  4. Bond rearrangement caused by sudden single and multiple ionization of water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Sayler, A. Max; Leonard, M.; Maseberg, J.W.; Hathiramani, D.; Wells, E.; Smith, M.A.; Xia, Jiangfan; Wang, Pengqian; Carnes, K.D.; Esry, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Bond rearrangement, namely the dissociation of water into H 2 + +O q+ following ionization by fast proton and highly charged ion impact, was investigated. Single ionization by fast proton impact exhibits a strong isotopic effect, the dissociation of H 2 O + ->H 2 + +O being about twice as likely as D 2 O + ->D 2 + +O, with HDO + ->HD + +O in between. This suggests that the bond rearrangement does not happen during the slow dissociation, but rather during the very fast ionization, and thus H 2 + should also be produced when the water molecule is multiply ionized. We observed that the H 2 + +O + and H 2 + +O 2+ production in 1MeV/amu F 7+ +H 2 O collisions are 0.209+/-0.006% and 0.0665+/-0.003%, respectively, of the main double-ionization dissociation product, H 2 O 2+ ->H + +OH + . This ratio is similar to the triple to double ionization ratio in similar collisions with atomic targets thus suggesting that the bond-rearrangement fraction out of each ionization level is approximately constant. Similar dissociation channels in the heavier water isotopes, which are expected to be smaller, are under study. Finally, the fragmentation of HDO exhibits very strong isotopic preference for breaking the OH bond over the OD bond

  5. The sudden and unexpected death of a female-to-male transsexual patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Nishida, Naoki; Ikeda, Noriaki; Tsuji, Akiko; Kudo, Keiko; Hanagama, Masakazu; Nata, Masayuki

    2007-08-01

    A 32-year-old woman, who was intramuscularly injected with testosterone enanthate (125 mg) once or twice a month over a two-year period for female-to-male transsexualism, died suddenly. A forensic autopsy was performed to investigate the cause of death. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was macroscopically observed. In the left and right coronary arteries, atherosclerosis was generally observed within the endothelium. In particular, there was severe stenosis (>90%) at the start of the left descending branch. In the myocardium, both coagulation necrosis and contraction band necrosis were microscopically observed. Moreover, myocardial fibrosis and myocardial calcification were diffusely detected, respectively. The cause of death was diagnosed as ischemic heart disease due to coronary stenosis. There is some debate as to whether cross-hormone replacement is related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease or not, however, it is possible that the development of ischemic heart disease was aggravated by the administration of testosterone enanthate in the current case.

  6. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M

    1990-01-01

    .04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs......Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0...... of pneumonia. Even though chlamydia inclusions were detected in the lungs of 32 SIDS cases a causal relation between chlamydia infection and SIDS could not be demonstrated....

  7. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  8. Sudden unexpected death due to Graves' disease during physical altercation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dengming; Yuan, Xiaogang; Yang, Tiantong; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Xiang; Burke, Allen; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. [Idiopathic sudden deafness: a report of 96 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabanou, F; Bera, G; Vincent, C

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the management of idiopathic sudden deafness indicating the usefulness of biological assessments and the pronostic factors of hearing recovery. This is a retrospective study of 96 patients with idiopathic sudden deafness referred to a tertiary centre between 2005 and 2009 treated with corticosteroids intravenously at a daily dose of 1 mg/kg. Mean tonal thresholds were assessed (PTA = [500 Hz + 1000 Hz + 2000 Hz + 4000 Hz]/4). Each audiogram was classified as five classes according to its frequency profile. The hearing recovery is significant between D0-D5 and D5-M1 for the frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. For 4 kHz, the recovery is significant between 0 and J5. There is no statistically significant correlation between the presence of associated signs (tinnitus, vertigo) and hearing recovery. Hearing recovery according to the five types of audiograms has the same evolution in the follow-up time but with audiograms type E (cophosis or subcophosis) often associated with an hyporeactivity at the videonystagmography. The presence of cardiovascular disease is a predictor of poor hearing recovery. The usefullness of systematic extensive blood tests is low. In sudden deafness, the maximum hearing recovery takes place in the month following the onset of symptoms. The predictors of poor hearing recovery are an initial mean threshold > 70 dB, the existence of an associated cardiovascular disease.

  10. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: A Retrospective Autopsy Study of 112 Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oğuzhan; Şanli, Ahmet Necati; Koç, Sermet

    2017-09-01

    Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In Istanbul, the cases of 20334 autopsied patients who were referred to The Ministry of Justice Council of Forensic Medicine between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the complete forensic autopsy data of the city and were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed through the parameters of demographical data, physical properties, incident features, macroscopic-microscopic autopsy findings, and cause of death initially for all cases and then separately for SUDEP cases. Among the 20334 patients, 112 were determined to have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. A possible macroscopic and/or microscopic epileptic focus was present in 23 (20.5%) of these 112 cases. The cause of death was determined to be SUDEP in 40 (35.7%) cases, while it could not be determined in 28 (25%) cases. Among patients whose death cause was considered as SUDEP, the male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, while the mean age was 31.5±13.9 years in males and 29.6±12.9 years in females. The presence of hypertrophy and myocardial scar tissue findings in the microscopic examination were significantly more frequent among patients determined to have died from cardiovascular diseases compared to patients in the SUDEP group (p=0.001 for each finding

  11. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  12. How sudden is a compelling desire to void? An observational cystometric study on the suddenness of this sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate whether a compelling desire to void (CDV) is always perceived suddenly, or whether it can result from the gradual build-up of bladder-filling sensations. The pattern of filling sensations was evaluated during standard cystometric bladder filling in 75 patients who complained of urgency and showed detrusor overactivity during cystometry. Cystometric filling ended when a CDV was reported. The 'warning volume' is defined as the difference in volume between the first perception of filling and the volume at CDV. Different patterns of bladder-filling sensations were reported. A CDV occurred suddenly, without a preceding sensation in 13% of the patients, whereas 66% reported at least two normal preceding filling sensations before a CDV. The bladder volume at the CDV was significantly smaller in patients that reported no or just one preceding sensation compared with those that reported the normal pattern of two or three sensations (P perception was reported was not different regardless of whether it was described as a first sensation of filling, a first desire or a CDV (P = 0.42). The warning volumes were not different between patients with one or no standardized filling sensations (P = 0.7), but they were significantly smaller than in patients with two or three filling sensations (P = 0.85). A CDV can occur suddenly if normal filling sensation is disturbed, but also gradually if normal filling sensation is preserved. In cases of disturbed filling sensation, the volume at CDV and the warning volume are significantly lower.

  13. Síndrome de muerte súbita del lactante Sudden infant death syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marlen Avalos González

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En nuestra área de salud se presentó un caso de muerte súbita del lactante, en un paciente de 7 meses de edad, masculino, con antecedentes de salud anterior y antecedentes patológicos familiares negativos. Fue inexplicable su muerte, aun después de realizada una necropsia completa, la investigación de la escena de la muerte y la evaluación de la historia clínica del niño y su familia. El síndrome de muerte súbita del lactante es de causa desconocida, lo más probable es que sea de etiología multifactorial, se debe de estar alerta para evitar los factores que se asocian con mayor frecuencia a estos niños y así prevenir la aparición de este síndrome.In our health area, there was a case of sudden infant death, in a patient aged 7 months, male, with previous health backgrounds and negative family pathologic backgrounds. Its death was inexplicable, even after a complete necropsy, the research of death scene, and the medical record assessment of child and its family. Sudden infant death syndrome is an unknown cause, probably of multifactor origin. We must to be on the alert to avoid the more frequent factors associating with these children, and thus to prevent appearance of this syndrome.

  14. Sudden death and paroxysmal autonomic dysfunction in stiff-man syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, H; Schwartzman, M J; Estes, M L; Chou, S M; La Franchise, E F; De Camilli, P; Solimena, M

    1991-04-01

    Two women with typical stiff-man syndrome (SMS) developed increasingly frequent attacks of muscle spasms with severe paroxysmal autonomic dysfunctions such as transient hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, tachycardia, pupillary dilation, and arterial hypertension. Autoantibodies to GABA-ergic neurons were identified in the serum of both patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one. Both died suddenly and unexpectedly. General autopsy did not reveal the cause of death. Neuropathological studies revealed perivascular gliosis in the spinal cord and brain stem of one patient and lymphocytic perivascular infiltration in the spinal cord, brain stem, and basal ganglia of the other. The occurrence of a chronic inflammatory reaction in one of the two patients supports the idea that an autoimmune disease against GABA-ergic neurons may be involved in SMS. A review of the literature indicates that functional impairment in SMS is severe and prognosis is unpredictable because of the potential for sudden and unexpected death. Both muscular abnormalities and autonomic dysfunctions may result from autoimmunity directed against GABA-ergic neurons.

  15. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, substance misuse, and smoking in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kamal Ali, Na’eem Ahmed, Anne GreenoughDivision of Asthma, Allergy, and Lung Biology, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King’s College Hospital, London, United KingdomAbstract: In the developed world, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death in the post neonatal period. This review highlights the association between maternal substance misuse and SIDS, and discusses whether the increased risk is explained by abnormalities of respiratory control. Substance misuse during pregnancy is common, and although the incidence of smoking has declined in recent years among pregnant women, an increasing proportion of mothers of infants who have died of SIDS smoke. The risk of SIDS is increased in women who take opiates, but not cocaine or marijuana, although infants exposed to either of these drugs suffer morbidity, including reduced birth weight. Nicotine exposure increases the risk of SIDS, particularly if both parents smoke, and there is a dose-dependent effect. A variety of respiratory abnormalities have been described in the infants of substance abuse mothers, which may increase their risk of SIDS. These abnormalities include a reduced ability to recover from prolonged apnea and a blunted response to hypoxia and hypercarbia. These results are consistent with postmortem brainstem abnormalities reported among SIDS victims.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, nicotine, opiates

  16. Sudden illness while driving a vehicle--a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Gomei, Sayaka; Okubo, Takao; Tokudome, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers to clarify the background of incidents of sudden illness while driving. The analysis used reports submitted by employers to the Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism regarding commercial drivers who had been ordered to stop driving owing to health problems. Of 211 cases with an average work history of 15.2 years, there were 88 bus drivers, 70 taxi drivers, and 53 truck drivers, 36.0% of who had died as a result of their disease. Among taxi and truck drivers, more than 70% of incidents were due to cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease. More than 80% of these were unable to avoid traffic accidents caused by sudden illness. However, among bus drivers, cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease accounted for only 23.5% of incidents, and accidents were avoided in more than half of the cases. The duration between starting work and the incident time was significantly shorter among bus drivers [mean 3.3 hours, standard deviation (SD) 3.1] than taxi (7.7 hours, SD 5.8) and truck (7.2 hours, SD 6.3) drivers (Pprevent disabling events while driving. As a precaution, physicians should advise commercial drivers to stop driving as soon as they detect slight discomfort. To prevent accidents, more assertive health promotion aimed at professional drivers is needed.

  17. Hypothesis: holiday sudden cardiac death: food and alcohol inhibition of SULT1A enzymes as a precipitant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a significant health issue, causing millions of deaths worldwide annually. Studies have found that the likelihood of such death is higher in winter. Further studies identified that the highest likelihood occurs on Christmas Day and New Years Day, but not the interim period. Thanksgiving, Independence Day and the Islamic holiday Eid Al-Fitr also show significant increases in the rate of cardiac events or death. A number of mechanisms have been proposed, but none have satisfactorily explained the evidence. This article reviews the data supporting the existence of a holiday cardiac death phenomenon, the involvement of catecholamines and the normal modes of human catecholamine deactivation. Further evidence is reviewed that supports a hypothesized mechanism whereby critical SULT1A catecholamine deactivation enzymes can in some patients be inhibited by naturally-occurring phenols and polyphenols in foods and alcohols. If deactivation is inhibited by holiday consumption excesses, holiday stress or excitement could lead to a buildup of catecholamines that can cause fatal arrhythmias. Awareness of this mechanism could reduce deaths, both through doctor/patient education leading to a moderation in consumption and through the potential identification of patients with a predisposition to SULT1A inhibition. This hypothesis also raises parallels between sudden cardiac death in adults and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The possible involvement of SULT1A inhibition in SIDS is discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hypothesis Holiday sudden cardiac death: food and alcohol inhibition of SULT1A enzymes as a precipitant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a significant health issue, causing millions of deaths worldwide annually. Studies have found that the likelihood of such death is higher in winter. Further studies identified that the highest likelihood occurs on Christmas Day and New Years Day, but not the interim period. Thanksgiving, Independence Day and the Islamic holiday Eid Al-Fitr also show significant increases in the rate of cardiac events or death. A number of mechanisms have been proposed, but none have satisfactorily explained the evidence. This article reviews the data supporting the existence of a holiday cardiac death phenomenon, the involvement of catecholamines and the normal modes of human catecholamine deactivation. Further evidence is reviewed that supports a hypothesized mechanism whereby critical SULT1A catecholamine deactivation enzymes can in some patients be inhibited by naturally-occurring phenols and polyphenols in foods and alcohols. If deactivation is inhibited by holiday consumption excesses, holiday stress or excitement could lead to a buildup of catecholamines that can cause fatal arrhythmias. Awareness of this mechanism could reduce deaths, both through doctor/patient education leading to a moderation in consumption and through the potential identification of patients with a predisposition to SULT1A inhibition. This hypothesis also raises parallels between sudden cardiac death in adults and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The possible involvement of SULT1A inhibition in SIDS is discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22678655

  19. Parametric Study on Responses of a Self-Anchored Suspension Bridge to Sudden Breakage of a Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  20. Parametric study on responses of a self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of a hanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenliang; Jiang, Meng; Huang, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.

  1. Responses of oaks and tanoaks to the sudden oak death pathogen after 8 y of monitoring in two coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most...

