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Sample records for range beef cows

  1. Pre-breeding ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influences conception date in young postpartum range beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in a negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is suggested to be mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of this 3-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, resumption of estrus, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and...

  2. Does ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf ...

  3. Effects of supplemental protein provided to postpartum beef cows in liquid or cube form on metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, K.K; Schafer, T.P; Harris, J.M; Hallford, D.M; Remmenga, M.D; Hawkins, D.E

    2001-01-01

    Metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions in postpartum beef cows, supplemented with protein supplied as range cubes or liquid, were evaluated. Angus cows (n = 60; 2 to 8 yr; mean BCS 4.6 [+ or -] 0.1...

  4. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  5. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p calm cows [88.6% (798/901) vs 94.1% (607/645); p calm cows (median days to pregnancy, 35 vs 59 days; p calm cows [5.5% (36/651) vs 3.2% (20/623), p < 0.0001]. In conclusion, beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  7. Replacement Beef Cow Valuation under Data Availability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Hagerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Economists are often tasked with estimating the benefits or costs associated with livestock production losses; however, lack of available data or absence of consistent reporting can reduce the accuracy of these valuations. This work looks at three potential estimation techniques for determining the value for replacement beef cows with varying types of market data to proxy constrained data availability and discusses the potential margin of error for each technique. Oklahoma bred replacement cows are valued using hedonic pricing based on Oklahoma bred cow data—a best case scenario—vector error correction modeling (VECM based on national cow sales data and cost of production (COP based on just a representative enterprise budget and very limited sales data. Each method was then used to perform a within-sample forecast of 2016 January to December, and forecasts are compared with the 2016 monthly observed market prices in Oklahoma using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE. Hedonic pricing methods tend to overvalue for within-sample forecasting but performed best, as measured by MAPE for high quality cows. The VECM tended to undervalue cows but performed best for younger animals. COP performed well, compared with the more data intensive methods. Examining each method individually across eight representative replacement beef female types, the VECM forecast resulted in a MAPE under 10% for 33% of forecasted months, followed by hedonic pricing at 24% of the forecasted months and COP at 14% of the forecasted months for average quality beef females. For high quality females, the hedonic pricing method worked best producing a MAPE under 10% in 36% of the forecasted months followed by the COP method at 21% of months and the VECM at 14% of the forecasted months. These results suggested that livestock valuation method selection was not one-size-fits-all and may need to vary based not only on the data available but also on the characteristics (e

  8. Assessment of serum IGF-I and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations on reproductive performance prior to calving and breeding in young beef cows grazing native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolites involved in the metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance may have the potential to regulate timing of reproductive success. Therefore, the objective of this 4-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, cow BW, BCS, and calf performance on conception date in 2...

  9. Assessment of serum IGF-1 and ¿-hydroxybutyrate concentrations on reproductive performance prior to calving and breeding in young beef cows grazing native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolites involved in the metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance may potentially contribute to regulation of reproductive success. Therefore, the objective of this 4-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, cow BW, BCS, and calf performance on conception date in sp...

  10. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  11. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Pcows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing recalving rate in lactating beef cows in the sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Beef cattle, body mass, calving age, recalving. Reproductive rate is the most important factor influencing profitability of meat production. Early recalving of rhe lactating cow is influenced by several environmental factors and this should be taken into account in management of the beef herd. The relative importance ...

  13. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  14. Enteric methane from lactating beef cows managed with high- and low-input grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Carmichael, D; Powers, W J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH) emissions from lactating beef cows grazed with different combinations of stocking rate and density. We hypothesized that a low stocking rate coupled with high-stocking-density grazing management would result in poorer forage quality, thereby increasing enteric CH emissions. System A (SysA) consisted of 120 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 120 ha divided into 2-ha pastures (stocking rate 1 cow/ha, stocking density 112,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 60 to 90 d). System B (SysB) consisted of 16 groups of 4 cow-calf pairs each rotating on a 1.6-ha pasture (stocking rate 2.5 cows/ha, stocking density 32,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 18 to 30 d). Enteric CH measurements were collected using a sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer gas method. Sampling occurred during 2012 and 2013 in 2 periods: the beginning (P1) and end of the grazing season (P2). Cannulated Angus cows were stratified by weight, age, and parity and were assigned to each treatment ( = 6) in a crossover design with a doubly repeated measures design, with period and day as repeated measures (α = 0.05). Dry matter intake was determined using chromic oxide (CrO) as a marker. Forage samples were collected ( = 3) for nutrient composition analyses and total forage mass determination. Forage botanical composition was determined using the dry-weight-rank method. Postgrazing herbage mass was greater for SysA during P2 in 2012 ( cows increased from P1 to P2 (4 and 1.1 kg DMI/d increase, respectively). Cows ingested, on average, 2.6% (SysA) and 2.8% (SysB) of their BW. There was no year effect on CH emissions ( = 0.16). Daily enteric CH emissions did not vary with treatment and ranged from 195 to 249 g CH/d across treatment. Enteric CH emissions per unit GE intake varied with treatment during P1 (6.4% and 3.8% for SysA and SysB, respectively; cows. It is likely that cows in the present study were selecting high-quality forage and produced comparatively lower CH

  15. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of β-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced β-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters

  16. Large round bale feeder design affects hay utilization and beef cow behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, D D; Zanella, A J; Harrigan, T M; Van Lente, J L; Gnagey, L M; Kaercher, M J

    2003-01-01

    One hundred sixty beef cows (631 +/- 78 kg) were used to evaluate the quantity of hay loss and feeding behaviors from different round bale feeders. Twenty cows were allotted by weight and body condition score to one of eight pens with four feeder designs: cone, ring, trailer, or cradle. All feeder types provided approximately 37 cm of linear feeder space per animal. Alfalfa and orchardgrass round bales were weighed and sampled before feeding. Hay that fell onto the concrete surrounding the feeder was considered waste and was collected and sampled daily. At the end of a 7-d period, each feeder type was assigned to a different pen for a second 7-d period. On four consecutive days in each period, animal behavior was recorded using a time-lapse video system. Data were collected from 5-min observational intervals from the video tapes every 0.5 h each day. Feeder access, occupancy rate, and occurrence of agonistic interactions were recorded. Dry matter hay waste was 3.5, 6.1, 11.4, and 14.6% for the cone, ring, trailer, and cradle feeders, respectively. Calculated dry matter intake of hay ranged from 1.8 to 2.0% of body weight and was not different among feeder type (P < 0.05). Percentage of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein were all lower and acid detergent lignin was higher in the recovered waste compared to the hay fed (P < 0.05). Cows feeding from the cradle feeder had nearly three times the agonistic interactions and four times the frequency of entrances compared to cows feeding from the other feeder types (P < 0.05). Feed losses were positively correlated with agonistic interactions, frequency of regular and irregular entrances, and feeder occupancy rate (P < 0.05). Agonistic interactions by cows and frequency of feeder entrances differed among feeders and were correlated to feeder design induced feed losses.

  17. Internal parasite levels and response to anthelmintic treatment by beef cows and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J K; Ferguson, D L; Parkhurst, A M; Berthelsen, J; Nelson, M J

    1991-03-01

    Albendazole (methyl 5-propylthio-1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) was used as an anthelmintic in a 3-yr study involving 578 beef cows and 438 nursing calves. Infection levels for nematodes, coccidia, and tapeworm were relatively low throughout the 3-yr period. Eggs per gram of feces in cows and calves were lower (P less than .01) 2 wk posttreatment but were not different 5 mo later, when calves were weaned. Cow weight gain, rate and time of conception, and adjusted calf weaning weights were not affected significantly by deworming of either cows or calves. Level of nematode infection measured as eggs per gram of feces was higher (P less than .01) in younger cows than in mature cows. Although deworming with Albendazole lowered (P less than .01) nematode infection levels, no responses were observed in cow or calf performance.

  18. Chemical properties of cow and beef muscles: benchmarking the differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, L E; Hodgen, J M; Stelzleni, A M; Calkins, C R; Johnson, D D; Gwartney, B L

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify muscles from cow populations that are equivalent or may possibly be made equivalent to muscles from A-maturity, Select-grade cattle in terms of chemical, compositional, and color characteristics. Objective color, expressible moisture, proximate composition, pH, heme iron concentration, and total collagen content were determined for 9 muscles (M. gluteus medius, M. infraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. psoas major, M. rectus femoris, M. tensor fascia latae, M. teres major, M. triceps brachii lateral-head, and M. triceps brachii long-head) from 15 cattle from each of 5 commercially identified populations [fed beef cows (B-F), non-fed beef cows (B-NF), fed dairy cows (D-F), non-fed dairy cows (D-NF), and A-maturity, Select-grade cattle (SEL)]. Muscles from B-F and B-NF populations were more similar to the SEL than were the D-F and D-NF. There were 2 muscles, the M. infraspinatus and M. teres major, from the population of B-F that were similar, physically and chemically, to SEL in most traits. The majority of the 9 muscles from the cows did not differ (P composition, and total collagen content. However, notable differences in pH, objective color L*, total pigment content, and heme iron content existed between cow populations and SEL. The muscles from SEL had significantly (P beef.

  19. Evaluation of grazing beef cows receiving supplements with different protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Antônio Lopes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different crude protein contents on the productive performance of grazing beef cows during post-calving. Thirty-six beef cows, with age and average body weight of 5 years and 490±17.9 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. The treatments were: control = cows received only mineral mixture ad libitum; supplemented = cows received 1 kg d-1 of supplement containing 80, 200, or 320 g crude protein (CP kg-1. There was no effect (P ? 0.16 of supplementation on voluntary intake. A linear effect (P < 0.02 of the CP content in the supplements was observed among supplemented cows, only for the CP intake. Supplementation did not affect (P ? 0.20 the total digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, and CP. Among supplemented cows, a positive linear effect (P < 0.01 of the CP content in the supplement was observed for the CP digestibility. Intestinal flow of microbial nitrogen compounds and efficiency of synthesis microbial were not affected (P ? 0.18 by treatments. Performance, milk yield and composition were not also affected (P ? 0.11 by treatments. Supplementation did not affect (P ? 0.52 non-esterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen and progesterone serum concentrations. It is concluded that supplementation of grazing beef cows during post-calving does not affect nutritional and productive performance.

  20. Biological and economical effects beef cows on of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Afrikaner cows ended the lick phase in a better (P < 0.01) condition than. Simmentaler cows, irrespective of lick. Veld on the MS appeared to be superior to veld on the ES in this area as cows on the former had higher (P < 0.05) condition scores than cows on the latter, again irrespective of lick. Reproductive performance ...

  1. Whole soybean supplementation and cow age class: effects on intake, digestion, performance, and reproduction of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J P; Lalman, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Wettemann, R P

    2008-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of whole soybean supplementation on intake, digestion, and performance of beef cows of varying age. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial with 2 supplements and 3 age classes of cows (2-yr-old, 3-yr-old, and mature cows). Supplements (DM basis) included 1) 1.36 kg/d of whole raw soybeans, and 2) 1.56 kg/d of a soybean meal/hulls supplement. Supplements were formulated to provide similar amounts of protein and energy, but a greater fat content with the whole soybeans. Supplements were individually fed on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday mornings. During the treatment period, cows had free choice access to bermudagrass hay [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; 8.4% CP; 72% NDF; DM basis]. In Exp. 1, 166 spring-calving Angus and Angus x Hereford crossbred beef cows were individually fed supplements for an average of 80 d during mid to late gestation. During the first 50 d of supplementation, cows fed soybean meal/hulls gained more BW (10 kg; P effect of supplement composition on forage intake and digestion; cows remained on the same supplements, hay, and feeding schedule as Exp. 1. Crude fat digestibility was the only intake or digestibility measurement influenced by supplement composition; fat digestibility was higher for cows fed whole soybeans compared with cows fed the soybean meal/hulls supplement (58.1 vs. 48.8%). Hay intake and DMI averaged 1.63 and 1.92% of BW daily, respectively. Dry matter, NDF, and CP digestibility averaged 54.1, 55.1, and 63.2%, respectively. Compared with supplementation with soybean meal/ hulls, whole soybean supplementation during mid to late gestation resulted in reduced BW weight gain during supplementation, inconsistent effects on reproduction, no effect on calf weaning weight, and no effect on forage intake or digestion.

  2. Survey of quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: I. Incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify incidence of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls selling at auction during 2 seasons in 2008. Twenty-three BQA-related traits were evaluated by 9 trained personnel during sales at 10 livestock auction markets in Idaho (n = 5; beef and dairy), California, (n = 4; dairy only), and Utah (n = 1; beef and dairy). Overall, 18,949 unique lots (8,213 beef cows, 1,036 beef bulls, 9,177 dairy cows, and 523 dairy bulls,) consisting of 23,479 animals (9,299 beef cows, 1,091 beef bulls, 12,429 dairy cows, and 660 dairy bulls) were evaluated during 125 sales (64 spring, 61 fall) for dairy and 79 sales (40 spring, 39 fall) for beef. The majority of market beef cows and bulls (60.9 and 71.3%, respectively) were predominantly black-hided, and the Holstein hide pattern was observed in 95.4 and 93.6% of market dairy cows and bulls, respectively. Market cattle weighed 548 ± 103.6 kg (beef cows), 751 ± 176.1 kg (beef bulls), 658 ± 129.7 kg (dairy cows), and 731 ± 150.8 kg (dairy bulls). Most beef cows (79.6%) weighed 455 to 726 kg, and most beef bulls (73.8%) weighed 545 to 954 kg, respectively. Among market beef cattle, 16.0% of cows and 14.5% of bulls weighed less than 455 and 545 kg, respectively, and 63.7% of dairy cows and 81.5% of dairy bulls weighed 545 to 817 kg or 545 to 954 kg, respectively. However, 19.5% of dairy cows and 13.1% of dairy bulls weighed less than 545 kg. Mean BCS for beef cattle (9-point scale) was 4.7 ± 1.2 (cows) and 5.3 ± 0.9 (bulls), and for dairy cattle (5-point scale) was 2.6 ± 0.8 (cows) and 2.9 ± 0.6 (bulls). Some 16.5% of beef cows and 4.1% of beef bulls had a BCS of 1 to 3, whereas 34.8% of dairy cows and 10.4% of dairy bulls had a BCS of 2 or less. Emaciation (beef BCS = 1, dairy BCS = 1.0) or near-emaciation (beef BCS = 2, dairy BCS = 1.5) was observed in 13.3% of dairy cows and 3.9% of beef cows. Among beef cattle, 15.1% of cows and 15.4% of bulls were

  3. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis. Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53 and 9.4% (5/53 of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49 at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8% at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

  4. EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION SCORE ON ESTRUS AND OVARIAN FUNCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHRONIZED BEEF-MASTER COWS

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    José C. Segura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body condition score (BCS on estrus characteristics and ovarian function was evaluated in 44 synchronized Beef-Master cows. Weaned adult cows in anestrous were grouped according to their BCS as BCS1-2 (n = 13, BCS3-4 (n = 17 and BCS5-6 (n = 14. All cows were synchronized using norgestomet implants plus estradiol valerate for 9 days. The estrus detection began 24 hours after implant removal and it was detected every 6 hours for 72 hours. The time from implant removal to the onset of estrus (TIR and the duration of estrus were registered. All animals were examined 4 times with a transrectal ultrasound kit to determine the size of the follicles (6 to 9 mm or > 9 mm, the diameter of the largest follicle (DLF, ovulation rate, ovulation rate relative to estrus detection (ORE and ovulation rate relative to the follicle size (ORF. The effect of BCS on TIR, the duration of the estrus, the number of follicles of size 6 to 9 mm or > 9 mm, and DLF was determined using analysis of variance. The effect of BCS on ovulation rate, ORE and ORF, were analyzed using Chi-square tests. There were no differences (P> 0.05 between TIR, duration of estrus and follicle sizes between BCS groups. The DLF increased from 9.8 to 12.9 mm, the OR increased from 7.7 to 85.7%, the ORE from 0 to 100% and the ORF from 16.7 to 92.9%. In conclusion, under the range of BCS of the synchronized cows evaluated in this study, the BCS of Beef Master cows did not affect the estrus traits; which agree with results observed in other breeds of cattle in the tropics. However, body condition affects follicle development and ovulation rate.

  5. Short Communication: The performance of beef cows on Digitaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digitaria eriantha silage, ensiled when the plants were in the late flowering stage (March), was fed ad lib to mature, non-pregnant, dry Hereford cows from mid-May to mid-September. The average daily gain during a 98-day feeding period was 0.35 kg/cow. The estimated quantity and quality of the daily dry matter intake ...

  6. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Bozzi, R.; Boettcher, P.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in

  7. Continuous vs intermittent supple- mentation of urea to beef cows on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups of cows had either free and continuous access to a urea supplement or access to the same supplement for only four days per week. Cows from both projects overwintered on rested summer range while all the cows received equal quan- tities of a daily supplement of Eragrostis curvula hay during the latter part of ...

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. Method From April to...

  9. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows.

  10. The effect of increasing amount of glucogenic precursors on reproductive performance in young postpartum range cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Kemp, M E; Cox, S H; Hawkins, D E; Cibils, A F; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K

    2011-09-01

    Supplementing CP and propionate salts (PS) may improve economic returns in young range beef cows by increasing the dietary supply of glucogenic precursors. A 3-yr study conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (Corona, NM) from February to mid-July in 2005 (n = 80), 2006 (n = 81), and 2007 (n = 80) evaluated days to first estrus, calf weaning weight, BW change, and metabolic responses in 2- and 3-yr-old postpartum cows grazing native range. Cows were individually fed one of three 36% CP supplement treatments after parturition, with increasing glucogenic potential (GP) supplied by RUP and PS. Supplements were isoenergetic and fed at a rate of 908 g/cow per day twice weekly. Supplementation was initiated 7 d after calving and continued for an average of 95 d. Supplement treatments provided 1) 328 g of CP, 110 g of RUP and 0 g of PS (PS0); 2) 328 g of CP, 157 g of RUP, and 40 g of PS (PS40); or 3) 329 g of CP, 158 g of RUP, and 80 g of PS (PS80). Ultimately, PS0, PS40, and PS80 provided 44, 93, and 124 g of GP, respectively. Body weight was recorded weekly and serum was collected twice weekly for progesterone analysis to estimate days to first estrus. Cows were exposed to bulls for 60 d or less beginning in mid-May. Days to first estrus exhibited a quadratic (P = 0.06) response to GP resulting from the fewest days to first estrus with the consumption of PS40. Pregnancy rates were 88, 96, and 94% for cows fed PS0, PS40, and PS80, respectively (P = 0.11). Total kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed to bulls for the supplementation and following year increased quadratically (P = 0.09). However, supplement did not affect milk composition or yield (P ≥ 0.53). Serum acetate half-life decreased linearly (P = 0.08) with increasing GP in 2007. Predicted margins were the greatest (quadratic; P = 0.03) for cows fed PS40. Even though supplement costs were greater for PS40 and PS80, cows fed PS40 had increased profits ($33.47/cow) compared with cows fed PS0 and

  11. Pre- and postpartum nutritional effects on milk production, milk composition, calf weaning weight and postpartum reproductive performance of commercial beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnan, Jeffrey Mark

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum and postpartum nutrition on milk production of commercial beef cows. Forty-three Angus or Angus X Holstein females, ranging in age from 2 to 6 yr, were randomly assigned by age and percentage Holstein within age to one of two prepartum grazing treatments (PRE). All females, regardless of PRE, were assigned at calving to receive the same post-calving nutritional energy. Females were assigned at calving by ag...

  12. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  13. Application of transmission infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression to predict immunoglobulin G concentration in dairy and beef cow colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohaby, I; Windeyer, M C; Haines, D M; Homerosky, E; Pearson, J; McClure, J T; Keefe, G P

    2018-01-29

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for quantification of dairy and beef cow colostral IgG concentration and assessment of colostrum quality. A total of 430 colostrum samples were collected from dairy (n = 235) and beef (n = 195) cows and tested by a radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay and TIR spectroscopy. Colostral IgG concentrations obtained by the RID assay were linked to the pre-processed spectra and divided into combined and prediction datasets. Three PLSR calibration models were built: one for the dairy cow colostrum only, the second for beef cow colostrum only, and the third for the merged dairy and beef cow colostrum. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated separately using the independent prediction dataset. The Pearson correlation coefficients between IgG concentrations as determined by the TIR-based assay and the RID assay were 0.84 for dairy cow colostrum, 0.88 for beef cow colostrum and 0.92 for the merged set of dairy and beef cow colostrum. The average of the differences between colostral IgG concentrations obtained by the RID and TIR-based assays were -3.5, 2.7 and 1.4 g/L for dairy, beef, and merged colostrum samples, respectively. Further, the average relative error of the colostral IgG predicted by the TIR spectroscopy from the RID assay was 5% for dairy cow, 1.2% for beef cow, and 0.8% for the merged dataset. The average intra-assay coefficient of variations (CV%) of the IgG concentration predicted by the TIR-based method were 3.2%, 2.5% and 6.9% for dairy cow, beef cow and merged dataset, respectively.The utility of TIR method for assessment of colostrum quality was evaluated using the entire dataset and showed that TIR spectroscopy accurately identified the quality status of 91% of dairy cow colostrum, 95% of beef cow colostrum, and 89% and 93% of the merged dairy and beef cow colostrum samples

  14. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  15. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  16. Flunixin meglumine improves pregnancy rate in embryo recipient beef cows with an excitable temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Hall, J B; Estill, C T; Kastelic, J P; Joseph, C; Abdel Aziz, R L; Nak, D

    2018-02-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of: 1) handling temperament and administration of flunixin meglumine, an inhibitor of prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) synthesis, given at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer recipients; 2) handling temperament and flunixin meglumine on peripheral concentrations of progesterone, cortisol, substance-P, prostaglandin F metabolites (PGFM, (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2a) and isoprostane 8-epi PGF2a; and 3) flunixin meglumine treatment on proportion of non-pregnant recipient cows returning to estrus within an expected interval. Angus cross beef cows (n = 710) at 7 locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese) and a temperament score [0, calm, slow chute exit; walk (n = 352), 1, excited, fast chute exit; jump, trot or run (n = 358)] and were synchronized with Select-Synch with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol. Estrus detection aids were applied at CIDR removal and cows were observed thrice daily for estrus until 72 h. Recipient cows that expressed estrus and had a corpus luteum received a frozen-thawed embryo on Day 7 after estrus. At the time of transfer, recipient cows were randomly allocated to receive 10 mL of flunixin meglumine im, immediately after transfer (n = 365) or served as an untreated control (n = 345). In a subset of cows (n = 80), ovarian ultrasonography was performed on the day of embryo transfer to determine corpus luteum volume and blood samples were collected twice, at the time of embryo transfer and 7 d later. All cows received estrus detection aids again on Day 14 (7 d after embryo transfer) and were observed for estrus twice daily until Day 24. Accounting for treatment (P > 0.1), embryo transfer difficulty score (P flunixin meglumine was lower (46.3% 81/175) compared to excitable cows that did received flunixin meglumine [56.8% (104/183)], and calm cows that did [59.3% (108/182)] or did not [59.4% (104

  17. Environmental, genetic and social factors affecting the expression of estrus in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio J; Yelich, Joel V; Lemaster, J Willard; Fields, Michael J; Tran, Than; Chase, Chad C; Rae, D Owen; Chenoweth, Peter J

    2002-03-01

    Genetic, social and environmental factors affecting behavioral estrus were evaluated in Angus (n = 10), Brahman (n = 10) and Senepol (n = 10) cows during a PGF2alpha synchronized estrus and subsequent spontaneous estrus. Cows were equally stratified by breed to two groups of 15. Both groups were pre-synchronized with a modified two-injection PGF2alpha protocol. At the start of the experiment, cows were treated with 25 mg PGF2alpha followed by a second and third administration of 12.5 mg PGF2alpha, 11 and 12 days later to induce synchronized estrus. The subsequent estrus was designated as spontaneous estrus. Behavioral estrus data including the onset and end of estrus, estrous duration and the total number of mounts received for the synchronized and spontaneous estruses were collected using HeatWatch". Interval from the third PGF2alpha, treatment to the onset of a HeatWatch" estrus occurred earlier (P Senepol (53 +/- 4 h) cows, with dominant Senepol and Brahman cows taking longer to exhibit estrus after PGF2alpha than subordinate cows. The duration of the synchronized estrus tended to be shorter (P Senepol (12 +/- 3 h) than in Angus (19 +/- 2 h) or Brahman (17 +/- 2 h) cows. Behavioral estrus data between the two periods were confounded by greater temperature-humidity index (THI) values during spontaneous estrus. The THI during spontaneous estrus appeared (P = 0.09) to affect the duration of estrus (9 +/- 1 h versus 16 +/- 1 h) and did affect (P 0.10) on the duration and total number of mounts received during synchronized and spontaneous estruses. In conclusion, type of estrus (synchronized or spontaneous), THI, social dominance and breed exerted significant effects on characteristics associated with behavioral estrus in beef cattle in subtropical environments.

  18. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  19. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  20. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i abrupt weaning and ii subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d 0, mean age of calf (s.d. 212 (24.5 d, cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i d 0 (weaning, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii d 0 (housing, 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Results Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05. Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P 0.05. On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P Conclusions A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-γ production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  1. Relationships of barometric pressure and environmental temperature with incidence of parturition in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Gadberry, M S

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between barometric pressure (BARO) and maximum (MAX_T) and minimum (MIN_T) environmental temperatures with the incidence of parturition in beef cows was examined through exploratory data analysis. Spring- and fall-calving records from a 5-yr period (2005 through 2009) collected at the University of Arkansas, Livestock and Forestry Research Station (Batesville) and the Department of Animal Science Savoy Research Unit (Savoy, AR) were used. All cows were multiparous, predominantly Angus, and naturally bred. During this period, 2,210 calves were born over a cumulative 1,547 d. Local weather station BARO and MAX_T and MIN_T data were obtained from the Southern Regional Climate Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. The combined calving record and climate variables were used to determine differences in BARO, MAX_T, and MIN_T on d 0 (d of calving) and -1, -2, or -3 d, respectively, before calving occurred (CALFD) or did not occur (NOCALFD). Location and season also were included in the model. For fall-calving cows, BARO on d 0 and -1, -2, or -3 was not different between CALFD and NOCALFD (P > 0.10). For spring-calving cows, BARO on d 0, -1, -2, and -3 was greater (P 0.10). In the spring, a decreased MAX_T was associated with CALFD. Maximum environmental temperatures on d 0 (14.7 vs. 16.0°C), -1 (14.4 vs. 16.0°C), and -3 (14.0 vs. 15.7°C) were less for CALFD compared with NOCALFD (P 0.10). For fall, MIN_T was greater on d -1 (12.8 vs. 11.3°C), -2 (13.0 vs. 11.4°C), and -3 (13.1 vs. 11.7°C) for CALFD compared with NOCALFD (P < 0.05). In spring, MIN_T for d 0 (2.6 vs. 3.9°C), -1 (2.5 vs. 3.7°C), -2 (2.1 vs. 3.7°C), and -3 (1.8 vs. 3.8°C) were lesser (P < 0.05) for CALFD vs. NOCALFD. These data indicate that for spring-calving cows, a greater BARO and decreased MAX_T and MIN_T were associated with CALFD, whereas for fall-calving cows, an increase in MAX_T and MIN_T was associated with CALFD. Therefore, monitoring weather conditions may

  2. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  3. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  5. Quality defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls sold through livestock auction markets in the Western United States: II. Relative effects on selling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, J K; Foster, H A; Vanoverbeke, D L; Jensen, K S; Wilson, R L; Glaze, J B; Fife, T E; Gray, C W; Nash, S A; Panting, R R; Rimbey, N R

    2011-05-01

    Relative effects of Beef Quality Assurance (BQA)-related defects in market beef and dairy cows and bulls on selling price at auction was evaluated during 2008. The presence and severity of 23 BQA-related traits were determined during sales in Idaho, California, and Utah. Overall, 18,949 unique lots consisting of 23,479 animals were assessed during 125 dairy sales and 79 beef sales. Mean sale price ± SD (per 45.5 kg) for market beef cows, beef bulls, dairy cows, and dairy bulls was $45.15 ± 9.42, $56.30 ± 9.21, $42.23 ± 12.26, and $55.10 ± 9.07, respectively. When combined, all recorded traits explained 36% of the variation in selling price in beef cows, 35% in beef bulls, 61% in dairy cows, and 56% in dairy bulls. Premiums and discounts were determined in comparison with a "par" or "base" animal. Compared with a base BCS 5 beef cow (on a 9-point beef scale), BCS 1 to 4 cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas premiums (P < 0.05) were estimated for BCS 6 to 8. Compared with a base BCS 3.0 dairy cow (on a 5-point dairy scale), more body condition resulted in a premium (P ≤ 0.001), whereas a less-than-desirable BCS of 2.0 or 2.5 was discounted (P < 0.0001). Emaciated or near-emaciated cows (beef BCS 1 or 2; dairy BCS 1.0 or 1.5) were discounted (P < 0.0001). Compared with base cows weighing 545 to 635 kg, lighter BW beef cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier beef cows received (P < 0.05) a premium. Compared with a base dairy cow weighing 636 to 727 kg, lighter BW cows were discounted (P < 0.0001), whereas heavier cows (727 to 909 kg) received a premium (P < 0.01). Beef and dairy cows with any evidence of lameness were discounted (P < 0.0001). Presence of ocular neoplasia in the precancerous stage discounted (P = 0.05) beef cows and discounted (P < 0.01) dairy cows, whereas at the cancerous stage, it discounted (P < 0.0001) all cows. Hide color influenced (P < 0.0001) selling price in beef cattle but had no effect (P = 0.17) in dairy cows. Animals

  6. The effect of residual feed intake classification on forage intake by grazing beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A M; Kerley, M S; Kallenbach, R L

    2008-10-01

    Although feed intake and efficiency differences in growing cattle of low and high residual feed intake (RFI) classification have been established, little is known about the difference in grazed forage intake between beef cows of known RFI classification. Two experiments were conducted using Hereford cows for which RFI had been determined as heifers using the GrowSafe 4000E feed intake system, after which heifers had been divided into thirds as low RFI, mid RFI, and high RFI. During Exp. 1, 2 replicates of low and high RFI cows (n = 7/replicate) in mid- to late-gestation were blocked to 1 of 4 non-endophyte-infected tall fescue paddocks (1.8 to 2.4 ha), which they grazed continuously for 84 d during summer. Using grazing exclosures, weekly rising plate meter readings, and forage harvests every 21 d, average forage DMI was calculated. Low and high RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in BW change or BCS change over the trial (19.5 vs. 22.1 kg of BW gain and 0.11 vs. 0.10 BCS gain), but low RFI cows had a 21% numerically lower DMI than high RFI cows (12.4 vs. 15.6 kg/d; P = 0.23). The average area needed per paddock over the trial was similar for low and high RFI cows (1.71 vs. 1.82 ha; P = 0.35), and the average DM on offer over the trial was less for low RFI than for high RFI cows (4,215 vs. 4,376 kg; P = 0.06). During Exp. 2, 3 replicates of low and high RFI cows with their calves (n = 4 pair/replicate) strip-grazed stockpiled and early spring growth tall fescue paddocks (0.7 to 0.9 ha) for 60 d in late winter and early spring. Because of limiting forage availability and quality at trial initiation, cow-calf pairs were also fed 3.31 kg/pair of pelleted soyhulls daily. Pre- and post-grazed forage samples were harvested for 4 grazing periods, and forage growth was estimated using a growing degree days calculation and on-site weather station data. Performance did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI cows throughout the experiment (18.4 vs. 26.6 kg of BW gain

  7. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  8. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  9. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin to suckled beef cows before ovulation synchronization and fixed-time insemination: Replacement of gonadotropin-releasing hormone with human chorionic gonadotropin1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G H L Marquezini; C R Dahlen; S L Bird; G C Lamb

    2011-01-01

    ...), would improve fertility to a fixed-time AI (TAI) in suckled beef cows. In addition, the effects of hCG on follicle dynamics, corpus luteum development, and concentrations of progesterone (P4) were evaluated. In Exp...

  10. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin to suckled beef cows before ovulation synchronization and fixed-time insemination: replacement of gonadotropin-releasing hormone with human chorionic gonadotropin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marquezini, G H L; Dahlen, C R; Bird, S L; Lamb, G C

    2011-01-01

    ...), would improve fertility to a fixed-time AI (TAI) in suckled beef cows. In addition, the effects of hCG on follicle dynamics, corpus luteum development, and concentrations of progesterone (P4) were evaluated. In Exp...

  11. Characterisation of physiological and immunological responses in beef cows to abrupt weaning and subsequent housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eilish M; Earley, Bernadette; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean

    2010-07-20

    Weaning involves the permanent separation of the calf from the dam and has been shown to be stressful for both. The objectives of this study were to characterise the effect of i) abrupt weaning and ii) subsequent housing on the extended physiological and immunological responses of beef cows. At weaning (day (d) 0, mean age of calf (s.d.) 212 (24.5) d), cows were abruptly separated from their calves and returned to the grazing area. After 35 d at pasture, cows were housed in a slatted floor shed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus a mineral-vitamin supplement daily. Rectal body temperature was recorded and blood samples were obtained on i) d 0 (weaning), 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and subsequently on ii) d 0 (housing), 2, 7, 14 and 21 for physiological, haematological and immunological measurements. Post-weaning, concentration of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were unchanged (P > 0.05). Rectal body temperature, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-weaning baseline. Lymphocyte and neutrophil number decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. Interferon-gamma production decreased (P pre-weaning baseline. An increase (P pre-weaning baseline. Concentration of glucose increased on d 2 to 28, whereas non-esterified fatty acid decreased on d 2 to 35 compared with pre-weaning baseline. Post-housing, concentrations of cortisol, rectal body temperature, total leukocyte number, and glucose were unchanged (P > 0.05). On d 2 post-housing, neutrophil number and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio increased (P pre-housing baseline. Concentration of haptoglobin increased (P post-housing. A transitory increase in neutrophil number and decrease in lymphocyte number, increased neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio coupled with decreased interferon-gamma production, and increased concentration of acute phase proteins indicate a stress response in cows post-weaning, whereas post-housing, changes were less marked.

  12. Achieving body weight adjustments for feeding status and pregnant or non-pregnant condition in beef cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus P Gionbelli

    Full Text Available Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements.Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation.Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG, which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows.Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status.

  13. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  14. Post-artificial insemination supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil influences pregnancy establishment factors in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, A D; Silva, L G T; Bohnert, D W; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M; Pires, A V; Cerri, R L A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10). Groups were maintained in 4 pastures (5 groups from the same treatment within each pasture) with ad libitum access to forage. Groups were segregated daily and individually offered treatments from d 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 15. After ultrasonography on d 15, 60 cows (30 cows/treatment and 3 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm3 in volume on d 7 and 15 were assigned to conceptus collection via transcervical flushing with PBS followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Additional blood samples were collected for whole-blood RNA extraction (d 20), and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (d 30) in cows not assigned to conceptus collection. Cows receiving CSSO had greater ( ≤ 0.04) mean plasma linoleic acid concentration, plasma linoleic:linolenic acid ratio, plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, and CL volume during the experiment compared with CON cows. Moreover, CSSO supplementation increased ( ≤ 0.04) length and mRNA expression of and by the conceptus as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes on d 20 in gestating cows. No treatment differences were detected

  15. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  16. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M; Short, Diana M; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5-12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  17. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  18. Genetic relationship between cyclic ovarian activity in heifers and cows and beef traits in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Records were collected in an experimental herd over an 11-year period from purebred Charolais heifers (n = 351, cows (n = 615 and young entire bulls (n = 383. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationship between the components of female ovarian activity (age at puberty and postpartum anoestrus length, their growth rate and body condition score and beef traits measured on related bulls. Two methods were used to estimate age at puberty and postpartum anoestrus length: the detection of oestrous behaviour and a test of cyclicity based on plasmatic progesterone assay. This study shows the existence of significant heritability estimates for the different cyclicity traits (h2 between 0.11 and 0.38. Most of the genetic correlation coefficients between ovarian activity and growth rate of females and males are negative and favourable (rg between -0.43 and 0.06. Cyclicity is also favourably related with body condition score in young or adult females (rg between -0.65 and -0.22. The genetic relationship between female ovarian activity and proportion of adipose tissue in the male carcass is, however, close to zero. These results show that an antagonism between male beef traits measured in this study and female ovarian activity is unlikely to be a cause for concern in the short term.

  19. Effects of calcium salts of soybean oil on factors that influence pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Depner, C M; Lytle, K A; Jump, D B; Bohnert, D W; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fatty acid (FA) concentrations in plasma and reproductive tissues as well as hormones and expression of genes associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) beginning after timed AI. Ninety nonlactating multiparous Nelore (Bos indicus) cows were timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment and divided into 18 groups of 5 cows/group. Groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of a protein-mineral mix plus 100 g of ground corn per cow daily in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 9) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; n = 9). All groups were maintained in a single Brachiaria brizanta pasture (24 ha) with ad libitum access to forage and water. However, groups were segregated daily and offered treatments individually at the working facility during the experimental period (d 0 to 18). Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and estimate corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 18 of the experiment. On d 19, 36 cows (18 cows/treatment; 2 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm(3) in volume on d 7 and 18 were slaughtered for collection of conceptus, uterine luminal flushing, and tissue samples from the CL and endometrium. Cows receiving CSSO had greater concentrations of linoleic and other ω-6 FA in plasma (P < 0.01), endometrium (P ≤ 0.05), CL (P ≤ 0.05), and conceptus (P ≤ 0.08) compared to CON. On d 7 of the experiment, CSSO-supplemented cows had greater plasma progesterone concentrations (P < 0.01) and CL volume (P = 0.02) compared to CON, whereas no treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.15) for these parameters on d 18 (treatment × day interaction; P < 0.01). Cows receiving CSSO tended (P = 0.09) to have greater concentrations of interferon-tau in the

  20. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones.

  1. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  2. Equine chorionic gonadotropin administration after insemination affects luteal function and pregnancy establishment in postpartum anestrous beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Olivera, R; de Castro, T; Bó, G A; Piaggio, J; Menchaca, A

    2017-08-31

    Two experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration on day 14 after insemination on ovarian response and pregnancy establishment in postpartum anestrous beef cows. In both experiments, cows were subjected to a progesterone- and estradiol-based treatment for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) and were randomly allocated into 4 groups to receive or not receive eCG (400 IU) at the time of device removal and/or at 14 d after FTAI. In experiment 1, from day 14 to 22, daily ultrasonographic determinations were performed to monitor ovarian dynamics, and blood was collected to determine hormone concentrations in 60 cows. In experiment 2, confirmation of pregnancy was performed at 30 and 60 d after FTAI in 1,060 anestrous cows assigned to the same experimental design. Cows that received eCG on day 14 after FTAI showed increases in corpus luteum area (P eCG on day 14. Pregnancy rate on day 30 was greater in those cows that received both eCG treatments (ie, at device removal and 14 d after insemination) than in those that did not receive eCG treatment (P eCG administered on day 14 after FTAI increases serum progesterone concentrations during the critical period of pregnancy in anestrous cows, and this second eCG treatment seems to have a positive effect on achieving pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P feeding events, but these were of longer (P feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P feed for similar levels of productivity, spent less time engaged in feeding-behavior-related activities, and differed in ruminal fermentation parameters. Feeding events are a significant (17%) contributory factor to variation in RFI in pregnant beef cows offered grass silage.

  4. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Relling, A E; Felix, T L; Shoup, L M; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2-yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed as a single group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was less for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than in calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than in calves from cows fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate that prepartum maternal dietary energy source can alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin

  5. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  6. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, Pcows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; Pcows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4 emissions from beef cows, with no suppression of DMI.

  7. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  8. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  9. Production and utilization of ensiled forages by beef cattle, dairy cows, pregnant ewes and finishing lambs - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Keady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the production of, and factors affecting the performance of dairy cows, beef cattle and sheep offered silage based diets in Ireland and UK. Digestibility is the most important factor influencing the feed value of grass silage and consequently animal performance. Each 10 g kg-1 increase in digestive organic matter in the dry matter (DOMD increases milk yield of dairy cows by 0.33 kg d-1, carcass gain of beef cattle by 23.8 g d-1 , carcass gain of finishing lambs by 9.3 g d-1, lamb birth weight by 52.3 g and ewe weight post lambing by 1.3 kg, respectively. Factors influencing feed value of grass silage are discussed including harvest date, wilting, fertilizer management, chop length and use of additives at ensiling. Maize silage increases the performance of cattle and sheep whilst whole crop wheat silage has no beneficial effect. Advances in silage technology, has enabled the ensiling high protein forages, such as red clover, lucerne and kale.

  10. Continuous vs intermittent supple- mentation of urea to beef cows on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tities of a daily supplement of Eragrostis curvula hay during the latter part of the winter. Neither body mass change of the cows, sex-corrected birth and 205-day weaning mass of the calves nor reconception of the cows were affected detrimental- ly when cows had access to a urea supplement for four days per week only ...

  11. Impact of hormonal modulation at proestrus on ovarian responses and uterine gene expression of suckled anestrous beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Francisco de Sá Filho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the impact of hormonal modulation at the onset of proestrus on ovarian response and uterine gene expression of beef cows. Methods A total of 172 anestrous beef cows were assigned to one of four groups according to the treatment with estradiol cypionate (ECP and/or equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG [CON (n = 43, ECP (n = 43, eCG (n = 44 and ECP + eCG (n = 42]. Results ECP-treated cows (ECP and ECP + eCG groups presented greater occurrence of estrus (44.6% vs. 65.4%; P = 0.01 and pregnancy per AI [47.1% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.07], but similar progesterone (P4 concentration at subsequent diestrus than cows not treated with ECP (CON and eCG groups. Nonetheless, eCG-treated cows (eCG and ECP + eCG groups presented larger follicle at timed AI (12.6 ± 0.3 vs. 13.5 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.03, greater ovulation rate (96.5% vs. 82.6%; P = 0.008 and greater P4 concentration at d 6 (3.9 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001 than cows not treated with eCG (CON and ECP groups. Next, cows with a new corpus luteum 6 d after TAI were submitted to uterine biopsy procedure. Uterine fragments [CON (n = 6, ECP (n = 6] were analyzed by RNA-Seq and a total of 135 transcripts were differentially expressed between groups (73 genes up-regulated by ECP treatment. Subsequently, uterine samples were analyzed by qPCR (genes associated with cell proliferation. ECP treatment induced greater abundance of PTCH2 (P = 0.07 and COL4A1 (P = 0.02, whereas suppressed EGFR (P = 0.09 expression. Conversely, eCG treatment increased abundance of HB-EGF (P = 0.06, ESR2 (P = 0.09, and ITGB3 (P = 0.05, whereas it reduced transcription of ESR1 (P = 0.05. Collectively, supplementation with ECP or eCG at the onset of proestrous of anestrous beef cows influenced ovarian responses, global and specific endometrial gene expression. Conclusion Proestrus estradiol regulate the endometrial transcriptome, particularly

  12. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  13. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-09-08

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  14. Dynamics of progesterone, TNF-a and a metabolite of PGF2a in blood plasma of beef cows following embryo transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactating beef cows received an embryo along with no treatment (control; n = 16), controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n = 16), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n = 15), or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n = 15) to assess the effectiveness of these treatments in increasing blood...

  15. Inclusion of Ethanol Co-Products in Beef Cow Diets: Impact on Cow Performance and Developmental Programming of the Progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Shee, Christie N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for a cow-calf producer is profitability, which requires optimum reproductive performance, while keeping feed costs low and ensuring that nutritional needs are met. Cow herds are grazed on pasture or crop residues, but these may not always meet nutritional requirements. Ethanol co-products such as dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) may be supplemented to increase the energy and protein concentration of the diet. Recently it has...

  16. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  17. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; Residual gain was highly correlated with ADG ( = 0.75; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  18. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P muscle increased (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P muscles and aging periods, calpastatin activity and intensity of troponin-T degradation product were related inversely. Results indicate that supplemental 25-OH D(3) has some influence on muscle characteristics known to improve tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed.

  19. Winter grazing system and supplementation of beef cows during late gestation influence heifer progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Adams, D C; Larson, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate effects of dam winter grazing system and supplementation in the last third of gestation on subsequent BW gain, feed efficiency, and reproduction in heifer progeny. Crossbred cows (yr 1, n = 109; yr 2, n = 114; yr 3, n = 116) grazed range (WR) or corn residue (CR) during winter and within grazing treatment received 0.40 kg/d of 31% CP (DM basis) cubes (PS) or no supplement (NS). Heifer calves (yr 1, n = 56; yr 2, n = 56; yr 3, n = 54) grazed dormant pasture for 114 d postweaning and were individually fed for 87 d before a 45-d natural service breeding. Dam PS reduced (P = 0.04) heifer birth date and CR tended to increase (P = 0.07) heifer birth BW. Both PS and CR increased (P ≤ 0.05) heifer weaning BW; however, adjusted 205-d weaning BW was only lighter (P = 0.03) if the dam grazed WR with NS. Heifers from PS dams tended to be younger (P = 0.09) at puberty than NS, and there was a trend (P = 0.11) for more heifers to be pubertal by breeding if the dam grazed WR with PS compared with other treatment groups. Heifers from WR-NS dams tended to weigh less (P ≤ 0.09) at breeding and at pregnancy diagnosis than WR PS. There was a trend (P = 0.13) for pregnancy rate to be greater for heifers born to PS dams. Individually fed heifer DMI was not affected (P = 0.25) by treatment; however, heifers from dams that grazed CR with PS gained the least BW (P = 0.04) during individual feeding and had the smallest (P = 0.03) G:F. In contrast, there were no differences (P > 0.15) in feed efficiency when expressed as residual feed intake. The first calf birth and weaning BW of the heifer was unaffected (P > 0.15) by dam treatment. Heifers from dams that grazed WR with NS tended to have lighter (P = 0.09) BW before the second breeding season but similar (P = 0.97) pregnancy rates. Cows grazing CR with NS produced the most valuable heifer calf at weaning; however, heifers from cows that grazed WR with NS cost the least

  20. Cow-calf reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management to improve the sustainability of whole beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Brady, M; Capper, J L; McNamara, J P; Johnson, K A

    2015-06-01

    Optimizing efficiency in the cow-calf sector is an important step toward improving beef sustainability. The objective of the study was to use a model to identify the relative roles of reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management in minimizing beef production systems' environmental impact in an economically viable, socially acceptable manner. An economic and environmental diet optimizer was used to identify ideal nutritional management of beef production systems varying in genetic and reproductive technology use. Eight management scenarios were compared to a least cost baseline: average U.S. production practices (CON), CON with variable nutritional management (NUT), twinning cattle (TWN), early weaning (EW), sire selection by EPD using either on-farm bulls (EPD-B) or AI (EPD-AI), decreasing the calving window (CW), or selecting bulls by EPD and reducing the calving window (EPD-CW). Diets to minimize land use, water use, and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were optimized under each scenario. Increases in diet cost attributable to reducing environmental impact were constrained to less than stakeholder willingness to pay for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Baseline land use, water use, and GHG emissions were 188 m, 712 L, and 21.9 kg/kg HCW beef. The NUT scenario, which assessed opportunities to improve sustainability by altering nutritional management alone, resulted in a simultaneous 1.5% reduction in land use, water use, and GHG emissions. The CW scenario improved calf uniformity and simultaneously decreased land use, water use, and GHG emissions by 3.2%. Twinning resulted in a 9.2% reduction in the 3 environmental impact metrics. The EW scenario allowed for an 8.5% reduction in the 3 metrics. The EPD-AI scenario resulted in an 11.1% reduction, which was comparable to the 11.3% reduction achieved by EPD-B in the 3 metrics. Improving genetic selection by using AI or by purchasing on-farm bulls based on their superior EPD demonstrated

  1. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  2. Supplementation with a mixture of whole rice bran and crude glycerin on metabolic responses and performance of primiparous beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Clariget

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - This study investigated the effect of a supplement containing whole rice bran and crude glycerin for 21 days before mating on metabolic, productive, and reproductive responses of 28 primiparous suckling beef cows. Cows were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n = 14, grazing on grasslands, and a supplemented group (SUP, n = 14, grazing on grasslands and supplemented daily individually with 1 kg dry matter (DM of whole rice bran + 550 mL crude glycerin (224 g kg−1 DM of methanol per cow. After 33 days of natural mating, cows that had not expressed estrus were subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. Ten days after the insemination program, bulls were reintroduced for 21 days. Supplementation increased milk yield (SUP: 5.7±0.2 vs. CON: 5.0±0.2 kg d−1, milk protein content (SUP: 3.1±0.2 vs. CON: 2.8±0.2%, and body weight of cow (SUP: 379±2 vs. CON: 373±2 kg and calf (SUP: 150±2 vs. CON: 142±2 kg. Supplementation improved the energy balance, increased plasma concentrations of cholesterol (SUP: 223.2±6.4 vs. CON: 202.1±6.4 mg dL−1 and glucose (SUP: 72.0±1.2 vs. CON: 68.6±1.2 mg dL−1, and reduced non-esterified fatty acids (SUP: 0.45±0.02 vs. CON: 0.56±0.02 mmol L−1. The percentage of cows on superficial anestrous after supplementation was greater in SUP than in CON group (57 vs. 21%, respectively; however, no difference in final pregnancy rate was found (SUP: 79 vs. CON: 64%. There was no evidence that the ingestion of crude glycerin with high content of methanol induced clinical or hepatic disorders. Supplementation of whole rice bran and crude glycerin is not toxic, and can improve the energy balance, reflecting in increase in milk yield and calf growth, with a slight effect on the reproductive activity.

  3. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; Plactating Nelore cows (n=412) were subjected to an EB-CIDR based TAI protocol. On the morning of Day 10 (time of TAI), cows were randomized into Control (n=209) and Block (n=203) groups; (1) Cows in the Control Group were TAI 48 h after CIDR removal (08:00 am on Day 10), and; (2) Cows in the block group were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant extracts combined with vitamin E in PUFA-rich diets of cull cows protect processed beef against lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Mylène; Gruffat, Dominique; Habeanu, Mihaela; Parafita, Emilie; Bauchart, Dominique; Durand, Denys

    2010-08-01

    The effect of supplementing PUFA-rich cull cow diets with vitamin E (2.8 g/animal/day) or vitamin E plus plant extracts rich in polyphenols (PERP) (126 g/animal/day), for 101+/-3 days preceding slaughter, on the oxidative stability of longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks was evaluated after ageing (for 12 d at 4 degrees C either in carcass or under-vacuum) and packaging (14 d under-vacuum (V), 4 d aerobic (A) and 7 d under modified atmosphere (70:30, O(2)/CO(2)) (MA)). The ageing method had no effect on a beef lipid oxidation intensity marker (malondialdehyde (MDA)), whereas packaging systems containing O(2) (A and MA) significantly increased lipid oxidation intensity (5 and 13 times higher than under V, respectively). Adding antioxidants to diets of animals given a PUFA-rich diet significantly improved lipid stability in steaks; the combination of vitamin E and PERP was more efficient than vitamin E alone for the most deleterious beef packaging. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  6. The reproductive responses of two breeds of beef cows and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from one bioclimatic area to another. In 1957 Bonsma & Joubert advocated a regionalized beef production system. They suggested that certain bioclimatic areas are ..... SECTION (SIRI). Yearly meteorological reports, 1979/80- 1983/84. Dept. Agric. Natal. Region, Cedara. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 1981. Effects of.

  7. Genetic parameters for large-scale behavior traits and type traits in Charolais beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallée, A.; Breider, I.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, beef cattle breeding mainly focused on improving production and reproduction traits. Nowadays, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. There is an interest in behavior as it is associated with human safety and workability and in

  8. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( wolf-experienced herd presented biological evidence suggesting a psychological disorder, such as PTSD, after the

  9. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early-born calves gained at a faster rate than those born late in the Thornveld, but not In the Sour· veld. Creepfeeding was beneficial for late-born calves suckled by cows which received energy supplements. In the Thornveld. All creepfed calves benefitted in the Sourveld. In the Thornveld the bodymass at weaning was.

  10. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veld. Creepfeeding was beneficial for late-born calves suckled by cows which received energy supplements. In the Thornveld. All creepfed calves benefitted in the Sourveld. In the Thornveld the bodymass at weaning was determined by the season of birth and creepfeedlng. (31,4 %) While in the. Sourveld creepfeedlng.

  11. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suckling behaviour of one- to three-month-old calves, suckled by 66 Hereford, Simmentaler and Hereford X. Simmentaler cows, was studied. The most common frequency of suckling in 24 h was 4, and the mean duration of each suckling event was 9.6 min. Suckling events were not evenly disributed throughout the 24-h ...

  12. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prohibitedmay also playa role. Vir twee weke voor die aanvang van die jaarlikse .... e.g. endogenous opioids, oxytocin, melatonin, or their antago- nists. Not only do calves suckle less frequently at night ... reproductive activities of Bunaji cows during the post partum period. J. agric. Sci., Camb. 107,235. GREGG, D.W., MOSS ...

  13. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; Pmuscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment; which was associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I.

  14. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The relationship of calf preweaning ADG to SCC was quadratic in Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality.

  15. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of electroejaculation and transrectal massage for semen collection in range and yearling feedlot beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C W; Brito, L F C; Arteaga, A A; Söderquist, L; Persson, Y; Barth, A D

    2005-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare electroejaculation (EE) and transrectal massage (RM) of the ampullary region for semen collection from beef bulls, and to determine the effect of semen collection method on semen traits. In experiment 1, semen was collected either by EE or RM randomly assigned on an alternate basis in 137 range beef bulls unaccustomed to being handled. The maximum time allowed for RM was 4 min and if no semen was obtained, EE was used. In experiment 2, semen was collected from 39 yearling feedlot beef bulls that were accustomed to being handled, by RM followed immediately by EE. The maximum time allowed for semen collection by both methods was 4 min. In both experiments, sperm concentration, percent of progressively motile sperm, percent of sperm staining alive, and sperm morphology were determined. In experiment 1, RM resulted in fewer (P<0.001) successful semen collections and fewer bulls with penile protrusion than EE (80.9% versus 100% and 54.4% versus 91.5%, respectively). The success of RM was not influenced by bull age or breed, or by the veterinarian performing the massage. Transrectal massage required more time (30s, P<0.001) for obtaining a semen sample and resulted in samples with lower sperm concentration (P<0.001), percent motile sperm (P<0.05) and percent live sperm (P<0.001) when compared to EE. In experiment 2, EE and RM were equally effective for obtaining a semen sample (97.4 and 94.9%, respectively), but the proportion of bulls exhibiting penile protrusion during semen collection was lower (P<0.0001) with RM compared to EE. Percent of sperm staining alive was also lower (P<0.01) in samples collected by RM. Sperm morphology (normal sperm, head defects, midpiece defects, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, and detached sperm heads) did not differ between samples collected by EE and RM. In conclusion, semen could be collected by transrectal massage from approximately 80% of range beef bulls and from 95% of yearling beef bulls

  17. Relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Shinichi; Sato, Tomoe; Murai, Iori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa; Oshita, Tomoko

    2011-06-01

    Data of 20 balance measurements from Holstein dairy cows and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black beef cows were collected to evaluate the relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages. The ratio of forages in the diet was 70-100% in dairy cows and beef cows were fed Italian ryegrass silage and wheat bran. Mean urine pH in dairy cows was 8.10, ranging from 7.27 to 8.71, and that in beef cows was 7.73, ranging from 7.42 to 8.12. There were positive correlations between urine pH and urinary K contents (P = 0.0012) or K intake (P = 0.019) in dairy cows, although plasma Na, Cl and K had no effect on urine pH. There was a weak negative correlation (P = 0.039) between urine pH and urinary Na content in dairy cows. However, there were no significant correlations between urine pH and urinary Na, Cl and K contents in beef cows. These results indicate that the concentrated urinary K due to the increased K intake may directly enhance urine pH in dairy cows fed mainly forages. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C

    2006-06-01

    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  19. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiachen; Cao, Yang; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Four Japanese black beef cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the fermentation quality, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and preference of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with differing proportions of apple pomace (AP). Experimental treatments were the control (no AP added, CAP), 5% (low, LAP), 10% (medium, MAP) and 20% (high, HAP) of TMR dry matter (DM) as AP. All TMR silages were well preserved. Ethanol was produced in silages containing AP and the amount increased with the proportion of AP (P silages should be less than 5% of dietary DM. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Lora R. Ballweber; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fres...

  1. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  2. Serum, uterine, and vaginal mucosal IgG antibody responses against Tritrichomonas foetus after administration of a commercial killed whole T foetus vaccine in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Crum, L T; Rollin, E; Collop, T; Williard, A; Felton, J; Parrish, J; Corbeil, L B

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of IgG antibodies induced against killed whole Tritrichomonas foetus and T foetus-purified surface antigen (TF1.17) in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions after systemic immunization of beef cows with a vaccine containing killed whole T foetus. Twenty nonpregnant beef cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups as follows: Vaccine (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of a commercial vaccine containing killed whole T foetus subcutaneously and a 2-mL booster 2 weeks later. Control (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of sterile saline on the same schedule. Vaginal secretions and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 60, 75, 89, 110, 146, and 182 relative to day of primary vaccination. Uterine flush fluid was collected on Days 0, 15, 29, and 43 after the day of primary vaccination. Samples were assayed for IgG antibodies to the killed whole T foetus and surface antigen TF1.17 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum whole T foetus-specific IgG levels were significantly increased (between Days 15 and 182) following vaccination with T foetus or with saline. No differences between vaccinates and controls in uterine responses to whole-cell antigen were detected. Serum anti-TF1.17 IgG responses to vaccination were significantly higher than Day 0 throughout the immunization period (P IgG levels was observed in vaginal and uterine fluids from Day 15 post vaccination compared to the Day 0 levels. These levels remained significantly elevated in vaginal and uterine fluids through Days 75 (P IgG to the T foetus TF1.17 surface antigen in serum, vaginal secretions, and uterine fluid, which remained elevated through Days 43, 75, and 182 in uterine fluids, vaginal secretions, and serum, respectively. Since purified TF1.17 antigen has been shown to protect against experimental T foetus infection in heifers, the vaccine-induced TF1.17-specific IgG response is likely to be

  3. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZAÇÃO DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORÁRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto; Marcelo Maronna Dias; Fabrício de Azevedo Velho; João Batista Souza Borges

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI) submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW) and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three g...

  4. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pmilk from DDGS compared with CON cows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pmilk was decreased (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  5. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  6. Effects of herbage allowance of native grasslands in purebred and crossbred beef cows: metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, P<0.008). Concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were greater (P<0.037) in HI than in LO cows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (P<0.05) during the winter gestation period only in HI cows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (P<0.05) during the early postpartum (-15 v.+15 days) for all cows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (P<0.05) during winter gestation (from -165 to -45, -15 or +15 days, depending on the cow groups). Particularly, acyl

  7. Comparison of wet brewers' grains or dried distillers' grains as supplements to conserved bermudagrass forage as winter feeding options for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M V; Hersom, M J; Thrift, T A; Yelich, J V

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of 2 byproduct supplements and conserved warm-season forage as winter feeding options for primiparous beef cows. Gestating Angus ( = 48) and Brangus ( = 24) 2-yr-old cows were stratified by BW and breed to 1 of 12 pens. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 supplements, wet brewers' grains (WBG) or dried distillers' grains (DDG). Coastal bermudagrass hay or round bale silage (RBS) was fed free choice (6 pens each) and cows received WBG or DDG supplements at a daily rate of 0.05% BW (DM basis) prorated for feeding 3 d/wk. Total BW and BCS changes did not differ ( = 0.65 and = 0.93, respectively) between DDG- and WBG-supplemented cows. Total amount of forage DM offered and mean calculated daily forage DM offered did not differ ( = 0.59 and = 0.20, respectively) between supplement treatments. Estimated daily mean and total supplement DM offered was greater ( forage sources were used in an unbalanced 6 × 4 design to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen parameters in ruminally fistulated steers. Supplement did not affect forage DMI of hay ( = 0.31) or RBS ( = 0.63). Total DMI was not different ( = 0.37 and = 0.73) for hay-based and RBS-based diets, respectively. Total tract digestibility tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for DDG than for WBG in hay diets but was not different ( = 0.76) for RBS diets. Daily mean ruminal pH was greater ( = 0.03) for WBG than for DDG when supplemented to hay-based diets. In RBS diets, a supplement × hour interaction ( = 0.05) existed for ruminal pH. Daily mean ruminal ammonia N concentration was greater ( forage. High-moisture forage sources can be coupled with high-moisture byproduct supplements.

  8. Evaluating the interaction between progesterone, TNF alpha and cortisol on early loss of transferred embryos in beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-eight non-lactating cows previously synchronized for estrus were assigned to two treatments to assess the effects of progesterone supplementation and its correlation with TNF-a and cortisol on the survival of the transferred embryos. On day 7 after exhibiting estrus (day 0), cows in both group...

  9. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively.

  10. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  11. Desempenho reprodutivo pós-parto de vacas de corte submetidas a indução/sincronização de cio Postpartum reproductive performance of beef cows in moderate body condition submitted to estrus induction/synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Cassal Brauner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas à indução/sincronização de cio, foram utilizadas 42 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus com condição corporal 3 (escala de 1-5 sob manejo extensivo. A produção de leite foi estimada pelo método pesagem-mamada-pesagem. Nos exames ginecológicos, utilizou-se aparelho de ultra-sonografia e palpação trans-retal. Foram considerados fatores fixos nível de produção de leite (acima e abaixo da média de produção das vacas, gestação, condição reprodutiva pré-acasalamento (CRPA, anestro superficial (tônus uterino, folículos > 10 mm e ausência de CL e anestro profundo (ausência de tônus uterino, folículos To assess the reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to estrus induction/synchronization, 42 Aberdeen Angus cows with body condition 3 (1-5 scale under extensive management were used. The milk production was estimated through the weight-suckling-weight method. For gynecological examinations, ultrasound equipment and trans-rectal palpation were used. The milk production level (above and below the average production of cows, pregnancy, prebreeding reproductive condition (CRPA, surface anoestrus (uterine tone, follicles > 10 mm and absence of CL and deep anoestrus (no uterine tone, follicles <10 mm and absence of CL and the estrus induction/synchronization response (RISC were considered as constant factors. The variables analyzed were the pre-delivery, delivery weight, mating and conception weights, weaning weight, the average daily weight gain from birth to weaning and total milk production. The prebreeding reproductive condition influenced the pre-birth and birth weights, showing that the better pre-birth and birth performance favors the restoration of reproductive activity in cows with moderate body condition (CC in the post-partum period. The classification of the pre-breeding reproductive condition in beef cows can be a resource to determine the

  12. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis we...

  13. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( gestation increased cow BW and BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics.