  2. Impact velocities of the teeth after a sudden unloading at various initial bite forces, degrees of mouth opening, and distances of travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagashima, T; Slager, GEC; Broekhuijsen, ML; vanWilligen, JD

    A potentially dangerous situation arises when an individual bites on hard and brittle food which suddenly breaks, since the impact velocity of the lower teeth onto the upper teeth after the food is broken can be high and may cause dental damage. The present experiments were designed to study the

  3. The effect of classification of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death on the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy in the CARE-HF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uretsky, B.; Cleland, J.G.F.; Freemantle, N.

    2006-01-01

    other cause were classified as SCD with the following levels of certainty: definite: witnessed SCD with documented arrhythmia; probable (witnessed)and possible (unwitnessed) SCD without documented arrhythmia. Results: The mode of death was sudden in 86 patients, of whom 71 were considered SCD: 10...

  4. Sudden cardiac death in dogs with remodeled hearts is associated with larger beat-to-beat variability of repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Truin, Michiel; van Opstal, Jurren M

    2005-01-01

    Increased proarrhythmia in dogs with chronic AV block (AVB) has been explained by ventricular remodeling causing a decrease in repolarization reserve. Beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR) has been suggested to reflect repolarization reserve, in which high variability represents...... diminished reserve and larger propensity for repolarization-dependent ventricular arrhythmia. A subset of chronic AVB dogs (10%) suffers sudden cardiac death (SCD). With the assumption that repolarization defects constitute a potentially lethal proarrhythmic substrate, we hypothesized that BVR in SCD dogs...... are larger than in matched control chronic AVB dogs. From a population of 200 chronic AVB dogs, initially two groups were chosen retrospectively: 8 dogs that died suddenly (SCD) and 8 control dogs. Control dogs had a longer lifespan after AVB (10 to 18 weeks) than SCD dogs (5 to 10 weeks). All dogs had...

  5. Sudden gains in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A; Smith-Janik, Shannan B

    2008-11-01

    The current study investigates sudden gains (rapid symptom reduction) in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Sudden gains occurring after session 2 of treatment predicted overall symptom reduction at treatment termination and some changes in cognitive biases. Meanwhile, sudden gains occurring immediately following session 1 were not associated with symptom reduction or cognitive change. Together, this research points to the importance of examining sudden gains across the entire span of treatment, as well as the potential role of sudden gains in recovery from panic disorder.

  6. Streamer knotwilg branching: sudden transition in morphology of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmans, L C J; Clevis, T T J; Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2015-01-01

    We describe a peculiar branching phenomenon in positive repetitive streamer discharges in high purity nitrogen. We name it knotwilg branching after the Dutch word for a pollard willow tree. In a knotwilg branching a thick streamer suddenly splits into many thin streamers. Under some conditions this happens for all streamers in a discharge at about the same distance from the high-voltage electrode tip. At this distance, the thick streamers suddenly bend sharply and appear to propagate over a virtual surface surrounding the high-voltage electrode, rather than following the background electric field lines. From these bent thick streamers many, much thinner, streamers emerge that roughly follow the background electric field lines, creating the characteristic knotwilg branching. We have only found this particular morphology in high purity nitrogen at pressures in the range 50 to 200 mbar and for pulse repetition rates above 1 Hz; the experiments were performed for an electrode distance of 16 cm and for fast voltage pulses of 20 or 30 kV. These observations clearly disagree with common knowledge on streamer propagation. We have analyzed the data of several tens of thousands of discharges to clarify the phenomena. We also present some thoughts on how the ionization of the previous discharges could concentrate into some pre-ionization region near the needle electrode and create the knotwilg morphology, but we present no final explanation. (paper)

  7. Increased resistance to sudden noise by audio stimulation during early ontogeny in German shepherd puppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chaloupková

    Full Text Available The period of early ontogeny constitutes a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is highly susceptible to external stimuli. Thus, early development plays a major role in shaping later adult behavior. The aim of the study was to check whether stimulating puppies at this early stage in life with sound would improve their responsiveness towards unfamiliar noises during the selection process of the police behavioral test for puppies. The cohort comprised 37 puppies from the litters of three mothers. At the commencement of the experiment the dogs were aged 16 days, rising to the age of 32 days at its close. The mothers and litters of the treatment group were either exposed to radio broadcasts, (see below; three litters totaling 19 puppies, while the control group was not exposed to any radio programs (eight litters totaling 18 puppies. All three mothers had previously experienced both auditory circumstances, as described herein. Ordinary radio broadcasts were played to the puppies in the treatment group three times a day for 20 minute periods, always during feeding time. The cohort was subjected to the so-called Puppy Test, i.e. analysis of the potential of each animal, once the dogs had reached the age of 7 weeks. Such tests included exposure to a sudden noise caused by a shovel (100 dB, noise when alone in a room, and response to loud distracting stimuli (the latter two at 70 dB. Said tasks were rated by the same analyst on a scale of 0-5 points; the better the response of the dog, the higher the score given. The differences between the treatment and control groups were analyzed via Mixed Models (PROC MIXED in SAS. The animals comprising the treatment group responded with a higher score to the sudden noise caused by the shovel than the control dogs (P<0.01. Interestingly, gender was seen to affect response, with the males scoring more than the females (P<0.1. In conclusion, the results suggested that audio stimulation early in life

  8. Sudden Cardiac Death in Brazil: A Community-Based Autopsy Series (2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Braggion-Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden cardiac death (SCD is a sudden unexpected event, from a cardiac cause, that occurs in less than one hour after the symptoms onset, in a person without any previous condition that would seem fatal or who was seen without any symptoms 24 hours before found dead. Although it is a relatively frequent event, there are only few reliable data in underdeveloped countries. Objective: We aimed to describe the features of SCD in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil (600,000 residents according to Coroners’ Office autopsy reports. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 4501 autopsy reports between 2006 and 2010, to identify cases of SCD. Specific cause of death as well as demographic information, date, location and time of the event, comorbidities and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was attempted were collected. Results: We identified 899 cases of SCD (20%; the rate was 30/100000 residents per year. The vast majority of cases of SCD involved a coronary artery disease (CAD (64% and occurred in men (67%, between the 6th and the 7th decades of life. Most events occurred during the morning in the home setting (53.3% and CPR was attempted in almost half of victims (49.7%. The most prevalent comorbidity was systemic hypertension (57.3%. Chagas’ disease was present in 49 cases (5.5%. Conclusion: The majority of victims of SCD were men, in their sixties and seventies and the main cause of death was CAD. Chagas’ disease, an important public health problem in Latin America, was found in about 5.5% of the cases.

  9. [Combined treatment supported by piracetam and/or acyclovir in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: experience with 81 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Süleyman Emre; Ozkul, Mehmet Doğan; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Demirhan, Erhan; Yiğitbaşi, Orhan Gazi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of piracetam and acyclovir in treating sudden hearing loss. Eightyone patients (44 males, 37 females; mean age 40.4 year; range 18 to 72 years) who had treatment between January 2002 and December 2006 with diagnosis of idiopathic sudden hearing loss were evaluated retrospectively. These patients were divided into four groups according to the treatment they received. The patients who had combined treatment constituted the first group; those who had combined treatment and piracetam the second; those who had combined treatment and acyclovir the third; those who had combined treatment, acyclovir, and piracetam the fourth group. For the four treatment groups, in the pre-and post-treatment (10th day) evaluation of the treatment efficiency made by calculation of the hearing thresholds in 250-8000 Hz frequencies, no significant difference between the groups was determined (p>0.05). No additional benefit was obtained with acyclovir and piracetam in treatment.

  10. Prediction of local loss coefficient for turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer: Effect of Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansion with a chamfer is studied numerically. • Reynolds number dependency of the local loss coefficient is investigated. • Extended correlation is proposed for estimation of the local loss coefficient. - Abstract: This paper reports the pressure losses in turbulent flows through axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. A parametric study is performed for dimensionless chamfer lengths of 0–0.5, expansion ratios of 2–6, and chamfer angles of 0–45° in a Reynolds number range of 1 × 10 5 –8 × 10 5 . The chamfer effect on the expansion losses and its dependence on the Reynolds number are analyzed in detail along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. On the basis of numerical results, an existing correlation of the local loss coefficient is also extended to take into account the effect of the Reynolds number additionally

  11. Coronary atherosclerosis in sudden cardiac death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.

  12. PHOX2B polyalanine repeat length is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and unclassified sudden infant death in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); F. Liu (Fan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); K. van Duijn (Kate); M. Vermeulen (Mark); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. Engelberts (Adele); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractUnclassified sudden infant death (USID) is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant that remains unexplained after thorough case investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. When the infant is below 1

  13. Nonlinear dynamics, fractals, cardiac physiology and sudden death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose a diametrically opposite viewpoint to the generally accepted tendency of equating healthy function with order and disease with chaos. With regard to the question of sudden cardiac death and chaos, it is suggested that certain features of dynamical chaos related to fractal structure and fractal dynamics may be important organizing principles in normal physiology and that certain pathologies, including ventricular fibrillation, represent a class of 'pathological periodicities'. Some laboratory work bearing on the relation of nonlinear analysis to physiological and pathophysiological data is briefly reviewed, with tentative theories and models described in reference to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

  14. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Zhao, Hai; Kathleen, M. Carley; Su, Zhan; Li, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased.

  15. Two angle dependent reactive infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinek, J.; Kouri, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The reactive infinite order sudden approximation is redeveloped in a manner in which the initial and final arrangement internal angles γ/sub lambda/ amd γ/sub ν/ enter as independent quantities. The analysis follows parallel to that due to Khare, Kouri, and Baer except that matching of the wave function from different arrangements is done in a manner such that no single γ/sub ν/ angle is associated with a particular γ/sub lambda/ angle. As a consequence, the matching surface parameter B/sub lambdanu/ does not occur

  16. Spinal epidermoid cyst with sudden onset of paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidermoid cysts, whether congenital or iatrogenic, are relatively uncommon in the spinal cord. When they occur, the typical location is in the subdural, extramedullary space of the lumbo-sacral region. We describe an unusual presentation in a 3-year-old male child which mimicked astrocytoma clinicoradiologically. The child developed sudden onset of inability in walking and weakness of both lower limbs after a fall. There was a dramatic reversal of symptoms after surgery. Histopathology revealed an epidermoid cyst of the spine. On the first follow-up visit at 3 months, the child was asymptomatic.

  17. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Jun; Su Zhan; Li Hui; Zhao Hai; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased

  18. [Hypertensive crisis and sudden change of vision in young patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Fernández, M S; Martín-Castillejos, C; Armario, P

    2016-01-01

    The sudden change in vision is a medical emergency that must be evaluated immediately to rule out important institutions as systemic vasculitis or ischemic stroke. Its association with hypertensive crisis makes it necessary to rule out accelerated-malignant hypertension, which is accompanied by other retinal disorders (exudates and hemorrhages) and adrenal involvement. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is another entity to consider, as is it not uncommon in the young (12.7% in a series of 848 cases). Its association with hypertension has been described in 32% of cases. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander

    2015-09-25

    We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.

  20. Polymorphisms in the GNAS Gene as Predictors of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieneke, Heinrich; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lande, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the first part of the present study (Diagnostic Data Influence on Disease Management and Relation of Genetic Polymorphisms to Ventricular Tachy-arrhythmia in ICD......). In the second part of the study, SNPs significantly associated with VT were further investigated in 1335 subjects from the Oregon SUDS, a community-based study analyzing causes of SCD. In the DISCOVERY trial, genotypes of 2 SNPs in the GNAS gene were nominally significant in the prospective screening......, of which 1 was successfully replicated in a community-based population of SCD cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a gene variant identified by ICD VT monitoring as a surrogate parameter for SCD and also confirmed in the general population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL...

  1. [Sudden death and cardiovascular complications in Marfan syndrome: impact of surgical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi

    2005-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by abnormalities involving the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The cardiovascular complications of the syndrome lead to a reduced life expectancy for affected individuals if left untreated. Major cause of death include acute aortic dissection, aortic rupture, and sudden death, which resulted from congenital vascular fragility. Such life-threatening complications in Marfan syndrome can be managed effectively, by routine aortic imaging, beta-adrenergic blockade, and prophylactic replacement of the aortic root before the diameter exceeds 5.0 to 5.5 mm. Valve preserving aortic root reconstruction yielded improved postoperative quality of life compared with Bentall operation, by reducing late complications related to anticoagulants. It should be carried out before onset of aortic regurgitation for long-term native valve durability.

  2. The Biological Effects of Kambo: Is There a Relationship Between its Administration and Sudden Death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Gratteri, Santo; Sacco, Matteo A; Fineschi, Vittorio; Magi, Simona; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Viscomi, Graziella; Amoroso, Salvatore; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2018-05-01

    Kambo is a substance obtained from the skin secretions of a frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, popular in the Amazon region, which is administered via the transdermal route. We report a case of 42-year-old man found dead in his house. Near the corpse, a plastic box labeled as "Kambo sticks" was found. The man was a chronic consumer of Kambo and no previous pathology or genetic disease emerged in clinical history from the declaration of his general practitioner. Autopsy investigations and toxicological analysis were performed. The histopathological examination showed left ventricular hypertrophy. Toxicological screening was negative for ethanol and other drugs. Phyllocaerulein, phyllokinin, and deltorphin A were isolated from the Kambo sticks but, only deltorphin A was detected in blood sample. We describe the first forensic case of death associated with Kambo administration. We attempt to explain how its use could be related to the cause of sudden death in this case. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Sudden death after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)--case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Goran; Milosevic, Marko; Zelić, Marko; Stimac, Davor

    2014-12-01

    There are only a few cases found in literature regarding air embolism in endoscopic procedures, especially in connection to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old female patient who suffered from non-Hodgkin lymphoma located in her right groin. She was also diagnosed with choledocholithiasis and underwent ERCP to remove the gallstones. Immediately after the procedure she went into sudden cardiac arrest and subsequently died, despite all of our efforts. We reviewed literature in order to identify possible causes of death because fatal outcome following an uneventful and successful procedure was not expected. It is important to bear in mind all possible complications of ERCP. Our focus during the literature search was on air embolism.