  14. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on post-weaning progeny growth, glucose tolerance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-08-24

    Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed high in fat and protein, to lactating beef cows can alter milk production and composition, resulting in improved pre-weaning growth of progeny. This alteration in milk profile may consequently alter the growth and carcass composition of the offspring after weaning. Therefore, Angus×Simmental steers (n=48) whose dams were fed one of two diets supplemented with either DDGS or soybean meal (CON) from calving to mid-lactation were placed in a feedlot to determine the effects of maternal nutrition during lactation on progeny development and carcass composition. Cow-calf pairs were allotted to two treatments at birth based on cow and calf BW, breed and age. Maternal diets were isocaloric (3.97 MJ/kg NEg) and consisted of rye hay supplemented with DDGS at 1% of BW (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat) or rye hay and corn silage supplemented with CON (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). After conclusion of the treatments at 129 days postpartum, cow-calf pairs were comingled and managed as one group until weaning at 219 days postpartum. Steers were then transitioned to a common diet composed of 60% DDGS, 34% corn silage and 6% vitamin/mineral supplement and were placed indoors in individual pens with slatted floors. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed 134 days after feedlot entry on 16 steers (CON, n=7; DDGS, n=9) to determine the effect of maternal diet on glucose and insulin sensitivity. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 645 kg. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS, respectively. Steers from DDGS dams tended to be heavier on day 85 of feedlot finishing (P=0.09) compared with steers from CON dams. However, there were no differences in final weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake or efficiency (gain:feed, P⩾0.18). Maternal treatments did not affect progeny days on feed (P=0.15), despite a mean difference of 9 days in favor of DDGS. Glucose and

  15. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  16. Genetic parameters for cow weight at calving and cow weight at calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brad Crook

    included in the analysis were 14458 records for cow weight at calving (CWT-C) representing 6534 cows and. 18871 records for cow ..... by Urioste et al. (1998) in pasture-fed Uruguayan beef cattle as well as those of Nephawe ... Weighing cows at calving also has the added problem of greater stress to the postpartum cows.

  17. Administration of a GnRH analog on day 9 of a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert with timed artificial insemination in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, R L; Ahola, J K; Whittier, J C; French, J T; Repenning, P E; Kruse, S G; Seidel, G E; Peel, R K

    2013-04-01

    Many estrus synchronization protocols aim to induce a new follicular wave to improve response and enhance pregnancy rate. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of GnRH analog administered d 0 and 9 during an extended controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol to produce 2 follicular waves, induce cyclicity in anestrus cows, and evaluate the efficacy of a single 50-mg dose of PGF2α to initiate luteal regression on CIDR removal. Lactating beef cows (n = 779) at 3 locations (n = 247, location 1; n = 395, location 2; n = 137, location 3) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Cows in the 14-d 50 PG treatment received a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) with 100 μg GnRH analog intramuscularly (i.m.) on d 0, 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, and CIDR removal concurrent with 50 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14. Cows in the 14-d 6-h PG treatment were assigned the same protocol as the 14-d 50 PG treatment except that 25 mg PGF2α i.m. was given on d 14 plus 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h later. Cows in the control treatment, 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR (5-d CO-Synch), received a CIDR concurrent with 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, CIDR removal concurrent with 25 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14, and 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h after first F2α injection. Cows in all treatments received 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. and timed AI (TAI) 72 ± 3 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy status to TAI was determined by ultrasonography 37 to 40 d after TAI. Averaged over all locations, pregnancy rates to TAI for 14-d 50 PG, 14-d 6-h PG, and 5-d CO-Synch treatments were 58.2%, 46.8%, and 41.9%, respectively. Pregnancy rates to TAI were greater (P 1 ng/mL at either (or both) bleeding date were considered cyclic. Averaged over the 2 locations, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for a greater number of cyclic animals to become pregnant to TAI in the 14-d 50 PG treatment (64.4%) than 5-d CO-Synch treatment (50.2%). The 14-d CIDR with GnRH analog on d 0 and 9 and a single 50-mg dose of PG i.m. at CIDR removal was a

  18. Social and breed effects on the expression of a PGF2alpha induced oestrus in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, A J; Palomares-Naveda, R; Soto-Castillo, G; Atencio, A; Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J

    2004-10-01

    Social organization and breed effects following PGF2alpha were studied in mature Angus, Brahman and Senepol cows allocated into two groups (each A = 5, B = 5 and S = 5). Variables including interval to oestrus onset (IEO), oestrous duration (DE), total mounts received (TMR), and oestrous intensity (IE) were derived via HeatWatch. Breed-type influenced IEO (B = 42.6 +/- 6.7 h; S = 54.6 +/- 6.0 h; and A = 27.8 +/- 5.8 h; p 0.05). Dominant cows tended (p < 0.10) to have less TMR (3.2 +/- 0.7 mounts) than subordinate (4.1 +/- 0.4 mounts) and intermediate (4.7 +/- 0.6 mounts) throughout, especially 3-6 h after oestrus onset (p < 0.07). Breed and social order both influence PGF2alpha-induced oestrus behaviour.

  19. LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA PRONOSTICAR EL POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO EN HEMBRAS BOVINAS DE CARNE BODY CONDITION SCORE AS TOOL TO PREDICT THE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Correa-Orozco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto de la condición corporal (CC sobre el desempeño reproductivo y la función endocrina en vacas de carne. Los intervalos parto al primer estro y ovulación, intervalos desde el parto a la actividad luteal normal y a la concepción son más cortos en vacas con CC moderada cuando son comparados con vacas delgadas. El tamaño del folículo dominante al primer estro es más grande y la tasa de preñez es mayor para vacas con condición moderada en comparación con vacas delgadas. Además, han sido estudiados los efectos de la CC sobre la secreción de hormona luteinizante, estradiol, leptina, insulina y factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina I (IGF-I. El programa para inducción de la ovulación puede aumentar la tasa de preñez en vacas de carne con CC pobre. Sin embargo, la eficacia del protocolo para inducir el estro y la ovulación es dependiente de la CC. En conclusión, la CC es un indicador útil del estado de energía y potencial reproductivo, por sus efectos sobre la dinámica folicular, actividad ovárica, función endocrina y tasa de preñez en vacas de carne.The objective of this review is to describe the effect of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance and endocrine function of beef cows. Interval to first estrus and ovulation, interval from parturition to normal luteal activity and to conception are shorter for moderate body condition cows than thin cows. Size of the dominant follicle at the first estrus is larger and pregnancy rate is greater for moderate condition cows as compared with thin cows. In addition has been studied to effects of BCS on secretion of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, leptin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. The program for induction of ovulation can increase the pregnancy rate in beef cows in poor body condition. However, the effectiveness of the protocol for inducing estrus and ovulation is dependent on body condition

  20. The use of insulin to improve fertility of timed-inseminated postpartum suckled beef cows Uso de insulina para aumento da fertilidade de vacas de corte pós-parto lactantes inseminadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of insulin alone or in association with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the fertility of postpartum beef cows subjected to synchronization. A total of 340 cows was subjected to fixed time artificial insemination. In the trial 1, the cows were subjected to temporary weaning (TW, while in the trial 2 the same protocol was tested without TW. The addition of an insulin injection to a progesterone/eCG-based protocol without TW increased the pregnancy rate of beef cows with body condition score (BCS equal to or lower than 2.5. Insulin had no effect on cows submitted to TW or with BCS equal to or higher than 3.0.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar apenas o efeito da insulina ou dela em associação com gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na fertilidade de vacas em pós-parto submetidas à sincronização. Um total de 340 vacas foi submetido à inseminação artificial em tempo fixo. No experimento 1, as vacas foram submetidas ao desmame temporário (DT, enquanto no experimento 2, o mesmo protocolo foi testado sem DT. A adição de uma injeção de insulina a um protocolo baseado em progesterona/eCG sem DT aumentou a taxa de prenhez de vacas de corte com escore de condição corporal (ECC igual ou menor que 2,5. A insulina não teve efeito em vacas submetidas a DT ou com ECC igual ou maior que 3,0.

  1. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  2. Associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus, antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I

    2008-07-01

    To measure associations between health and productivity in cow-calf beef herds and persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), antibodies against BVDV, or antibodies against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus in calves. 1,782 calves from 61 beef herds. Calf serum samples were analyzed at weaning for antibodies against type 1 and type 2 BVDV and IBR virus. Skin biopsy specimens from 5,704 weaned calves were tested immunohistochemically to identify persistently infected (PI) calves. Herd production records and individual calf treatment and weaning weight records were collected. There was no association between the proportion of calves with antibodies against BVDV or IBR virus and herd prevalence of abortion, stillbirth, calf death, or nonpregnancy. Calf death risk was higher in herds in which a PI calf was detected, and PI calves were more likely to be treated and typically weighed substantially less than herdmates at weaning. Calves with high antibody titers suggesting exposure to BVDV typically weighed less than calves that had no evidence of exposure. BVDV infection, as indicated by the presence of PI calves and serologic evidence of infection in weaned calves, appeared to have the most substantial effect on productivity because of higher calf death risk and treatment risk and lower calf weaning weight.

  3. Development of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict chemical composition with a wide range of variability in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huawei; Sha, Kun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Yuling; Zhang, Rong; Li, Haipeng; Sun, Baozhong

    2014-10-01

    A total of 182 beef samples were minced and divided into calibration set (n=140) and independent validation set (n=42). Calibration models of NIRS (1000-1800nm) were built using partial least squares regression (PLSR) on the calibration set of samples. Both the coefficient of determination in calibration (R(2)C) and the coefficient of determination in prediction (R(2)P) were over 0.98 for all chemical compositions. The ratio performance deviation (RPD) was 17.37, 5.12 and 10.43 for fat, protein and moisture, respectively. The results of the present study indicate the outstanding ability of NIRS to predict chemical composition in beef. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  5. Insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone receptor in postpartum lactating beef cows Fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento no pós-parto de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, and the mRNA hepatic expression of IGF-I and of the growth hormone receptors GHR and GHR 1A, in postpartum beef cows. Four Angus and four crossbred (Angus x Nelore postpartum suckled beef cows were used. Liver and blood samples were collected every 10 days, from calving to 40 days postpartum, for gene expression and for β-hydroxybutyrate and IGF-I assays, respectively. Samples for progesterone assay were collected every other day, from day 10 to 40 postpartum. Three cows ovulated before 40 days postpartum. IGF-I concentration was higher in Angus x Nelore than in Angus cows. There was no difference in the expression of GHR, GHR 1A and IGF-I according to breed or ovulatory status. IGF-I concentrations were higher in crossbred cows, but have not changed according to postpartum ovulatory status. Moreover, changes in postpartum IGF-I concentrations are not associated with changes in liver GHR, GHR 1A and IGF-I mRNA expression in either breed.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações plasmáticas do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo I (IGF-I e a expressão hepática de mRNA de IGF-I e dos receptores do hormônio de crescimento GHR e GHR 1A, no pós-parto de vacas de corte. Quatro vacas Angus e quatro mestiças (Angus x Nelore lactantes foram usadas durante o período de pós-parto. As coletas de tecido hepático e de sangue foram realizadas a cada dez dias, do parto até 40 dias pós-parto, para a avaliação da expressão gênica, e análise de β-hidroxibutirato e IGF-I, respectivamente. As amostras para análise de progesterona foram coletadas a cada dois dias, dos dez aos 40 dias pós-parto. Três vacas ovularam antes dos 40 dias pós-parto. A concentração de IGF-I foi maior em vacas Angus x Nelore do que em vacas Angus. Não houve diferença na expressão hepática de GHR, GHR 1A e IGF-I de acordo com a ra

  6. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  7. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  8. Relationship between clinical and postmortem evaluation in repeat breeder beef cows Relação entre características clínicas e post-mortem em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the causes of the repeat breeder syndrome comparing clinical signs and postmortem findings in beef cows. The identification of factors affecting the reproductive tract can support decisions as to whether treatment of repeat breeder cows is justifiable than culling. Since all animals were submitted to clinical examination before being slaughtered, this study has a differential approach when compared with others, where genital tracts from abattoir were examined. In this study, 130 crossbred cows and heifers that have failed to conceive after three or more services were identified, submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection for karyotyping and sent to an abattoir. postmortem examinations included macroscopic evaluation of the genital tracts, bacteriology and histopathology of the uterus. Uterine alterations were predominant followed by oviduct and ovarian pathologies. Histopathological examination was more sensitive as a diagnostic tool than clinical examination. Repeat breeder cows had a predominance of uterine abnormalities (95%, such as inflammatory (42.9% and degenerative (59.7% conditions. Oviduct abnormalities were found in 29.8 % of animals. Furthermore, 1 out 10 karyotyped cows showed aneuploidy. Thus, this study stressed the importance of laboratory exams in the diagnosis of the causes of infertility of repeat breeder cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as causas de infertilidade em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço, relacionando sinais clínicos com características laboratoriais post-mortem. A identificação dos fatores que afetam o desempenho reprodutivo pode fornecer uma fundamentação científica para auxiliar na decisão quanto ao destino de vacas repetidoras de serviço; tratamento ou descarte. Este estudo tem abordagem diferencial dos trabalhos que contemplam somente a ocorrência de alterações post-mortem do trato genital. A correlação das altera

  9. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  10. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  11. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    's share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  12. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZAÇÃO DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORÁRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three groups according to the AI or FTAI protocol. A group of cows was artificial inseminated according estrous detection after 10 days of definitive weaning during a period of 30 days (EW-AI, n= 53. Estrous synchronization programs to FTAI were carried out in two groups in different moments after EW. In the group EW-FTAI (n= 50, cows were treated at the moment calves were removed while in EW-FTAI 10 (n= 50 the hormonal treatment began 10 days later.  The hormonal treatment consisted of an intravaginal implant containing 1,9g of Progesterone, for 8 days, and an injection of  Estradiol benzoate (EB, 2mg, im. When the dispositives were removed, 75mcg of Cloprostenol were injected, im, and after 24 hours, 1mg of EB, im. Cows were fixed-time artificial inseminated 52 to 56 hours after implants removal. In TW-FTAI group (n= 52, cows were treated with the same hormonal therapy, but a temporary weaning of 60 hours was done after the implant removal and the FTAI moment. The breeding season was 60 days in EW-FTAI and TW-FTAI groups, 50 days in EW-FTAI10 group and 30 days in EW-AI group. In a sample of 20% of cows ovaries were scanned by ultrasound and it was determined that 55% of the cows were in anestrous. Follicular diameters were determined at beginning of hormonal treatment and at FTAI moment in cows submitted to estrous synchronization (EW-FTAI= 10, EW-FTAI10= 10 and TW-FTAI= 10 by ultrasound. The means of follicular diameters were not different (P>0.05 between groups

  13. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  14. Fat supplementation ("Flushing" on the postpartum beef cows submitted to early weaning: performance Suplementação com gordura ("Flushing" para vacas de corte no pós-parto submetidas ao desmame precoce: desempenho animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of short-time fat supplementation flushing on animal performance (final body weight and average daily gain of postpartum beef cows, submitted to the early weaning were evaluatrd. Two hundred and fifty eight beef cows from the following genetic groups were used: Aberdeen Angus (n = 21, Aberdeen Angus x Canchim (n = 20, Canchim x Aberdeen Angus (n = 52, Charoles x Caracu (n = 29, Charolês (n = 18, Cachim (n = 34, Caracu (n = 35, Caracu x Charoles (n = 26 and Purunã (n = 23, with 418.1±14.0 kg of body weight and pregnant. These animals were split into two treatments: flushing (30% soybean grain + 70% corn ground grain and without supplementation. There was no flushing effect on final body weight (436.6 kg and average daily gain (0.83 kg. November period, cows had higher final body weight (441.6 kg and average daily gain (1.01 kg. There was no effect of flushing on variables.O objetivou-se, neste experimento, avaliar o efeito da suplementação de gordura por um curto período de tempo (flushing sobre o desempenho animal (peso vivo final e ganho médio diário de fêmeas de corte no pós-parto, submetidas ao desmame precoce. Foram utilizadas 258 vacas, dos grupos genéticos: Aberdeen Angus (n = 21, Aberdeen Angus x Canchim (n = 20, Canchim x Aberdeen Angus (n = 52, Charolês x Caracu (n = 29, Charolês (n = 18, Cachim (n = 34, Caracu (n = 35, Caracu x Charolês (n = 26 e Purunã (n = 23, com peso vivo médio de 418,1±14,0 kg e diagnóstico de prenhez positivo. Os animais foram distribuídos nos tratamentos flushing (30% de grão de soja + 70% de milho grão moído e não suplementados. Foram avaliados três períodos de acordo com a ordem de parição: setembro, outubro e novembro. Não houve efeito do flushing sobre o peso vivo final (436,6 kg e ganho médio diário (0,83 kg. O período de novembro apresentou maior peso vivo final (441,6 kg e ganho médio diário (1,01 kg. O fornecimento de gordura (flushing para fêmeas de corte no

  15. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  16. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  17. Evaluation of hay-type and grazing-tolerant alfalfa cultivars in season-long or complementary rotational stocking systems for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M L; Russell, J R; Barnhart, S K

    2002-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and forage and cow-calf production were evaluated on pastures containing smooth bromegrass with or without grazing-tolerant or hay-type alfalfa cultivars rotationally stocked in either a season-long or complementary system. In 1997, six 2.02-ha pastures were seeded with smooth bromegrass, a mixture of a grazing-tolerant alfalfa (Amerigraze variety) and smooth brome-grass, or a mixture of a hay-type alfalfa (Affinity variety) and smooth bromegrass to be used in season-long stocking systems. Four 2.02-ha pastures were seeded with smooth bromegrass on 1.21 ha of each pasture, and mixtures of either the grazing-tolerant or hay-type alfalfa cultivars and smooth bromegrass on the 0.81 ha of each pasture to be used in complementary stocking systems. All 10 pastures were divided into 10 paddocks and rotationally strip-stocked at 1.98 cow-calf units/ha with crossbred cows and calves for 120 and 141 d starting May 18, 1998 (yr 1), and May 6, 1999 (yr 2), respectively. Each year, first harvest forage was harvested as hay from 40% of all 10 pastures, this being the portions of the pasture seeded with the alfalfa-smooth brome-grass mixtures for pastures with the complementary stocking systems. In yr 1 and 2, the remaining 60% of each pasture was grazed for the first 44 and 54 d, and 100% of each pasture was grazed on d 45 to 120 and d 55 to 141, respectively. Proportions of alfalfa in the live dry matter of pastures seeded with the grazing-tolerant and hay-type alfalfa cultivars decreased by 70 and 55% in paddocks stocked season-long and by 60 and 42% in paddocks used for complementary stocking (alfalfa cultivar, P cultivars and stocking systems in yr 2. Total (P mixtures increased calf and total cow/calf weight gains in comparison with grazing of smooth bromegrass, but alfalfa persistence, measured as a proportion of the live dry matter, was not affected by alfalfa cultivar.

  18. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-01-01

    ...) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium...

  19. Body weight loss in beef cows: II. Increased antioxidant messenger ribonucleic acid levels in skeletal muscle but not erythrocyte antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K M; Terry, E N; Michal, J J; Kincaid, R L; Johnson, K A

    2009-09-01

    Twenty-six Angus-cross cows were used to examine the effect of BW loss (WL) on skeletal muscle and erythrocyte markers of oxidative stress. Serum NEFA concentrations, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured during WL and BW maintenance. Real-time reverse-transcription-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels of antioxidant genes during both periods to assess skeletal muscle response to WL. Body weight loss resulted in elevated serum NEFA concentrations but no change in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. During WL, mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione peroxidase 4, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase 1, and selenoprotein W increased. Abundance of mRNA of genes involved in antioxidant signaling, specifically, PPARgamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, estrogen-related receptor alpha, and tumor protein 53, was also increased. In summary, during WL cows had no change in peripheral antioxidant enzyme activity, but mRNA abundance of proteins involved in protecting the body from oxidative stress increased in skeletal muscle. During times when NEFA are used as a fuel source, signals such as mild reactive oxygen species production or increased concentration of lipid by-products activate the transcription of nuclear signaling molecules such as PPARgamma gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, estrogen-related receptor alpha, and tumor protein 53. These genes work to activate antioxidant genes such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 4, and thioredoxin reductase 1 to aid in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. These data suggest an important role for antioxidant genes to protect cattle that are mobilizing body fat.

  20. Efeito do fósforo suplementar sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte em pastagem de Brachiaria humidicola Effect of phosphorus supplementation on the reproductive performance of beef cows grazing Brachiaria humidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ROBERTO LOPES S'THIAGO

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi observar e quantificar o efeito de duas misturas minerais (ad libitum, uma sem (M e outra com fósforo suplementar (MP, sobre o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas de cria neloradas em pastejo de Brachiaria humidicola. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Modelo (Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, localizada em Terenos, MS, em duas fases, a primeira, em 1988/92, e a segunda, em 1992/94. Na segunda fase, reduziu-se a carga animal durante a seca e os dias de amamentação (de 1,0 para 0,5 vacas/ha e de 210 para 90 dias, respectivamente. Foram realizadas medidas de consumo da mistura mineral (M = 76 e MP = 112 g/cab./dia; teor médio de fósforo na forrageira (época das chuvas = 0,16%, época seca = 0,11%; peso vivo (primeira fase: M = 363±3,3 e MP = 371±3,8 kg; segunda fase: M = 407± 5,7 e MP = 417± 6,5 kg; taxa de natalidade (primeira fase: M = 67±3,3 e MP = 66± 3,5%; segunda fase: M = 74± 6,3 e MP = 80± 5,7% e bezerros desmamados (primeira fase: M = 86± 5,0 e MP = 91± 5,3; segunda fase: M = 55± 6,4 e MP = 67± 5,7. As vacas de cria não responderam ao fósforo suplementar.The objective of this experiment was to observe and quantify the effect of two mineral mixtures, as free-choice feeding, one without (M and other with phosphorus supplement (MP, on the productive and reproductive performance of Nellore beef cows grazing Brachiaria humidicola. This work was conducted at the Fazenda Modelo (Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, located in Terenos, MS, Brazil, in two phases, 1st from 1988/92 and 2nd from 1992/94. During the 2nd phase, stocking rate, for the dry period, and suckling days were reduced (from 1.0 to 0.5 cows/ha and 210 to 90 days, respectively. Mineral intake (M = 76 and MP = 112 g/had/day, forage phosphorus level (wet season = 0.16%; dry season = 0.11%, liveweight (1st phase: M = 363± 3.3 and MP = 371± 3.8 kg; 2nd phase: M = 407± 5.7 and MP

  1. Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation in dairy cows consuming diets based on a range of contrasting forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Kim, E J; Merry, R J; Dewhurst, R J

    2011-04-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (initially 97 d in milk), were used in a 3×3 lattice square design experiment with 4-wk periods. All cows received 4 kg/d concentrates and dietary treatments were based on silages offered ad libitum: perennial ryegrass (PRG); timothy (TIM); tall fescue (TF); red clover (RC); red clover/corn silage mixture [40/60 on a dry matter (DM) basis; RCC]; red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (40/60 on a DM basis; RCO); or red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (25/75 on a DM basis; ORC). The remaining treatments were based on RCO with feed intake restricted to the level of PRG (RCOr) or with a low protein concentrate (50/50 mixture of barley and molassed sugar beet pulp; RCOlp). Experiment objectives were to evaluate diet effects on N partitioning and N isotopic fractionation. Yields of milk and milk protein were consistently high for diets RC, RCC, and RCO and low for the diets based on poorly ensiled grass silages. Restriction of intake (RCOr) and inclusion of a higher proportion of whole-crop oat silage (ORC) and the low-protein concentrate (RCOlp) led to some loss of production. Diet had little effect on milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations: low concentrations of milk protein and lactose reflect the restricted energy intakes for all treatments. The highest diet digestibilities were measured for RC and PRG, whereas increasing inclusion of the whole-crop oat silage (0, 60, and 75% of forage DM) led to a marked decrease in diet digestibility (0.717, 0.624, and 0.574 g/g, respectively). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, an indicator for rumen microbial protein synthesis, was significantly higher for RCC than for TIM and TF. Nitrogen intake ranged between 359 and 626 g/d (treatment means). Partitioning of N intake to feces and urine was closely related to N intake, although urinary N losses were less than predicted from N intake for the 60/40 mixtures of cereal silage and red clover silage. The 15N content of milk

  2. Calving sub-season and reproductive efficiency of beef cows Subépoca de parição e eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Reinher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work the effect of calving sub-season on the pregnancy rate of 7,726 multiparous Hereford beef cows grazing on natural pastures in southern Brazil, from 1994 to 2007. Calving sub-season periods were divided in 20-day intervals from August 12th to 31st; from September 1st to 20th; from September 21st to October 10th; from October 11th to 31st; from November 1st to 20th. Calving in each sub-season and pregnancy rate (PR were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Overall means of each sub-season were 92.7% (from August 12th to 31st, 90.6% (from September 1st to 20th, 82.1% (from September 21st to October 10th, 77.7% (from October 11th to 31st, and 70.6% (from November 1st to 20th. Calving sub-season significantly influenced pregnancy rate. Cows which calved in the initial sub-season showed higher pregnancy rates than cows which calved from the fourth calving sub-season. However this difference did not occur in 1999 and in 2007 since calving rates did not statistically differ among the five sub-seasons. In 1998 and 2004, calving rates were lower and the effects of calving sub-season on pregnancy rates were higher, possibly due to climate variations. In general, pregnancy rate decreases as calving occurs later in the year, particularly in years when the weather adversely affects pasture growth.Avaliou-se o efeito da subépoca de parição sobre a taxa de prenhez de 7.726 vacas de corte multíparas Hereford mantidas em campo natural no Sul do Brasil, entre os anos de 1994 e 2007. As subépocas foram divididas em intervalos de 20 dias: de 12 a 31 de agosto; de 1 a 20 de setembro; 21 de setembro a 10 de outubro; 11 a 31 de outubro; e 1 a 20 de novembro. Foram analisados os partos ocorridos na subépoca de parição e a taxa de prenhez (PR pelo qui-quadrado. As médias gerais de cada subépoca foram 92.7% (12 a 31 de agosto, 90.6% (1 a 20 de setembro, 82.1% (21 de setembro a 10 de outubro, 77.7% (11 a 31 de outubro e 70.6% (1 a 20 de

  3. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  4. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P cows than in sham-treated cows. Concentrations of P4 were greater (P cows treated with P4 than in sham-treated cows. Mean serum concentrations of LH and FSH were not significantly influenced by steroid treatments. However, frequency of LH pulses of ovariectomized, nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P cows treated with E2 or P4 than in cows treated with E2P4 or sham-treated. Quantity of mRNA for LHbeta in the pituitary gland was greater when cows were treated with P4. Concentrations of LH in the pituitary gland were not affected by steroid treatments; however, pituitary concentrations of FSH were less (P cows than in sham-treated cows. The number of GnRH-R was increased (P cows treated with E2, but P4 treatment did not influence the number of GnRH-R. Abundance of mRNA for GnRH-R, common alpha-subunit, and FSHbeta were not affected by treatments. Pituitary concentrations of LH were greater (P cows than in ovariectomized, anovulatory cows treated with or without

  5. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... Choice or better, USDA Choice, USDA Select, ungraded no-roll product); (iv) The grade for cow beef or...

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  7. Stocker and feedlot performance of beef heifers sired by Braunvieh and Wagyu bulls from Angus-, Brahman-, Senepol- and Tuli-sired dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female beef calves not retained within the cow-calf enterprise are sold and moved through the same production phases as male calves to produce finished beef. Female beef calves can be purchased at a lower price and have more post-weaning marketing opportunities than male calves. The objective of thi...

  8. Avaliação biológica e econômica do uso de flunixin meglumine em vacas e novilhas de corte inseminadas em tempo fixo Biological and economic evaluation of flunixin meglumine in postpartum beef cows and heifers inseminated at fixed time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a redução de perdas embrionárias por meio do bloqueio da secreção de prostaglandina com a utilização de flunixin meglumine (FM e avaliar o retorno econômico desta técnica. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se vacas de corte no pós-parto e, no experimento 2, somente novilhas. Todas as fêmeas foram sincronizadas e inseminadas em tempo fixo (IATF e, após 14 dias da IATF, foram distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo flunixin meglumine (GFM, composto de 59 vacas no experimento 1 e 23 novilhas no experimento 2; e grupo controle (GC, de 56 vacas no experimento 2 e 20 novilhas no experimento 1, que receberam ou não flunixin no dia 14, respectivamente. O tratamento com flunixin não influenciou a taxa de prenhez, que, no experimento 1, foi de 42,4% no grupo flunixin e 42,8% no grupo controle e, no experimento 2, de 39,1% no grupo flunixin e 25,0% no grupo controle. Verificou-se rentabilidade de 21,62; 9,24; 14,36 e 12,06% para os protocolos dos grupos controle e flunixin dos experimentos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez não foi influenciada pelo uso de flunixin meglumine no dia 14 após inseminação artificial em vacas no pós-parto e novilhas inseminadas em tempo fixo.This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the economical advantage of using flunixin meglumine (FM to block uterine secretion of prostaglandin in order to reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle females. Postpartum cows (E1 and heifers (E2 were submitted to estrus synchronization and inseminated at fixed time. Fourteen days after the insemination the animals were assigned to the FM treatment group (FMG, including 59 cows and 23 heifers and to the control group (CG, including 56 cows and 20 heifers. Pregnancy rates (42.4% for FMG and 42.8% for CG in E1 and (39.1% for FMG and 25.0% for CG in E2 did not differ between groups. Estimates of net income were 21.62, 9.24, 14.36 and 12.06% for the CG e FMG protocols in cows and in heifers, respectively

  9. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  11. First Parity Evaluation of Body Condition, Weight, and Blood Beta-Hydroxybutyrate During Lactation of Range Cows Developed in the Same Ecophysiological System but Receiving Different Harvested Feed Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility for producers. The objective of this study was to measure body condition and weight as well as blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations for primiparous beef ...

  12. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  13. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were

  14. Body condition score and reproductive performance in beef cows in the pantanal area of Mato Grosso do Sul state – Brazil Escore de condição corporal e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Gomes Pinto de Abreu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of nutritional condition over reproductive performance of 69 Nelore beef cows under Artificial Insemination from December 2005 to April 2006. Teaser bulls wearing chin-ball marker and visual observation were used for heat detection. Body Condition Scoring was performed individually at insemination with an scale ranging from 1 to 6. The variables, estrous occurrence and positive pregnancy showed binomial probability distribution, allowing to estimate the behavior of heat detection, heat detection after first insemination and positive pregnancy as a function of the effects of age, body condition score and current status (weaned or with suckling calf. Results indicated that the variables positive pregnancy, heat detection and heat detection after first insemination were influenced by the cow’s body condition score. The effects of age and body condition score showed significant interaction for positive pregnancy and heat detection after first insemination. Cow’s current status showed significant effect over heat detection and over body condition score, pointing out that cows having suckling calves showed the lowest scores.Avaliou-se o efeito da condição corporal, no desempenho reprodutivo de 69 vacas Nelore, no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul, submetidas à inseminação artificial de dezembro de 2005 a abril de 2006. A identificação de vacas em cio foi feita por meio de rufiões com buçal marcador e de observação visual. A avaliação da condição corporal foi realizada no momento da inseminação artificial, por meio de uma escala de 6 pontos. As variáveis ocorrência de cio e de prenhez apresentavam distribuição binomial de probabilidade, permitindo estimar o comportamento das probabilidades de observação de cio após a primeira inseminação artificial e de prenhez em função dos efeitos de idade, escore de condição corporal e situação da vaca (com ou sem bezerro ao pé. Os resultados indicaram

  15. Indução hormonal da ovulação e desmame precoce na fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte homozigotas e heterozigotas para o microssatélite BMS3004 Hormonal induction of ovulation and early weaning in postpartum fertility of homozigous and heterozigous beef cows for the microsatellite BMS3004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Medeiros Bastos

    2003-10-01

    , associated to the temporary weaning for 96 hours, with the definitive weaning at 60 days in beef cows, for the induction of estrus and ovulation. One hundred and eighty-three suckled beef cows were used. The breeds of the cows were Charolais (C and Nellore (N and their crosses. The animals were genotyped as homozygous (HOM and heterozigous (HET for the microsatellite BMS3004, that is localized in the same chromossome of the LH beta chain gene. The cows were distributed in two groups between 60 and 80 days postpartum (day 0. In the hormonal induction group (HI, the cows (n=87 received (day 0 250 mg of medroxiprogesteron acetate for 8 days, 2.5 mg of estradiol benzoate (day 1 and 500 UI of eCG (day 7. On day 8, the calves were weaned for 96 hours. In the same day (day 8, the cows (n=96 of the other group were just submitted to early weaning (group EW. Twelve hours after weaning, artificial insemination (AI was done during four days. After this period, they were mated. The first diagnosis of pregnancy (DP was performed 60 days after the AI period and, the second, 60 days after the end of mating. The estrus rates were higher in cows from HI group than in those of EW group. In the HI group, the cows with body condition 2.5 and 3.0 presented lower pregnancy rates at the 1st DP (29.6 and 46.4% than in the EW group (56.0 and 72.2%. The rates of pregnancy in cows with body index 65-73 did not differ between the HI and EW groups. The N cows of HI group presented lower pregnancy rate at 1st DP than the F1 (27.7 vs. 64.2%, but was not different than the C cows (40.0%. In the HI group, the pregnancy rate at the 2nd DP was lower in HOM cows than in the HET ones. The cows in the early definitive weaning group showed to be more efficient than in the hormonal induction group to improve the pregnancy rate.

  16. Performance of Boran and Crossbred Cattle for Beef Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steers reared in a beef cattle crossbreeding experiment carried out in two ranches in central Tanzania were slaughtered at an average age slightly above four years. The genetic groups represented were purebred Boran and crosses out of Boran cows mated to bulls of 12 exotic breeds.· The steers were weighed prior to ...

  17. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following synchronization in the Central Bushveld bioregion of South Africa. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next breeding season and are generally seen as the more fertile animals.

  18. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    weaning at 100 (EW and at 180 (CW days of age, were evaluated using 92 beef calves from Hereford and Braford primiparous cows. The sex of the calves affected significantly the birth weight, and no effect was observed for the breed of cow. The treatments and breed of cow did not affect the average daily gain (ADG of the calves from birth to early weaning (GEW. Calves born from Braford cows had higher LW at EW (WEW than calves born from Hereford cows, while the WEW was not affected by the treatments. Calves born from Braford cows on T2 had ADG up to 180 days (ADG180 and LW at 180 days (LW180 greater than calves born from Braford cows on T1 and Hereford cows on T2. Calves from CW had greater LW180 and ADG180 than calves from EW. However, treatments and weaning ages did not affect the LW at 365 days and the ADG up to 365 days of age. The three cows post-partum management schemes and the two calves weaning ages evaluated did not affect the calves performance up to one year of age.

  19. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... The analyzed population comprised 970 Polish holstein-friesian cows (PHF) and 372 Jersey cows. The database provided pedigree information on dams and their productivity. Differences between breeds in terms of longevity and culling reasons were investigated. For the group of PHF cows, the average ...

  20. Mês de parição, condição corporal e resposta ao protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte primíparas Calving date, body condition score, and response to a timed artificial insemination protocol in first-calving beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meneghetti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available No experimento I, foi avaliada a alteração da condição corporal (CC pré e pós-parto em 155 novilhas inseminadas para parir de setembro a dezembro. A CC foi avaliada mensalmente no pré e pós-parto, de junho a fevereiro. No experimento II, 538 vacas primíparas foram sincronizadas com o protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF que usou estradiol junto ao dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona (CIDR®. As taxas de ciclicidade, sincronização e concepção foram avaliadas por ultra-som. No experimento I, os animais que pariram primeiro tiveram maior (PIn experiment I, it was evaluated the body condition score (BCS change during pre and post-partum in 155 heifers, inseminated to calve from September to December. The BCS was monthly evaluated from June to February, during the pre and post-partum periods. In experiment II, 538 primiparous cows were synchronized with a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol which used estradiol associated with an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR®. The cyclicity, synchronization, and conception rates were evaluated by ultrasound. In experiment I, the animals that calved earlier had higher (P<0.001 reduction on BCS. In experiment II, it was observed higher BCS (P<0.0001 in cows with lower days in post-partum, higher (P<0.05 synchronization rate in cows with a better BCS, and also an increase (P<0.0001 in conception rate as BCS got better (increase in six percentual points in conception for each increase of 0.25 in BCS. Beef heifers should not calve earlier when is planned to submitt these animals to TAI at the beginning of the next breeding season.

  1. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  2. Modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte com base no escore de condição corporal Simulation model of the reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram desenvolver um modelo matemático dinâmico para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção de bovinos de corte e simular o desempenho reprodutivo do rebanho, com base no desempenho individual das fêmeas, determinado a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto e da maturidade sexual. Trata-se de um modelo empírico, dinâmico e que contém elementos determinísticos e estocásticos. O desenvolvimento do modelo foi baseado na relação entre o escore de condição corporal (ECC e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé. Para novilhas e vacas vazias, a concepção foi baseada na probabilidade de conceber, de modo que, para novilhas, a idade e/ou o peso à puberdade foram fatores limitantes. O modelo tem duas formas de leitura dos dados de entrada: uma do relatório de parição gerado pelo software; e a outra, a partir dos dados de entrada definidos pelo usuário. Os dados de entrada são considerados médias, com exceção dos referentes à estação reprodutiva, e o modelo atribui um desvio-padrão para cada variável, de modo que os dados utilizados na execução do modelo seguem uma distribuição normal. A saída final, em formato de relatórios, fornece, além de outras informações, o total de kg de bezerros desmamados/vaca/ano. É possível alterar valores de entrada para testar o impacto dessas mudanças nas variáveis de resposta. O desenvolvimento do modelo contribuiu para maior compreensão do sistema estudado e permitiu a simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte a partir do ECC ao parto (ECCPAR. Seu uso, para auxiliar no processo de tomadas de decisão no mundo real, depende das próximas etapas do trabalho, como verificação, calibração e validação.A dynamic mathematical model was developed to describe the reproductive process in beef cattle production systems and to simulate individual cow reproductive performance while

  3. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  4. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  6. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  7. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage:II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17beta and progesterone, and hepatic steriod metabolizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving uterine blood flow in nutrient restricted cows is vital to prevent under development of the fetus leading to decreased production characteristics of the offspring. This study examined uterine blood flow, steroid concentrations, and the activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes in pregnant b...

  8. Low incidence of an altered endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile in repeat breeder Holstein heifers and differential effect of parity on the EGF profile between fertile Holstein (dairy) and Japanese Black (beef) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Seiji; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-17

    A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2-4 and 13-14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows.

  9. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  10. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R

    2012-01-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and

  11. Condição corporal, variação de peso e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de cria em pastagem nativa no Pantanal Body condition score, weight variation and reproductive performance of beef cows in rangelands from the Pantanal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Santos

    2009-02-01

    probabilidade de produção de um bezerro por vaca por ano.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance of beef cows before and after calving and to evaluate the calving probability using body condition score and weight variation during critical periods of the cow reproductive cycle. From 2001 to 2005, the body condition score was recorded in 248 multiparous cows raised in native pastures, submitted to different supplementation treatments (mineral mixture only - control; dry supplement; liquid supplement and liquid supplement for cow and calves. Weighing and body condition evaluation were made on a 1-9 point scale in August (prepartum period, 60-90 days before parturition and January (postpartum and reproductive period. A reproduction score was created in function of the body scores in four consecutive years. Except for the treatment, the other factors (body condition score in the prepartum and postpartum periods and cow age influenced the reproduction score. Thus, the calving probabilities were estimated for all cows. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to evaluate the calving probability in function of the exploratory variables over time. Calving probability higher than 80% was obtained when cows scored 5,5 before calving. In relation to weight, the results showed that about 60% of calving cows maintained or gained weight in the postpartum period, leading to increase in the rebreeding probability. Similar situation occurred with single cows; however, the calving probability was lower. These results indicate that the calving probability using BCS is better estimated before calving. Furthermore, it indicates the presence of cows more adapted to the Pantanal climatic and feeding conditions than others.

  12. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227, 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0. On day six, cloprostenol (125µg and eCG (400IU were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group or on day eight (TAI group. All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit standing estrus received GnRH (100µg on day 9. In experiment I, the follicular growth was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound exams, from day 6 to day 9. The average size of the dominant follicle on day nine was 11.1±0.99mm (BioRep, n=7 and 11.5±0.65mm (TAI, n=7 and all animals ovulated. In experiment II, the BioRep group cows (n=106 were observed for estrous behavior after withdrawal of the device, twice a day for 48h, and inseminated 12h after detection. In the TAI group (n=107, the devices were withdrawn on day eight and after 24h these cows and those from the BioRep group, which were not stand in estrus, received 100µg of GnRH and TAI 16h later. The pregnancy rates were 57.6% (BioRep and 52.3% (TAI. In conclusion, an increase on MPA exposure time did not affect the follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates and allow TAI without estrous observation. Furthermore, the treatment for eight days provides an efficient TAI system in suckled beef cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação, avaliando o intervalo entre a retirada do progestágeno e a aplicação de GnRH sobre a dinâmica folicular e a prenhez. Para tanto, vacas (n=227 em pós-parto de 60 a 80 dias receberam benzoato de estradiol (5mg e um pessário vaginal de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (250mg MAP; dia 0. No dia seis, os animais receberam cloprostenol sódico (125µg, gonadotrofina

  13. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  14. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  15. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  16. Towards more profitable and sustainable milk and beef production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Pauliina

    2017-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining national self-sufficiency in milk and meat play important roles in ensuring future food security. Currently, Finland is self-sufficient in milk. However, beef production, which is strongly related to dairy production, has fallen below consumption mainly because of a decreased number of dairy cows and low profitability. Even though the efficiency and productivity in dairy herds have increased substantially during the last decades, the profitability of milk, and especi...

  17. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  18. Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video monitoring to predict intake of discrete food items of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo non-nursing beef cows. Thirty-five cows were released into a 405-m2 rectangular dry lot, either in pairs (pilot tests) or individually (...

  19. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    , when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...

  20. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin in healthy cows and cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Leavens, Teresa L; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin differed between healthy and mastitic cows. Prospective controlled clinical trial. 20 lactating Holstein cows. Cows with mastitis and matched control cows received flunixin IV, ceftiofur IM, and cephapirin or ceftiofur, intramammary. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after flunixin administration. Composite milk samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For flunixin in plasma samples, differences in area under the concentration-time curve and clearance were detected between groups. Differences in flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations in milk were detected at various time points. At 36 hours after flunixin administration (milk withdrawal time), 8 cows with mastitis had 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations higher than the tolerance limit (ie, residues). Flunixin residues persisted in milk up to 60 hours after administration in 3 of 10 mastitic cows. Pharmacokinetics and elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin in milk differed between mastitic and healthy cows, resulting in violative residues. This may partially explain the high number of flunixin residues reported in beef and dairy cattle. This study also raised questions as to whether healthy animals should be used when determining withdrawal times for meat and milk.

  1. Body traits, carcass characteristics and price of cull cows as affected by farm type, breed, age and calving to culling interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L; Sturaro, E; Bittante, G

    2017-04-01

    Beef production from cull cows is an additional source of income for dairy farms and greatly contributes to red meat production, but the sources of variation of live animal characteristics and the carcass traits of cull cows have rarely been examined. This study investigated the effects of the farm type, breed, age at slaughter (AGE) and calving to culling interval (Calv_Cull) on the body traits and carcass characteristics of dairy and dual-purpose cull cows. Data from 555 cull cows from 182 herds belonging to five farm types, characterised by a combination of housing and feeding systems, were recorded and analysed. Dairy breeds, such as Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss, and dual-purpose breeds (Simmental, Rendena) were included in the trait assessments. The day before slaughter, the cows were weighed and scored for body condition (BCS) and fleshiness, and then, their heart girth and wither height were measured. At the slaughterhouse, the carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), carcass conformation and fatness scores, carcass price per kg and carcass total value were obtained. On average, the cows were slaughtered at nearly 71±27 months of age, 285±187 days after the last calving; 615±95 kg BW; and provided a 257±51 kg CW. Nearly 50% of the cows fell within the BCS range of 2.75 to 3.50, and the carcasses were mostly graded in the lowest class of conformation and fatness scores. Cull cows from free-stall farms had a higher DP, carcass conformation score and price than those from traditional tie-stall farms. The breed influenced the AGE, live animal characteristics and carcass traits. Cows from dairy breeds were younger at slaughter, had a lower BCS and fleshiness, and greater body measurements, but a lower DP and carcass price than those from dual-purpose breeds, although differences between the breeds were found within both groups. The age of the cows at slaughter influenced the Calv_Cull and increased the BW, body measurements and CW, but not the

  2. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  3. Beef cattle welfare evaluation during the dry season in the northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP-Notebook G42

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias. .... The ranch owners belong to the Ganaderos Amigos de Parral cattlemen association. Cow-calf is the main beef ..... orgánica: una alternativa de desarrollo pecuario para algunas regiones de México: una revisión. Interciencia 32 ...

  4. the conductivity of c'ervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Afr .l Anim. \\c'i. 10, I 19 i 24 (198A'. THE CONDUCTIVITY OF C'ERVICAL MUCUS AS A PREDICTOR OF OVULATION. IN BEEF COWS SYNCHRONISED WITH CLOPROSTENOL. Receipt of MS 1646-1980. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson and D.H. Holness. Henderson Research Smrion, P. Bag 222A, Salisbury, Zimbabwe.

  5. the conductivity of c'ervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE CONDUCTIVITY OF C'ERVICAL MUCUS AS A PREDICTOR OF OVULATION. IN BEEF COWS SYNCHRONISED WITH CLOPROSTENOL. Receipt of MS 1646-1980. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson and D.H. Holness. Henderson Research Smrion, P. Bag 222A, Salisbury, Zimbabwe. (Key words: Cervical ntucus, oestrus ...

  6. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta superovulatória e a digestibilidade aparente da dieta em vacas de corte = Induced hypothyroidism effect on superovulatory response and diet apparent digestibility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou determinar o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana ao hormônio folículo estimulante exógeno, a normalidade do ciclo estral de vacas e a digestibilidade aparente. Utilizaram-se 10 vacas Nelore tratadas com propylthiouracil (PTU. A digestibilidade aparente da Matéria Seca, os números médios de corpos lúteos, de embriões, de estrururas colhidas, de estruturas infertilizadas, de estruturas degeneradas, de mórulas, de índice de colheita e de índice de fertilização não variaram significativamente (P>0,05. Os valores médios de T3 foram de 1,35+0,1 e 1,91+0,1 ng mL-1, de T4 de 20,95+1,37 e 61,82+1,37, de TSH 7,95+0,36 e 2,61+0,36, respectivamente, para os animais tratados e controle, havendo diferença significativa (PThe experiment aimed to establish the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian response to the exogenous follicle stimulatinghormone, the normality of the cows estrous cycle, and apparent diet digestibility. 10 Nelore cows were used and treated with propylthiouracil (PTU. DM apparent digestibility, average numbers of corpus luteum, collected embryos, unfertilized structures, degenerated structures, morulas, collecting rate, fertilization rate, did not present significant variation (P>0.05. In the treated animals, de average T3, T4, and TSH values were 1.35 ±0.1, 20.95±1.37 and 7.95±0.36, respectively, and in the controls 1.91+0.1 for T3, 61.82+1.37 for T4 and 2.61+0.36 TSH, with significant difference (P<0.05. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude thathypothyroidism did not affect diet apparent digestibility, embryos production, steroidogenesis or ovarian activity.

  7. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2012-01-15

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were included in the model. Some biological and economic parameters relating to these factors were altered from a base condition in order to adapt the production systems with sex control and twinning techniques. Based on the model, early culling was optimal for all production systems when biological efficiency was used as an indicator of production; however, later culling was optimal for single production, but slightly earlier culling was optimal for twin production, when annualized net revenue was evaluated. The introduction of sex control did not greatly affect the determination of the optimal culling parity of cows. When production included the sex control, female sexing increased biological efficiency, whereas male sexing increased annualized net revenue. In the present beef cow-calf production circumstances in Japan, introduction of sex control did not have economically appreciable effects, but twinning was economically beneficial. For production involving sex control, improvement in the conception rate per mating and/or reduction of technical cost were required for this technology to be profitable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Verificação e calibração do modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte baseado no escore de condição corporal avaliação interna Verification and calibration of a simulation model for reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score internal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com os objetivos de demonstrar e fazer a avaliação interna do modelo matemático desenvolvido para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção e simular o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto (ECCPAR. O modelo é baseado na relação entre o ECCPAR e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé; para novilhas e vacas vazias à concepção, foi baseado na probabilidade de ocorrência. Para a avaliação interna do modelo, foi utilizada a metodologia de verificação e calibração. O uso da técnica de variação dos dados de entrada foi feito por meio da construção de cenários, variando ECCPAR, data de início da estação reprodutiva (IER, data média do parto (DPAR e ganho médio diário do nascimento ao desmame (GMDND. Esses cenários serviram também para demonstração do modelo. Por meio da calibração, foram escolhidos novos desvios-padrão para as variáveis: período de gestação, GMDND e data média do parto (DPAR. Os testes de degenerescência e independência de sementes geradoras de números aleatórios, após a calibração, comprovaram coerência do modelo na geração de aleatoriedade para as variáveis de interesse. A variação nos dados de entrada indicou eficácia do modelo para simular a dinâmica do processo reprodutivo, no entanto ajustes na taxa de concepção de primíparas são necessários para que o modelo simule valores compatíveis com a realidade.This work was carried out with the goal of demonstrating and performing internal evaluation of the mathematical model developed to describe the reproductive performance in production systems and to simulate reproductive performance of beef cows from the body condition score at calving (BCSAC. This model is based on the relationship between BCSAC and the interval between calving and conception (ICC for lactating cows; for heifers and empty cows at

  9. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  11. Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao; Kim, Moon S; Seong, Hye-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical compositions, free amino acid contents, and antioxidant activities of different cuts of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef. Beef preferences and prices in the Korean market depend on cut. Therefore, comparisons were made between high-preference cuts (group 1 [G1], including loin, tenderloin, and rib) and low-preference cuts (group 2 [G2], including brisket, topside, and shank). Meat samples were collected from 10 fattened cows. Crude fat content was significantly higher in G1 than in G2 (pbeef products and further promote increased consumption of low-preference beef cuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment.

  13. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  14. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  15. Effect of feeding period for dry cull cows on carcass quality, meat quality, and consumer reactions to loin steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels T.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bredahl, Lone

    A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having a considera......A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having...... thoroughly. The present study comprise two trials. The results of both the first and second trail, including 62 cows in 2002, are reported here....

  16. Serum progesterone concentration and conception rate of beef cows supplemented with ground corn after a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol Concentração sérica de progesterona e taxa de concepção em vacas de corte suplementadas com milho moído após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Pescara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of finely ground corn (FC supplementation to grazing beef cows after fixed-time AI (TAI on serum progesterone (P4 concentrations on day 7 and conception rates on day 28 after TAI were investigated. Three hundred and sixty-four lactating multiparous Brangus cows had follicular and luteal activity synchronized by treatment with estradiol benzoate (Estrogin; 2.0mg IM and insertion of intra-vaginal P4 releasing device (CIDR on day -11, followed by treatment with PGF2α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM on day -4, CIDR and calf removal on day -2, and treatment with GnRH (Fertagyl; 100µg IM TAI and calf return on day 0. On day 0, cows were randomly allotted in one of the following FC supplement treatments: G1 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 21; G2 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 6kg/day from day 8 to 21; G3 -6kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 2kg/day from day 8 to 21; and G4 -6kg/day from day 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected on day 7, and pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography indicating the presence of a fetus on day 28. Cows supplemented with 2kg/d of FC had higher serum concentration of P4 on day 7 than cows supplemented with 6kg/d (1.58 vs. 1.28ng/mL; PAvaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de ingestão de suplemento com milho moído finamente (MF em vacas de corte, mantidas em pasto, após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona (P4 no dia 7, e sobre a concepção no dia 28 pós IATF. Trezentas e sessenta e quatro vacas Brangus, multíparas lactantes, tiveram as atividades folicular e luteal sincronizadas por tratamento com benzoato de estradiol (Estrogin; 2,0mg IM e inserção de dispositivo intravaginal de P4 (CIDR no dia -11, seguido por tratamento com PGF2 α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM no dia - 4, retirada do CIDR e remoção temporária de bezerros no dia -2, e tratamento com GnRH (Fertagyl; 100 µ g IM, IATF e retorno dos bezerros no dia 0. No dia 0, as vacas foram

  17. Financial feasibility analysis, small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: 1 analyze the responses of farmers on small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 2 analyze the feasibility of small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 3 analyze the estimated increase of beef cattle production in Gorontalo District. The research method that used is survey method. The data analysis used in this research are descriptive analysis, feasibility analysis, and forecasting analysis. The result of this research showed: 1 The development of beef cattle business is an industry in the field of agribusiness with no limited. Beef cattle farmers said this business could give a huge profits. It can be seen from people welfare that increased, this business does not require a large cost from the technical point of view (cost of facilities and infrastructure, 2 Based on financial analysis aspect of beef cattle livestock is feasible to develop. 3 The result of forecasting analysis can be seen that there will be increased production for the Year 2017-2019 at all intervals except at 1-2cows. Keyword: Financial Feasibility, Beef Cattle, Agribusiness

  18. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  19. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryogi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veau, I F; Pedersoli, W; Cullison, R; Baker, J

    2002-06-01

    Phenylbutazone was administered intravenously to a group of 11 beef steers at a dosage of 6 mg/kg of body weight. Whole plasma and protein-free plasma were analyzed for phenylbutazone residues. Pharmacokinetic parameters of total and free phenylbutazone in plasma were calculated using a noncompartmental method. In regards to whole plasma data, the mean volume of distribution at steady state (Vss), was 140 mL/kg body weight, with a mean (+/-SEM) terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of 34 +/- 9 h. The mean clearance was 3.2 mL/h/kg body weight. The Vss, as determined from the protein-free plasma fraction, was 54093 mL/kg body weight. This larger Vss of free phenylbutazone compared with total plasma phenylbutazone was attributed to a high degree of plasma protein binding, as well as the greater penetration of free phenylbutazone into tissues. The mean t1/2 of free phenylbutazone was 35 +/- 12 h. This similarity to the t1/2 estimated from total plasma phenylbutazone data is attributed to an equilibrium between free and plasma phenylbutazone during the terminal elimination phase. The pharmacokinetic parameters of free and total plasma phenylbutazone in beef steers are statistically similar to those previously reported for lactating dairy cows.

  1. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  2. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  3. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  4. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  5. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle in farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; O'Handley, Ryan; McClure, J Trenton; Coklin, Tatjana; Dixon, Brent R; de Boer, Melvin; Zwiers, Hester; Barkema, Herman W

    2011-09-01

    Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was present in all dairy herds, in 9/10 beef herds and in calves from 10/11 herds examined. Prevalence rates were 40% and 41% for cows in tie- and free-stall herds, respectively, and 27% for beef cows. Zoonotic Assemblage A was found in 12.2% of calves concomitantly infected with Assemblage E. All successfully sequenced samples (114/128) from cows corresponded to Assemblage E. Giardia duodenalis is highly prevalent in cattle herds in Prince Edward Island and Assemblage A in calves is a potential public health concern.

  6. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was independent of RFI and T3 and T4 levels tended to be greater in lighter BW cows, DMI was consistently greater for cows with heavier BW and higher RFIvalues.

  7. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  8. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from cattle...

  9. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (PBeef cuts (n=1327) were separated physically into separable components with round cuts having more (PChemical fat from the separable lean differed (Pbeef samples (n=235), with declared lean/fat percentages ranging from 73/27 to 96/4, had overall chemical fat values of 13.41% and moisture values of 67.42%. This survey documents the current beef retail cut and ground beef composition, which is helpful to those who need this information for various dietary and marketing purposes.

  10. Beef cattle productivity under traditional and improved management in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, T; Light, D; Rutherford, A; Miller, M; Fisher, I; Pratchett, D; Capper, B; Buck, N; Trail, J

    1977-02-01

    A comparison of productivity over a 4-year period from indigenous type beef cattle under two production systems in Botswana is reported. The two systems are: the traditional system on unenclosed communal grazing (cattle post) and ranching within fenced paddocks. Calving percentages, 7-month old calf weight, calf mortality and post-weaning growth to 18 months of age under cattle post conditions were 46.4 per cent, 122.5 kg, 10.2 percent and 88.5 kg respectively. Corresponding figures for cattle on the fenced ranches were 74.0 per cent, 177.4 kg, 8.5 per cent and 105.8 kg. These results indicate overall productivity estimates of 51 and 120 kg of weaner calf per cow per year and 86 and 188 kg of 18-month old calf per cow per year for the cattle post and fenced ranch respectively.

  11. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Crockett, K L; Hoover, L C

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (consumers place on tenderness by determining the average price a consumer would pay for a steak in three tenderness categories. Three supermarkets in each of five metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington D.C.; Chicago, IL; Dallas/Fort Worth, TX; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Five trained research teams traveled to the cities to collect data during the same 10-d period. Consumers (n = 734; minimum of 15 consumers/panel, three panels/store, three stores/city, five cities) were asked to evaluate samples from each tenderness classification (tender, intermediate, or tough) for overall and tenderness acceptability, overall quality, beef flavor, juiciness, tenderness, how much they would pay for the steak ($17.14, 14.28, or 10.98/kg), if they would pay more than current market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P consumer perception from tender to tough beef occurred between 4.3 and 4.9 kg of WBS based on > or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed

  12. Trends in cow numbers and culling rate in the Irish cattle population, 2003 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cows are the main economic production units of Ireland's cattle industry. Therefore, demographic information, including overall numbers and survival rates, are relevant to the Irish agricultural industry. However, few data are available on the demographics of cows within a national population, either in Ireland or elsewhere, despite the recent development of comprehensive national cattle databases in many EU Member States. This study has sought: to determine the rate of cow culling from the national herd; to determine the rate of culling by type (dairy, beef, age, method of exit, date of exit and interval between last calving and exit; to calculate the national cow on-farm mortality rate; and to compare the Irish rates with published data from other countries. This work was conducted using data recorded in the national Cattle Movement Monitoring System (CMMS. Culling refers to the exit of cows from the national herd, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of cow exits (as defined above each year divided by the number of calf births in the same year. Culling rate was determined by type (dairy or beef, date of birth, method of exit (slaughter or on-farm death, month of exit and interval between last calving and exit. The average cow-culling rate during 2003 to 2006 was 19.6% (21.3% for dairy, 18% for beef. While comparisons must be treated with caution, it concluded that the overall rates of culling in Ireland fell within published internationally accepted norms. The on-farm mortality rate of 3.2-4.1% was similar to that reported in comparable studies.

  13. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  14. Seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in Northeast Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Hajtós, I

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in Northeast Hungary. Antibodies to Neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. Since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. The percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with age, suggesting a postnatal source of infection. The highest rate of positivity was detected in Aberdeen Angus (3.3%) and Holstein-Friesian cows (3.2%), and the lowest in Limousine (0.9%), but no breed predisposition was statistically substantiated. Neosporosis was more prevalent in dairy (3.4%) than in beef (1.9%) cattle, although the difference was not significant. Only three out of the seropositive cows, all of them Holstein-Friesians, had a history of abortion.

  15. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L*

  16. OESTRT}S AND OVARIAN ACTIVITY IN LACTATING BEEF COWS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By sommige spesies, insluitende die bees. het farnrakologiese onderdrukking van prolaktienvrystelling'n stimulerende effek op eierstok- aktiuireit gedurende die post-partum periode. I)ie effek van bromokriptien op eierstokfunksie van lakterende vleisbeeskoeie is getoets. T'ien. IVlashona-koeie het ongevecr 40 dae na ...

  17. The relationship between size and efficiency in the beef cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die verskil in doeltreffendheid tussen klein (525 kg) graad Afrikanerkoeie is bepaal ten opsigte van reproduksievermoe van koei, oorlewing en groei van nageslag en totale winsgewendheid.Koei-doeltreffendheidsindekse (K.D.I.) is bereken deur die kalf se speengewig by ...

  18. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  19. Selection for profit in cattle: II. Economic weights for dairy and beef sires in crossbreeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilík, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    The relative economic importance (economic weights) of 18 traits was determined for Holstein and Charolais sires used in a dairy production system applying cross-breeding with beef sires and in a cow-calf pasture cross-breeding system with integrated fattening of surplus animals. A bioeconomic model containing a profit function was used for the calculations in both systems. Discounted expressions for direct and maternal components of the traits during an investment period of 25 yr were calculated using the gene-flow technique. The relative economic weights for some traits or trait components of the dairy sires differed substantially between the purebred and crossbred dairy systems. There were also meaningful differences among the relative economic weights of traits for beef sires, depending on whether these bulls were used for terminal crossing with F1 females in the cow-calf pasture system (back-crossing), for crossing in dairy herds producing slaughter animals, or for crossing in dairy herds producing F1 females for the cow-calf pasture system. We therefore recommend construction of specific sets of subindices for dairy and beef sires to allow users to rank the bulls according to expected merit of their progeny in specific production systems.

  20. NÚMERO DE AMOSTRAGENS DA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE PARA ESTIMATIVA DA PRODUÇÃO MÉDIA DIÁRIA DE LEITE EM VACAS CHAROLÊS NUMBER OF COLLECTIONS OF MILK YIELD TO ESTIMATE AVERAGE DAILY MILK YIELD OF CHAROLAIS BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2009-04-01

    ão suficientes para predizer com elevada precisão a produção média diária de leite.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Análise residual, lactação, regressão linear múltipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: análise residual, lactação, regressão linear múltipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate different number of collections of milk yield to prediction of models to estimate average daily milk yield of Charolais beef cows until 217 days of lactation. The eight evaluations of milk yield were taken from 27 cows, by direct method through milking, at 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 days and weaning (217 days. For the selection of multiple linear regression models, with the objective to estimate the average daily milk yield according to number of milk collections, Stepwise procedure was used. The data were submitted to residual analysis by tests of heterocedasticity of variance (?² statistic, normality (W statistic of Shapiro-Wilk and diagnosis of outliers (three observations were excluded from original n=30, beyond multicolinearity diagnosis. For validation of the selected regression models, the prediction error sum of squares statistic (PRESS, was used. The selected days of milk yield collections were: day 98 for 1 collection; days 70 and 98 for 2 collections; days 14, 70, and 98 for 3 collections; days 14, 70, 98 and 154 for 4 collections; days 14, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 5 collections; days 14, 42, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 6 collections and days 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154 and 182 for 7 collections. The adjusted R² for models

  1. NÚMERO DE COLETAS DA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE NA PREDIÇÃO DE MODELOS PARA ESTIMATIVA DA PRODUÇÃO MÉDIA DIÁRIA DE LEITE DE VACAS NELORE NUMBER OF COLLECTIONS OF MILK YIELD ON PREDICTION OF MODELS TO ESTIMATE AVERAGE DAILY MILK YIELD OF NELLORE BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2009-04-01

    últipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão.

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate models with different number of collections of milk yield to estimate average daily milk yield in Nellore beef cows until 217 days of lactation. The eight evaluations of milk yield were taken from 29 cows, by direct method through milking, at 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 days and weaning (217 days. For the selection of multiple linear regression models, with objective of estimate the average daily milk yield according to number of milk collects, Stepwise procedure of SAS was used. The data were submitted to residual analysis by tests of heterocedasticity of variance (?² statistic, normality (W statistic of Shapiro-Wilk and diagnosis of outliers (three observations were excluded from original n=30, beyond multicolinearity diagnosis. For validation of the selected regression models, the prediction error sum of squares statistic (PRESS, was used. The selected days of milk yield collections were: 98 for 1 collection; 70 and 98 for 2 collections; 14, 70, and 98 for 3 collections; 14, 70, 98 and 154 for 4 collections; 14, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 5 collections; 14, 42, 70, 98, 154 and 182 days for 6 collections and 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154 and 182 days for 7 collections. The adjusted R² for models with 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6 and 7 collections were, respectively, 0.7900; 0.8718; 0.9064; 0.9596; 0.9698; 0.9875 and 0.9972. All the predicted models were satisfactory to estimate average daily milk yield. In a possibility of to execute various collections of milk yield during lactation period, three milk collections chosen in strategic dates during lactation period were sufficient to estimate with high precision the average daily milk yield.