  4. Two Sudden Onsets Capture Attention but Do Not Improve Visual Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Hsiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Onset stimulus can capture attention and then transfer into visual short-term memory. It remains unknown whether two sudden onsets also capture attention and are stored in vSTM. We modified Belopolsky, Kramer, and Godijn's (2008 visual search paradigm to test this issue. Experiment 1 using one onset and replicated Belopolsky et al's results. Two onsets in Experiment 2 were found to capture attention; however, recognition performance for the onsets was only at chance level, showing poor memory. Experiment 3 used a retro-cue to test whether only one of these two onsets can be stored in vSTM. Experiment 4 tested whehter this poor recognition was caused by interference from meory probe. This study has important insights on how attention interacts with memory.

  5. Family-based cardiac screening in relatives of victims of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGorrian, Catherine

    2013-02-03

    AIMS: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) occurs when a person suffers a sudden, unexpected death, with no cause found at postmortem examination. We aimed to describe the cardiac screening outcomes in a population of relatives of SADS victimsMETHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective cohort study of consecutive families attending the Family Heart Screening clinic at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, from January 2007 to September 2011. Family members of SADS victims underwent a standard screening protocol. Adjunct clinical and postmortem information was sought on the proband. Families who had an existing diagnosis, or where the proband had epilepsy, were excluded. Of 115 families identified, 73 were found to fit inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis, with data available on 262 relatives. Over half of the screened family members were female, and the mean age was 38.6 years (standard deviation 15.6). In 22 of 73 families (30%), and 36 of 262 family members (13.7%), a potentially inheritable cause of SADS was detected. Of the population screened, 32 patients (12.2%) were treated with medication, and 5 (1.9%) have received implantable cardiac defibrillators. Of the five families with long QT syndrome (LQTS) who had a pathogenic gene mutation identified, three carried two such mutations.CONCLUSION: In keeping with international estimates, 30% of families of SADS victims were found to have a potentially inherited cardiac disease. The most common positive finding was LQTS. Advances in postmortem standards and genetic studies may assist in achieving more diagnoses in these families.

  6. Exact scattering solutions in an energy sudden (ES) representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B.; Eno, L.; Rabitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we lay down the theoretical foundations for computing exact scattering wave functions in a reference frame which moves in unison with the system internal coordinates. In this frame the (internal) coordinates appear to be fixed and its adoption leads very naturally (in zeroth order) to the energy sudden (ES) approximation [and the related infinite order sudden (IOS) method]. For this reason we call the new representation for describing the exact dynamics of a many channel scattering problem, the ES representation. Exact scattering solutions are derived in both time dependent and time independent frameworks for the representation and many interesting results in these frames are established. It is shown, e.g., that in a time dependent frame the usual Schroedinger propagator factorizes into internal Hamiltonian, ES, and energy correcting propagators. We also show that in a time independent frame the full Green's functions can be similarly factorized. Another important feature of the new representation is that it forms a firm foundation for seeking corrections to the ES approximation. Thus, for example, the singularity which arises in conventional perturbative expansions of the full Green's functions (with the ES Green's function as the zeroth order solution) is avoided in the ES representation. Finally, a number of both time independent and time dependent ES correction schemes are suggested

  7. Transformation priming helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Braun, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Retinal input is riddled with abrupt transients due to self-motion, changes in illumination, object-motion, etc. Our visual system must correctly interpret each of these changes to keep visual perception consistent and sensitive. This poses an enormous challenge, as many transients are highly ambiguous in that they are consistent with many alternative physical transformations. Here we investigated inter-trial effects in three situations with sudden and ambiguous transients, each presenting two alternative appearances (rotation-reversing structure-from-motion, polarity-reversing shape-from-shading, and streaming-bouncing object collisions). In every situation, we observed priming of transformations as the outcome perceived in earlier trials tended to repeat in subsequent trials and this repetition was contingent on perceptual experience. The observed priming was specific to transformations and did not originate in priming of perceptual states preceding a transient. Moreover, transformation priming was independent of attention and specific to low level stimulus attributes. In summary, we show how "transformation priors" and experience-driven updating of such priors helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs. We discuss how dynamic transformation priors can be instantiated as "transition energies" in an "energy landscape" model of the visual perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenotype-driven molecular autopsy for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, F; Corbett, M; O'Sullivan, D; Tennant, S; Hailey, H; Grieve, J H K; Broadhurst, P; Rankin, R; Dean, J C S

    2017-01-01

    A phenotype-driven approach to molecular autopsy based in a multidisciplinary team comprising clinical and laboratory genetics, forensic medicine and cardiology is described. Over a 13 year period, molecular autopsy was undertaken in 96 sudden cardiac death cases. A total of 46 cases aged 1-40 years had normal hearts and suspected arrhythmic death. Seven (15%) had likely pathogenic variants in ion channelopathy genes [KCNQ1 (1), KCNH2 (4), SCN5A (1), RyR2(1)]. Fifty cases aged between 2 and 67 had a cardiomyopathy. Twenty-five had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), 10 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 15 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Likely pathogenic variants were found in three ARVC cases (12%) in PKP2, DSC2 or DSP, two DCM cases (20%) in MYH7, and four HCM cases (27%) in MYBPC3 (3) or MYH7 (1). Uptake of cascade screening in relatives was higher when a molecular diagnosis was made at autopsy. In three families, variants previously published as pathogenic were detected, but clinical investigation revealed no abnormalities in carrier relatives. With a conservative approach to defining pathogenicity of sequence variants incorporating family phenotype information and population genomic data, a molecular diagnosis was made in 15% of sudden arrhythmic deaths and 18% of cardiomyopathy deaths. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sudden cardiac death with triple pathologies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razuin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game. He was resuscitated but expired at the hospital after a brief admission. A week earlier, he had a similar episode of syncope and revived through cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at the site. Post mortem examination showed extensive acute myocardial infarction (AMI involving the papillary muscles and the left ventricular wall. Features of LVNC were also observed. On top of that, the right ventricle showed patchy thin myocardium as the wall was largely comprised of fat. Histology examination confirmed the presence of AMI and massive fibro-fatty infiltrations of the right ventricle. This unfortunate young man had co-existing cardiomyopathies which is rare indeed. As he succumbed to AMI, this mechanism of death is also uncommonly associated with neither LVNC nor ARVC. In conclusion, young and physically active individuals may not be spared of sudden cardiac death. Mild and non-specific symptoms should not be taken lightly as it may be the subtle signs of cardiomyopathies.

  10. Brugada Syndrome: Are we doing enough to prevent sudden death?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksh, Jahangir A.; Al-Hersi, Ahmad S.; Al-Nozha, Mansour M.

    2007-01-01

    Burgada syndrome (BS) is an inherited arrythmogenic disease characterized by typical ECG changes in the form of an SR pattern in VI to V2, and ST segment elevation in VI to V3 and prolongation of the QT interval in right precordial leads. This syndrome carries an increased risk of sudden death due to arrhythmias. This disease was first described in 1992 by Joseph Brugada et al and was named Brugada syndrome by Yan and Antzelvich in 1996. By 2003 more than 600 patients had been reported by Brugada et al and hundreds by others. A genetic aspect to BS is now recognized and been linked to the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A. Over five dozen mutations in SCN5A have been identified. Accentuation of the right ventricular notch under pathophysiological conditions leads to exaggeration of the J-wave or J-point elevation and a saddle-shaped configuration of the repolarisation waves. Diagnosis is essentially by electrocardiogram either by spontaneous changes or by provocation by sodium channel blockers drugs, e.g., procainamide, flecainide. The role of electrophysiological studies in induction of arrhythmia in asymptomatic individuals by electron beam computed tomography and signal-averaged electrocardiogram is not settled. Unfortunately, an effective drug is not available is not available at present, but quinidine has a place in treatment. New promising drugs are emerging like cilostazol and tedisamil. At present, implantation of an ICD is the only effective means of preventing sudden death. (author)

  11. Use of Cardiac Injury Markers in the Postmortem Diagnosis of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; López-Amador, Noé

    2017-09-01

    In the daily practice of forensic pathology, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a diagnostic challenge. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of blood biomarkers [creatine kinase CK-MB, myoglobin, troponins I and T (cTn-I and T), and lactate dehydrogenase] measured by immunoassay technique, in the postmortem diagnosis of SCD. Two groups were compared, 20 corpses with SCD and 8 controls. Statistical significance was determined by variance analysis procedures, with a post hoc Tukey multiple range test for comparison of means (p < 0.05). SCD cases showed significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of cTn-T and cTn-I compared to the control group. Although only cases within the first 8 h of postmortem interval were included, and the control group consisted mainly of violent death cases, our results suggest that blood troponin levels may be useful to support a diagnosis of SCD. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Diagnostic yield of molecular autopsy in patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome using targeted exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunn, Laurence M; Lopes, Luis R; Syrris, Petros

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The targeted genetic screening of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS) probands in a molecular autopsy has a diagnostic yield of up to 35%. Exome sequencing has the potential to improve this yield. The primary aim of this study is to examine the feasibility and diagnostic utility...... of targeted exome screening in SADS victims, utilizing familial clinical screening whenever possible. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the feasibility and diagnostic yield of targeted exome sequencing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 59 SADS victims (mean age 25 years, range 1-51 years...... previously published rare (0.02-0.5%) candidate mutations-a total yield of 29%. Co-segregation fully confirmed two private SCN5A Na channel mutations. Variants of unknown significance were detected in a further 34% of probands. CONCLUSION: Molecular autopsy using targeted exome sequencing has a relatively...

  13. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2016-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy-related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  14. Mortality and community changes drive sudden oak death impacts on litterfall and soil nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Richard C; Eviner, Valerie T; Rizzo, David M

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have quantified pathogen impacts to ecosystem processes, despite the fact that pathogens cause or contribute to regional-scale tree mortality. We measured litterfall mass, litterfall chemistry, and soil nitrogen (N) cycling associated with multiple hosts along a gradient of mortality caused by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death. In redwood forests, the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of the major overstory species determine disease patterns and the magnitude and nature of ecosystem change. Bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) has high litterfall N (0.992%), greater soil extractable NO3 -N, and transmits infection without suffering mortality. Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has moderate litterfall N (0.723%) and transmits infection while suffering extensive mortality that leads to higher extractable soil NO3 -N. Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) has relatively low litterfall N (0.519%), does not suffer mortality or transmit the pathogen, but dominates forest biomass. The strongest impact of pathogen-caused mortality was the potential shift in species composition, which will alter litterfall chemistry, patterns and dynamics of litterfall mass, and increase soil NO3 -N availability. Patterns of P. ramorum spread and consequent mortality are closely associated with bay laurel abundances, suggesting this species will drive both disease emergence and subsequent ecosystem function. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  16. The Impact of Sudden Gains in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kacie A.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Monson, Candice M.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated sudden gains, i.e., rapid and stable improvements, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms that may occur in cognitive–behavioral therapy. Twenty-nine of 72 participants (39.2%) experienced a sudden gain during treatment. Mixed model ANOVAs analyzed sudden gains impact on clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, patient-rated PTSD symptom severity, and patient-rated depressive symptom severity. Sudden gains in PTSD symptomology were associated with greater reductions in PTSD symptom severity for the avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters at posttreatment. By 6-month follow-up, the sudden gains group had maintained those reductions in symptoms, but the nonsudden gains group had achieved equal reductions in symptom severity. Participants experiencing sudden gains on PTSD measures had lower depression severity at posttreatment and follow-up. PMID:19637322

  17. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  18. Safe Sleep for Your Baby: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fast facts about SIDS: SIDS is the leading cause of death in babies 1 month to 1 year of ... baby to die suddenly and unexpectedly. Sleep-related causes of infant death are those linked to how or where a ...

  19. Entanglement dynamics following a sudden quench: An exact solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Gupta, Kumar S.; Srivastava, Shashi C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an exact and fully analytical treatment of the entanglement dynamics for an isolated system of N coupled oscillators following a sudden quench of the system parameters. The system is analyzed using the solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger's equation, which are obtained by solving the corresponding nonlinear Ermakov equations. The entanglement entropies exhibit a multi-oscillatory behaviour, where the number of dynamically generated time scales increases with N. The harmonic chains exhibit entanglement revival and for larger values of N (> 10), we find near-critical logarithmic scaling for the entanglement entropy, which is modulated by a time-dependent factor. The N = 2 case is equivalent to the two-site Bose-Hubbard model in the tunneling regime, which is amenable to empirical realization in cold-atom systems.

  20. Sudden flux change studies in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet Program at Fermilab many magnets have been tested which utilize multi strand Rutherford type cable made of state-of-the art Nb 3 Sn strands. During these magnet tests we observed sudden flux changes by monitoring coil voltages and the magnetic field close to the magnets. These flux changes might be linked to magnet instabilities. The voltage spike signals were correlated with quench antenna signals, a strong indication that these are magnet phenomena. With a new high resolution voltage spike detection system, we were able to observe the detailed structure of the spikes. Two fundamentally different signal shapes were distinguished, most likely generated by different mechanisms

  1. Sudden Cardiac Death During Sports Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Bougouin, Wulfran; Sharifzadehgan, Ardalan; Waldmann, Victor; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and overall mortality. Participation in sports is an important determinant of cardiovascular health and fitness. Regular sports activity is associated with a smaller risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, there is a small risk of sports-related SCD. Sports-related SCD accounts for approximately 5% of total SCD. SCD among athletes comprises only a fraction of all sports-related SCD. Sport-related SCD has a male predominance and an average age of affliction of 45 to 50 years. Survival is better than for other SCD. This review summarizes links between sports and SCD and discusses current knowledge and controversies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  3. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  4. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen [Department of Energy Processes, SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  5. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.