    KEY WORDS: Lactation, maternal phase, multiple linear regression, selection of independent variables, residual analysis, techniques of validation of regression models.

  2. Exigência de energia de mantença e composição corporal e do ganho de vacas de corte adultas de três grupos genéticos confinadas Maintenance energy requirements and body and gain composition of adults beef cows from three genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gomes de Siqueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram estimadas as exigências de mantença de energia líquida (ELm e metabolizável (EMm e as mudanças na composição corporal e no ganho de vacas adultas não-gestantes e não-lactantes confinadas. Foram utilizadas 36 vacas, 12 Nelore (NEL, 12 F1 Pardo-Suíço-Nelore (PSN e 12 F1 Red Angus-Nelore (RAN. As alterações na composição corporal dos animais durante o período experimental foram estimadas utilizando-se a técnica do abate comparativo: quatro animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados, aleatoriamente, nos tratamentos abate inicial (AI, alimentação restrita (AR e alimentação ad libitum (AL. Os animais AR receberam, no período experimental, níveis de proteína e energia 15% acima da mantença e os AL, ração ad libitum, para ganho de 1,1 kg/dia. Os animais AI foram abatidos no início do experimento e os AR e AL 120 dias depois. Em todos os animais abatidos, foram estimadas as proporções corporais dos tecidos muscular, adiposo e ósseo, além dos conteúdos corporais de proteína, gordura e energia. Na estimação da ELm e da EMm, foram empregados modelos linear e não-linear. Os grupos genéticos não diferiram quanto às exigências de ELm e EMm, expressas em peso vivo em jejum (kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ. Quando utilizados os modelos linear e não-linear, os valores de ELm encontrados foram de 80,7 e 83,6 kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ e os de EMm, 109,9 e 128,0 kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de proteína por unidade de peso corpo vazio (PCVZ e do ganho (GPCVZ não diferiram entre os grupos genéticos, porém, os animais NEL apresentaram maior concentração de gordura e energia por kg PCVZ e GPVCZ para mesmo peso vivo.This research aimed to estimate the maintenance requirements of net energy (NEm and metabolizable energy (MEm, and the changes in body and gain composition of confined adults non-pregnant and non-lactant beef cows. Thirty six cows were used, 12 were Nellore (NEL, 12 F1 Brown Swiss

  3. Perceptions of PDO Beef: The Portuguese Consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Marreiros, Cristina; Ness, Mitchell

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine consumers' perceptions of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) beef on the basis of a survey of consumers and buyers of beef. The paper identifies a profile of PDO beef consumers, examines their behaviour and perceptions on PDO beef, derives the dimensions of perceptions of PDO beef, and establishes segments based upon those dimensions. The results reveal that PDO consumers are representative of all geographical regions, age and profession groups, ...

  4. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  5. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Ground Beef and Food Safety Questions about "ground meat" or "hamburger" have always ...

  6. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T solium) . ...

  7. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  8. Consider a Cylindrical Cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, John

    Cylindrical Cow will help students achieve a whole new level of environmental modeling and problem solving. Featuring a new core set of 25 fully worked-out problems, this book uses real problems in environmental science rather than relying on the more traditional cookbook problems found in textbooks. It is organized according to five thematic sections on probability, optimization, scaling, differential equations, and stability & feedback. Each section begins with a general treatment of the relevant mathematical concepts, and concludes with a range of homework exercises to help students sharpen their modeling skills. Like its predecessor, this book will empower students with the mathematical skills needed to cut through the complexity of real-world problems.

  9. Parametric bootstrap for testing model fitting of threshold and grouped data models: an application to the analysis of calving ease of Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, J; Fina, M; Piedrafita, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model for the analysis of calving ease in beef cattle by using a parametric bootstrap procedure. Field data included 8,205 records of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed in the Pyrenean mountain areas of Catalonia (Spain). The actual distribution was 81.81% of calvings without assistance, 11.02% slightly assisted by the farmer, 5.12% strongly assisted by the farmer, 0.89% assisted by the veterinarian, and 1.16% cesarean, but these percentages were very different in the different herds. This can be explained partially by the different subjective way of scoring of each farmer. Primiparous cows had a greater (P data were analyzed using 3 different models: the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model. The bootstrap comparison among models suggested that the threshold models, even allowing for heteroscedasticity, did not fit the herd effects well. In contrast, fitting deficiencies were not observed for the grouped data model in any factor. The variance of direct effect of the calf was estimated using the 3 models, and the heritability estimate ranged from 0.165 for the grouped data model to 0.185 for the hereroscedastic threshold model. This heritability was moderate, but it would justify the inclusion of direct effects of the calf on calving ease in the breeding objective. Overall, results highlighted the flexibility of the grouped data model for the analysis of discrete traits, like calving ease of beef calves.

  10. Vitamin B12 content in raw and cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vitamin B12 content and profile of cobalamin bioactive forms in raw and cooked beef. The study showed that vitamin B12 distribution is unequal among beef muscles. The content of this nutrient ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 μg/100 g of tissue. In beef, three biologically active forms of vitamin B12 were determined, i.e.: methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin; the dominating form of vitamin B12 was adenosylcobalamin (68% of total cobalamins). The process of roasting and grilling had little effect on the vitamin B12 content in the final product as compared to the raw meat. The fried product was characterised by about a 32% lower content of cobalamins than in raw meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cow-level and herd-level risk factors for subclinical endometritis in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S H; Nydam, D V; Galvão, K N; Crosier, B M; Gilbert, R O

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain prevalence estimates for subclinical endometritis (SCE), determine cow- and herd-level risk factors, and evaluate the reproductive consequences of SCE. A cross-sectional study was used to determine prevalence and risk factors with cows followed in a prospective study to determine reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were sampled between 40 and 60 d in milk using low-volume uterine lavage, and cytology was evaluated to determine SCE status. In total, 779 cows from 38 herds were used in the analysis. The cow-level prevalence of SCE was 25.9%. Within-herd level prevalence ranged from 4.8 to 52.6% (median 26.3%, interquartile range 15.6 to 33.3%). Cow-level risk factors identified were ketosis [odds ratio (OR) 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-8.07], acute metritis (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.05-3.30], and the interaction between milk production and parity. Primiparous cows that produced more milk had increased odds of having SCE, whereas multiparous cows that produced more milk had decreased odds of having SCE. Herd-level risk factors identified were housing early postpartum cows on bedded packs (herd-level SCE=36.1%), which increased herd prevalence of SCE by 16.7% (SE 5.58) compared with early postpartum cows housed in freestalls (herd-level SCE=19.4%), and straw bedding in the calving pen, which decreased herd prevalence of SCE by 10.7% (SE 3.59) compared with herds that used other bedding material. In this study, primiparous cows with and without SCE had similar reproductive performance; however, multiparous cows with SCE had median days open 44 d longer (159 d; 95% CI 126-186 d) compared with unaffected multiparous cows (115 d; 95% CI 106-132 d). Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be a predictive measurement for young cows that have a greater probability to conceive at a fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, J D; Edwards, S R; Cope, E R; McFarlane, Z D; Pohler, K G; Mulliniks, J T

    2017-04-01

    Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; = 65). In addition, cows were grouped by age to represent young (3 to 4 yr old), mature (5 to 6 yr old), and old (7 to 9 yr old) cows. Starting approximately d 30 postpartum, cow BW and BCS were recorded and blood samples were collected weekly through the end of breeding. Weekly serum samples were composited by cow within 2 production periods: 1) prebreeding and 2) TAI to end of NAT. Cow BW and BCS did not influence ( ≥ 0.40) timing of pregnancy during the entire study. Similarly, calf BW at birth and weaning were not different ( ≥ 0.30) between timing of pregnancy groups. However, calf BW at weaning and calf value the subsequent year of the study were greater ( < 0.01) for TAI cows than for NAT cows. An age group × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) occurred for serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Serum BHB concentrations for mature and old cows were similar regardless of timing of pregnancy. However, serum BHB concentrations for young NAT cows were greater than for young TAI cows. In addition, serum NEFA exhibited ( = 0.04) a timing of pregnancy × sampling period interaction. Prebreeding serum NEFA concentrations were greater for NAT cows than for TAI cows. In contrast, serum NEFA concentrations during the NAT season were similar regardless of timing of pregnancy. Area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristic curve for young cows' circulating BHB concentrations (0.66) was an acceptable predictor for pregnancy by TAI ( < 0

  13. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus have been reported previously. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem muscle and can influence fresh beef color stability. However, the role of mitochondrial functionality in intramuscular color variations in beef semimembranosus is yet to be ...

  14. the occurrence of post partum anoestrus in bonsmara cows on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post pactum anoestrus, as a cause of reproductive failure in ranch cows has been extensively studied, but little information is available for range cows in the Transvaal. Highveld. lactation has been found to delay reconception. (Symington & Hall, 1967) and both plane of nutrition. (Wiltbank, Rowden, Ingalls, Gregory & Koch, ...

  15. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  16. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, ageddynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  17. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  18. Efeitos do livre acesso de bezerros ao creep-feeding sobre os esempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas Effects of free access of beef calves to creep-feeding on productivity and reproductive performance of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do livre acesso ao creep-feeding sobre os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas mantidas em pastagem nativa melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., trevo branco (Trifolium repens Lam. e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel foram avaliados nesta pesquisa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por quatro tratamentos segundo esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sexos: vacas amamentando bezerros ou bezerras; dois sistemas de alimentação: vacas amamentando bezerros (as com ou sem acesso a creep-feeding, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais. As vacas primíparas do sistema com creep-feeding apresentaram peso corporal e escore de condição corporal, no final do experimento, mais altos que as do sistema sem creep-feeding (412 kg e 3,94 vs. 399 kg e 3,77, respectivamente. Vacas do sistema com creep-feeding tiveram ganho de peso médio diário mais elevados que o de vacas com bezerros não-suplementados (0,549 vs. 0,449 kg/dia. O creep-feeding e o sexo dos animais não influenciaram a taxa de prenhez das vacas primíparas.The research evaluated the effects of the creep-feeding on the productive and reproductive performance of the primiparous cows, maintained on improved natural pasture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., white clover (Trifolium repens Lam. and cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel. A completely randomized experimental design composed by four treatments according to 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sex: cows suckling male or female calves; two systems of feeding: cows suckling male or female with or without access creep-feeding, totalizing 16 experimental units. The primiparous cows of the creep-feeding system showed body weight and corporal condition, in the end of the experiment, higher in relation to the ones without creep-feeding system (412 kg and 3.94 versus 399 kg and 3.77, respectively. Cows in the creep-feeding system showed average

  19. Genome Sequence of Bovine Polyomavirus 1 Detected in a Salers Cow (Bos taurus) from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Nicole; Pérez de Val, Bernat; Martin, Maite; Moens, Ugo; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2016-01-28

    We identified a variant of the first bovine polyomavirus (BPyV1; family Polyomaviridae) in a lymph node of a Salers cow. As the 2 previously published genome sequences of this virus originated from fetal bovine serum and ground beef, respectively, this is the first BPyV1 genome that could be traced back to an individual. Copyright © 2016 Ben Salem et al.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Yuwana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meet their obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions (5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fattening and cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage cluster random sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang, Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiple linear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calf operation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’ income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510. Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital, collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capital and collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effects on credit return.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  2. Influence of ivermectin and clorsulon treatment on productivity of a cow-calf herd on the southern Oregon coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, L G; Zimmerman, G L; Hoberg, E P; Bishop, J K; Pettitt, R J

    1992-02-01

    The reproductive performance of beef cows and the weight gain of their calves was evaluated after oral administration of clorsulon or clorsulon in combination with the subcutaneous administration of ivermectin. One hundred and fifty pregnant cows harboring infections of Fasciola hepatica were assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1 comprising 50 unmedicated controls; Group 2, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1; Group 3, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1 and ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 micrograms kg-1. Weights and body condition scores of the cows were measured and fecal and blood samples were taken at trial initiation and days 158 and 270. Pregnancy status was also determined at day 270. Weights and body condition scores were measured for the calves at days 158 and 270. Adjusted 205 day weaning weight of the calves was calculated and analyzed for differences between treatment groups. Four sets of tracer calves were used periodically throughout the trial to monitor the helminth challenge to the herd. Both gastro-intestinal nematodes and liver flukes were transmitted to the tracer calves during the entire trial. Even in the face of continual helminth challenge, beef cows treated with combined clorsulon/ivermectin conceived approximately 2 weeks earlier than their untreated counterparts and their calves had better body condition scores and weights than untreated calves.

  3. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle. PMID:24552213

  4. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2017-08-01

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  5. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PSthermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort.

  6. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on measures of acid-base physiology and performance in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M J; Hansen, G R; Arthington, J D

    2010-01-01

    Dietary constituents can affect cow acid-base physiology and uterine pH. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been shown to affect cow acid-base physiology, but the effect on uterine pH has not been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to determine if DCAD [(Na + K + 0.15Ca + 0.15Mg) - (Cl + 0.60S + 0.50P)] could affect cow DMI, acid-base physiology, and uterine pH, and second, to determine if dietary supplements could alleviate any negative effects of DCAD on these variables. In Exp. 1, 21 cows were utilized to determine the effect of a negative DCAD (-0.9 mEq/100 g of DM; low-DCAD) or positive DCAD (+25.0 mEq/100 g of DM; high-DCAD) diet on cow BW, DMI, and pH of blood, urine, and uterine flush fluid. In Exp. 2, 21 cows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: control (-3.1 mEq/100 g of DM), molasses (+2.9 mEq/100 g of DM), or molasses+buffer (+25.8 mEq/100 g of DM) to determine if supplemental liquid molasses or liquid molasses with a buffer could alleviate the effects of a negative DCAD, forage-based diet. Cows were individually fed their respective diets for 42 d in both experiments. Cow BW, blood, urine, and uterine flush were collected on d 0, 21, and 42 during both experiments. Cow ADG was not different (P = 0.71) in Exp. 1 or Exp. 2 (P = 0.47). Hay DMI did not differ (P differ (P = 0.39) among treatments. In Exp. 1, a treatment x day interaction (P differences (P > 0.14) among treatments for blood, pH, base excess, pCO(2), or uterine flush pH. Urine pH exhibited a treatment x day interaction (P cation-anion difference and the use of molasses-based supplements had minimal effect on forage-fed beef cow DMI. However, DCAD has the capacity to alter forage-fed beef cow acid-base physiology and potentially affect uterine physiology.

  7. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA......Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...

  8. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  9. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  10. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  11. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  12. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  13. Cow's milk challenge through human milk evokes immune responses in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Suomalainen, H

    1999-10-01

    In order to measure the immune response evoked in breast-fed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) by cow's milk challenge through human milk, mothers were given increasing doses of cow's milk after they had been on a cow's milk elimination diet. Another objective was to study the secretion of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) into human milk before and during milk challenge in relation to the appearance of symptoms in infants. Seventeen asymptomatic mothers who had infants with challenge-proven CMA and 10 asymptomatic mothers who had healthy infants were recruited. Infants ranged in age from 1.8 to 9.4 months. A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISPOT) was used to assess the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting and specific antibody-secreting cells. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate different lymphocyte subpopulations among peripheral blood lymphocytes primed during provocation by cow's milk antigens. BLG levels were assessed in human milk before the challenge and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after the commencement of the challenge. All but one of the infants with CMA showed symptoms of CMA during cow's milk challenge through human milk. There was a significant rise in the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the IgA and IgG classes associated with a positive cow's milk challenge response, but the proportions of peripheral blood B cells bearing CD19, CD23, CD19 and 23, CD5, or CD19 and CD5 were comparable. BLG levels were comparable in both study groups. Most of the infants with CMA reacted to cow's milk challenge through human milk. Hypersensitivity reactions to food antigens through human milk may be more common than previously thought.

  14. Variation in enteric methane emissions among cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Potterton, S L; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Hunter, M; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.

  15. Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: II. Residual effects on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin, and calf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, T M; Early, R J; Carpenter, J R; Buckley, B A

    1995-05-01

    Residual effects of nutrition and solar radiation during the last two-thirds of gestation on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M in both colostrum and calf serum, and calf growth were determined in beef cattle. Nineteen mature, multiparous crossbred cows (Bos taurus) at d 90 of pregnancy were assigned to either low (LO, 70% NRC total energy intake) or high (HI, 110% NRC total energy intake) nutritional level (sudangrass hay) and to either shade (S) or no shade (NS) treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. After parturition, all cows were moved into a large paddock and managed uniformly. Calf weights and calf serum were collected within 1 d postpartum, thereafter at 2-wk intervals for the next 12 wk, and then at 4-wk intervals until weaning. Colostrum samples were taken from the cow and milk yields were determined by the "weigh-suckle-weigh" technique. Neither prepartum nutrition nor environment influenced lactational performance of the dam. Concentrations of IgG were elevated in the colostrum of LO cows (15.3 vs 7.8 g/100 mL, LO vs HI, respectively; P calves from S cows than in those from NS cows. This difference in IgM profile did not seem to be due to any residual effect from prepartum treatments. Postnatal growth of calves from birth until weaning were similar across all prepartum treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  17. [Reintroduction of E. granulosus by import of cows in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalten, Monique; Züchner, Lothar; Bruinier, Edzart; Holzhauer, Menno; Wouda, Willem; Borgsteede, Fred; Sprong, Hein; van der Giessen, Joke

    2008-11-01

    Since East European countries joined the EU, the import of both dairy and beef cows from these countries increased considerably. Based on the identification and registration system it turned out that in the period from May until December 2007 about 200 cows per month were imported from Romania. These animals were either slaughtered immediately or in autumn. In autumn, cysts were noticed both in slaughtered cows during meat inspection and in deceased animals (originated from Romania) during postmortem investigation performed by the Animal Health Service. Because cysts were strongly reminiscent of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts, samples were sent to the authorized laboratory (National Reference Laboratory of Parasitology), where the reintroduction of this potentially zoonotic parasitic infection has been confirmed. The risks of reintroduction of E. granulosus in the Netherlands are described.

  18. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    OpenAIRE

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  19. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R

    2011-09-01

    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  20. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  1. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  2. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  3. Modelled female sale options demonstrate improved profitability in northern beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethe, G E; Holmes, W E

    2008-12-01

    To examine the impact of improving the average value of cows sold, the risk of decreasing the number weaned, and total sales on the profitability of northern Australian cattle breeding properties. Gather, model and interpret breeder herd performances and production parameters on properties from six beef-producing regions in northern Australia. Production parameters, prices, costs and herd structure were entered into a herd simulation model for six northern Australian breeding properties that spay females to enhance their marketing options. After the data were validated by management, alternative management strategies were modelled using current market prices and most likely herd outcomes. The model predicted a close relationship between the average sale value of cows, the total herd sales and the gross margin/adult equivalent. Keeping breeders out of the herd to fatten generally improves their sale value, and this can be cost-effective, despite the lower number of progeny produced and the subsequent reduction in total herd sales. Furthermore, if the price of culled cows exceeds the price of culled heifers, provided there are sufficient replacement pregnant heifers available to maintain the breeder herd nucleus, substantial gains in profitability can be obtained by decreasing the age at which cows are culled from the herd. Generalised recommendations on improving reproductive performance are not necessarily the most cost-effective strategy to improve breeder herd profitability. Judicious use of simulation models is essential to help develop the best turnoff strategies for females and to improve station profitability.

  4. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    with CMP. Milk from other mammals such as mare and donkey may be tolerated by some children with CMPA. Soy protein is as allergenic as CMP and soy formula is not recommended for young children with CMPA because of a great risk of development of allergy to soy, whereas soymilk is normally tolerated in older......Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...

  5. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free with an average L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5-2.4 MPE. The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants.

  6. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  7. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef based on a research conducted with European consumers. Beef healthiness is assessed by a combination of intrinsic (e.g. flavour, colour and general appearance) and extrinsic (e.g. price, expiry date, labels or certifications, and brands) attributes...

  9. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  10. Relationships between cow-calf sensory cues and the postpartum interval in suckler cows - Relaciones entre vínculos sensoriales vaca-ternero y duración del anestro post-parto en vacas nodrizas

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Rodríguez, Javier; Revilla, Ricardo; Sanz, Albina

    2009-01-01

    SummaryAt present, it is known that the suppressive influence of suckling onreproduction is independent of the neurosensory pathways from theteat or the udder; and that the maternal-offspring bond is theessential component of the prolonged postpartum anoestrus inducedby suckling in beef cows. It has been shown that olfaction and visionare equally effective in allowing the calf identification by its dam, and that abolition of both senses attenuate the negative effects ofsuckling on luteinizing...

  11. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  13. SYNCHRONIZATION OF OVULATION IN BEEF HERDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    irnately 68 hrs after the last progesterone injection). Table 2 gves thc percentags of cows or heifon trctted thrt responded to synchronization during thc first hcet pcriod. As expected, the dry cows dl rcsponded to treatment but only TOeo of the lactating cows exhibitcd sigru of hcet during the first synctrronized oestrus period.

  14. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow

    OpenAIRE

    di Clemente, Nathalie; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovari...

  15. Relationship of pre- and post-ovulatory gonadotropin concentrations to subnormal luteal function in postpartum beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garverick, H A; Parfet, J R; Lee, C N; Copelin, J P; Youngquist, R S; Smith, M F

    1988-01-01

    Early weaning of calves from anestrous cows results in formation of short-lived corpora lutea (CL) unless the animals are pretreated with a progestagen (norgestomet). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between pre- and post-ovulatory gonadotropin secretion and luteal lifespan. Postpartum beef cows were assigned randomly into two groups, control (n = 5) and norgestomet (implant given at weaning for 9 d; n = 7). Calves from all cows were weaned 30 to 33 d postpartum. Coccygeal artery cannulas were placed into cows in the control group 1 d prior to weaning and 2 d before implant removal in cows in the norgestomet group. Plasma for determination of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol-17 beta (E) and progesterone (P) was collected daily at 10-min intervals for 6 h from weaning (control) or the day prior to implant removal (norgestomet) to estrus (d 0) and on d 2, 4 and 6 following estrus. Average interval (X +/- SE; P less than .05) from weaning to estrus or implant removal was 4.2 +/- .8 and 2.3 +/- .2 d for the control and norgestomet groups, respectively. Estrous cycle length for the control group was 12.4 +/- 1.8 d compared with 20.4 +/- .3 d for the norgestomet group (P less than .05). Four of five control cows had an estrous cycle length of 7 to 14 d; all cows in the norgestomet group and the remaining control cow had an estrous cycle of normal length (16 to 21 d).2+ estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  17. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  19. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able......The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  1. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  2. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cow's milk. To provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends: If possible, you should feed ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Nutrition Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  3. Concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas de corte mantidas a pasto suplementadas com levedura de cromo durante a estação de monta Cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus plasma concentration in grazing beef cows supplemented with high chromium yeast during breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fabian Aragón Vásquez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a influência da suplementação com cromo (Cr sobre a concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas zebu mantidas a pasto e numa situação de estresse calórico durante a estação de monta. Foram utilizadas trinta vacas primíparas com peso entre 380 e 385kg. Os animais foram divididos em grupos de 15 vacas, formando o tratamento suplementado com Cr e o tratamento não suplementado (controle. As vacas pastorearam em piquetes formados por Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu. A fonte de Cr foi levedura enriquecida (1g Cr kg-1 de produto comercial e foi adicionado à mistura mineral aportando 0,017% de Cr. Amostras de sangue foram tomadas em três períodos através de venipunção jugular e coletadas em tubos contendo heparina. As amostras de plasma foram analisadas para fósforo, cálcio, uréia e cortisol. Os dados foram analisados como um desenho de blocos ao acaso. O consumo médio diário de mistura mineral foi de 72,92g no grupo suplementado com Cr (12,40mg Cr/cabeça/dia e 77,84g no grupo controle (0,78mg Cr/cabeça/dia. A concentração plasmática de cortisol, no grupo suplementado com Cr, foi menor que no tratamento controle (2,11mg dl-1 vs. 3,29mg dl-1. As concentrações plasmáticas de fósforo (6,36mg dl-1 vs 3,56mg dl-1 e de cálcio (12,87mg dl-1 vs 9,02mg dl-1 foram maiores no grupo suplementado com Cr durante o primeiro período, mas não existiram diferenças no segundo e terceiro períodos de colheita. Os níveis plasmáticos de uréia (17,13mg dl-1 vs. 17,70mg dl-1 não foram diferentes entre os grupos experimentais.The influence of supplemental chromium (Cr on plasma cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus concentration were investigated in grazing cattle in caloric stress situation during the breeding season. Thirty primiparous zebu cows with 380 to 385kg of body weight were assigned to the following treatments: 15 cows fed supplemental Cr and 15 cows without supplemental Cr (Control

  4. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  5. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  6. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  7. Influence of pre- and post-slaughter factors on the reduced glutathione content of beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, R; Sadowska, A; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of certain factors (muscle anatomy, paternal breed, diet, age at slaughter, castration, process of meat aging and grilling) on the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in beef. The research material included selected beef muscles acquired from steers and bulls obtained by crossing Polish Holstein-Friesian cows with meat breed bulls (Limousin, Charolais, Hereford). An analysis of ante-mortem factors such as the castration, slaughter age, and fattening of the animals showed no significant effect on the content of GSH (α=0,05). On the other hand, the paternal breed of animals was observed to have a significant effect on GSH content. In the study, GSH content significantly increased during meat aging. In contrast, grilling caused a loss approximately 40% of GSH content. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the distribution of GSH in anatomical beef muscles is uneven. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hedonic demand analysis for beef in Benin Metropolis | Ojogho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay additional N229.27 for beef with good taste, N227.10 for neat beef, N163.05 for beef of 'proper' processing style and N380.21 for fresh beef in the study area. Similarly, the consumer is willing ...

  9. Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

    2013-12-01

    This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ≥ 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P

  10. Application of integrated production and economic models to estimate the impact of Schmallenberg virus for various beef suckler production systems in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara; Alarcon, Pablo

    2014-10-26

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in November 2011 in Germany and then rapidly spread throughout Europe. In beef suckler farms, clinical signs are mainly associated with reproductive disorders, particularly in late gestation, and intransient and non-specific symptoms, namely diarrhea, inappetence and fever. The objectives of this study were to develop models that simulate the production of different beef suckler systems in the United Kingdom (UK) and France and to use these models to estimate, through partial budget analyses, the farm-level economic cost of SBV under two disease impact scenarios, namely high and low impact. The probability for a farm to be in the high or low scenario depends, among other, on the high, low or nil vectorial activity for a given period and location and on the period(s) of sensitivity of the animals to the disease. Under the high impact scenario, the estimated SBV impact ranged from 26€ to 43€ per cow per year in France and from 29€ to 36€ per cow per year in the UK. It was approximately half of this amount in the low impact scenario. These financial impacts represent 5 to 16% of the gross margin, depending on the country, impact scenario and livestock system considered. Most of the SBV impact originates from the costs of the steers and heifers not produced. Differences identified between the systems studied mainly stem from differences among the value of the steers or heifers sold: SBV impact is higher for British autumn calving systems compared to spring calving, and for French farms with calving and fattening activities compared to farms with only a single, annual calving activity. This study shows the usefulness of integrated production and economic models to accurately evaluate the costs of diseases and understand which factors have major impacts in the different systems. The models stand as a useful basis for animal health professionals when considering alternative disease control measures. They are also a farm

  11. Listeria prevalence and Listeria monocytogenes serovar diversity at cull cow and bull processing plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, T Steven D; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of epidemic and sporadic listeriosis, is routinely isolated from many sources, including cattle, yet information on the prevalence of Listeria in beef processing plants in the United States is minimal. From July 2005 through April 2006, four commercial cow and bull processing plants were sampled in the United States to determine the prevalence of Listeria and the serovar diversity of L. monocytogenes. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, winter, and spring. Listeria prevalence on hides was consistently higher during cooler weather (28 to 92% of samples) than during warmer weather (6 and 77% of samples). The Listeria prevalence data collected from preevisceration carcass ranged from undetectable in some warm season samples to as high as 71% during cooler weather. Listeria on postintervention carcasses in the chill cooler was normally undetectable, with the exception of summer and spring samples from one plant where > 19% of the carcasses were positive for Listeria. On hides, L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2a was the predominant serovar observed, with serovars 1/2b and 4b present 2.5 times less often and serovar 1/2c not detected on any hides sampled. L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2c, and 4b were found on postintervention carcasses. This prevalence study demonstrates that Listeria species are more prevalent on hides during the winter and spring and that interventions being used in cow and bull processing plants appear to be effective in reducing or eliminating Listeria contamination on carcasses.

  12. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  13. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta superovulatória e a digestibilidade aparente da dieta em vacas de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.47 Induced hypothyroidism effect on superovulatory response and diet apparent digestibility in beef cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.47

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou determinar o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana ao hormônio folículo estimulante exógeno, a normalidade do ciclo estral de vacas e a digestibilidade aparente. Utilizaram-se 10 vacas Nelore tratadas com propylthiouracil (PTU. A digestibilidade aparente da Matéria Seca, os números médios de corpos lúteos, de embriões, de estrururas colhidas, de estruturas infertilizadas, de estruturas degeneradas, de mórulas, de índice de colheita e de índice de fertilização não variaram significativamente (P>0,05. Os valores médios de T3 foram de 1,35+0,1 e 1,91+0,1 ng mL-1, de T4 de 20,95+1,37 e 61,82+1,37, de TSH 7,95+0,36 e 2,61+0,36, respectivamente, para os animais tratados e controle, havendo diferença significativa (PThe experiment aimed to establish the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian response to the exogenous follicle stimulating hormone, the normality of the cows estrous cycle, and apparent diet digestibility. 10 Nelore cows were used and treated with propylthiouracil (PTU. DM apparent digestibility, average numbers of corpus luteum, collected embryos, unfertilized structures, degenerated structures, morulas, collecting rate, fertilization rate, did not present significant variation (P>0.05. In the treated animals, de average T3, T4, and TSH values were 1.35 ±0.1, 20.95±1.37 and 7.95±0.36, respectively, and in the controls 1.91+0.1 for T3, 61.82+1.37 for T4 and 2.61+0.36 TSH, with significant difference (P<0.05. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that hypothyroidism did not affect diet apparent digestibility, embryos production, steroidogenesis or ovarian activity

  14. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Paredes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight, age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d, calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d, age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d, mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year, pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year, fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year, adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year, pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d, fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d, culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d, culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%, culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg, carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class, dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%, carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d. Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  15. Herd-level and contextual factors influencing dairy cow mortality in France in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Cahuzac, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G

    2011-04-01

    Dairy cow mortality causes financial loss and is increasing over time; it indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare. To describe the herd-level and contextual factors affecting cow mortality, the French National Bovine Dataset Identification was used to create dairy, beef, or fattening units within farms, for 2005 and 2006. Mortality rate (MO-RA, outcome variable) and most variables were calculated at the unit level, whereas contextual variables were defined at the municipality level [cattle density, inhabitant density, agricultural land always with grass on overall agricultural land (ALWG/OAL)]. The localization (11 dairy production areas, representative of the farming systems) was also included. The statistical analysis was performed with a probit regression model (MO-RA=0 or>0) and with a linear model corrected by the Heckman method for bias sample selection. For 2005 and 2006, 3.8 and 3.7 million dairy cow-years, 101,445 and 96,954 dairy units, and 141,677 and 143,424 deaths were recorded, respectively. Over one-third of the units had no dairy cow mortality in 2005 or 2006. Overall MO-RA was 3.7 and 3.8% for 2005 and 2006, respectively. Restricted MO-RA (farms without death excluded) was 5.8% for 2005 and 2006. The correlation of MO-RA among units between the 2 yr was 0.25. The same effects and close estimate values were reported for 2005 and 2006 with both models. Mortality rate was positively associated with the number of cow-years, having a beef unit in addition to a dairy unit, the proportion of purchased cows, the proportion of first-calving cows, the average calving interval, being a Milk Control Program member, inhabitant density, not being in dairy production area Grand-Ouest, and ALWG/OAL. Negative associations were reported for breed other than Holstein, being a Good Breeding Practices member, having a calving peak in autumn, culling rate, and municipal cattle density. This study reports an average mortality rate for the French dairy cows. It

  16. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  17. Malignant melanoma in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarić M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca

    2002-01-01

    A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clin...

  18. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  19. Evaluation of intrauterine antibiotic treatment of clinical metritis and retained fetal membranes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, Tamir; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2006-12-01

    Retained fetal membranes (RFM) and clinical metritis (CM) are frequently diagnosed disease conditions in dairy cows and considered of major economic impact due to negative effect on reproduction and milk production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of i.u. tetracycline for the treatment of RFM and CM in dairy cows. Affected cows were randomly assigned to two groups; treatment group animals received i.u. 5g chlortetracycline twice weekly for 2 wks, and no treatment group. A total of 1416 cows and 804 heifers in 5 herds calved during the study period. CM was diagnosed in 18.6% (inter farm range; 15.2-23.5%) and 30% (19.4-42.3%) of cows and heifers, respectively. RFM was diagnosed in 13.1% (9.4-18.1%) and 9.2% (3.6-13.8%) of cows and heifers, respectively. Conception rates after first insemination were 38.3%, 42.5% and 18% in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Numbers of days open were 140.5, 136.2 and 165.5 in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Based on 305-d corrected milk yield, cows and heifers affected by RFM and CM produced 300-500kg less milk compared with their normal herd mates. Cows treated for CM produced 654kg more milk per 305-d corrected lactation compared to non-treated control cows. Treatment of RFM had no effect on reproductive performance or milk production. In conclusion, i.u. chlortetracycline treatment was proven to prevent the detrimental effect of CM on reproductive performance in heifers and cows and on milk production in cows only.

  20. Genetic associations among average annual productivity, growth traits, and stayability: a parallel between Nelore and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship among average annual productivity of the cow (PRODAM), yearling weight (YW), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and stayability in the herd for at least 6 yr (STAY) of Nelore and composite beef cattle. Measurements were taken on animals born between 1980 and 2010 on 70 farms located in 7 Brazilian states. Estimates of heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were obtained by Bayesian approach with 5-trait animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regressing means of estimated breeding values by year of birth. The heritability estimates were between 0.14 and 0.47. Estimates of genetic correlation among female traits (PRODAM and STAY) and growth traits ranged from -0.02 to 0.30. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.94 among growth traits indicating that selection for these traits could be successful in tropical breeding programs. Genetic correlations among all traits were favorable and simultaneous selection for growth, productivity, and stayability is therefore possible. Genetic correlation between PRODAM and STAY was 0.99 and 0.85 for Nelore and composite cattle, respectively. Therefore, PRODAM and STAY might be influenced by many of the same genes. The inclusion of PRODAM instead of STAY as a selection criterion seems to be more advantageous for tropical breeding programs because the generation interval required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for PRODAM is shorter. Average annual genetic changes were greater in Nelore than in composite cattle. This was not unexpected because the breeding program of composite cattle included a large number of farms, different production environments, and genetic level of the herds and breeds. Thus, the selection process has become more difficult in this population.

  1. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  2. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  4. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  5. Evaluation of Weaning Stress in Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Chelsea E

    2011-01-01

    Conventional techniques within the beef cattle industry involve weaning the calf from the dam when the calf is about 205 days of age. Weaning induces a stress-response that is implicated in reducing the health and productivity of newly weaned calves. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of weaning on the stress immune responses of beef calves. To that end, we 1) evaluated novel methods to quantify physiological markers of stress, 2) compared immune function and growth of calves grazing legum...

  6. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlamydiosis in a beef herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, W J; Schutte, A P; Pienaar, J G; Henton, M M

    1975-06-01

    Chlamydial infection in a large beef herd is illustrated and discussed. The pre-natal and post-natal losses that occurred during 1972 are highlighted. Total pre-natal losses for the nine calving herds comprising 2,915 animals varied between 3,7% and 12,4%. Between 1,2% and 11,4% of the calves born alive in the nine herds died before weaning with 70% of the losses occurring within the first three weeks of life. Chlamydial organisms were demonstrated in pre-natal and post-natal losses from all nine herds. Clinical manifestations and lesions involving the intestinal, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, reticulo-endothelial and urinary systems were observed in chlamydia-infected calves. Invariably at autopsy in chlamydia positive cases there was some degree of a fibrinous inflammatory process present. Serological evidence showed that chlamydial organisms had been present on both farms prior to the 1972 investigations.

  8. Whole cow's milk in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S

    2003-09-01

    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  9. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Matthew L.; Smith, Billy I.; Engiles, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    An antemortem diagnosis of disseminated hemangiosarcoma with extensive hepatic and splenic involvement was made in a 9-year-old cow evaluated for lethargy, weight loss, regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a cow with a suspected primary location of the liver and/or spleen.

  10. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matthew L.; Smith, Billy I.; Engiles, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    An antemortem diagnosis of disseminated hemangiosarcoma with extensive hepatic and splenic involvement was made in a 9-year-old cow evaluated for lethargy, weight loss, regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a cow with a suspected primary location of the liver and/or spleen. PMID:21731096

  11. Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidences of retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries, mastitis and calf mortality were recorded. Whole blood Se concentrations of the unsupplemented cows ranged from 17 to 90 ng/mL. Accepting that a concentration of >200 ng/mL blood indicates an adequate Se intake, the recorded concentrations suggest that the cows ...

  12. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactating cows are particularly sensitive to thermal stress owing to their specialized productive function and to their ... The comfort range for dairy cows varies between -5 and 2I'C. If an animal is subjected ..... Building a shade structure involves a capital investment. During l9M the material cost of the shade structures in the.

  13. The Impact of Beef Cattle Projects on Youth Leadership Life Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon F. Walker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Highlights of a study designed to determine the leadership life skills development (YLLSD of youth beef cattle exhibitors and to determine if there is a relationship between YLLSD and participation in the beef project are discussed in this paper. The study was conducted using a correlational, ex post facto design. A sample of 374 individuals was randomly selected from a population of 4,229 national junior cattle exhibitors of the National Junior Angus Association. The population frame consisted of junior members ages 18 to 21. Participants’ YLLSD scores ranged from 40 to 90 with a composite mean of 73.02. Significant relationships existed between YLLSD scores and shows per year, hours working with projects per week, and years of beef project exhibition.

  14. The Development of National Beef-Cattle Population in Relation to Beef-Cattle Population at the Centre and Non Centre Area, and the Policy of National Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sodiq

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to find out the development of beef-cattle population at national level, at the Centre Area of Population (CAP and Non Centre Area of Population (NCAP, (2 to assess the relation between population of national beef-cattle and beef-cattle population at CAP and NCAP, (3 to study the policy of beef-cattle development program in Indonesia. The target of this study addressed to the Directorate General of Livestock Services, Republic of Indonesia. A literature review and communication methods were applied in this study. Descriptive and regression analysis were used for data analysis.  The study revealed that: (1 During 1995-2005, beef-cattle population at national level, CAP and NCAP were unstable.  Due to financial crises (1997, the population at national and CAP tended to decrease, but the population at NCAP was relatively constant.  During 2003-2005, national population tended to increase (0.83% per year, and that figure was less than national target (1.05%,  (2 Population of national beef-cattle (Y was highly related (r2: 0,95; MSE: 108508 to the population of beef-cattle at NCAP (X;  Y = 4764492 + 0.896 X;  (3 An increase in beef-cattle population during 2000-2005 was due to an increase in calving and cattle importation. Slaughtering of cows should be controlled to increase calving. The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program revealed that there were failures in achieving main goals of the program. It is recommended that to improve the contribution of CAP to national needs, the development of cattle population should be focused in those areas.  The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program could be considered in the future policy in term of the development cattle population. Some causes of the policy failures: (1 the formulated policy was not equipped with detailed operation plans. The program formulation was limited to title and goal without elaborating the way to achieve the

  15. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or...

  16. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured...

  17. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

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    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  18. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Anderson, Garry A; Malmo, Jakob; Davis, Gerry; Beggs, David S; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-02-19

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P milk protein (12.6 kg; P milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P milk protein (26.0 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1-3 with group 4 cows. The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses

  19. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Methods Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Results Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P cows. PMID:24209779

  20. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  1. Prevalence and Genomic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cow-Calf Herds throughout California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jay N; Flores, Kristopher A; Yang, Xun; Chase, Jennifer A; Cao, Guojie; Tang, Shuai; Meng, Jianghong; Atwill, Edward R

    2017-08-15

    Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a zoonotic food- and waterborne bacterial pathogen that causes a high hospitalization rate and can cause life-threatening complications. Increasingly, E. coli O157:H7 infections appear to originate from fresh produce. Ruminants, such as cattle, are a prominent reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the United States. California is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world for fresh produce, beef, and milk. The close proximity of fresh produce and cattle presents food safety challenges on a uniquely large scale. We performed a survey of E. coli O157:H7 on 20 farms in California to observe the regional diversity and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were obtained from enrichment cultures of cow feces. Some farms were sampled on two dates. Genomes from isolates were sequenced to determine their relatedness and pathogenic potential. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from approximately half of the farms. The point prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on farms was highly variable, ranging from zero to nearly 90%. Within farms, generally one or a few lineages were found, even when the rate of isolation was high. On farms with high isolation rates, a single clonal lineage accounted for most of the isolates. Farms that were visited months after the first visit might have had the same lineages of E. coli O157:H7. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 may be persistent for months on farms. IMPORTANCE This survey of 20 cow-calf operations from different regions of California provides an in depth look at resident Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations at the molecular level. E. coli O157:H7 is found to have a highly variable prevalence, and with whole-genome sequencing, high prevalences in herds were found to be due to a single lineage shed from multiple cows. Few repeat lineages were found between farms in this area; therefore, we predict that E. coli O157:H7 has significant diversity in this area beyond what is detected in this survey. All

  2. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  3. Dietas com nitrogênio não-proteico para fêmeas bovinas superovuladas sem prévia adaptação durante curto tempo e em diferentes fases do ciclo estral Effect of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding for superovulated beef cows without previous adaptation and at different periods of the oestrus cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rocha Alves

    2010-09-01

    effects of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding at different periods of the oestrus cycle in superovulated cows, without previous adaptation, on yield, quality and development degree of recovered embryos. A total of sixty-eight Nelore cows were distributed in three groups: the control group (C and two groups with urea supply before (UB; urea supply from day -5 to day 0 and after (UA; supply from day 0 to day 5 artificial insemination. Animals were kept grazing and received 3.0 kg/animal/day of concentrate during 16 days. Two concentrates were formulated and the total diets (concentrate and estimate forage intake showed 12.0% (control diet and 14.6% (non-protein diet of crude protein. Animals were synchronized, superovulated and inseminated. The embryos were collected and analysed seven days (day 7 after insemination (day 0. Blood samples were collected on days -5, 0 and 5 to determine concentration of plasmatic urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and progesterone. The time of urea supply affected average plasmatic urea nitrogen concentration on days -5, 0 5 but it did not affect concetrations of glucose, insulin and progesterone. The moment of urea inclusion had effect on compact morula percentage in relation to the total number of structures (UB = 51.4 vs. UA = 15.3%, to the total number of fertilized oocytes (UB = 62.5 vs. UA = 30.6% and to the total number of viable embryos (UB = 68.8 vs. UA = 38.6%. In the after insemination group of urea supply there was 70.2% of reduction on compact morula proportion over the total structures in relation to the group that received urea before insemination. Non-protein nitrogen feeding immediately after insemination promotes faster rates of embryo development.

  4. Cell Biology Symposium: genetics of feed efficiency in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Crowley, J J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing food production for the growing human population off a constraining land base will require greater efficiency of production. Genetic improvement of feed efficiency in cattle, which is cumulative and permanent, is one likely vehicle to achieving efficiency gains. The objective of this review is to summarize genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits in dairy and beef cattle and also to address some of the misconceptions associated with feed efficiency in these sectors, as well as discuss the potential use of feed efficiency in breeding programs. A meta-analysis of up to 39 scientific publications in growing cattle clearly showed that genetic variation in feed efficiency exists with a pooled heritability for residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01 (range of 0.07 to 0.62) and 0.23 ± 0.01 (range of 0.06 to 0.46), respectively. Heritability estimates for feed efficiency in cows were lower; a meta-analysis of up to 11 estimates revealed heritability estimates for gross feed efficiency and RFI of 0.06 ± 0.010 and 0.04 ± 0.008, respectively. Meta-analysis of genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and other performance traits are presented, and selection index theory is used to calculate the proportion of genetic variation in feed intake that can be explained by easy to measure, and often already collected, data. A large proportion of the genetic variation in feed intake could be explained in both growing animals and lactating animals using up to 5 predictor traits, including BW, growth rate, milk yield, body composition, and linear type traits reflecting body size and muscularity. Knowledge of genetic merit for feed intake can be used, along with estimates of genetic merit for energy sinks, to calculate genetic merit for feed efficiency. Therefore, the marginal benefit of collecting actual feed intake data, using the genetic parameters used in this study, appears to be low. There is now sufficient

  5. Influence of category--heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows--in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcio de Oliveira; Morotti, Fábio; da Silva, Camila Bizarro; Júnior, Mario Ribeiro; da Silva, Rubens César Pinto; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of category (heifers, primiparous or multiparous cows) on pregnancy rates in a large scale resynchronization ovulation program. Nelore heifers (n = 903), primiparous lactating cows (n = 338) and multiparous lactating cows (n = 1,223) were synchronized using a conventional protocol of estradiol/P4-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Thirty days after ultrasonography, females who failed the first FTAI were resynchronized with the same hormonal protocol prior to a second FTAI. The pregnancy status of each cohort was evaluated by ultrasonography 30 days after each FTAI. The average conception rate after the first FTAI and resynchronization was 80.5%. Heifers had a higher conception rate (85%) than primiparous (76%) or multiparous cows (78%; p = 0.0001). The conception rate after the first FTAI was similar among heifers (57%), primiparous cows (51%) and multiparous cows (56%; p = 0.193). After the second FTAI, heifers exhibited a higher conception rate (66%) than primiparous or multiparous cows (51%; p = 0.0001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of resynchronization in large beef herds for providing consistent pregnancy rates in a short period of time. We also demonstrated that ovulation resynchronization 30 days after FTAI is particularly effective for heifers, providing a conception rate of up to 66%.

  6. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  7. The role of forage systems in environmentally sustainable beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef in the United States, a national assessment is being conducted with support from the Beef Checkoff. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of important environmental, social and economic impact categories of the beef value...

  8. Beef-derived Mesoporous Carbon as Highly Efficient Support for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    PtRuIr/C-Beef was highly active for methanol electro-oxidation. PtRuIr/C-Beef showed superior catalytic ... Carbon materials, electrocatalysts, support, beef, methanol oxidation. 1. Introduction. The binary PtRu alloy is ..... support for electrocatalysts used in direct methanol fuel cells. Acknowledgements. The authors would ...

  9. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the .... preference for beef, the negative sign here ... of respondents according to problems with beef preference. Problem. Frequency. Percentage (%). Price. 26. 28.89. Availability. 8. 8.89. Health effect. 8. 8.89.

  10. The economic analysis of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic efficiency of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State. In this regard, the different marketing function performed by the beef sellers were identified and evaluated. Also the size and different components of beef marketing costs and margins were determined. A total sample of 110 respondents ...

  11. Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Beef among Tennessee Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Leah; Jensen, Kimberly; Leffew, Megan; English, Burton; Lambert, Dayton; Clark, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examines willingness to pay among consumers in five metropolitan areas in Tennessee for steaks and ground beef produced in Tennessee. Consumers are willing to pay a positive premium for Tennessee beef. The choice of shopping outlets for Tennessee beef is also examined. Demographics, prior shopping patterns, and product preferences influence shopping outlet choices.

  12. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  13. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect of the anticipation of the of application of prostaglandin on the reproductive performance of beef cattle cows submitted to artificial insemination in fixed time Antecipação da aplicação de prostaglandina, em programa de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Macedo Gregory

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anticipation of the application of prostaglandin F2alfa (PGF2a was evaluated for the use of fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. Three hundred and six Aberdeen Angus cows, aged between 3 and 6 years old, with calves at side had been used. The animals were randomly distributed in 4 groups. All animals were synchronized through intravaginal device with progesterone for 8 days (CIDR®, estradiol and PGF2a. The treatments was designed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (CIDR® 1º x 2º use and the day of the PGF2a application (6.5th x 8 th day. Seven days after the FTAI clean up bulls were joined until the ending of the breeding season. The conception rate to the FTAI and final pregnancy rate were evaluated. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a (6.5th day had significant effect (P<0.05 on the conception rate at the FTAI and final pregnancy rate, respectively of 60.9% and 89.1% when compared with the animals that had received PGF2a in the 8 th day, respectively of 49.3% and 76.7%. The 1th or 2th use of the intravaginal device had presented differences (P<0.05 in the conception rate (61.1% and 49.7%, however without effect in the final pregnancy (P>0.05, respectively of 82.6 and 83.4%. The anticipation of the application of the PGF2a increased the pregnancy rate significantly at the FTAI and the final pregnancy. The previous use of the CIDR® affected the percentage of pregnancy at the FTAI, but it did not affect the final pregnancy. The cow’s age and the body condition score had not effect on the conception rate to the FTAI and the final pregnancy.Avaliou-se o efeito da antecipação da aplicação da prostaglandina F2alfa (PGF2a em programa de sincronização do estro com progesterona para o uso de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF. Foram utilizadas 306 vacas Aberdeen Angus, com cria ao pé e idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os animais foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 4 grupos sincronizados através de

  15. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  16. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  17. Detection of dioxins Trichloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and Trichloro dibenzofurans in beef with Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih . .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate the residue level of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef collected from Animal Slaughter Houses in Giwangan (Yogyakarta, Klaten (Central Java and Kupang (East Nusatenggara. Residue of persistent organic pollutants (POPs was also analysed with GC-ECD, and dioxins with GC-MSMS. Fifty samples were collected form Giwangan (20, Klaten (15 and Kupang (15. Results shows that POPs were detected in beef samples including aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, endrin and heptachlor. The highest total residues of POPs were detected in beef from Giwangan (Yogyakarta at 93.11 hg/g, followed by Klaten (17.79 hg/g and Kupang (12.87 hg/g. Residues of POPs were below the maximum residue limit stated by the SNI 7313: 2008. Average of total TEQ for TCDDs/TCDFs in beef from Giwangan was 13,624.38 rg/g with a range between 4,496.66 to 20,642.40 rg/g was higher than that from Kupang at 1,623.98 rg/g with a range between 0.83 to 6,471.07 rg/g. On the other hand, dioxins were not detected in beef from Klaten. The total TEQ of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef samples from Giwangan was 54,497.52 rg/g and Kupang was 6,495.9 rg/g. These results indicated that there was an association between the presence of endrin and heptachlor with the presence of TCDDs/TCDFs residues in beef that this is may be new information for further studied.

  18. Composition and quality of Mexican and imported retail beef in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, E J; Rubio, M S; Iturbe, F A; Méndez, R D; Cassís, L; Rosiles, R

    2005-03-01

    Randomly selected New York steaks from domestic and imported beef were purchased in three major Mexican cities, comparing Mexican beef (from northern, central, and southern regions of the country) and American beef (USDA-Choice and ungraded No Roll). The meat was analyzed for chemical composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss, color and consumer acceptability. All sources of Mexican beef and No Roll US beef had similar chemical composition. USDA-Choice beef had a higher fat content and a lower moisture and total collagen content. Mexican beef from the northern region and USDA-Choice beef had lower WBSF and redness values than the other beef sources. Overall desirability was high regarding all Mexican beef sources, and USDA-Choice beef. No Roll US beef had the lowest overall desirability score. Results indicate Mexican beef is in an advantageous position when competing with imports in the current open market.

  19. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Gardner, G E; Pethick, D W; Allen, P; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F

    2017-08-01

    The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer's perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were

  20. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (Pcow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influência das taxas de ganho de peso pré-desmame das vacas e do tipo de pastagem no período pós-parto sobre a eficiência biológica de vacas e de bezerros de corte Effects of different preweaning rates of body weight gain and type of pasture during the postpartum on biological efficiency of beef cows and calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a influência de duas taxas de ganho de peso de bezerras (baixa: 340 ± 32 g/dia ou moderada: 490 ± 29 g/dia do nascimento aos 7 meses de idade e do tipo de pastagem no período pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre sua eficiência biológica e de seus bezerros até o desmame (aos 217 dias. Quando vacas e após o parto, os animais foram mantidos em pastagem nativa (PN ou em pastagem cultivada (PC. Durante a lactação, vacas com baixa taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmame apresentaram maior produção de leite. Houve similaridade entre as taxas de ganho de peso baixa e moderada para a conversão de litros de leite (7,32 e 6,44 L/kg, respectivamente e de kg de MS de leite produzido pelas vacas (1,00 e 0,86 kg/kg, respectivamente em kg de ganho de peso dos bezerros; a exigência total de energia líquida para mantença (mantença + gestação + produção de leite (TOTELm (2.733,7 e 2.316,7 Mcal, respectivamente; TOTELm por kg de bezerro desmamado (14,7 e 14,7 Mcal/kg, respectivamente; e kg de bezerro desmamado por 100 kg de vaca ao desmame (42,0 e 38,7 kg/100 kg, respectivamente. No entanto, vacas com baixa taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmame desmamaram mais kg de bezerros por unidade de peso metabólico da vaca ao desmame (1,89 vs 1,73 kg/g.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of different rates of weight gain (low: 340 ± 32 g/day or moderate: 490 ± 29 g/day of heifers, from birth until seven months of age, and the type of pasture after calving, as cows, on the biologic efficiency of cows and their calves until weaning at 217 days. After calving, the animals were maintained on native pasture (NP or cultivated pasture (CP. During lactation, cows with low preweaning rate of weight gain showed higher milk production. Similarity between low and moderate rates of weight gain was verified for conversion of litres of milk (7.32 and 6.44 L/kg, respectively and kg of dry matter of milk produced by

  2. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-W thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admon, U.; Dariel, M.P.; Grunbaum, E.; Lodder, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films of Co-W, 300-500 Å thick, were electrodeposited at various compositions under a wide range of plating conditions. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and squareness ratio of the films were derived from the parallel (in-plane) and perpendicular hysteresis loops, measured by using a

  3. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  4. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Erickson, G E; Kononoff, P J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Increased corn prices over the past decade have altered land use away from traditional forage in favor of corn. Accordingly, beef and dairy producers have had to adopt nontraditional forage resources into their production systems, many of which have become available as a result of increased corn production. Corn residues have become more available due to increases in corn hectares and yield. The individual plant components (i.e., husk, leaf, and stem) vary in fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility estimates = 40.5, 31.4, and 0.6% ± 0.8 for husk, leaf, and stalk, respectively). Stocking cattle to consume 3.6 kg forage/25.5 kg of grain allows cattle to graze selectively; selection of husks and leaves improves cattle performance. Byproducts of the wet and dry milling industries can be supplemented to calves grazing corn residues to provide protein and energy. Optimal gains were observed when these byproducts were supplemented at approximately 2.5 kg/d to 250-kg growing calves. Gestating beef cows do not require supplemental inputs when grazing corn residue, if stocked appropriately. Alkaline treatment of crop residues improves their feeding value. Concentrations of up to 20% harvested corn residue treated with calcium oxide can be included in finishing diets with an average of 1.3% reduction in G:F when diets contain 40% wet or modified distillers grains. Conversely, when untreated corn residues are included in similar finishing diets, G:F is reduced by 13.4%. Calcium oxide-treated residues included in beef growing diets increases DMI and ADG without significant improvements in G:F. Calcium oxide treatment of corn residues has been evaluated in dairy diets by replacing corn or corn silage with variable results. Efficient use of nontraditional fiber sources, such as corn milling byproducts and corn residue, are critical to the future viability of ruminant animal production.

  5. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows: an abnormality in folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Hatler, T B; Nugent, A M; Laranja da Fonseca, L F

    2002-07-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are a major reproductive problem in lactating dairy cows. The primary physiological defect leading to the formation of ovarian follicular cysts is a failure of the hypothalamus to trigger the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in response to estradiol. The factor responsible for this hypothalamic defect may be progesterone. Intermediate levels of progesterone have been shown to prevent ovulation and promote persistence of dominant follicles in normal cycling cows. Recently, we found that 66% of cows with ovarian follicular cysts had progesterone concentrations in an unusual, intermediate range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) at the time of their detection. A majority of new follicles (76%) that develop in the presence of these intermediate progesterone concentrations became cysts. Only 10% ovulated. Based on these observations, a novel model for the formation and turnover of ovarian follicular cysts is proposed.

  6. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  7. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  8. Macrominerais para bovinos de corte nas pastagens nativas dos Campos de Cima da Serra - RS Macro minerals to beef cattle in the native pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra - RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wunsch

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em face das poucas informações disponíveis sobre a composição mineral das pastagens nativas da região dos Campos de Cima da Serra (RS, o presente trabalho de pesquisa objetivou avaliar os teores dos principais macrominerais, em diferentes épocas do ano, e relacionar o perfil mineral destas pastagens com as necessidades nutricionais recomendadas pelo NRC (1996 para bovinos de corte. O projeto foi conduzido em vinte propriedades particulares, em Cambará do Sul, utilizando áreas de campo nativo que estavam sendo normalmente utilizadas em pastoreio por bovinos de corte e/ou ovinos e que não tinham sofrido nenhum tipo de melhoria, reforma ou recuperação (exceto queimada, no mínimo nos últimos 20 anos. Colheram-se, durante oito meses, e dentro de uma mesma área predeterminada em cada propriedade, amostras para determinar as concentrações de Ca, P, Mg, Na e S. Verificou-se efeito do mês de coleta sobre todos os minerais analisados. Foram constatados teores suficientes de Ca e Mg para as categorias de bovinos de corte menos exigentes. Os teores de Mg são deficientes para vacas em gestação e lactação e os teores de Ca são deficientes para terneiros. Por outro lado, os teores de P, Na e S apresentaram-se abaixo das exigências mínimas para as categorias de bovinos de corte avaliadas.The present study was conducted to determine the mineral status of natural range pastures of Campos de Cima da Serra region, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in different months of the year, to compare them to beef cattle requirements (NRC, 1996. The project was led in twenty private farms, in Cambará do Sul county, on grazing areas without improvements (except burning at the last twenty years. Pasture samples were collected at January, February, March April, May, July, September and December to determine its calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and sulphur levels. Effect of the season was verified on all analyzed minerals. The Ca and Mg contents

  9. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... especially tenderness and marbling. Tenderness is one of the important sensory properties and indicators of meat quality (Shackelford, 2001;. Goodson et al., 2002). Abundant intramuscular fat tissue in beef renders a marble-like feature and enhances meat juice and sensory tenderness. (Woodward et al.

  10. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i5.6. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef semimembranosus. M.N. Nair1, R. Ramanathan2, G. Rentfrow3, & S.P. Suman3,#. 1 Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Co 80523, USA. 2 Department of Animal Science, ...

  11. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly foc...

  12. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.100...

  13. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  14. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Dietary vitamin E effects on the formation of heterocyclic amines in grilled lean beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, E D; Juárez, M; Thacker, R; Yang, X; Dugan, M E R; Aalhus, J L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of tissue antioxidant levels on formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) and their mutagenicity in grilled lean beef were studied. Meat from 54 feedlot steers fed different levels of vitamin E (340, 690, 1040 and 1740 IU/animal/day) for 120-days was used to provide beef with different levels of antioxidants (α-tocopherol). Prevalent HAs were then analyzed by HPLC using UV/Fluorescence detection. Five major HAs were found: 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo(4,5-F)Quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-imidazo(4,5-F)Quinoxaline (TriMeIQx), ß-Carboline-9H-Pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharmane), 1-Methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harmane) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidaza(4,5-B)pyridine (PhIP). Total content of HAs in grilled lean beef ranged from 9.57 ng/g to 11.59 ng/g. There was, however, a trend (P=0.097) found for reduced mutagenicity with increasing tissue levels of α-tocopherol. The increasing dietary vitamin E significantly increased the α-tocopherol level in lean beef (P0.05) inhibitory effects on the content of individual and total HAs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  17. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  18. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  19. Predictive value of the cow?s milk skin prick test in infantile colic

    OpenAIRE

    Moravej, Hossein; Imanieh, Mohammad H.; Kashef, Sara; Handjani, Farhad; Eghterdari, Fardin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infantile colic is a common problem among young infants. Cow?s milk allergy has been suggested as one of the causes. We aimed to investigate the value of the cow?s milk skin test for the diagnosis of cow?s milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic. METHODS: Exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic were enrolled in this study. On the first visit, the average hours of crying of the infant in a 24-h period were recorded and the cow?...

  20. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  1. The use of nemabiome metabarcoding to explore gastro-intestinal nematode species diversity and anthelmintic treatment effectiveness in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, Russell W; Redman, Elizabeth M; Lewis, Roy; Bichuette, Murilo A; Palmeira, Bruna M; Yazwinski, Thomas A; Gilleard, John S

    2017-11-01

    Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities. Here, we present the first application of this approach to explore GIN species diversity and the impact of anthelmintic drug treatments. First, we investigated GIN species diversity in cow-calf beef cattle herds in several different regions, using coproculture derived L3s. A screen of 50 Canadian beef herds revealed parasite species diversity to be low overall. The majority of parasite communities were comprised of just two species; Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. Cooperia punctata was present at much lower levels overall, but nevertheless comprised a substantive part of the parasite community of several herds in eastern Canada. In contrast, nemabiome sequencing revealed higher GIN species diversity in beef calves sampled from central/south-eastern USA and Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In these regions C. punctata predominated in most herds with Haemonchus placei predominating in a few cases. Ostertagia ostertagi and C. oncophora were relatively minor species in these regions in contrast to the Canadian herds. We also examined the impact of routine macrocyclic lactone pour-on treatments on GIN communities in the Canadian beef herds. Low treatment effectiveness was observed in many cases, and nemabiome sequencing revealed an overall increase in the proportion of Cooperia spp. relative to O. ostertagi post-treatment. This work demonstrates the power of nemabiome metabarcoding to provide a detailed picture of GIN parasite community

  2. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  3. Beef and pork packing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James M

    2003-07-01

    A remarkable transformation of the meatpacking industry occurred in the last 25 years. That transformation consolidated the industry into one that could deliver large volumes of meat at low costs. Slaughter plants grew much larger and realized economies of scale from their size, and operations within plants were rationalized to emphasize the delivery of a small set of consistent major products (boxed beef, cut-up pork, and by-products) to retailers, wholesalers, and other processors. Similar developments occurred in livestock feeding whereby the industry realized significant cost reductions by consolidating production in very large cattle feedlots and hog farms. Gains from scale have largely been met (absent the development of new technologies that are not yet on the horizon); therefore, we are unlikely to see similar shifts in plant sizes in the next 25 years. The major forces affecting meatpacking and livestock feeding in the near future are more likely to revolve around tighter coordination among livestock production, meatpacking, wholesaling, and retailing. Although much of the recent response to food safety concerns took the form of investments in equipment, testing, and training within meatpacking plants, packers and retailers are likely to focus more on assurance of livestock production quality and methods in the future. Such assurance can be met through vertical integration or through a greater reliance on tightly drawn contracts; producers who attempt to provide the assurance while still selling through cash markets will need to develop paper trails of testing and quality assurance that will move through the marketing chain with livestock. Similarly, because of likely increased future demand for meats of assured consumer qualities, such as organically grown products or branded meat products with very specific traits, producers will likely need to provide similar indicators of assurance throughout the marketing chain. Finally, the funding offered through

  4. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  5. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  6. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim of...