  6. Mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac arrest in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Nichols, Gregory A; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2016-02-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is relatively common in the general population with recently reported prevalence of 1% and familial clustering (Framingham Heart Study). However, its association with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and clinical profile of patients with MVP who suffer SCA in the community. Patients with SCA cases were prospectively identified in the population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population ~1 million). The presence of MVP was identified from echocardiograms recorded prior but unrelated to the SCA event. The detailed clinical profile of patients with SCA and MVP was compared with that of SCA patients without MVP to identify potential differences. A total of 729 SCA patients were evaluated over a 12-year period (mean age 69.5 ± 14.8 years; 64.6% men). MVP was observed in 17 (2.3%) prior to the SCA event (95% confidence interval 1.2%-3.4%). Mitral regurgitation was present in 14 SCA patients with MVP (82.3%) and was moderate or severe in 10 (58.8%). Compared with SCA patients without MVP, SCA patients with MVP were younger (mean age 60.9 ± 16.4 years vs 69.7 ± 14.7 years; P = .02), with fewer risk factors (diabetes 5.9% vs 46.4%; P = .001; hypertension 41.2% vs 78.9%; P = .001) or known coronary disease (29.4% vs 65.6%; P MVP was observed in a small proportion (2.3%) of SCA patients in the general population, suggesting a low risk overall. Since SCA patients with MVP were characterized by younger age and relatively low cardiovascular comorbidity, a focus on imaging for valve structure/insufficiency as well as genetics could aid future risk stratification approaches. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of sudden arrhythmic death in a diverse, urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Moffatt, Ellen; Hart, Amy P; Ursell, Philip; Tseng, Zian H

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a major public health problem; however, its true burden remains unknown with widely variable estimates of its incidence. We aimed to examine the contemporary epidemiology and autopsy characteristics of SCD in an ethnically diverse community. Three physicians reviewed all deaths of individuals aged ≥20 years reported to the San Francisco medical examiner in 2007 for presentations fitting World Health Organization (WHO) SCD criteria-within 1 hour of symptom onset (witnessed) or within 24 hours of being observed alive and symptom free (unwitnessed). After comprehensive review of medical examiner investigation, WHO SCDs were classified as sudden arrhythmic death (SAD) or nonarrhythmic death. Coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac mass were evaluated in all SADs undergoing autopsy and compared with demographically similar accidental trauma control deaths. We identified 252 WHO SCDs; 145 were SADs. Men had a 2.2-fold higher SAD rate (P < .0005). Blacks had a 3.15-fold higher SAD rate compared with whites (P = .003). Significant CAD was present in 38.9% of SADs and associated with higher SAD risk compared with control deaths (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.97, P = .026). Mean cardiac mass was linearly associated with risk for SAD in cases without significant CAD (OR 2.06 per 100 g, 95% CI 1.43-2.98, P < .0005). In a diverse, urban population, SAD incidence varied substantially by gender and race. Significant CAD accounted for far fewer SADs than previous studies but remained associated with a 2.6-fold higher risk as compared with control deaths. These findings may reflect the evolving contemporary epidemiology of SCD. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss after intravenous cocaine injection: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Stürmer, Konrad; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of intravenous abuse of cocaine, especially on the inner ear. We report on a 26-year-old man who presented to our outpatient department with a sudden severe hearing loss after intravenous injection of cocaine. The audiogram on admission showed symmetric air conduction levels up to 80 dB at 4 kHz. After treatment with intravenous sodium chloride, prednisolone, and pentoxifylline, the audiogram 2 days later showed a bilateral normacusis. A review of the literature on the topic is given and possible reasons for inner ear damages caused by cocaine are discussed.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Sudden Cardiac Death During Leisure Activities in the Mountains: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Annually, more than 100 million tourists with widely varying health and fitness status are attracted by the mountainous areas around the world. Whereas mountaineering activities may contribute to the well established beneficial effects of regular exercise, for certain individuals these activities are also associated with a relatively high risk of death. This manuscript presents an updated overview of risk and protective factors for sudden cardiac death during leisure activities in the mountains. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been proven to be the most frequent cause of non traumatic death in males aged over 34 years, e.g. during mountain hiking, cross country skiing or downhill skiing. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and, in particular, prior myocardial infarction, are the most important risk factors for SCD, predominantly relevant in downhill skiers. The unusual physical exertion on the first day at altitude, the late morning hours and the prolonged abstinence from food and fluid intake during exercise at altitude are most important triggers. Acute hypoxia may represent a trigger for SCD on the one hand but might also evoke beneficial effects by preconditioning on the other hand. The identification of high-risk subjects and SCD triggers, evidence-based therapy of treatable risk factors, the appropriate individual preparation by physical training, and considering behavioural aspects, especially at the beginning of the physically active altitude sojourn will help to prevent SCD and increase the health benefits generated by mountaineering activities. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome: A Nationwide Study Among the Young in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Engstrøm, Thomas; Albert, Christine M; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation of SADS. We have previously identified all of the autopsied sudden cardiac deaths (SCD; n = 314) in Danes aged 1-35 years between 2000 and 2006. After comprehensive pathological and toxicological investigation did not reveal a cause of SCD, 136 of the patients were identified as SADS. The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among these, 30 (22%) had contacted the healthcare system. Antecedent symptoms (symptoms >24 hours before death) were present in 34 (25%) patients. Prodromal symptoms (symptoms ≤24 hours before death) were present in 23 (17%) patients. Cardiac symptoms included chest pain (n = 16, 12%), dyspnea (n = 18, 13%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced cardiac symptoms before death, most commonly presyncope/syncope, but only one out of five had contacted a healthcare provider with cardiac symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predictors of sudden cardiac death in atrial fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Koene

    Full Text Available We previously reported that incident atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD in the general population. We now aimed to identify predictors of SCD in persons with AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, a community-based cohort study. We included all participants who attended visit 1 (1987-89 and had no prior AF (n = 14,836. Incident AF was identified from study electrocardiograms and hospitalization discharge codes through 2012. SCD was physician-adjudicated. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models, followed by stepwise selection (backwards elimination, removing all variables with p>0.10 to identify predictors of SCD in participants with AF. AF occurred in 2321 (15.6% participants (age 45-64 years, 58% male, 18% black. Over a median of 3.3 years, SCD occurred in 110 of those with AF (4.7%. Predictors of SCD in AF included higher age, body mass index (BMI, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, current smoker, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased heart rate, and decreased albumin. Predictors associated only with SCD and not other cardiovascular (CV death included increased BMI (HR per 5-unit increase, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.97-1.36, p = 0.10, increased heart rate (HR per SD increase, 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.41, p = 0.07, and low albumin (HR per SD decrease 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48, p = 0.03. In the ARIC study, predictors of SCD in AF that are not associated with non-sudden CV death included increased BMI, increased heart rate, and low albumin. Further research to confirm these findings in larger community-based cohorts and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms to facilitate prevention is warranted.

  12. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, A; Basso, L; Di Giacomo, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Basile, U; De Toma, G

    2003-12-01

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.

  13. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector...

  15. A 23-year review of sudden natural death autopsies in the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Death occurring suddenly especially when the victim was active and recently fit, call for attention and thorough investigation to rule out secret homicide. Aim: To study the pattern of sudden natural death in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methodology: The coroner's autopsy reports and hospital autopsy ...

  16. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Ware, James S.; Papadakis, Michael; Tadros, Rafik; Cole, Della; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R.; Pua, Chee J.; Soh, Bee Y.; Bhalshankar, Jaydutt D.; Govind, Risha; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo G.; van der Werf, Christian; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D.; Mellor, Greg; Till, Jan; Cohen, Marta C.; Tome-Esteban, Maria; Sharma, Sanjay; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Cook, Stuart A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) in cases of SADS and

  17. Tympanotomy and sealing of the round window for treatment of sudden deafness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Friis, Søren; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness....

  18. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  19. Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum: a summary of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum, both first recognized about a decade ago, have been the subject of hundreds of scientific and popular press articles. This document presents a comprehensive, concise summary of sudden oak death and P. ramorum research findings and management activities. Topics covered include...

  20. Survival and sudden cardiac death after septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Havndrup, Ole; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse.......Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse....

  1. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...

  2. Population-based studies of antithyroid drugs and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Noord (Charlotte); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • Thyroid hormone free T4 is associated with QTc-interval prolongation, which is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. • The association between hyperthyroidism and ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death has been reported in several

  3. Pressure fluctuation caused by moderate acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kurihara, Chihiro; Kiyama, Akihito

    2017-11-01

    Pressure fluctuation caused by acceleration of a liquid column is observed in various important technologies, e.g. water-hammer in a pipeline. The magnitude of fluctuation can be estimated by two different approaches: When the duration time of acceleration is much shorter than the propagation time for a pressure wave to travel the length of the liquid column, e.g. sudden valve closure for a long pipe, Joukowsky equation is applied. In contrast, if the acceleration duration is much longer, the liquid is modeled as a rigid column, ignoring compressibility of the fluid. However, many of practical cases exist between these two extremes. In this study we propose a model describing pressure fluctuation when the duration of acceleration is in the same order of the propagation time for a pressure wave, i.e. under moderate acceleration. The novel model considers both temporal and spatial evolutions of pressure propagation as well as gradual pressure rise during the acceleration. We conduct experiments in which we impose acceleration to a liquid with varying the length of the liquid column, acceleration duration, and properties of liquids. The ratio between the acceleration duration and the propagation time is in the range of 0.02 - 2. The model agrees well with measurement results. JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26709007 and 17H01246.

  4. Spatial and temporal analyses of citrus sudden death as a tool to generate hypotheses concerning its etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassanezi, Renato B; Bergamin Filho, Armando; Amorim, Lilian; Gimenes-Fernandes, Nelson; Gottwald, Tim R; Bové, Joseph M

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT Citrus sudden death (CSD), a new disease of unknown etiology that affects sweet orange grafted on Rangpur lime, was visually monitored for 14 months in 41 groves in Brazil. Ordinary runs analysis of CSD-symptomatic trees indicated a departure from randomness of symptomatic trees status among immediately adjacent trees mainly within rows. The binomial index of dispersion (D) and the intraclass correlation (k) for various quadrat sizes suggested aggregation of CSD-symptomatic trees for almost all plots within the quadrat sizes tested. Estimated parameters of the binary form of Taylor's power law provided an overall measure of aggregation of CSD-symptomatic trees for all quadrat sizes tested. Aggregation in each plot was dependent on disease incidence. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of proximity patterns suggested that aggregation often existed among quadrats of various sizes up to three lag distances; however, significant lag positions discontinuous from main proximity patterns were rare, indicating a lack of spatial association among discrete foci. Some asymmetry was also detected for some spatial autocorrelation proximity patterns, indicating that within-row versus across-row distributions are not necessarily equivalent. These results were interpreted to mean that the cause of the disease was most likely biotic and its dissemination was common within a local area of influence that extended to approximately six trees in all directions, including adjacent trees. Where asymmetry was indicated, this area of influence was somewhat elliptical. Longer-distance patterns were not detected within the confines of the plot sizes tested. Annual rates of CSD progress based on the Gompertz model ranged from 0.37 to 2.02. Numerous similarities were found between the spatial patterns of CSD and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) described in the literature, both in the presence of the aphid vector, Toxoptera citricida. CSD differs from CTV in that symptoms occur in sweet orange

  5. Sudden unexpected death from natural diseases: Fifteen years' experience with 484 cases in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Ji-Gang; Gao, Peng; Li, Xia; Brewer, Rubell

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and subclassify sudden natural death (sudden death from natural diseases) cases in Seychelles. A total of 484 sudden natural death cases with autopsy at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Victoria Hospital, Seychelles between 1997 through 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 363 cases (75%) were male and 121 (25%) were female. The most frequent sudden deaths were attributed to cardiovascular diseases (78.5%), and then followed by infectious diseases (9.9%), and gastrointestinal diseases (9.1%). This is the largest population-based study on sudden natural deaths in Seychelles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. The molecular autopsy: an indispensable step following sudden cardiac death in the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczek, Nicole J.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Annually thousands of sudden deaths involving young individuals (autopsy. In fact, epidemiological studies have estimated that over half of sudden deaths involving previously healthy young individuals have no morphological abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS), leave no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving investigators to only speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation, through the use of a cardiological and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives and/or a molecular autopsy, may pinpoint the underlying mechanism attributing to the sudden death and allow for the identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable to an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden death. PMID:22993115

  7. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  8. Real-time numerical evaluation of dynamic tests with sudden closing of valves in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geidel, W.; Leimbach, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The sudden closing of a valve in a piping system causes a build-up of pressure which, in turn, causes severe vibrations of the structural system. The licensing procedure calls for on-site tests to determine the dynamic effects of such closing of valves, and to check the stresses and displacements against the allowable ones. The measurements include time histories of displacements, accelerations and internal pressure. The computer program KWUROHR for the static and dynamic analysis of piping systems has been used by KWU and several subcontractors during the past four vears. This program has been extended by adding a subroutine package which computes time histories of displacements, accelerations and stresses resulting from the input of measured time histories of internal pressures at selected locations. The computer algorithm establishes the topological connectivity between the internal pressure measuring locations, to set up a logic for linear pressure interpolation between these points and pressure steps at reducers and valves. A minimum number of input points is required to give realistic results. (orig.)