  7. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liansun; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Ogink, Nico

    2017-11-15

    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed. The artificial reference cow simulates the lungs, respiratory tract, and rumen of a cow and releases a variable methane flux to generate a concentration pattern in the exhaled breath that closely resembles a real cow's pattern. The strength of the relation between the controlled methane release rates of the artificial reference cow and the measured methane concentrations was analyzed by linear regression, using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the residual standard error as performance indicators. The effect of error sources (source-sampling distance, air turbulence, and cow's head movement) on this relation was experimentally investigated, both under laboratory and barn conditions. From the laboratory to the dairy barn at the 30-cm sampling distance, the R2-value decreased from 0.97 to 0.37 and the residual standard error increased from 75 to 86 ppm as a result of barn air turbulence, the latter increasing to a theoretical 94 ppm if modeled variability due to cow's head movement was accounted for as well. In practice, the effect of these random errors can be compensated by sampling strategies including repeated measurements on each cow over time, thus increasing the distinctive power between cows. However, systematic errors that may disturb the relation between concentration and production rate, such as cow variation in air exhalation rate and air flow patterns around sampling locations that differ between barns, cannot be compensated by repeated

  8. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  9. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  10. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  11. Genomic selection using beef commercial carcass phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D L; Roughsedge, T; Woolliams, J A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, an industry terminal breeding goal was used in a deterministic simulation, using selection index methodology, to predict genetic gain in a beef population modelled on the UK pedigree Limousin, when using genomic selection (GS) and incorporating phenotype information from novel commercial carcass traits. The effect of genotype-environment interaction was investigated by including the model variations of the genetic correlation between purebred and commercial cross-bred performance (ρX). Three genomic scenarios were considered: (1) genomic breeding values (GBV)+estimated breeding values (EBV) for existing selection traits; (2) GBV for three novel commercial carcass traits+EBV in existing traits; and (3) GBV for novel and existing traits plus EBV for existing traits. Each of the three scenarios was simulated for a range of training population (TP) sizes and with three values of ρX. Scenarios 2 and 3 predicted substantially higher percentage increases over current selection than Scenario 1. A TP of 2000 sires, each with 20 commercial progeny with carcass phenotypes, and assuming a ρX of 0.7, is predicted to increase gain by 40% over current selection in Scenario 3. The percentage increase in gain over current selection increased with decreasing ρX; however, the effect of varying ρX was reduced at high TP sizes for Scenarios 2 and 3. A further non-genomic scenario (4) was considered simulating a conventional population-wide progeny test using EBV only. With 20 commercial cross-bred progenies per sire, similar gain was predicted to Scenario 3 with TP=5000 and ρX=1.0. The range of increases in genetic gain predicted for terminal traits when using GS are of similar magnitude to those observed after the implementation of BLUP technology in the United Kingdom. It is concluded that implementation of GS in a terminal sire breeding goal, using purebred phenotypes alone, will be sub-optimal compared with the inclusion of novel commercial carcass phenotypes

  12. Influence of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on some blood biochemical parametars in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojković-Kovačević Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an energy supplement on the basis of propylene glycol on the values of metabolic profile parameters in periparturient cows. Fifteen days before calving, 40 cows were selected and divided into two groups: control (n=20 and experimental (n=20. From day 15 before to day 30 after calving, the experimental group of cows received an energy supplement based on propyleneglycol added in food ("OSIMOL“, Veyx-Pharma GmbH, Germany. Blood samples were taken 15 days before and 10 days after calving. Concentrations of glucose and betahydroxybutyric acid (BHBA were determined immediately after blood was taken. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea and total bilirubin were determined in the blood serum. There was no significant difference in the average values of the measured parameters between the control and the experimental group of cows. After parturition glycemia in cows of the control group was lower than physiologically acceptable (x=1.93±0.43 mmol/L, and glucose in cows of the experimental group was at the upper physiological limit (x=3.13±0.33 mmol/L and signicantly higher (p<0.001 than in the control group. The concentration of BHBA in cows that received the energy supplement („OSIMOL“ was 0.40±0.12 mmol/L, while in the control group of cows it was significantly higher (p<0.001 and stood at 0.88 ±0.39 mmol/L. Furthermore, the concentration of total bilirubin in the cows of the experimental group was within the physiological range (x = 4.09± 1.42 μmol/L, while in the cows of the control group it was significantly higher (p<0.05 and stood at 10.19±5.16 μmol/l.

  13. Cows, clicks, ciphers, and satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tyler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social network game Farmville, which allows players to grow crops, raise animals, and produce a variety of goods, proved enormously successful within a year of its launch in 2009, attracting 110 million Facebook users. However, the game has been criticised for its mindless mechanics, which require little more than repeated clicking on its colourful icons. By way of parody, Ian Bogost’s Cow Clicker permits its players to simply click on a picture of a cow once every six hours. In this essay I extend Bogost’s critique and suggest that Cow Clicker highlights not just the soulless inanity of Farmville gameplay but also the paucity of that game’s portrayal of the painful reality of a dairy cow’s punishing daily existence and untimely end.

  14. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  15. Within day variation in fatty acid composition of milk from cows in an automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Camilla Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is influenced by a range of conditions such as breed, feeding, and stage of lactation. Knowledge of milk fatty acid composition of individual cows would make it possible to sort milk at farm level according to certain fatty acid specifications. In the present study, 225...... milk samples were taken from 84 cows in a herd equipped with an automatic milking system. Milk fat content varied depending on yield and time since last milking, whereas the milk fatty acid composition did not vary significantly within cow. It was concluded that random milk samples may be used...... for analysis of fatty acid composition....

  16. Effect of decreasing dietary cation anion difference on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Condron, K N; Shee, C N; Claeys, M C; Nennich, T D; Lemenager, R P

    2013-12-01

    The manipulation of acid-base balance has been extensively investigated as a means of manipulating Ca homeostasis and managing milk fever in dairy cows. A low dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) increases urinary Ca, blood-ionized Ca, and responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones. Very little attention has been focused on the possibility of using a low dietary DCAD to increase muscle Ca availability, calpain activity, and meat tenderness of beef cattle. Thus, 90 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers were allotted by weight (590.1 ± 2.4 kg) and breed composition (% Simmental) to 3 treatments (6 pens/treatment, 5 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of DCAD on beef tenderness. Treatments were initiated 2 wk before slaughter and consisted of 3 DCAD (mEq/100 g) treatments: -16, 0, and +16. Basal diets (DM basis) were 62 to 64% corn, 6 to 9% soybean meal, and 20% corn silage, and were formulated to contain similar concentrations of protein, energy (NEm; NEg), and minerals, with the exception of sodium and chlorine. A commercial chloride ion supplement (PASTURChlor, West Central, Ralston, IA) was added to diets to decrease DCAD and sodium bicarbonate was added to diets to increase DCAD. Performance before initiation of the study did not differ among treatments (P > 0.22). Urine pH did not differ at the initiation of the study (P > 0.57), but did increase at a decreasing rate on d 7 (6.37, 7.69, 8.13) and d 14 (5.68, 7.66, 8.03) of the study as DCAD increased from -16 to 0 to +16, respectively (quadratic, P differ among treatments (P > 0.16). In addition, DCAD did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force among treatments after 7 and 21 d of aging (P > 0.23). Although urine pH was decreased by feeding a -16 DCAD diet, Ca influx into the LM and beef tenderness were not affected by altering the DCAD in finishing beef cattle diets.

  17. [Treatment of mastitis in dry cows: treatment of all cows vs treatment of infected cows only (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguinsky, M; Serieys, F

    1977-01-01

    Within a herd, three groups have been randomly constituted. -- No dry cow therapy. -- Total Treatment group: all cows were submitted to dry cow therapy, in their four quarters. -- Limited Treatment group: cows were submitted to dry cow therapy in their four quarters, only if at least one quarter had given a CMT larger than or equal to +++, in the month before drying-off. --The cows were treated either with cloxacillin or with penicillin-streptomycin in 3% monostearate. The number of cows and quarters examinated and treated are given in table 1; the results of treatments are indicated in table 2. No significant differences can be found between Total and Limited Treatment groups; a slight improvement was observed when compared to CONTROL GROUP. Cloxacillin and penicillin-steptomycin gave similar results. The pathogenic and practical signification of these results is discussed.

  18. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  19. Assessing the Impact of LFTB in the Beef Cattle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pruitt, J. Ross; Anderson, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Ground beef consumption in the United States accounts for over half of total beef consumption and is included in a variety of products from tacos to chili to hamburgers (Greene 2012; National Cattlemen’s Beef Association 2009, 2012; Peel, 2012). The importance of ground beef to U.S. consumers is reflected in the number of restaurants that include hamburgers on their menus as well as the different types of hamburgers offered. Despite the slow economic recovery that has been occurring over the ...

  20. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.A., MOODY, E.L. &. HOWLAND. B.E .•. 1972. Effects of suckling and mastectomy on bovine postpanurn reproduction. J. Allim. Sci. 34, 70. SHORT. R.E .• STAIGMILLER, R.B. &. BElLOWS, R.A., 1988. Hormonal treatments to induce ovulation. 11th International Congress on Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, ...

  1. The reproductive responses of two breeds of beef cows and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    making them more susceptible to E. coli infection and Cocci- diosis. This point however, requires further investigation. These data show unambiguously that both breeds had higher calving rates in the Sourveld than the Thornveld, but that a greater number of calves were weaned in the Thornveld (Table. 1). These results ...

  2. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  3. Breeding and management of dairy cows to increase profit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm profit and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-eq.) for dairy cows in Northern Ireland, and also in the whole of the UK. An average cow was modelled for each population of animals, using average values from milk recording records. Previous work developed a dynamic model, to include nutrient partitioning to allow investigation of GHG abatement options over an ...

  4. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic tests. IgE-mediated CMA. Skin-prick testing (with fresh milk or commercial reagents) and ImmunoCAP-. RAST (for determining specific IgE against cow's milk protein) are the currently available tests. In children older than 2 years a skin-prick test (SPT) reaction with a wheal diameter ≥8 mm (Table II)5 or milk- ...

  5. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  6. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Table I. FPI disorders are typically cow's milk and soya protein induced3 but may also occur with ingestion of solid foods including fish, chicken, turkey, corn and vegetables. FPI enteropathy usually presents with diarrhoea, mild to moderate steatorrhoea (80% of cases) and poor weight gain. Rectal bleeding is the usual ...

  7. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  8. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  9. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His academic work focuses principally on allergy diagnosis, food allergy, skin allergy, drug allergy and asthma. Correspondence to: Cassim Motala ... related to lower levels of CMP in breast milk compared with cow's milk, immunomodulators in .... following organ systems: gastrointestinal. (50 - 60%), skin (50 - 50%) and ...

  10. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-07-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  11. Cow cooling on commercial drylot dairies: A description of 10 farms in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyne Tresoldi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available California summers are hot, compromising the welfare and productivity of dairy cows. To minimize negative effects, producers use shade, fans and sprayed water. However, little is known about how those heat abatement strategies are provided in commercial conditions, nor their effectiveness. Ten dairies with drylots, a common housing system in California, were assessed for strategies provided, and the cows' responses to heat load were observed for 3 days in the afternoon. Dairies were diverse in all aspects. Shade varied in terms of placement (at corral and feed bunk or at corral only and amount (28 to 74 square feet, or 2.6 to 6.9 square meters, per cow. The quantity of water used to spray cows ranged from 0 to 6.8 gallons (0 to 25.6 liters per hour per cow. Across dairies, there was a range in the cows' shade use (47% to 98% of herd and feeding activity (7% to 33% of herd. Respiration rates ranged from 65 (normal to 95 breaths per minute (very hot and were positively related to inactivity. Our results indicate that there are opportunities to improve cooling, and consequently dairy cattle welfare, in drylots.

  12. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to growth was observed in any product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While growth of C. perfringens from spores was observed in the pH 5.63 product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower p

  13. Use of internal artificial vaginas for breeding soundness evaluation in range bulls: an alternative for electroejaculation allowing observation of sex drive and mating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Albert D; Arteaga, Andres A; Brito, Leonardo F C; Palmer, Colin W

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an inexpensive, reusable internal artificial vagina (IAV) developed for breeding soundness evaluation of range beef bulls. In addition, sexual behavior during semen collection by IAV was compared to behavior during pasture breeding. Breeding soundness exams (BSEs) were conducted on 165 bulls in two consecutive years (96 in Year 1 and 69 in Year 2). In Year 1, BSEs were done twice in all bulls, once by a conventional protocol using electroejaculation (EEJ), followed by the IAV method, one week later. In Year 2, all BSEs were done on one day; 69 bulls by the IAV method followed by EEJ in 21 bulls that failed to serve the IAV. For semen collection using an IAV, mount cows were restrained in breeding crates and an IAV was inserted into the vagina just beyond the depth of the vestibular sphincter. After each copulation, the IAV was replaced for the next bull to be tested. Semen collection by IAV was successful for all bulls that mounted and penetrated cows during the testing period (54.3 and 69.6% of the bulls served the cows with IAVs in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Semen was collected successfully by EEJ from all bulls in both years. Differences were observed between semen collection methods in semen volume and percentage of sperm staining alive; however, the differences were opposite in Year 1 and 2 and, therefore, were probably due to natural variations in time and within bull rather than the method of semen collection. Semen collection by IAV allowed the detection of problems that prevented copulation in 8 bulls (4.8%) that were determined to be satisfactory potential breeders when semen was collected by EEJ. In Year 1, breeding observations were made at pasture for 15 bulls that served, and 15 bulls that did not serve cows with an IAV. Bulls that did not serve the IAV during the test period had fewer mounts, attempts to mount, and completed services at pasture than bulls that had served the IAV, indicating

  14. Changes in leptin and metabolite concentrations over time in finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptin is a hormone produced in adipocytes that is involved in the control of feed intake, growth, and carcass composition. Composite breed cows were bred to working ranch bulls representing Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental breeds to produce calves with a wide range in...

  15. Phosphorus supplementation to natural pasture grazing for beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All cows received supplemental P (10 g/cow/day) during winter (1986-1989). In 1990, supplemental P (10 (CW), 5 (HW) or 0 (ZW) g P/cow/day) was given in a winter maintenance supplement (protein, energy and minerals). Rainfall was above average during the trial period. Reproductive performance was not influenced by ...

  16. Involvement of Clostridium gasigenes and C. algidicarnis in 'blown pack' spoilage of Brazilian vacuum-packed beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandra R; Paulo, Ezio N; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Chaves, Rafael D; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2011-08-15

    The objectives of this study were to isolate psychrotrophic clostridia from Brazilian vacuum-packed beef cuts (spoiled or not) and to identify the isolates by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms were also enumerated and samples were collected to verify the incidence of psychrotrophic clostridia in the abattoir environment. Vacuum-packed beef cuts (n=8 grossly distended and n=5 non-spoiled) and environmental samples were obtained from a beef packing plant located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each sample was divided in three subsamples (exudate, beef surface and beef core) that were analyzed for vegetative forms, total spore-forming, and sulfide reducing spore-forming, both activated by alcohol and heat. Biochemical profiles of the isolates were obtained using API20A, with further identification using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The growth temperature and the pH range were also assessed. Populations of psychrotrophic anaerobic vegetative microorganisms of up to 10(10)CFU/(g, mL or 100 cm(2)) were found in 'blown pack' samples, while in non-spoiled samples populations of 10(5)CFU/(g, CFU/mL or CFU/100 cm(2)) was found. Overall, a higher population of total spores and sulfide reducing spores activated by heat in spoiled samples was found. Clostridium gasigenes (n=10) and C. algidicarnis (n=2) were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ten C. gasigenes isolates, six were from spoiled samples (C1, C2 and C9), two were isolated from non-spoiled samples (C4 and C5) and two were isolated from the hide and the abattoir corridor/beef cut conveyor belt. C. algidicarnis was recovered from spoiled beef packs (C2). Although some samples (C3, C7, C10 and C14) presented signs of 'blown pack' spoilage, Clostridium was not recovered. C. algidicarnis (n=1) and C. gasigenes (n=9) isolates have shown a psychrotrophic behavior, grew in the range 6.2-8.2. This is the first report on the isolation of psychrotrophic Clostridium (C

  17. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, B-A; Köster, G; Wallmann, J; Heuwieser, W

    2006-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin

  18. Cow dung is a novel feedstock for fibrinolytic enzyme production from newly isolated Bacillus sp. IND7 and its application in in vitro clot lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy eVijayaraghavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial fibrinolytic enzymes find great applications to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases. The novel fibrinolytic enzymes from food grade organisms are useful for thrombolytic therapy. This study reports fibrinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus sp. IND7 in solid-state fermentation (SSF. In this study, cow dung was used as the cheap substrate for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Enzyme production was primarily improved by optimizing the nutrient and physical factors by one-variable-at-a-time approach. A statistical method (two-level full factorial design was applied to investigate the significant variables. Of the different variables, pH, starch, and beef extract significantly influenced on the production of fibrinolytic enzyme (p < 0.05. The optimum levels of these significant factors were further investigated using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme production were 1.23% (w/w starch and 0.3 % (w/w beef extract with initial medium pH 9.0. Under the optimized conditions, cow dung substrate yielded 8,345 U/g substrate, and an overall 2.5-fold improvement in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved due to its optimization. This is the first report of fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung substrate from Bacillus sp. in SSF. The crude enzyme displayed potent activity on zymography and digested goat blood clot completely in in vitro condition.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of beef/soy patties | Igene | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated composite beef/soy patties to ascertain the optimal level of soy flour inclusion acceptable to consumers and producers. These patties were formulated to contain 100/0%, 85/15%, 80/20%, 75/25% and 70/30% beef/soy flour respectively. This experiment was conducted 3 times as replicates. It was a ...

  20. Heritabilities of reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Heritabilities of reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. R.R. van der Westhuizen. 1 ... animal, particularly in dairy cattle (Rege & Famula, 1993). However, in beef operations, ... These include lower birth weights, reduced incidence of dystocia, higher weaning and yearling weights and higher ...

  1. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mgrobler

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... Abstract. The estimated calving percentage of beef cattle is 62% in the commercial sector of South Africa. Fertility is regarded as the main component influencing total herd efficiency in beef cattle. If the long calving seasons can be shortened and the calving percentage increased, more and heavier calves ...

  2. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of improved profit equarions for beef production in the Republic has become a matter of vital importance. Not only is the country faced with a pro- jected furure deficit in beef supplies, ..... dams still have adequate milk. This claim is sup- ported by McGinty as quoted by Price who claims that there is no point ...

  3. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... prices are divergent in the short-run, beef marketing in. Benin is ... beef marketing is not just enough, it is important to know why and how ..... Burgundy Wine.” Applied Economics 32 (8):. 961-967. Cranfield, J. A. L. and Magnusson, E., 2003. “Canadian consumers' willingness-to-pay for pesticide free.

  4. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef industry ... Generally, the theory of mixed linear models for genetic evaluation is finding .... animal model. In late 1984, the model was applied in the. Limousin and Brangus breeds. This technology has now been adopted by nearly all the major beef breeds ...

  5. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption.

  6. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products....... This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...... and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were...

  7. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  8. Why are dairy cows not able to cope with the subacute ruminal acidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, A M; Sloniewski, K; Oprzadek, J; Sobiech, P; Kowalski, Z M

    2013-01-01

    One of the largest challenges for the dairy industry is to provide cows with a diet which is highly energetic but does not negatively affect their rumens' functions. In highly productive dairy cows, feeding diets rich in readily fermentable carbohydrates provides energy precursors needed for maximum milk production, but simultaneously decreases ruminal pH, leading to a widespread prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis. Maximizing milk production without triggering rumen acidosis still challenges dairy farmers, who try to prevent prolonged bouts of low ruminal pH mainly by proper nutrition and management practices. The animals try to avoid overeating fermentable feeds, as it causes negative consequences by disturbing digestive processes. The results of several experiments show that ruminants, including sheep and beef cattle, are able to modify some aspects of feeding behaviour in order to adjust nutrient intake to their needs and simultaneously prevent physiological disturbances. Particularly, such changes (e.g., increased preference for fibrous feeds, reduced intake of concentrates) were observed in animals, which were trying to prevent the excessive drop of rumen fluid pH. Thanks to a specific mechanism called "the postingestive feedback", animals should be able to work out such a balance in intake, so they do not suffer either from hunger or from negative effects of over-ingesting the fermentable carbohydrates. This way, an acidosis should not be a frequent problem in ruminants. However, prolonged periods of excessively decreased rumen pH are still a concern in dairy cows. It raises a question, why the regulation of feed intake by postingestive feedback does not help to maintain stable rumen environment in dairy cows?

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of two protocols of synchronization of estrus in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez UH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of an estrous cycle is critical in any production system. Especially in artificial insemination programs in which the detection of estrus depends on the human factor. The detection of estrus, has been one of the limitations for the massive use of artificial insemination. Therefore, the application of estrus and ovulation synchronization methods is very important in reproductive management in cattle. The objective was to evaluate by ultrasonography two estrus synchronization protocols in beef cows (Aberdeen angus. The research was carried out at the Research and Production Center (CIP Chuquibambilla of the National University of the Altiplano. The experiment was performed with 30 cows that were divided into two groups of 15 for the first protocol (T1-Ovsynch and 15 animals for the second protocol (T2-CIDR-synch. The ovarian function for T1 was 50% for both the right and left ovary, while for T2 it was 75 and 25% for right and left ovary, respectively; Presence of corpus luteum (CL was 75% of cows for T1 and 60% of cows for T2, the follicle growth rate was for T1 of 0.5 ± 0.87 mm and for T2 of 1.2 ± 0.74 mm; The maximum diameter of the ovarian follicle for TI was 8.09 ± 3.23 mm and for T2 of 10.2 ± 3.16 mm and the pregnancy rate for T1 was 33.3% and for T2 of 66.7%. In conclusion, ultrasonographic evaluation is a useful tool for evaluating estrus synchronization protocols. Real-time observation of the synchrony of the emergence of a new follicular wave (at the beginning of the treatments and ovulation in both protocols, resulting in a higher pregnancy rate.

  10. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  11. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  13. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  14. Effect of feeding ensiled mixture of pomegranate pulp and drier feeds on digestibility and milk performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Yoav; Eliyahu, Dana; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Yosef, Edith; Ben-Meir, Yehoshav; Nikbachat, Moshe; Solomon, Ran; Mabjeesh, Sameer Jermaya; Miron, Joshua

    2016-02-01

    Based on a previous ensiling study in glass silos of various pomegranate pulp (PP) mixtures, fresh pomegranate pulp (PP) was mixed with drier feeds including soy hulls and corn silage (40:35:25 on DM basis) and ensiled in 32 pressed bales (700 kg each) wrapped with stretch polyethylene film. This ensiled pomegranate pulp mixture (PPM) was included in lactating cow total mixed ration (TMR) at a level of 20% of DM (PPM-TMR). Performance and digestion experiment was conducted with two groups of 21 milking cows each, fed individually one of the two TMR: 1. Control TMR without ensiled PPM; 2. Experimental TMR which contained 20% ensiled PPM, including 8% PP as corn grain replacer. Voluntary DM intake of cows fed the control TMR was 5.04% higher than that of the PPM cows. In vivo digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, CP and fat were significantly higher in the control cows compared with the PPM group, but methane production in the rumen fluid was 25% lower in the PPM cows. A slightly higher milk yield (by 2.2%) observed in the control cows; however, milk fat content was 5.9% higher in the PPM cows. This was reflected in similar yield of energy corrected milk (ECM) and 3.97% increase in production efficiency (ECM/DM intake) of the PPM cows compared with the control ones. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was in the normal range for both groups. Body weight gain was also similar in both groups. Data suggest that the level of 8% PP in the PPM-TMR used in this study was probably too high for lactating cows and should be lowered to 4% in order to achieve better performance.

  15. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  16. Rapid determination of biogenic amines in cooked beef using hyperspectral imaging with sparse representation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Lu, Anxiang; Ren, Dong; Wang, Jihua

    2017-11-01

    This study explored the feasibility of rapid detection of biogenic amines (BAs) in cooked beef during the storage process using hyperspectral imaging technique combined with sparse representation (SR) algorithm. The hyperspectral images of samples were collected in the two spectral ranges of 400-1000 nm and 1000-1800 nm, separately. The spectral data were reduced dimensionality by SR and principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms, and then integrated the least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) to build the SR-LS-SVM and PC-LS-SVM models for the prediction of BAs values in cooked beef. The results showed that the SR-LS-SVM model exhibited the best predictive ability with determination coefficients (RP2) of 0.943 and root mean square errors (RMSEP) of 1.206 in the range of 400-1000 nm of prediction set. The SR and PCA algorithms were further combined to establish the best SR-PC-LS-SVM model for BAs prediction, which had high RP2of 0.969 and low RMSEP of 1.039 in the region of 400-1000 nm. The visual map of the BAs was generated using the best SR-PC-LS-SVM model with imaging process algorithms, which could be used to observe the changes of BAs in cooked beef more intuitively. The study demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique combined with sparse representation were able to detect effectively the BAs values in cooked beef during storage and the built SR-PC-LS-SVM model had a potential for rapid and accurate determination of freshness indexes in other meat and meat products.

  17. [Determination of 10 heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef jerky by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kehui; Peng, Zengqi; Shao, Bin; Yao, Yao; Shi, Jinming

    2012-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef jerky by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC). The HAAs were eluted from an Extrelut NT 20 SPE column with 60 mL dichlormethane (containing 5% toluene), and then the extract was purified with a propylsulfonic acid silica (PRS) column and a C18 SPE column, and finally, the HAAs were stored in a methanol-ammonia solution. The separation was achieved by using a TSK-gel ODS-80 column and a gradient elution with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.05 mol/L acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer (pH 3.5). The identification and quantitative analysis of the HAAs fraction were carried out using an HPLC system with ultraviolet-fluorescence detectors. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the 10 HAAs were all above 0.999 and the limits of detection were in the range from 0.02 to 2.46 ng/g. The recoveries of the 10 HAAs spiked in beef samples were 61.69% - 101.81% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.28% and 7.81%. 1-Methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 9H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole (Norharman) were detected in all beef jerky, and the total HAAs content of beef jerky were between 16.65 and 60.38 ng/g. This method is with wide linear range and high sensitivity, and is enough for the analysis of the HAAs in actual meat samples.

  18. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV 1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis, and associated risk factors in 161 Irish beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damien; Parr, Mervyn; Fagan, John; Johnson, Alan; Tratalos, Jamie; Lively, Francis; Diskin, Michael; Kenny, David

    2018-01-06

    There are limited data available, in Ireland or elsewhere, to determine the extent of exposure to various endemic diseases among beef cows and factors associated with exposure to causative pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd and within herd prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis in a large scale study of commercial beef herds on the island of Ireland, and to examine herd level factors associated with exposure to these pathogens in these herds. The average number of cows tested per herd was 35.5 (median 30). Herd level seroprevalence to Bovine Herpesvirus-1(BHV-1), Bovine Viral-Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis was 90%, 100%, 91% and 67%, respectively, while the mean within herd prevalence for the these pathogens was 40%, 77.7%, 65.7% and 5.7%, respectively. The study confirms that the level of seroconversion for the four pathogens of interest increases with herd size. There was also evidence that exposure to one pathogen may increase the risk of exposure to another pathogen. Herd level seroprevalences were in excess of 90% for BVDV, BHV-1 and Leptosporosis. Larger herds were subject to increased exposure to disease pathogens. This study suggests that exposure to several pathogens may be associated with the further exposure to other pathogens.

  19. Description of the growth curve for Angus pasture-fed cows under extensive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, V; Ravagnolo, O

    2015-09-01

    Growth curves are useful for describing the sigmoid shape of an animal's weight pattern over time. The purpose of the present study was to describe, for the first time, a complete growth curve for pasture-fed Angus cows in Uruguay and to analyze the major fixed effects that affect the estimation of mature cow weight (CW). A total of 22,743 records from 5,284 cows belonging to 73 herds were used in the statistical analysis. Five nonlinear models (Brody, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy, logistic, and Richards) and a 3-knot cubic spline function were fitted to model weight change across age. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning, and 18 mo and as an adult (at 2.3-3.6, 3.6-4.6, 4.6 to 5.6, 5.6 to 6.6, and 6.6 to 8.1 yr). After preliminary analyses, the fixed effects included in the model to estimate CW were BCS, herd, year and month of measurement, and age of dam. The herd and BCS were the major significant sources of variation. The Richards model had the lowest values for Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and -2 log likelihood, with the asymptotic weight being 542 kg. The spline function was the model that fitted the data most closely to the observed weights followed by the Richards function. The Richards model gave better predictions of weights from birth to maturity than the other 4 nonlinear models, because these functions were shown to over- or underestimate weights at different ages in this beef cattle data set. The predicted curve showed that cows reach mature CW after 5 yr of age, which is the age commonly assumed as adult weight in beef cattle. Results form this analysis allowed the estimation of CW and rate of maturing and to take knowledge of the shape of growth curve for Angus females in Uruguay under extensive conditions, helping breeders to take selection decisions. In this way, breeders can optimize the management and efficiency for each production system.

  20. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G; Barreira, Maria Madalena; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs.

  1. Anthelmintic resistance and management of nematode parasites on beef cattle-rearing farms in the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R; Rhodes, A P; Pomroy, W E; Leathwick, D M; West, D M; Waghorn, T S; Moffat, J R

    2006-12-01

    To provide information on current farmers' opinions and farming practices thought to be related to anthelmintic resistance, and to test for associations between the presence of anthelmintic resistance and management practices on beef-cattle rearing farms in the North Island of New Zealand. A study using an interview-based questionnaire about management of internal parasites was conducted on 62 beef cattle-rearing farms in the North Island of New Zealand, using case-control analyses to test for associations between management practices and the presence or absence of resistance to ivermectin or albendazole. Resistance was inferred from faecal nematode egg count (FEC) reduction (FECR) tests (FECRTs) when there was parasites highly, and at about the same level as quality and quantity of feed, as important production-limiting factors for their enterprises. In contrast, anthelmintic resistance was not perceived to be a problem on 13 farms, and its importance was rated low on 24, moderate on 15, and high on only six farms. Despite all farms having planned parasite control programmes, there was heavy reliance on clinical signs of parasitism to determine frequency of treatments. About one in three farmers with beef breeder cows routinely treated their calves at marking, one in five treated mixed-age cows, and almost half treated rising 2-year-old cows before calving. One in four farmers used anthelmintics on calves on 8-12 occasions in their first year of life. Co-grazing with other species was rare, but follow-on grazing within 3 months after older cattle or sheep was common. On most farms, grazing cattle was restricted to part of the farm, a finding with implications for parasite control and persistence of larvae in refugia. Macrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics or their combinations with other action families were currently, and for the past 5 years, used more frequently than benzimidazoles and levamisole, and benzimidazole-levamisole combinations. The prevalence of

  2. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  3. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  4. Transplacental transfer of schistosomal circulating anodic antigens in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriël, Sarah; De Bont, J; Phiri, IK; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, AM; DEELDER, AM; Van Dam, GJ; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2002-01-01

    The present work investigated the transplacental passage of circulating anodic schistosome antigens (CAA) and the production of foetal antibodies in response to antigenic stimulation in Schistosoma mattheei infected cows. Three groups were available: six calves born to non-infected cows received colostrum from a pool from non-infected cows (group 1), six calves born to non-infected cows (group 2) and six calves born to infected cows (group 3) received colostrum from a pool from infected cows....