  9. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  10. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2018-01-01

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  11. Sudden improvement of insulin sensitivity related to an endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Schönauer, M; Busse, M

    2007-12-01

    Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes. A reciprocal relationship exists between diabetes and chronic periodontitis. This report describes the effects of an acute focal dental inflammation and subsequent endodontic treatment on the required insulin dosage of a 70-year-old man who had moderately controlled diabetes. Following an exacerbation of a combined endodontic-periodontic (endo-perio) lesion of tooth #3, the patient noticed a sudden increase in his insulin demand. After 3 weeks, the required dosage was approximately 100% greater. In association with hyperglycemic incidents, he reported a prickling sensation in this tooth. The radiograph showed circular bone loss around the tooth. Just 1 day after the root-canal preparation, the insulin need decreased to approximately 50% of that required prior to treatment. Subsequently, an incision and systemic antibiotics were necessary because of the formation of a periodontal abscess. The insulin demand remained low despite this complication. Forty days after endodontic treatment, the insulin dosage was at a level comparable to that taken 4 weeks before the root-canal preparation. This clinical case revealed a highly relevant correlation between insulin resistance and a local dental inflammation. To avoid an increase in insulin resistance, it seems important to attend to radically non-vital teeth as well as any other dental inflammation in diabetic patients.

  12. Phrenic nerves and diaphragms in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Weber, U; Schröder, J M; Lemke, R; Althoff, H

    1998-01-30

    Disturbances of the respiratory system may be an important factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Even though the diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle in infants, little is known about alterations of this muscle and of the phrenic nerve in SIDS. In the present study, diaphragms and phrenic nerves of 24 SIDS infants and seven controls were analyzed. Morphometric analysis revealed only slightly larger cross sectional areas of phrenic nerve axons but no increase in myelin sheath thickness in SIDS cases. However, in one SIDS case, myelinated nerve fibre density was severely reduced. Using electron microscopy, several nerve fibres of SIDS infants showed focal accumulations of neurofilaments. Muscle fibre diameters in SIDS diaphragms were significantly larger compared to controls (P fibre ruptures and contracture bands were found. These prominent nonspecific ultrastructural alterations should advise caution in the interpretation of morphometric data. Thus, in some cases exemplified by one case of the present series, decreased density of phrenic nerve myelinated axons might contribute to SIDS. Still, the present results indicate that development of phrenic nerves and diaphragms is not delayed in most SIDS infants.

  13. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): a time lag factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G M

    1991-02-01

    A time lag factor of about five days has been identified in an increased incidence of SIDS in relation to a cold day. Sudden exposure to chilling appeared to trigger skeletal muscle weakness and renal failure about five days later in a man found to have only 25% of normal carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in biopsied skeletal muscle. White Muscle Disease is a muscular dystrophy in young ruminants which appears about five days after turnout to pasture in the weaned ruminant raised on a diet deficient in vitamin E and selenium (VESD). Pasture has high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid (high PUFA diet) which are modified by developing rumen bacteria. Corbucci investigated the effects of circulatory shock (cardiogenic) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in humans. Cytochrome oxidase activity fell markedly and, in particular, the capacity to oxidase palmitoyl carnitine was greatly reduced. He considered a consequence of this disorder was sequestration of carnitine as acyl carnitine which could not be recycled. Unusual acyl carnitines have been identified in six out of 13 SIDS victims in a USA group. In Finland, researchers identified a rise in SIDS incidence (mostly found in the prone position) after great and rapid temperature changes. Foster found a relationship between 1984 SIDS incidence and the incidence of goitre in World War I troops.

  14. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids in ICF reactors. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Hoover, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate because increased surface area will enhance the cooling and condensation of coolant ablated by the fusion x rays. Relaxation from the suddenly (neutron) heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The resulting expansion in a diverging geometry will hydrodynamically force the liquid to fragment, with vapor then forming from the new surfaces to fill the cavities. An energy minimization model is used to determine the fragment size that produces the least amount of non-fragment-center-of-mass energy; i.e., the sum of the surface and dilational kinetic energies. This model predicts fragmentation dependence on original system size and amount of isochoric heating as well as liquid density, Grueneisen parameter, surface tension, and sound speed. A two dimensional molecular dynamics code was developed to test the model at a microscopic scale for the Lennard-Jones fluid with its two adjustable constants chosen to represent lithium

  15. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1994-01-01

    Series of experiments were conducted with refrigerants-114, -12, propane and butane to investigate the initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquids due to the catastrophic failure of the vessel containing them. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical flasks of 100 to 2000 ml containing the liquefied, pressurized gases. The variable parameters were the initial superheat, the filling level, the height of the flask above ground, and the relative humidity of the surrounding air. It was found that the initial flashing process is not determined by homogeneous nucleation, but rather by surface instabilities which lead to an evaporation wave traveling from the initial surface towards the center of the released mass. Cloud shape and expansion velocity could be determined from high speed recordings covering the initial stage of the release during which gravity has no influence. When the internal energy was sufficient, it was observed that the expanding droplet/vapor cloud initially propagated spherically with a constant expansion velocity, until Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities appeared at its surface. Information about the pool which can be formed on the ground, the pressure decay within the flask, the droplet size, and the cloud temperature was collected. The experimental findings for the expansion velocity, as well as for the pool fraction, were the base for a nondimensional analysis leading to correlations which describe the initial phase of such releases and can be used to define the ''source term'' for turbulent dispersion models. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  16. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Babken; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D; Schmied, Christian M; Saguner, Ardan M; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  17. Increased resistance to sudden noise by audio stimulation during early ontogeny in German shepherd puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupková, Helena; Svobodová, Ivona; Vápeník, Pavel; Bartoš, Luděk

    2018-01-01

    The period of early ontogeny constitutes a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is highly susceptible to external stimuli. Thus, early development plays a major role in shaping later adult behavior. The aim of the study was to check whether stimulating puppies at this early stage in life with sound would improve their responsiveness towards unfamiliar noises during the selection process of the police behavioral test for puppies. The cohort comprised 37 puppies from the litters of three mothers. At the commencement of the experiment the dogs were aged 16 days, rising to the age of 32 days at its close. The mothers and litters of the treatment group were either exposed to radio broadcasts, (see below; three litters totaling 19 puppies), while the control group was not exposed to any radio programs (eight litters totaling 18 puppies). All three mothers had previously experienced both auditory circumstances, as described herein. Ordinary radio broadcasts were played to the puppies in the treatment group three times a day for 20 minute periods, always during feeding time. The cohort was subjected to the so-called Puppy Test, i.e. analysis of the potential of each animal, once the dogs had reached the age of 7 weeks. Such tests included exposure to a sudden noise caused by a shovel (100 dB), noise when alone in a room, and response to loud distracting stimuli (the latter two at 70 dB). Said tasks were rated by the same analyst on a scale of 0-5 points; the better the response of the dog, the higher the score given. The differences between the treatment and control groups were analyzed via Mixed Models (PROC MIXED) in SAS. The animals comprising the treatment group responded with a higher score to the sudden noise caused by the shovel than the control dogs (Pshovel. Therefore, acoustic stimulation during the very early period of life has the potential to raise the necessary skills of dogs for military and police purposes, or civilian life.

  18. Preventing tomorrow's sudden cardiac death today: part I: Current data on risk stratification for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sanders, Gillian D; Bigger, J Thomas; Buxton, Alfred E; Califf, Robert M; Carlson, Mark; Curtis, Anne; Curtis, Jeptha; Fain, Eric; Gersh, Bernard J; Gold, Michael R; Haghighi-Mood, Ali; Hammill, Stephen C; Healey, Jeff; Hlatky, Mark; Hohnloser, Stefan; Kim, Raymond J; Lee, Kerry; Mark, Daniel; Mianulli, Marcus; Mitchell, Brent; Prystowsky, Eric N; Smith, Joseph; Steinhaus, David; Zareba, Wojciech

    2007-06-01

    Accurate and timely prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a necessary prerequisite for effective prevention and therapy. Although the largest number of SCD events occurs in patients without overt heart disease, there are currently no tests that are of proven predictive value in this population. Efforts in risk stratification for SCD have focused primarily on predicting SCD in patients with known structural heart disease. Despite the ubiquity of tests that have been purported to predict SCD vulnerability in such patients, there is little consensus on which test, in addition to the left ventricular ejection fraction, should be used to determine which patients will benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. On July 20 and 21, 2006, a group of experts representing clinical cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, biostatistics, economics, and health policy were joined by representatives of the US Food and Drug administration, Centers for Medicare Services, Agency for Health Research and Quality, the Heart Rhythm Society, and the device and pharmaceutical industry for a round table meeting to review current data on strategies of risk stratification for SCD, to explore methods to translate these strategies into practice and policy, and to identify areas that need to be addressed by future research studies. The meeting was organized by the Duke Center for the Prevention of SCD at the Duke Clinical Research Institute and was funded by industry participants. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred at that meeting.

  19. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Oguzhan Kum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. METHODS: Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. RESULTS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p = 0.001. However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect.

  20. Sudden gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; DeRubeis, Robert J; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P M L; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-02-01

    We examined the rates, baseline predictors and clinical impact of sudden gains in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. 117 depressed outpatients received 16-20 sessions of either CT or IPT. Session-by-session symptom severity was assessed using the BDI-II. Sudden gains were examined using the original criteria as defined by Tang and DeRubeis (1999b). Furthermore, we examined whether the duration of the between-session interval at which sudden gains were recorded affected the results. There were significantly more patients with sudden gains in CT (42.2%) as compared to IPT (24.5%). The difference appeared to be driven by the criterion representing the stability of the gain. No between-group differences were found with regard to the magnitude, timing and predictors of the gains. Those with sudden gains were less depressed at post-treatment and follow-up. After controlling for the duration of the between-session interval, the difference in rates between the two conditions became a non-significant trend. Other sudden gains characteristics were similar to those observed when allowing for longer intervals as well. The current study indicates differences in occurrence of sudden gains in two treatment modalities that overall showed similar results, which might reflect different mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death risk in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma I; Ackerman, Michael J; Shamoun, Fadi E; Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R; Love, William T; Cha, Stephen S; Bos, Johan M; Lester, Steven J

    2018-03-07

    Risk assessment for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains complex. The goal of this study was to assess electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived risk factors on SCD in a large HCM population Methods: Retrospective review of adults with HCM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1 December 2002 to 31 December 2012 was performed. Data inclusive of ECG and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor were assessed. SCD events were documented by ventricular fibrillation (VF) noted on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or appropriate VT or VF-terminating ICD shock. Overall, 1615 patients (mean age 53.7 ± 15.2 years; 943 males, 58.4%) were assessed, with mean follow-up 2.46 years and 110 SCD events. Via logistic regression (n = 820), the odds of SCD increased with increasing number of conventional risk factors. With one risk factor the OR was 4.88 (p  450 to this logistic regression model had OR 1.722 (p = .04, CI 1.01-2.937) to predict SCD. QTc ≥ 450 was a significant predictor for death (HR 1.88, p = .021, CI 1.10-3.20). There was no correlation between sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, first degree AV block, atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature atrial complexes, premature ventricular complexes, supraventricular tachycardia, PR interval, QRS interval and SCD. Prolonged QTc was a risk factor for SCD and death even when controlling for typical risk factors.

  2. Sudden Death Phenomenon While Bathing in Japan - Mortality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Shimbo, Takuro; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Hori, Shingo

    2017-07-25

    Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e., in winter). We investigated the data for all occurrences in these areas for which the emergency medical system needed to be activated because of an accident or acute illness related to bathing. Emergency personnel enrolled the event when activation of the emergency medical system was related to bathing. Of the 4,599 registered bath-related events, 1,527 (33%) were identified as bath-related cardiac arrest events. Crude mortality (no. deaths per 100,000) during the observational period was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga. According to the mortality data for age and sex, the estimated number of bath-related deaths nationwide was 13,369 in winter, for the 6 months from October (95% CI: 10,862-16,887). Most cardiac arrest events occurred in tubs filled with water with the face submerged in the water. This suggests that drowning plays a crucial role in the etiology of such phenomena. The estimated nationwide number of deaths was 13,369 (95% CI: 10,862-16,887) in winter, for the 6 months from October. Crude mortality during the winter season was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga.

  3. Geomagnetic response to sudden expansions of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tohru; Nagano, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The geomagnetic response to five successive sudden expansions of the magnetosphere was examined by the use of magnetic data observed on the ground and by satellites. At the geosynchronous orbit between 0800 and 1100 LT the magnetic field component parallel to Earth's rotation axis decreased successively. The amplitude and the fall time of each decrease were 20-30 nT and 2.5-3.5 min, respectively. The decrease was propagated about 10 min later to the distance of about 31 R E from Earth in the antisunward direction, indicating propagation speed of about 300 km/s. The H component of ground magnetograms from low-latitude stations showed decreases with waveform similar to that at the geosynchronous orbit, but each decrease at the dayside equator was greatly enhanced and preceded by a short small positive impulse. Each of the corresponding geomagnetic variations at high latitude stations consisted of two successive sharp pulses of opposite sense with 2-3 min duration. The dominant component and the sense of these high-latitude pulses were highly dependent upon local time and latitude. The distribution of equivalent ionospheric current arrows for each high-latitude pulse showed clear twin vortices centered at 70-76 degree geomagnetic latitude in the dayside and was approximately symmetric with respect to the noon meridian. The current direction of the vortices was reversed from the first pulse to the second. it suggests successive appearance of a dawn-to-dusk and then a dusk-to-dawn electric field, both of which were transmitted from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere. The effect of ionospheric currents due to these polar electric fields was superposed on the simple magnetic decrease produced by an expansion of the whole magnetosphere and produced the complex waveform distribution on the ground

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome and the genetics of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eFerrante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report signs of slight infection prior to death in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Based on this, a hypothesis of an altered immunological homeostasis has been postulated. The cytokines are important cellular mediators that are crucial for infant health by regulating cell activity during the inflammatory process. The pro-inflammatory cytokines favor inflammation; the most important of these are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α and IFN-γ. These cytokines are controlled by the anti-inflammatory cytokines. This is accomplished by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and thus counteracts their biological effect. The major anti-inflammatory cytokines are interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13. The last decade there has been focus on genetic studies within genes that are important for the immune system, for SIDS with a special interest of the genes encoding the cytokines. This is because the cytokine genes are considered to be the genes most likely to explain the vulnerability to infection, and several studies have investigated these genes in an attempt to uncover associations between SIDS and different genetic variants. So far the genes encoding IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α are the most investigated within SIDS research, and several studies indicates associations between specific variants of these genes and SIDS. Taken together this may indicate that in at least a subset of SIDS predisposing genetic variants of the immune genes are involved. However, the immune system and the cytokine network are complex, and more studies are needed in order to better understand the interplay between different genetic variations and how this may contribute to an unfavorable immunological response.

  5. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2016-04-20

    The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators, including the level of WBC, platelet

  6. Recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death with seizures and rhabdomyolysis due to bulimia-induced hypokalemia: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent vomiting due to bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives causing severe hypokalemia may result in recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) and seizures. We report a 25-year-old female with a history of bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives since the age of 15 years, migraine since puberty, renal abscesses at age 20 y, and rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause at age 24 y. She experienced aborted SCD due to severe hypokalemia with symptomatic seizures at 21 and 25 years of age. Bulimia patients additionally taking laxatives or furosemide are at particular risk of SCD and rhabdomyolysis and require periodic determination of electrolytes, potassium substitution, and adequate psychiatric therapy and surveillance.

  7. Hepatic lipidosis and other test findings in two captive adult porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) dying from a "sudden death syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, Robert; Schamber, Ev; Newell, Teresa K; Dyer, Neil W

    2007-11-01

    Routine postmortem examination and histologic evaluation of tissue sections demonstrated hepatic lipidosis (HL) in 2 adult captive porcupines with a history of sudden death. The male porcupine had a markedly enlarged pale liver that microscopically showed large unilocular vacuoles within hepatocellular cytoplasm. The periparturient female had similar but less marked hepatic lesions and an incidental pulmonary mycosis. These findings suggest HL as an important differential of spontaneous death in captive porcupines. It is hypothesized that in addition to the widely documented causes, HL in captive porcupines may be specifically associated with nutritional imbalances caused by the feeding of unsuitable commercial diets. The possible association of the condition with dietary and other factors in captive porcupines needs to be thoroughly investigated.

  8. Brugada Syndrome in a Patient with Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Sudden Death Risk Amplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Jason; Malhotra, Divyanshu; Goud, Aditya; Dahagam, Chanukya; Everett, George

    2017-04-19

    The vast majority of sudden cardiac arrests occur in patients with structural heart disease and in approximately 10% of the cases, it can occur in those with structurally normal hearts. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant sodium channelopathy that has been implicated in sudden deaths. Given their low prevalence, our knowledge about Brugada syndrome is still evolving. Apart from schizophrenia, there have been no reports of associated medical conditions. We recently encountered a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who was also found to have Brugada syndrome. Both these conditions share some common clinical presentations including a propensity for sudden death.

  9. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer

  11. Exploring spatial patterns of sudden cardiac arrests in the city of Toronto using Poisson kriging and Hot Spot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, Raymond; Bunch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Our study looked at out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest events in the City of Toronto. These are relatively rare events, yet present a serious global clinical and public health problem. We report on the application of spatial methods and tools that, although relatively well known to geographers and natural resource scientists, need to become better known and used more frequently by health care researchers. Our data came from the population-based Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database. We limited it to the residents of the City of Toronto who experienced sudden arrest in 2010. The data was aggregated at the Dissemination Area level, and population rates were calculated. Poisson kriging was carried out on one year of data using three different spatial weights. Kriging estimates were then compared in Hot Spot analyses. Spatial analysis revealed that Poisson kriging can yield reliable rates using limited data of high quality. We observed the highest rates of sudden arrests in the north and central parts of Etobicoke, western parts of North York as well as the central and southwestern parts of Scarborough while the lowest rates were found in north and eastern parts of Scarborough, downtown Toronto, and East York as well as east central parts of North York. Influence of spatial neighbours on the results did not extend past two rings of adjacent units. Poisson kriging has the potential to be applied to a wide range of healthcare research, particularly on rare events. This approach can be successfully combined with other spatial methods. More applied research, is needed to establish a wider acceptance for this method, especially among healthcare researchers and epidemiologists.

  12. Sudden unilateral visual loss after autologous fat injection into the nasolabial fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyouk Park

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sang Hyouk Park, Hae Jung Sun, Kyung Seek ChoiDepartment of ophthalmology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaAbstract: A 27-year-old female presented with sudden visual loss of her right eye after receiving an autologous fat injection into the right nasolabial fold. Fundus examination of the right eye showed multiple whitish patchy lesions with macular edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal filling and arm-to-retina circulation time and retinal arteriovenous passage time were delayed to 30 seconds and 20 seconds, respectively. There was no response in flash visual evoked potential (VEP. High dose steroid therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day/i.v. was done and about 2 weeks later, the disc edema subsided and retinal arteriovenous passage time of fluorescein angiogram was normalized but there was no improvement in visual acuity. Absence of a cherry red spot, deterioration of choroidal circulation with patchy choroidal fillings seen in fluorescein angiogram, and no response in flash VEP suggests multiple choroidal infarction due to perfusion defect of the short posterior ciliary artery. The autologous fat injected is thought to have entered the dorsal nasal artery and the retrograde migration of the emboli to the ophthalmic artery might have caused the multiple occlusions of the short posterior ciliary artery.Keywords: autologous fat injection, ciliary artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy

  13. Pengaruh Rasio Step pada Sudden Enlargement Channel terhadap Heat Flux Kondensasi di Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hari Praswanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant parameter in air conditioning problems is air humidity. A porous media can be used as a heat exchanger component in order to increase the heat transfer performance which is significantly depends on the heat flux values inside of them. To determine the heat flux value, a following test section was modeled in this research. A vapor passed through a channel whereas a particular porous media made of active carbon acted as its heat exchanger media. However, the sudden enlargement at the inlet of channel could affect the homogeneity of temperature distributions and also caused some several turbulencies. The research method is vapor flowed over the porous media for 60 minute with temperature of 300oC.The vapor velocity is varied from 1 m/s to 3 m/s and the step ratio also varied between 0 until 1.66. From the experiment shows the bigger step ratio and vapor velocity results the bigger heat flux and air humidity after passed through the low porous media. Heat transfer was occured in porous media including convection heat transfer with the value of Gr/Re2 smaller than 1.

  14. A case of sudden cardiac death following Domperidone self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Vermiglio, Elisa; Laposata, Chiara; Lockwood, Robert; Gottardo, Rossella; De Leo, Domenico

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of sudden cardiac death is usually related to the worsening of existing heart conditions leading to ventricular arrhythmia (VA). One of the well-known triggers of SCD is drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval, such as that caused by Domperidone (D). Despite its risk to prolong the QT interval and associated narrow therapeutic index, D is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in many countries such as Italy, Ireland, Netherlands, China, South Africa, Mexico, New Zealand and Chile to treat gastroesophageal reflux and functional dyspepsia. The present paper reports a case of SCD that occurred some hours after D self-administration in a 47-year-old female subject with mitral valve prolapse, thus, predisposed to both VA and SCD. Despite the risks related to D administration, to the best of our knowledge, this particular issue has not been discussed in the medico-legal literature. For this reason, the forensic implications of D administration are discussed focusing on issues related to the self-administration as an OTC drug (as seen in this case), administration to incapacitated subjects, prescription to patients with contraindications and the off-label drug use of D at high and hazardous concentrations to stimulate lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Context-Aware Indoor Air Quality System for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. De La Iglesia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware monitoring systems designed for e-Health solutions and ambient assisted living (AAL play an important role in today’s personalized health-care services. The majority of these systems are intended for the monitoring of patients’ vital signs by means of bio-sensors. At present, there are very few systems that monitor environmental conditions and air quality in the homes of users. A home’s environmental conditions can have a significant influence on the state of the health of its residents. Monitoring the environment is the key to preventing possible diseases caused by conditions that do not favor health. This paper presents a context-aware system that monitors air quality to prevent a specific health problem at home. The aim of this system is to reduce the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, which is triggered mainly by environmental factors. In the conducted case study, the system monitored the state of the neonate and the quality of air while it was asleep. The designed proposal is characterized by its low cost and non-intrusive nature. The results are promising.

  16. Assessing Field-Specific Risk of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Using Satellite Imagery in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Li, X; Chen, C; Kyveryga, P; Yang, X B

    2016-08-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery from 2004 to 2013 were used to assess the field-specific risks of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme in Iowa. Fields with a high frequency of significant decrease (>10%) of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observed in late July to middle August on historical imagery were hypothetically considered as high SDS risk. These high-risk fields had higher slopes and shorter distances to flowlines, e.g., creeks and drainages, particularly in the Des Moines lobe. Field data in 2014 showed a significantly higher SDS level in the high-risk fields than fields selected without considering NDVI information. On average, low-risk fields had 10 times lower F. virguliforme soil density, determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, compared with other surveyed fields. Ordinal logistic regression identified positive correlations between SDS and slope, June NDVI, and May maximum temperature, but high June maximum temperature hindered SDS. A modeled SDS risk map showed a clear trend of potential disease occurrences across Iowa. Landsat imagery was analyzed similarly, to discuss the ability to utilize higher spatial resolution data. The results demonstrated the great potential of both MODIS and Landsat imagery for SDS field-specific risk assessment.

  17. Entanglement negativity and sudden death in the toric code at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, O.; Castelnovo, C.

    2018-04-01

    We study the fate of quantum correlations at finite temperature in the two-dimensional toric code using the logarithmic entanglement negativity. We are able to obtain exact results that give us insight into how thermal excitations affect quantum entanglement. The toric code has two types of elementary excitations (defects) costing different energies. We show that an O (1 ) density of the lower energy defect is required to degrade the zero-temperature entanglement between two subsystems in contact with one another. However, one type of excitation alone is not sufficient to kill all quantum correlations, and an O (1 ) density of the higher energy defect is required to cause the so-called sudden death of the negativity. Interestingly, if the energy cost of one of the excitations is taken to infinity, quantum correlations survive up to arbitrarily high temperatures, a feature that is likely shared with other quantum spin liquids and frustrated systems in general, when projected down to their low-energy states. We demonstrate this behavior both for small subsystems, where we can prove that the negativity is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability, as well as for extended subsystems, where it is only a necessary condition. We further observe that the negativity per boundary degree of freedom at a given temperature increases (parametrically) with the size of the boundary, and that quantum correlations between subsystems with extended boundaries are more robust to thermal fluctuations.

  18. Medico-legal perspectives on sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Campuzano, Oscar; Brion, Maria; Arena, Vincenzo; Partemi, Sara; Coll, Monica; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Josep; Carracedo, Angel; Brugada, Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young athlete represents a dramatic event, and an increasing number of medico-legal cases have addressed this topic. In addition to representing an ethical and medico-legal responsibility, prevention of SCD is directly correlated with accurate eligibility/disqualification decisions, with an inappropriate pronouncement in either direction potentially leading to legal controversy. This review summarizes the common causes of SCD in young athletes, divided into structural (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, etc.), electrical (Brugada, congenital LQT, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, etc.), and acquired cardiac abnormalities (myocarditis, etc.). In addition, the roles of hereditary cardiac anomalies in SCD in athletes and the effects of a positive result on them and their families are discussed. The medico-legal relevance of pre-participation screening is analyzed, and recommendations from the American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology are compared. Finally, the main issues concerning the differentiation between physiologic cardiac adaptation in athletes and pathologic findings and, thereby, definition of the so-called gray zone, which is based on exact knowledge of the mechanism of cardiac remodeling including structural or functional adaptions, will be addressed.