  5. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  6. Unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Motta

    Full Text Available Abstract: The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect, and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.

  7. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polimorfisme Protein Serum Darah Induk Sapi Beranak Kembar dan Tunggal pada Sapi Peranakan Ongole dan Keturunan Simental (BLOOD SERUM PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM OF THE COW DELIVERED TWIN OR SINGLE CALVES IN ONGOLE GRADE AND SIMENTAL CROSSBRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yuwono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The twinning cow is presumable have difference in blood protein typology with the single cow. Thestudy investigated blood protein polymorphism in twinning and single of ongole grade and Simmentalcrossbred cows. The study used four twinning versus eight single ongole grade and seven twinning versussix single Simmental crossbred cows. Blood samples were analyzed by using marker ExactPro BroadRange (10-245kDa and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis method, to estimatethe loci of albumin (Alb, post-albumin (Pa, ceruloplasmin (Cp, transpherrin (Tf, and amylase-I (Amy-I.The genetic variation was analyzed based on the value of gene frequency, individual heterozigosity andaverage heterozigosity. In this study the twinning ongole grade cows had lower average heterozigosity(0.46 than the single ongole grade cows (0.49. The twinning Simmental crossbred cows had lower averageheterozigosity (0.35 than the single Simmental crossbred cows (0.40. The average heterozigosity ofongole grade cows had higher value than Simmental crossbred cows. The average heterozigosity rangedfrom 0.35-0.49, which was indicated high genetic variation in all cows. Higher gene frequency of allelealbumin A than albumin B influences the twinning trait in ongole grade and Simmental crossbred cows.

  9. Nitrogen food-print: N use and N cascade from livestock systems in relation to pork, beef and milk supply to Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimpiros, P.; Barles, S.

    2012-02-01

    A bottom-up approach is constructed to determine N losses from livestock farming systems and to relate these losses to the supply of fresh milk, pig and beef to Paris. First, the three products are expressed in terms of their nitrogen content; then, their fodder equivalent is determined by modelling feed formulas for swine, beef and dairy cows to meet their energy and protein requirements. Fodder deficits in livestock farms are determined by comparing the nutrient requirements of the livestock with the fodder production on the livestock farms. This allowed determining the geography of the livestock systems according to the imports of fodder to the livestock farms from external crop farms. Then we assessed the "farm-gate" N budgets in all crop and livestock farms of the entire livestock systems using data on total N fertilization, atmospheric deposition and manure management practices to finally derive N losses in relation to fodder cultivation and to manure management. Measured in N, the supply of milk, beef and pig to Paris sum 1.85 kg N/cap and the corresponding N losses from the farming systems total 8.9 kg N/cap. N losses per unit of product differ among the three livestock systems according to where and how the fodder is grown and to what densities the livestock is reared.

  10. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates. The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat

  11. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  12. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affec......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...

  13. Fate and Effect of Antibiotics in Beef and Dairy Manure during Static and Turned Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha; Chen, Chaoqi; Knowlton, Katharine F; Pruden, Amy; Xia, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Manure composting has general benefits for production of soil amendment, but the effects of composting on antibiotic persistence and effects of antibiotics on the composting process are not well-characterized, especially for antibiotics commonly used in dairy cattle. This study provides a comprehensive, head-to-head, replicated comparison of the effect of static and turned composting on typical antibiotics used in beef and dairy cattle in their actual excreted form and corresponding influence on composting efficacy. Manure from steers (with or without chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin feeding) and dairy cows (with or without pirlimycin and cephapirin administration) were composted at small scale (wet mass: 20-22 kg) in triplicate under static and turned conditions adapted to represent US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Thermophilic temperature (>55°C) was attained and maintained for 3 d in all composts, with no measureable effect of compost method on the pattern, rate, or extent of disappearance of the antibiotics examined, except tylosin. Disappearance of all antibiotics, except pirlimycin, followed bi-phasic first-order kinetics. However, individual antibiotics displayed different fate patterns in response to the treatments. Reduction in concentration of chlortetracycline (71-84%) and tetracycline (66-72%) was substantial, while near-complete removal of sulfamethazine (97-98%) and pirlimycin (100%) was achieved. Tylosin removal during composting was relatively poor. Both static and turned composting were generally effective for reducing most beef and dairy antibiotic residuals excreted in manure, with no apparent negative impact of antibiotics on the composting process, but with some antibiotics apparently more recalcitrant than others. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  15. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Pastell, Matti; Thorup, Vivi M; Bahr, Claudia; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-08-28

    Despite the research on opportunities to automatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are not widely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat them properly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automated measurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. In order for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cows need to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stage of the development process. Also, comparison between the different approaches is impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioral characteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or during experiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the different definitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cows are included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of also detecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensor technology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lameness are discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lameness research. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system on farms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed.

  16. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the research on opportunities to automatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are not widely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat them properly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automated measurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. In order for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cows need to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stage of the development process. Also, comparison between the different approaches is impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioral characteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or during experiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed and by the different definitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cows are included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of also detecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensor technology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lameness are discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lameness research. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system on farms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements are discussed.

  17. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, J P.F.; Herd, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  18. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas. PMID:21076547

  19. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the diagnostic performance of serum haptoglobin concentration for the diagnosis of acute puerperal metritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Sannmann, I; Voigtsberger, R; Heuwieser, W

    2014-10-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows is characterized by fever and fetid vaginal discharge within 21 days in milk (DIM). Increased serum haptoglobin concentration (Hp) can support the diagnosis of APM. However, there is a dearth of information of the test performance of Hp as a measure for APM with a consistent definition and considering parity. The objective of this trial was to study the test performance of Hp to distinguish healthy cows from cows with APM. A total of 33 of 60 (55.0%) primiparous cows and 43 of 133 (32.3%) multiparous cows developed APM. Primiparous cows with APM had the greatest Hp. However, in primiparous cows Hp did not significantly differ between healthy cows (DIM 2: 1.49 ± 0.64 mg/mL; DIM 5: 2.13 ± 0.66 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.46 ± 0.85 mg/mL) and cows with APM (DIM 2: 1.78 ± 0.62 mg/mL; DIM 5: 2.48 ± 0.64 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.60 ± 0.81 mg/mL). In multiparous cows, Hp was greater in cows with APM (DIM 2: 1.27 ± 0.68 mg/mL; DIM 5: 1.89 ± 0.94 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.23 ± 0.78 mg/mL) than in healthy cows (DIM 2: 0.99 ± 0.68 mg/mL; DIM 5: 1.10 ± 0.80 mg/mL; DIM 10: 0.83 ± 0.68 mg/mL). Sensitivity and specificity of Hp to diagnose APM in multiparous cows ranged from 72% to 79% and 54% to 71% on DIM 2, 5 and 10, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Parity Differences in Heat Expression of Dairy Cows Synchronized with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during Dry Season in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mwaanga*, K. Choongo, H. Simukoko and C. Chama1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate parity differences in heat expression of dairy cows heat-synchronized during the dry season when feed scarcity is common. Cyclic cows (n=65 aged 2 to 10 years with parity range of 0 to 7 were selected from small-holder dairy farms around Lusaka. Cows were divided into 3 groups of nulliparous, primiparous and pluriparous. Heat-was synchronized using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH and controlled intra-vaginal drug releasing device (CIDR. Heat detection was observed after CIDR withdraw. The study showed a significantly (P<0.05 lower number of primiparous cows (68% coming into heat compared to nulliparous (81.8% and pluriparous cows (83.3%. It was concluded that parity influences estrus expression rate in dairy cows following synchronization with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during the dry season in the sub-tropics.

  1. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  2. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  3. Study on Growth Curves of Muscle Area, Backfat Thickness and Body Conformation for Hanwoo (Korean Native Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the parameters of Gompertz growth curves with the measurements of body conformation, real-time ultrasound longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA and backfat thickness (BFT in Hanwoo cows. The Hanwoo cows (n = 3,373 were born in 97 Hanwoo commercial farms in the 17 cities or counties of Gyeongbuk province, Korea, between 2000 and 2007. A total of 5,504 ultrasound measurements were collected for the cows at the age of 13 to 165 months in 2007 and 2008. Wither height (HW, rump height (HR, the horizontal distance between the top of the hips (WH, and girth of chest (GC were also measured. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate variables affecting LMA and BFT. The effect of farm nested in location was included in the statistical model, as well as the effects of HW, HR, WH, and GC as covariates. All of the effects were significant in the analysis of variance for LMA and BFT (p<0.01, except for the HR effect for LMA. The two ultrasound measures and the four body conformation traits were fitted to a Gompertz growth curve function to estimate parameters. Upper asymptotic weights were estimated as 54.0 cm2, 7.67 mm, 125.6 cm, 126.4 cm, 29.3 cm, and 184.1 cm, for LMA, BFT, HW, HR, WH, and GC, respectively. Results of ultrasound measurements showed that Hanwoo cows had smaller LMA and greater BFT than other western cattle breeds, suggesting that care must be taken to select for thick BFT rather than an increase of only beef yield. More ultrasound records per cow are needed to get accurate estimates of growth curve, which, thus, helps producers select animals with high accuracy.

  4. Eating and rumination activity in 10 cows over 10 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Zürcher, S; Hässig, M

    2015-08-01

    Eating and rumination activities were evaluated in 10 Brown Swiss cows over 10 days, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated for the investigated variables. A pressure sensor integrated into the noseband of a halter recorded jaw movements during chewing, which allowed the recording of eating and rumination times and the number of regurgitated boluses. The mean CVs ranged from 5.9 to 12.7% and were smaller for rumination (chewing cycles per bolus, 5.9%; daily number of cuds, 8.4%; rumination time, 9.1%) than for eating (eating time, 12.0%; chewing cycles related to eating, 12.7%). We concluded that of eating and rumination variables examined, the number of chewing cycles per regurgitated bolus is the most robust with little variation in individual cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tolerance to a rice hydrolysate formula in children allergic to cow's milk and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, A; Travaini, M; D'Auria, E; Banderali, G; Bernardo, L; Riva, E

    2003-11-01

    Even hydrolysed cow's milk formulae may retain residual allergens and there are few nutritional options for children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) who also react to soy. To assess clinical tolerance to a rice-based hydrolysate in children with such a clinical presentation. Eighteen children (six girls and 12 boys; median age 5 years; range 1-9 years) with CMA, who developed clinical reactions to a soy-based formula after 2-18 months' treatment, were recruited between January 1998 and June 1999. Clinical evaluation was by skin prick test (SPT) with cow's milk, casein, lactalbumin, soy and rice allergen extracts, fresh cow's milk, soy and hydrolysated rice formula (HRF). Serology was investigated by CAP system technology and immunoblotting. Assessment of the rice formula was carried out by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with rice hydrolysate. Thirteen children had positive SPT to casein, 10 to lactalbumin, eight to rice and two to rice hydrolysate. Positive serology was found in all patients' sera tested with cow's milk, with soy in 13 sera and with rice in seven. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled challenge with an HRF was negative in all cases. Children allergic to cow's milk and soy tolerate an HRF clinically. This suggests that rice hydrolysate may be used as a protein source for children with multiple food-induced reactions.

  6. chemical and organoleptic parameters of packaged beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Hanifian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of citric, acetic and propionic acids' spray, on some microbial, chemical and organoleptic properties of packaged fresh chilled beef was studied. Chuck portion of bull's meat was treated with 1% sterile solutions of each of citric, acetic and propionic acids prior to packaging. Meat samples were kept at 4°C and with 2-day intervals were examined periodically for microbial (aerobic mesophillic count, coliform count, psychrotrphic count and anaerobic count, chemical (pH and TVN and organoleptic (drip, color and odor properties. The experiment was performed with 20 repetitions. Results showed that the difference between untreated and citric-acid-treated samples was insignificant (P>0.05 from microbial and chemical viewpoints; meanwhile this difference was highly significant between untreated and acetic and also propionic-acid-treated samples (P0.01. With respect to microbial and chemical properties of meat samples, it is possible to keep untreated samples for 4-days period, meanwhile this period for citric-acid-treated was 5 and for lactic-acid and propionic-acetic-treated samples were 7 days. Results also showed that the organoleptic properties of untreated and treated samples were insignificant (P>0.01. Therefore, it is possible to use 1% concentration of such organic acids in order to increase the storage time of beef without causing undesirable effects on organoleptic properties.

  7. Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-02-01

    The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ageing (3, 7, 14 and 21 days) on the shear force, protein profile, and post-mortem proteolysis of beef loins (M. Longissimus lumborum, LL) and topsides (M. Semimembranosus, SM) were investigated using a range of pulsed electric field treatments [voltages (5 and 10 kV) and frequencies (20, 50, and 90 Hz)]. PEF treatment decreased the shear force of beef LL and SM muscles by up to 19%. The reduction in the shear force in the LL was not affected by the treatment intensity whereas the reduction in the SM was dependent on PEF frequency. PEF treated beef loins showed increased proteolysis, both early post-mortem and during subsequent post-mortem storage reflected by increased degradation of troponin-T and desmin. The most prominent troponin-T degradation was found in samples treated with 5 kV-90 Hz, 10 kV-20 Hz at day 3 and day 7 post-treatment in addition to 10 kV-50 Hz in subsequent post-treatment times. The degradation of desmin in PEF treated beef loins increased with ageing time.

  8. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  9. An Acceptability Trial of Desiccated Beef Liver and Meat Powder as Potential Fortifiers of Complementary Diets of Young Children in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duizer, Lisa M; Diana, Aly; Rathomi, Hilmi S; Luftimas, Dimas E; Rahmannia, Sofa; Santi, Widya; Nugraha, Gaga Irawan; Haszard, Jill J; Gibson, Rosalind S; Houghton, Lisa A

    2017-09-01

    The addition of desiccated beef liver to infant and young child complementary foods can be used to overcome nutrient deficits, however its acceptability is unknown. We conducted a series of studies to test the acceptability of complementary foods fortified with either powdered beef liver, beef meat, beef liver + meat or placebo among 96 Indonesian children aged 12 to 23 mo. This was achieved by determining liking of a single test food with added study powder, followed by a 2-wk home trial and focus group discussions to assess liking during repeated consumption of the study powders added to daily meals. The test food with added beef powders were well liked by mothers, with liking scores never falling below neutral on a 7-point scale. After home use, mothers reported that their children moderately liked their meals with added powder, with scores ranging between 3.3 and 3.5 on a 5-point scale. With the exception of lower liking for the combination beef liver + meat powder, there were no detectable differences in mothers' overall perception of child's liking between the placebo and any of the study powders. The low disappearance rate of the study powders during the home trial was a concern, with mothers reporting a strong smell and fishy odor as the major reason why children did not like their meals. Nonetheless, mothers declared they would continue using the powder on account of the nutritional value and perceived health benefits. Strategies are underway to minimize the level of fishy odor in the beef liver powder. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Comparison of fertility, regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval between Ovsynch and CO-synch + CIDR protocols in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, C; Maia, I; Canada, N; Simões, J

    2014-10-01

    The main aims of the present study were to compare the pregnancy rate (PR), regular returns-to-estrus, and calving interval of a CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device, commonly used to synchronize ovulations in beef cows, with the classical Ovsynch protocol in high-producing dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 128) from six commercial dairy herds, ≥40 days postpartum and not previously inseminated, were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Cows submitted to Ovsynch protocol (group OS as control group; n = 66) received 10 μg of a GnRH analogue 7 days before and 48 hours after 25 mg PGF2α, followed by artificial insemination (AI) 16 hours after the second GnRH administration. Cows submitted to CO-Synch + CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) inserted for 7 days beginning at the first GnRH administration (group CoS + CD; n = 62) had the second administration of GnRH concurrent with AI, 64 hours after CIDR removal/PGF2α administration. Nonpregnant cows with return-to-estrus between 18 and 24 days after first AI were reinseminated (second AI). Logistic regressions were used to analyze PR and returns-to-estrus. No effect of group or herd was observed in PR at first timed AI. However, the sum of cows pregnant at first AI and nonpregnant cows with regular returns-to-estrus and the total PR (first + second AI) were influenced by group treatment. Overall, cows of group CoS + CD (total PR = 56.5%) were 2.1 times more likely to became pregnant after AI and until first regular returns-to-estrus than cows of group OS. The calving interval was lower in group CoS + CD (425.9 ± 78.8 days; ±SD) than in group OS (475.3 ± 83.7 days). The CO-Synch + CIDR protocol was reliable to use in dairy herds and provided reproductive advantages when compared with Ovsynch protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Milk urea concentration in Holstein and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Bendelja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator of the nutritional protein status of the organism as well as of the ratio between the energy and the protein in ruminant rations, with increasing practical usage. In addition to nutrition, milk urea concentration is influenced by a whole range of factors, for example: breed, stage and number of lactations, body weight, daily production and chemical composition of milk, somatic cell count, season and milking. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the cow breed (Holstein and Simmental, the number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, milking time (morning-evening and season (spring-summer and autumn-winter on milk urea concentration. The following was determined for each breed: daily milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999. The cow breed had a significant influence on daily milk yield and log somatic cell count (P<0.001, lactose content in milk (P<0.01, milk fat content and milk urea concentration (P<0.05. The number of lactations significantly influenced daily milk yield (P<0.001, protein content (P<0.001 and P<0.01 and milk urea concentration, but only for Holstein breed (P<0.05. Milking time significantly influenced the fat and protein content (P<0.001 in the milk of Holstein cows, that is, lactose content (P<0.05 and urea concentration (P<0.05 in the milk of Simmental cows. The season significantly influenced the fat and protein content of milk (P<0.001, that is, urea concentration and log somatic cell count (P<0.01. Determining of urea concentration in cow milk should also be systematically conducted in the Republic of Croatia, in order to determine standard physiological values characteristical for a particular cow breed, aiming to determine the balance of energy and protein in rations.

  12. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  13. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  14. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-mullerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monniaux, Danielle; Clemente, Nathalie di; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane

    2008-08-01

    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovarian ultrasonography scanning during the 8 days before slaughtering. Experimental regression of cysts was followed by rapid growth of follicles that reached the size of cysts within 3-5 days. These young cysts exhibited higher intrafollicular concentrations of testosterone, estradiol-17beta, and progesterone than large early dominant follicles did in normal ovaries, but they exhibited similar concentrations of AMH. Later-stage cysts were characterized by hypertrophy of theca interna cells, high intrafollicular progesterone concentration, and high steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression in granulosa cells. Progesterone and AMH concentrations in the largest follicles (> or =10 mm) and cysts were negatively correlated (r = -0.45, P cysts compared to normal ovaries. During follicular growth, AMH concentration dropped in follicles larger than 5 mm in diameter and in a similar way in ovaries with and without cysts. In conclusion, enhanced growth and steroidogenesis in antral follicles cyst formation in cow ovaries. Intrafollicular AMH was not a marker of cystic development in the cow, but low AMH concentrations in cysts were associated with luteinization.

  15. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  16. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  17. Characterization of beef transcripts correlated with tenderness and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Eung-Woo; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2008-05-31

    To identify transcriptional markers for beef traits related to meat tenderness and moisture, we measured the transcriptome of the Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle in 10 Korean native cattle (KNC). We analyzed the correlation between the beef transcriptome and measurements of four different beef traits, shear force (SF), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), and loin eye area (LEA). We obtained non-overlapping and unique panels of genes showing strong correlations (|r|>0.8) with SF, WHC, CL, and LEA, respectively. Functional studies of these genes indicated that SF was mainly related to energy metabolism, and LEA to rRNA processing. Interestingly, our data suggested that WHC is influenced by protein metabolism. Overall, the skeletal muscle transcriptome pointed to the importance of energy and protein metabolism in determining meat quality after the aging process. The panels of transcripts for beef traits may be useful for predicting meat tenderness and moisture.

  18. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunes, Jose; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong, Eileen; Fernández, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat...

  19. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    , but they also contribute to climate change through the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Mitigation and adaptation strategies are therefore needed. An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would ...

  20. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    distillers grain) and silages (maize, sorghum and grass) when necessary. Management, replacement ...... ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-bred diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 65.

  1. STRESS AND ADAPTATION IN BEEF HEIFERS: 1. EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increasing world population, avail ..... Gwazdauskas & Polan. 1979). In spite of the foregoing contraditions, it can be ex- pected that the effect of stress upon animals would. 4812162004812i620. Weeks. Plasma cortisol profiles of beef heifers under.

  2. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realized...... productive life (RPL) and inbreeding depression for the loser cow score. Estimation of genetic correlations and inbreeding depression was performed on 2644 first-lactation cows and 4914 multiple-lactation cows, respectively. We found no significant genetic correlation between the loser cow score...... and the inbreeding level or between the loser cow score and protein yield. However, the loser cow score was favorably correlated with RPL (−0.53). This implies that the prevalence of loser cows is neither a result of inbreeding depression nor an undesirable side effect of selecting for increased production....

  3. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  4. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  5. Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Kilishi from beef and pork gave lower moisture values of 10.00 ± 0.15 and 9.92 ± 0.22% as against 35.85 ± 0.24 and 46.51 ± 0.30% for dried raw beef and pork respectively. In the packaging experiment, five bacteria species were identified. Bacillus spp. constituted the highest while Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus spp.

  6. Evaluation of Frozen Beef Patties Containing Soy Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    the soy - bean is well-established protein source served in a variety of food dishes including: shoyu ( soy sauce ), miso, sufu, and tempeh (Hessel...difference between all beef and soy concentrate patties though some- times significant*« was of questionable importance . Tenderness. Tenderness values...BEEF PATTIES CONTAINING SOY PROTEIN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE PREPARED FOR ARMY NATICK DEVELOPMENT CENTER JUNE 1974 DISTRIBUTED BY: KTÜ1

  7. A Market Analysis for Specialty Beef in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Virginia beef producers have been overwhelmed with increasing costs and decreasing profits as well as facing challenges such as development pressures, drought, increasing competition for grazing land. Together these have reduced opportunities for expansion and often increased incentives for farmers to sell land for non-agriculture use. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for the Virginia beef market. Consumer demand is changing and consumers are seeking food from alternative production systems ...

  8. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis, the contr...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  9. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Survey of instrument grading assessments of beef carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G D; Moore, M C; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Lawrence, T E; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Delmore, R J; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The instrument grading assessments for the 2011 National Beef Quality Audit evaluated seasonal trends of beef carcass quality and yield attributes over the course of the year. One week of instrument grading data, HCW, gender, USDA quality grade (QG), and yield grade (YG) factors, were collected every other month (n = 2,427,074 carcasses) over a 13-mo period (November 2010 through November 2011) from 4 beef processing corporations, encompassing 17 federally inspected beef processing facilities, to create a "snapshot" of carcass quality and yield attributes and trends from carcasses representing approximately 8.5% of the U.S. fed steer and heifer population. Mean yield traits were YG (2.86), HCW (371.3 kg), fat thickness (1.19 cm.), and LM area (88.39 cm(2)). The YG distribution was YG 1, 15.7%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 33.8%; YG 4, 8.5%; and YG 5, 0.9%. Distribution of HCW was <272.2 kg, 1.6%; 272.2 to 453.6 kg, 95.1%; and ≥453.6 kg, 3.3%. Monthly HCW means were November 2010, 381.3 kg; January 2011, 375.9 kg; March 2011, 366.2 kg; May 2011, 357.9 kg; July 2011, 372.54 kg; September 2011, 376.1 kg; and November 2011, 373.5 kg. The mean fat thickness for each month was November 2010, 1.30 cm; January 2011, 1.22 cm; March 2011, 1.17 cm; May 2011, 1.12 cm; July 2011, 1.19 cm; September 2011, 1.22 cm; and November 2011, 1.22 cm. The overall average marbling score was Small(49). The USDA QG distribution was Prime, 2.7%; Top Choice, 22.9%; Commodity Choice, 38.6%; and Select, 31.5%. Interestingly, from November to May, seasonal decreases (P < 0.001) in HCW and fat thicknesses were accompanied by increases (P < 0.001) in marbling. These data present the opportunity to further investigate the entire array of factors that determine the value of beef. Data sets using the online collection of electronic data will likely be more commonly used when evaluating the U.S. fed steer and heifer population in future studies.

  10. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Renato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  11. Candidate gene region for control of rib eye area in Canchim beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, S L; Gouveia, G V; Gasparin, G; Alencar, M M; Gouveia, J J S; Regitano, L C A

    2011-06-21

    Investigation of molecular marker effects on production traits is essential to define marker assisted selection strategies in beef cattle. We looked for a possible association of molecular markers and backfat thickness (BFT) and rib eye area (REA) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and MA (offspring of Charolais bulls and 1/2 Canchim + 1/2 Zebu cows) animals raised exclusively on pasture. Traits were measured on 987 individuals from seven herds from two Brazilian States (São Paulo and Goiás), in March and April from 2005 to 2007, when animals were, on average, 19 months of age. Five microsatellite markers lying in QTL regions for BFT and REA (BMS490 and ETH10 on chromosome 5, INRA133 and ILSTS090 on chromosome 6, and BMS2142 on chromosome 19) were genotyped and association analyses were performed under an animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. After correction for multiple tests, a significant effect of microsatellite BMS490 on REA was observed, suggesting that at least one QTL affecting carcass traits in this region of the BTA5. No significant effect on BFT was observed for these markers.

  12. Genomewide association study for production and meat quality traits in Canchim beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, G G; Siqueira, F; Cardoso, F F; Regitano, L C A; Ventura, R; Sollero, B P; Souza, M D; Mokry, F B; Ferreira, A B R; Torres, R A A

    2017-08-01

    The commercial value of the bovine carcass is determined by a set of traits, such as weight, yield, back fat thickness, and marbling; therefore, the genetic improvement of growth, meat, and carcass quality traits is an important tool to add value to the supply chain. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of loci that control phenotypic expression of quantitative traits (QTL). Therefore, the objective of this work was to perform a GWAS to identify genomic regions and genes associated with growth, carcass traits, and meat quality in Canchim beef cattle. These traits were yearling weight (YW), rib eye area (REA), back fat thickness (BFT), and marbling (MARB). To increase sample size and marker density, genotype imputation was performed, and only markers imputed with greater than 95% accuracy were used. Genomewide association study was performed using a Bayesian approach, by the Bayes B statistical method, incorporating genotypes and phenotypes from 614 animals from both the Canchim breed and the MA genetic group (offspring of Charolais bulls and one-half Canchim + one-half Zebu cows). This investigation identified 1 and 4 genomic regions explaining 0.23 and 7.35% of the genetic variance for REA and YW, respectively. These regions harbor a total of 19 genes, 7 of which were classified for biological functions by functional analysis. Significant associations were not observed for BFT and MARB. The identification of QTL that had been previously described in the literature reinforces associations found in this study.

  13. Improving smallholder cattle reproductive efficiency in Cambodia to address expanding regional beef demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, L; Ashley, K; Young, J R; Suon, S; Thomson, P C; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with cattle reproductive output in rural smallholder farms in Cambodia in order to determine the main causes of reproductive failure and design efficient interventions for improvement. The majority of the nation's beef is produced on smallholder farms where productivity is constrained by poor animal reproductivity reflected in the recent livestock population decline of approximately 13 % from 2009 to 2013. Farmers (n = 240) from 16 villages from five provinces were surveyed in mid-2015 to determine their baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) associated with cattle reproduction. In addition, 16 case studies from three of these provinces were conducted to provide a more detailed assessment of current cattle reproductive husbandry practices. In order to assess the reproductive impact of previously implemented interventions, an endpoint KAP survey and longitudinal health and husbandry study from three Cambodian provinces conducted between 2008 and 2013 were also analysed. Three multivariable prediction models (two KAP and one longitudinal) identified the following significant factors associated with the reproductive outcomes 'number of calves born' or probability that cows 'gave birth': target feeding (P = 0.074), growing vegetables (P = 0.005), attitudes towards cattle vaccination (P = 0.010), improving bull selection (P = 0.032), local breed use (P = 0.005), number of joining attempts (P meat demand in South-East Asia and China.

  14. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours...

  15. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  16. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P water before pumping and bind less (P water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  17. Metabolismo ósseo de vacas jovens Nelore em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha suplementadas ou não durante a seca com fósforo/cálcio e concentrado Bone metabolism of young Nellore cows in Brachiaria brizantha pastures supplemented or not during the dry season with dicalcium phosphate and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Vacas sob dietas deficientes em fósforo (P não têm respondido à suplementação desse elemento no final da gestação, mesmo com adequação de outros nutrientes, mas parecem responder na lactação. Estudou-se a resposta à suplementação de cálcio e de fósforo com ou sem proteína e energia, durante a seca, sobre o metabolismo ósseo de vacas em pastejo. Todos os animais receberam mistura mineral completa nas águas, enquanto, na seca, mistura mineral completa (MMC e mistura mineral sem fosfato bicálcico, com (MMR ou sem (MM suplemento protéico-energético. Vacas recebendo suplemento protéico-energético durante a seca tenderam à menor variação nas medidas ósseas. As concentrações de Ca nas cinzas dos ossos foram sempre inferiores a 34%, sem qualquer sintoma de deficiência do elemento. A concentração de P nas cinzas também esteve marginal em relação às concentrações consideradas adequadas, mesmo nas vacas que recebiam P suplementar o ano todo, enquanto o P plasmático permaneceu na faixa normal. Osteocalcina e fosfatase alcalina óssea apresentaram valores mais elevados durante a gestação, época em que deoxipiridinolina apresentou valores mais baixos. As vacas que receberam suplemento protéico-energético na seca também apresentaram valores de deoxipiridinolina mais baixos. Deoxipiridinolina aumentou na época do parto e no início de lactação. Independentemente dos tratamentos estudados, vacas de cria não apresentaram sinais de deterioração da qualidade do osso em três anos de experimento.Cows on diets deficient in P have not responded P supplementation during late pregnancy, although they may respond in early lactation. Bone metabolism of range cows has been monitored. All cows received complete mineral mixtures during wet season; during dry season, the imposed treatments were: complete mineral mixtures (MMC or mineral mixtures lacking dicalcium phosphate, supplemented (MMR or not (MM with concentrate

  18. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  20. Effect of actinidin on the protein solubility, water holding capacity, texture, electrophoretic pattern of beef, and on the quality attributes of a sausage product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Shekarforoush, S S; Gheisari, H R; Golestan, L

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of actinidin, a sulfhydryl protease from kiwi fruit, on the protein solubility (nitrogen solubility index [NSI]), water holding capacity (WHC), texture, and SDS-PAGE pattern of beef and to evaluate the effect of pretreatment of beef with actinidin on the quality attributes of a sausage product. Actinidin was partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. Actinidin significantly (P actinidin at 37 degrees C for 2 h. SDS-PAGE results indicated appearance of several low molecular weight bands (actinidin for 30 or 60 min. Slight changes in protein band in the range of 100 to 120 kDa and 13 to 25 kDa were also observed. Use of actinidin-tenderized beef significantly improved emulsion stability, texture, and organoleptic properties of the sausage product.

  1. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus strains in primiparous and multiparous cows in six herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Scheibe, Nicole; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Köster, Gudrun; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    The proportion of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested in four groups of lactating dairy cows in six herds with a high overall prevalence of Staph. aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Group 1 included primiparous cows in early lactation (250 days in milk). Groups 3 and 4 were multiparous cows in the respective stages of lactation. Eight cows from each group on each farm were tested. Overall quarter prevalence of Staph. aureus ranged from 23.4 to 32.0% in the herds. Of the 130 isolates included in the analysis 86.9% were high prevalence strains (more than three isolates per herd), while 13.1% were strains that were only identified in one or two samples. Low prevalence strains were found in all six herds. The proportion of low prevalence strains was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (odds ratio, OR 4.4, 1.2-16.6). It is concluded that low prevalence Staph. aureus strains are common even in herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus and that their frequency is lower in primiparous cows than in older cows.

  3. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  5. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  6. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within coh