  19. Sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: an in-depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darren; Roberts, Paul R; New, David I; Kalra, Philip A

    2011-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients, accounting for death in up to one-quarter of this population. Unlike in the general population, coronary artery disease and heart failure often are not the underlying pathologic processes for SCD; accordingly, current risk stratification tools are inadequate when assessing these patients. Factors assuming greater importance in hemodialysis patients may include left ventricular hypertrophy, electrolyte shift, and vascular calcification. Knowledge regarding SCD in hemodialysis patients is insufficient, in part reflecting the lack of an agreed-on definition of SCD in this population, although epidemiologic studies suggest the most common times for SCD to occur are toward the end of the long 72-hour weekend interval between dialysis sessions and in the 12 hours immediately after hemodialysis. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the dialysis procedure itself may have important implications for SCD. Supporting this is recognition that hemodialysis is associated with both ventricular arrhythmias and dynamic electrocardiographic changes. Importantly, echocardiography and electrocardiography may show changes that are modifiable by alterations to dialysis prescription. The most effective preventative strategy in the general population, implanted cardioverter-defibrillator devices, are less effective in the presence of chronic kidney disease and have not been studied adequately in dialysis patients. Last, many dialysis patients experience SCD despite not fulfilling current criteria for implantation, making appropriate allocation of defibrillators uncertain. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A “wear and tear” hypothesis to explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Elhaik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is the leading cause of death in USA infants under one year of age accounting for approximately 2,700 deaths per year. Although formally SIDS dates back at least 2,000 years and was even mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Kings 3:19 its etiology remains unexplained prompting the CDC to initiate a sudden unexpected infant death case registry in 2010. Due to their total dependence, the ability of the infant to allostatically regulate stressors and stress responses shaped by genetic and environmental factors is severely constrained. We propose that SIDS is the result of cumulative painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that begin in utero and tax neonatal regulatory systems incompatible with allostasis. We also identify several putative biochemical mechanisms involved in SIDS. We argue that the important characteristics of SIDS, namely male predominance (60:40, the significantly different SIDS rate in USA Hispanics (80% lower compared to whites, 50% of cases occurring between 7.6 and 17.6 weeks after birth with only 10% after 24.7 weeks, and seasonal variation with most cases occurring during winter, are all associated with common environmental stressors, such as neonatal circumcision and seasonal illnesses. We predict that neonatal circumcision is associated with hypersensitive to pain and decreased heart rate variability which increase the risk for SIDS. We also predict that neonatal male circumcision will account for the SIDS gender bias and that cultures that practice high male circumcision rates, like USA whites, will have higher SIDS rates compared to cultures with lower circumcision rates. SIDS rates will also be higher in USA states where Medicaid covers circumcision and lower among cultures that do not practice neonatal circumcision and/or cannot afford to pay for circumcision. We last predict that winter-born premature infants who are circumcised will be at higher risk of SIDS compared to infants who

  1. A "Wear and Tear" Hypothesis to Explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among USA infants under 1 year of age accounting for ~2,700 deaths per year. Although formally SIDS dates back at least 2,000 years and was even mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Kings 3:19), its etiology remains unexplained prompting the CDC to initiate a sudden unexpected infant death case registry in 2010. Due to their total dependence, the ability of the infant to allostatically regulate stressors and stress responses shaped by genetic and environmental factors is severely constrained. We propose that SIDS is the result of cumulative painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that begin in utero and tax neonatal regulatory systems incompatible with allostasis. We also identify several putative biochemical mechanisms involved in SIDS. We argue that the important characteristics of SIDS, namely male predominance (60:40), the significantly different SIDS rate among USA Hispanics (80% lower) compared to whites, 50% of cases occurring between 7.6 and 17.6 weeks after birth with only 10% after 24.7 weeks, and seasonal variation with most cases occurring during winter, are all associated with common environmental stressors, such as neonatal circumcision and seasonal illnesses. We predict that neonatal circumcision is associated with hypersensitivity to pain and decreased heart rate variability, which increase the risk for SIDS. We also predict that neonatal male circumcision will account for the SIDS gender bias and that groups that practice high male circumcision rates, such as USA whites, will have higher SIDS rates compared to groups with lower circumcision rates. SIDS rates will also be higher in USA states where Medicaid covers circumcision and lower among people that do not practice neonatal circumcision and/or cannot afford to pay for circumcision. We last predict that winter-born premature infants who are circumcised will be at higher risk of SIDS compared to infants who experienced fewer

  2. Yield and Pitfalls of Ajmaline Testing in the Evaluation of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Unexplained Death: Single-Center Experience With 482 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Rafik; Nannenberg, Eline A; Lieve, Krystien V; Škorić-Milosavljević, Doris; Lahrouchi, Najim; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H; Vendrik, Jeroen; Reckman, Yolan J; Postema, Pieter G; Amin, Ahmad S; Bezzina, Connie R; Wilde, Arthur A M; Tan, Hanno L

    2017-12-11

    This study evaluated the yield of ajmaline testing and assessed the occurrence of confounding responses in a large cohort of families with unexplained cardiac arrest (UCA) or sudden unexplained death (SUD). Ajmaline testing to diagnose Brugada syndrome (BrS) is routinely used in the evaluation of SUD and UCA, but its yield, limitations, and appropriate dosing have not been studied in a large cohort. We assessed ajmaline test response and genetic testing results in 637 individuals from 482 families who underwent ajmaline testing for SUD or UCA. Overall, 89 individuals (14%) from 88 families (18%) had a positive ajmaline test result. SCN5A mutations were identified in 9 of 86 ajmaline-positive cases (10%). SCN5A mutation carriers had positive test results at significantly lower ajmaline doses than noncarriers (0.75 [range: 0.64 to 0.98] mg/kg vs. 1.03 [range: 0.95 to 1.14] mg/kg, respectively; p genetic diagnosis accounting for UCA/SUD (5 cases) or noncosegregation of positive ajmaline response and arrhythmia (2 cases). The rate of confounding responses was significantly higher in positive ajmaline responses obtained at >1 mg/kg than in those obtained at ≤1 mg/kg (7 of 48 vs. 0 of 41 individuals; Fisher's exact test: p = 0.014). In line with previous, smaller studies, a positive ajmaline response was observed in a large proportion of UCA/SUD families. Importantly, our data emphasize the potential for confounding possibly false-positive ajmaline responses in this population, particularly at high doses, which could possibly lead to a misdiagnosis. Clinicians should consider all alternative causes in UCA/SUD and avoid ajmaline doses >1 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship Between Unusual High-Temperature Fatigue Crack Growth Threshold Behavior in Superalloys and Sudden Failure Mode Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Smith, T. M.; Gabb, T. P.; Ring, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of high temperature cyclic fatigue crack growth (FCG) threshold behavior of two advanced nickel disk alloys was conducted. The focus of the study was the unusual crossover effect in the near-threshold region of these type of alloys where conditions which produce higher crack growth rates in the Paris regime, produce higher resistance to crack growth in the near threshold regime. It was shown that this crossover effect is associated with a sudden change in the fatigue failure mode from a predominant transgranular mode in the Paris regime to fully intergranular mode in the threshold fatigue crack growth region. This type of a sudden change in the fracture mechanisms has not been previously reported and is surprising considering that intergranular failure is typically associated with faster crack growth rates and not the slow FCG rates of the near-threshold regime. By characterizing this behavior as a function of test temperature, environment and cyclic frequency, it was determined that both the crossover effect and the onset of intergranular failure are caused by environmentally driven mechanisms which have not as yet been fully identified. A plausible explanation for the observed behavior is proposed.

  4. Predicting the economic costs and property value losses attributed to sudden oak death damage in California (2010-2020).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; Václavík, Tomáš; Haight, Robert G; Pang, Arwin; Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2011-04-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death, is a quarantined, non-native, invasive forest pathogen resulting in substantial mortality in coastal live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other related tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimate the discounted cost of oak treatment, removal, and replacement on developed land in California communities using simulations of P. ramorum spread and infection risk over the next decade (2010-2020). An estimated 734 thousand oak trees occur on developed land in communities in the analysis area. The simulations predict an expanding sudden oak death (SOD) infestation that will likely encompass most of northwestern California and warrant treatment, removal, and replacement of more than 10 thousand oak trees with discounted cost of $7.5 million. In addition, we estimate the discounted property losses to single family homes of $135 million. Expanding the land base to include developed land outside as well as inside communities doubles the estimates of the number of oak trees killed and the associated costs and losses. The predicted costs and property value losses are substantial, but many of the damages in urban areas (e.g. potential losses from increased fire and safety risks of the dead trees and the loss of ecosystem service values) are not included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of a forensics investigation of sudden infant death syndrome: recommendations for developing, low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Koehler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden infant deaths syndrome (SIDS, the sudden and unexpected death of a normal and healthy infant, has remained a medical and forensic mystery. Despite years of research all attempts to ascertain the exact cause and manner of death have failed. The information collected during the course of the comprehensive investigation by the various investigation agencies and analysis of the data has not been in vain. The epidemiological, demographic, and pathological data have identified distinctive features and risk factors associated with infants that died from SIDS. Epidemiological data has provided the unique characteristics of infants that died of SIDS that differentiates them from non-SIDS infants. Analysis of information from the death scene investigation has identified key risk factor behaviour associated with SIDS, namely the prone sleeping position. Pathological examination of the internal organs, specifically the brain, has shown some differences between SIDS and non-SIDS infants. However, to gain a complete picture of SIDS data, all countries around the world must provide information, even basic information, to understand this syndrome better. Developing countries must understand their role and importance in developing plans to investigate, collect, and disseminate SIDS data to the rest of the world. This paper provides general guidelines for the investigation of SIDS in developing countries.

  6. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  7. When transcriptome meets metabolome : Fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; Ras, C.; Ten Pierick, A.; Akmering, M.J.; Van Winden, W.A.; Kresnowati, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the first 5 min after a sudden relief from glucose limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited fast changes of intracellular metabolite levels and a major transcriptional reprogramming. Integration of transcriptome and metabolome data revealed tight relationships between the changes at

  8. Acute otitis media associated bilateral sudden hearing loss: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Gutteridge, I; Elliott, D; Cronin, M

    2017-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a rare otological condition with potential for dire outcomes including permanent hearing loss. Although the majority of cases are deemed idiopathic, bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss represents a rare subset typically related to systemic conditions, with higher morbidity and mortality. A controversial association with acute otitis media has been reported, with few bilateral cases published in the literature. A very rare case of bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with acute otitis media is described, with a review of the literature. The limited evidence available suggests that acute otitis media with tinnitus and/or bacterial pathology may have an increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, which is consistent with the case described. Although there is no sufficiently powered published evidence to provide definitive treatment guidelines, the literature reviewed suggests that early myringotomy and antibiotics may greatly improve treatment outcomes.

  9. Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2013-03-01

    Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

  10. AN AUDIT OF THE SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME PREVENTION PROGRAM IN THE AUCKLAND REGION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, M. C.; Tonkin, S.; Mitchell, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Aim. An audit of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention programme in the Auckland region. Methods. 107 health professionals working in antenatal classes, postnatal wards, domiciliary midwifery and the Plunket Society were interviewed. Results. Maternal smoking and infant sleeping

  11. Quantum infinite order sudden approximation for ion-molecule reactions: treatment of the He + H2+ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Nakamura, H.; Kouri, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this work the ion-molecule reaction He + H 2 + (v/sub i/) → HeH + (v/sub f/) + H(v/sub i/ = 0-7, v/sub f/ = 0-2) was studied quantum mechanically in the energy range 1.3 eV ≤ E/sub tot/ ≤ 1.8 eV. The calculations were carried out employing the Reactive Infinite Order Sudden Approximation (RIOSA). The two features characteristic of this system in the above energy range, namely the strong enhancement of the reaction rate with the initial vibrational energy (at a fixed total energy) and the relatively weak dependence of the cross sections on translational energy, were found to be well reproduced in the numerical treatment. The results also revealed the existence of two mechanisms of the exchange process: one is the ordinary mechanism and the other is probably related to the spectator stripping model

  12. Perinatal Fluoxetine Exposure Impairs the CO2 Chemoreflex. Implications for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karina; Eugenín, Jaime L; Llona, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    High serotonin levels during pregnancy affect central nervous system development. Whether a commonly used antidepressant such as fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) taken during pregnancy may adversely affect respiratory control in offspring has not been determined. The objective was to determine the effect of prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine exposure on the respiratory neural network in offspring, particularly on central chemoreception. Osmotic minipumps implanted into CF-1 mice on Days 5-7 of pregnancy delivered 7 milligrams per kilogram per day of fluoxetine, achieving plasma levels within the range found in patients. Ventilation was assessed in offspring at postnatal Days 0-40 using head-out body plethysmography. Neuronal activation was evaluated in the raphe nuclei and in the nucleus tractus solitarius by c-Fos immunohistochemistry during normoxic eucapnia and hypercapnia (10% CO2). Respiratory responses to acidosis were evaluated in brainstem slices. Prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine did not affect litter size, birth weight, or the postnatal growth curve. Ventilation under eucapnic normoxic conditions was similar to that of control offspring. Fluoxetine exposure reduced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia at P8-P40 (P Fluoxetine applied acutely on control slices did not modify their respiratory response to acidosis. We concluded that prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine treatment impairs central respiratory chemoreception during postnatal life. These results are relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of respiratory failures, such as sudden infant death syndrome, associated with brainstem serotonin abnormalities and the failure of respiratory chemoreflexes.

  13. Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, IN2P3-CNRS ISMRA, 14 (France); Carstoiu, F. [IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bonaccorso, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of {sup 17}C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)

  14. Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A.; Carstoiu, F.; Bonaccorso, A.

    2004-04-01

    A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of 17 C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)

  15. [Analysis of the relevant factors for recurrent sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Zhong, S X

    2016-09-07

    Objective: To investigate the possible factors related to recurrence and prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSNHL). Methods: Four hundred and ninety-five patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss between January 2013 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively(34 patients lost to follow-up with a dropout rate of 6.87%). Twenty of the 495 patients were diagnosed as recurrent SSNHL and treated again in the same hospital. The data of the patients were summarized to analyze the related factors which might influence the recurrence and prognosis of SSNHL. Results: In the 20 patients with recurrent SSNHL, 19 had the second attack in same ear as the first attack, and the other one had in both ears. There were seven male patients, and thirteen female patients. Patients ranged in age from 24 to 77years, with a median age of 39.5 years. Types of hearing loss: low frequency in eight patients, high frequency in two patients, flat frequency in eight patients, total deafness in two patients, the types of the second attack in 17 patients were same as the first attack, only one patient was changed from total deafness to flat frequency, one case was changed from flat frequency to high frequency, one case changed from flat frequency to total deafness. The intervals between of the first attack time and the second attack time were 1-36 months with the median time of 3.5 months. After systemic oral and (or) transtympanic steroid treatment, recovered in three cases, effective in three cases and 14 cases invalid, the cure rate was 15%, and the total effective rate was 30%. There were statistically significant differences in the recovery rate(χ 2 =8.640, P vertigo and/or dizziness, with a history more than seven days, with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, and with a type of hearing loss except low frequency type, the treatment effect was invalid. The patients with hearing loss at low frequency had the best outcomes. The total effective rates were significant

  16. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.)

  17. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, HL; Bink-Boelkens, MTE; Bezzina, CR; Viswanathan, PC; Beaufort-Krol, GCM; van Tintelen, PJ; van den Berg, MP; Wilde, AAM; Balser, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening(1-3); however, a

  18. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Bink-Boelkens, M. T.; Bezzina, C. R.; Viswanathan, P. C.; Beaufort-Krol, G. C.; van Tintelen, P. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Wilde, A. A.; Balser, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening; however, a

  19. Multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 27‑year‑old male with multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Initially, the patient experienced a sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, polyuria, polydipsia, bone pain, renal dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, and acute pancreatitis, symptoms ...

  20. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss – behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiko Okamoto; Munehisa Fukushima; Henning Teismann; Lothar Lagemann; Tadashi Kitahara; Hidenori Inohara; Ryusuke Kakigi; Christo Pantev

    2014-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy ...

  1. An Experimental Study on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Characteristics of Suddenly Expanded Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Sub Lee; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this experiment, test section has been designed to simulate sudden flow path change due to deformation of cladding. It was tended to simulate cladding deformation that has discontinuous diameter change so coolant flow path changes suddenly. Experiments are in progress. Experiments on test section that simulate deformed flow path which contains sudden contraction and sudden expansion part have been done. Location of CHF has been varied by different condition of experiment. CHF at the outlet of test section fits well into the Macbeth's correlation and data of reference experiment, which was held on plain test section that had same diameter with inlet diameter of deformed test section. CHF at sudden expansion part was in churn flow regime and CHF was very low compared to expectation. It is discussed that liquid film separation from wall or bubble accumulation by backflow might be the reason of this result. For future work, experiments for two additional blockage ratio conditions will be carried out. Also, discussion and model development for deformed channel with sudden expand flow path will be held on.

  2. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death: 2017 update from the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cristina; Aguilera, Beatriz; Banner, Jytte; Cohle, Stephan; d'Amati, Giulia; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; di Gioia, Cira; Fabre, Aurelie; Gallagher, Patrick J; Leone, Ornella; Lucena, Joaquin; Mitrofanova, Lubov; Molina, Pilar; Parsons, Sarah; Rizzo, Stefania; Sheppard, Mary N; Mier, Maria Paz Suárez; Kim Suvarna, S; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard; Vink, Aryan; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Although sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most important modes of death in Western countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of the causes of SCD is now of particular importance. Pathologists are responsible for determining the precise cause and mechanism of sudden death but there is still considerable variation in the way in which they approach this increasingly complex task. The Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology has developed these guidelines, which represent the minimum standard that is required in the routine autopsy practice for the adequate investigation of SCD. The present version is an update of our original article, published 10 years ago. This is necessary because of our increased understanding of the genetics of cardiovascular diseases, the availability of new diagnostic methods, and the experience we have gained from the routine use of the original guidelines. The updated guidelines include a detailed protocol for the examination of the heart and recommendations for the selection of histological blocks and appropriate material for toxicology, microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular investigation. Our recommendations apply to university medical centers, regionals hospitals, and all healthcare professionals practicing pathology and forensic medicine. We believe that their adoption throughout Europe will improve the standards of autopsy practice, allow meaningful comparisons between different communities and regions, and permit the identification of emerging patterns of diseases causing SCD. Finally, we recommend the development of regional multidisciplinary networks of cardiologists, geneticists, and pathologists. Their role will be to facilitate the identification of index cases with a genetic basis, to screen appropriate family members, and ensure that

  3. Ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in Fabry disease: a systematic review of risk factors in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Shanat; Edward, Nicky C; Kotecha, Dipak; Liu, Boyang; Nordin, Sabrina; Kozor, Rebecca; Moon, James C; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Steeds, Richard P

    2017-10-17

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A enzyme. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a common cause of mortality in FD, in particular as a result of heart failure and arrhythmia, with a significant proportion of events categorized as sudden. There are no clear models for risk prediction in FD. This systematic review aims to identify the risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) in FD. A systematic search was performed following PRISMA guidelines of EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane from inception to August 2016, focusing on identification of risk factors for the development of VA or SCD. Thirteen studies were included in the review (n = 4185 patients) from 1189 articles, with follow-up of 1.2-10 years. Weighted average age was 37.6 years, and 50% were male. Death from any cause was reported in 8.3%. Of these, 75% was due to CV problems, with the majority being SCD events (62% of reported deaths). Ventricular tachycardia was reported in 7 studies, with an average prevalence of 15.3%. Risk factors associated with SCD events were age, male gender, left ventricular hypertrophy, late gadolinium enhancement on CV magnetic resonance imaging, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Although a multi-system disease, FD is a predominantly cardiac disease from a mortality perspective, with death mainly from SCD events. Limited evidence highlights the importance of clinical and imaging risk factors that could contribute to improved decision-making in the management of FD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sudden and unexpected childhood deaths investigated at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coronary artery disease, but in children the causes are more diverse ... abnormalities (especially in children with epilepsy), and infectious ..... from death notification. www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03093/P030932009.pdf (accessed 10 June ...

  5. Driving in Parkinson's disease: mobility, accidents, and sudden onset of sleep at the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindorfner, Charlotte; Körner, Yvonne; Möller, Jens Carsten; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang Hermann; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2005-07-01

    Only few studies have addressed driving ability in Parkinson's disease (PD) to date. However, studies investigating accident proneness of PD patients are urgently needed in the light of motor disability in PD and--particularly--the report of "sleep attacks" at the wheel. We sent a questionnaire about sudden onset of sleep (SOS) and driving behavior to 12,000 PD patients. Subsequently, of 6,620 complete data sets, 361 patients were interviewed by phone. A total of 82% of those 6,620 patients held a driving license, and 60% of them still participated in traffic. Of the patients holding a driving license, 15% had been involved in and 11% had caused at least one accident during the past 5 years. The risk of causing accidents was significantly increased for patients who felt moderately impaired by PD, had an increased Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, and had experienced SOS while driving. Sleep attacks at the wheel usually occurred in easy driving situations and resulted in typical fatigue-related accidents. Those having retired from driving had a more advanced (subjective) disease severity, higher age, more frequently female gender, an increased ESS score, and a longer disease duration. The study revealed SOS and daytime sleepiness as critical factors for traffic safety in addition to motor disabilities of PD patients. The results suggest that real sleep attacks without any prior sleepiness are rare. However, our data underline the importance of mobility for patients and the need for further studies addressing the ability to drive in PD. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Fasciola hepatica infestation as a very rare cause of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Rafet Yigitbasi; Yusuf Erzin; Oguzhan Sunamak; Erdal Polat; Hakan Yakar

    2004-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, an endemic parasite in Turkey, is still a very rare cause of cholestasis worldwide. Through ingestion of contaminated water plants like watercress, humans can become the definitive host of this parasite. Cholestatic symptoms may be sudden but in some cases they may be preceeded by a long period of fever, eosinophilia and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a woman with cholangitis symptoms of sudden onset which was proved to be due to Fasciola hepatica infestation by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

  7. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  8. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  9. Tuberous sclerosis: A rare cause of seizure in Nigeria. | Altraide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was associated learning disabilities and poor school performance, with sudden outburst of mood swings ranging from laughter to anger. Speech was delayed. He has been on Carbamazepine for the past two years and is seizure free. There was no history of similar illness in the family. Physical examination showed ...

  10. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  11. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  12. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  13. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  14. Sudden and fulminant deaths of healthy children in Italy during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons: results of an online study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Prandoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 pandemic in Italy has been viewed as a false alarm, and it has not been properly understood based on historical precedents and more in-depth studies that have been conducted in other countries. Some of these studies have pointed to a phenomenon of sudden and fulminant death among healthy children, which is not the sole prerogative of pandemic influenza, but was, in 2009, a more frequent occurrence than in previous years. The purpose of this study is to gather such cases occurring during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Google Search was used in order to find cases of children and teens with no reported preexisting conditions of relevance and who died suddenly and unexpectedly after exhibiting flu-like symptoms during the two seasons. During the 2010-11 season, 29 deaths were found to meet the above conditions, 18 of which were fulminant and 11 sudden. For the 2011-12 season, there were ten such cases: five fulminant and five sudden. Most of these cases occurred during the period of maximum circulation of the flu virus. Fulminant deaths were three times more frequent during the first of these seasons and involved children of a higher average age than the more recent season. It is not possible to come to any definite conclusions, but there is reason to suspect that the driver of this significant increase may be the A(H1N1pdm09 virus. Regardless of how one wishes to interpret these results, it is advisable that the surveillance systems be strengthened and more recent study techniques be adopted in order to determine the causes of similar deaths in the future.

  15. A case-control study of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome in the southern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinxiang; Huang, Erwen; Tang, Shuangbo; Wu, Qiuping; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Dongchuan; Quan, Li; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Jianding

    2015-03-01

    To study the epidemiological characteristics of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) in the southern Chinese Han population during 2007 to 2013, we gathered 879 SUNDS victims from Dongguan City and in the Longgang District in Shenzhen City as the case group then selected 879 all-cause death cases, adopting a 1:1 pair method, as the control group I and collected 8142 all-cause death cases from the Bao'an District in Shenzhen City as the control group II, simultaneously. Case information collected was statistically analyzed. The annual incidence of SUNDS is 1.02 and 2.23 per 100,000 person-years for Dongguan City and in the Longgang District, respectively. The number of male and female victims is drastically different, with a ratio of 13.92:1, whereas the incidence between the 2 sexes is significantly different (χ2 = 78.734, P population is significant (χ2 = 767.12, P China, but the difference between the SUNDS victims and the all-cause death population is not significant (χ2 = 27.273, P > 0.05). The monthly incidence of SUNDS is relatively higher from March to June, whereas the difference of monthly distribution between SUNDS victims and all-cause death population is significant (χ2 = 9.869, P China and implicated that risk factors of this fatal disease still exist. The efficient strategy of early identification such as molecular diagnosis for SUNDS is extremely urgently required.

  16. Genome-wide Polygenic Burden of Rare Deleterious Variants in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Leu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants from whole-exome sequences of 18 people who died of SUDEP, 87 living people with epilepsy and 1479 non-epilepsy disease controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly increased genome-wide polygenic burden per individual in the SUDEP cohort when compared to epilepsy (P = 5.7 × 10−3 and non-epilepsy disease controls (P = 1.2 × 10−3. The polygenic burden was driven both by the number of variants per individual, and over-representation of variants likely to be deleterious in the SUDEP cohort. As determined by this study, more than a thousand genes contribute to the observed polygenic burden within the framework of this study. Subsequent gene-based association analysis revealed five possible candidate genes significantly associated with SUDEP or epilepsy, but no one single gene emerges as common to the SUDEP cases. Our findings provide further evidence for a genetic susceptibility to SUDEP, and suggest an extensive polygenic contribution to SUDEP causation. Thus, an overall increased burden of deleterious variants in a highly polygenic background might be important in rendering a given individual more susceptible to SUDEP. Our findings suggest that exome sequencing in people with epilepsy might eventually contribute to generating SUDEP risk estimates, promoting stratified medicine in epilepsy, with the eventual aim of reducing an individual patient's risk of SUDEP.

  17. Genome-wide Polygenic Burden of Rare Deleterious Variants in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Costin; Balestrini, Simona; Maher, Bridget; Hernández-Hernández, Laura; Gormley, Padhraig; Hämäläinen, Eija; Heggeli, Kristin; Schoeler, Natasha; Novy, Jan; Willis, Joseph; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellis, Rachael; Reavey, Eleanor; O'Regan, Mary; Pickrell, William O; Thomas, Rhys H; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Delanty, Norman; McMahon, Jacinta M; Malone, Stephen; Sadleir, Lynette G; Berkovic, Samuel F; Nashef, Lina; Zuberi, Sameer M; Rees, Mark I; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Sander, Josemir W; Hughes, Elaine; Helen Cross, J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Palotie, Aarno; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants from whole-exome sequences of 18 people who died of SUDEP, 87 living people with epilepsy and 1479 non-epilepsy disease controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly increased genome-wide polygenic burden per individual in the SUDEP cohort when compared to epilepsy (P = 5.7 × 10(- 3)) and non-epilepsy disease controls (P = 1.2 × 10(- 3)). The polygenic burden was driven both by the number of variants per individual, and over-representation of variants likely to be deleterious in the SUDEP cohort. As determined by this study, more than a thousand genes contribute to the observed polygenic burden within the framework of this study. Subsequent gene-based association analysis revealed five possible candidate genes significantly associated with SUDEP or epilepsy, but no one single gene emerges as common to the SUDEP cases. Our findings provide further evidence for a genetic susceptibility to SUDEP, and suggest an extensive polygenic contribution to SUDEP causation. Thus, an overall increased burden of deleterious variants in a highly polygenic background might be important in rendering a given individual more susceptible to SUDEP. Our findings suggest that exome sequencing in people with epilepsy might eventually contribute to generating SUDEP risk estimates, promoting stratified medicine in epilepsy, with the eventual aim of reducing an individual patient's risk of SUDEP.

  18. Low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels during sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, Marion; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kugener, Beatrice; Scholz, Sabine; Raverot, Veronique; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Guyon, Aurore; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Franco, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    The temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep suggests that the arousability from sleep provides a protective mechanism for survival. Recently, the hypocretin system, which promotes wakefulness, has been implicated in SIDS, since it has been reported that SIDS victims have fewer hypocretin neurons than infants who have died from other causes. To understand the role of hypocretin in SIDS, it is essential to better understand how this system matures. The present study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin in children aged 2-6 months, which is the age of peak incidence for SIDS, to both younger and older children. Hypocretin levels were measured in CSF samples from 101 children who underwent a clinically relevant lumbar puncture. Children were separated into five age groups: 0-2 months, 2-6 months, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-18 years. Hypocretin levels were not significantly different between 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-18 years. Therefore, these three groups were pooled into a single one (1-18 years) for further analysis. Between the 0-2 month, 2-6 month, and 1-18 year groups, a significant difference in CSF hypocretin levels existed (p = 0.001). Simple comparisons showed that CSF hypocretin levels in the 2-6 month age group were significantly lower than hypocretin levels in both the 0-2 month and 1-18 year group (p hypocretin levels were lower at the age of peak incidence for SIDS. This could underlie an increased vulnerability to SIDS at this specific age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  20. Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittai Herrmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome. Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01, respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management.