Sample records for range 3-20 mm

  1. mm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mm. Impacted Vesical Calculus: An unusual cause of failed urethral diiatatinn. N. H. Mbibu and L. M. Khalid _. Urology Unit, Department o/Su/gcry, Ahmad»! Hello I //11' vers'z'l y Yeas-hing Hosyfllol, Zaria,. Introduction. Dilatation of a urethral stricture is an ancient surgical technique. Gonococcal urethritis is the oldest cause ...

  2. Radar measurements of surface deformation in the sub mm-range (United States)

    Peters, Gerhard; Hort, Matthias; Gerst, Alexander; Scharff, Lea


    A portable low power Doppler radar at 24 GHz is used for volcano eruption observations since more than a decade (e.g. Hort and Seyfried, 1998, doi: 10.1029/97GL03482; Seyfried and Hort, 1999, doi: 10.1007/s004450050256; Vöge et al., 2005, doi: 10.1029/2005 EO510001, Vöge and Hort, 2009, doi: 10.1109/TGRS. 2008.2002693, Gerst et al., 2013, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50234; Scharff et al, 2015, doi: 10.1130/G36705.1) The typical radar products are range resolved Doppler spectra containing information on the reflectivity, radial velocity and its distribution of ejected particles. Here we present the analysis of the phase of radar signals for the detection of comparably slow and small deformations of the solid surface which may occur for example prior to an eruption [Hort et al., 2010, AGU Fall meeting, Abstract V32B-03]. While the phase analysis of weather radar echoes from ground targets is established for estimating the atmospheric refractivity [Besson and du Châtelet, 2013, 10.1175/ JTECH-D-12-00167.1], we consider here the variability of the atmosphere as a source of uncertainty. We describe the implementation of this technique in a dedicated compact low power FMCW system. Observations at Stromboli suggest an expansion of the vent prior to the eruption on the order of millimeter which is on the same oder as reported by [Noferini et al., 2009, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS. 2009. 5416901] and in case of Santiaguito volcano we were able to observe the post eruptive subsidence of the volcanic dome. We suggest further to resolve the range/refractivity ambiguity by using a dual frequency radar with sufficient frequency separation for utilizing the frequency dependence of refractivity.

  3. Is there any range-of-motion advantage to using bearings larger than 36mm in primary hip arthroplasty: A case-control study comparing 36-mm and large-diameter heads. (United States)

    Delay, C; Putman, S; Dereudre, G; Girard, J; Lancelier-Bariatinsky, V; Drumez, E; Migaud, H


    Large-diameter (>36mm) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has developed rapidly since the advent of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings and highly cross-linked polyethylene. Theoretically, the increase in diameter reduces the risk of instability, although the advantage of calibers beyond 36mm has not been demonstrated in terms of range-of-motion recovery. We conducted a comparative study with a single prosthesis model to determine whether increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides: (1) better recovery of range-of-motion, (2) a higher functional score, and (3) reduction of the dislocation rate. Increasing the range-of-motion by increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides better range-of-motion. We analyzed two consecutive, single-operator cementless THA series performed via the mini posterior approach, which differed only in the bearing system (51 metal-on-metal [MoM] with a mean caliber of 45mm±3.3 [range, 40-54] and 61 CoC with a 36-mm caliber). Both series were comparable preoperatively in terms of age, diagnosis, functional scores, preoperative range-of-motion, body mass index, UCLA activity level, and Charnley score. We compared the joint range of movement at follow-up and the gains in range of movement, onset of dislocation, and functional scores (Oxford, Postel-Merle d'Aubigné [PMA]). The mean overall joint range-of-motion was 254°±39° (range, 150-310°) for an 81°±44° (range, -50 to 180°) gain in the MoM group and 256°±23° (range, 200-280°) for an 84°±40° (range, 0-160°) gain in the CoC group (NS). The MoM group presented the following results: Oxford=13.71±3.66 (range, 12-33) for a gain of 24.82 points±7.9 (range, -1 to 40), PMA=17.75±1.06 (range, 11-18) for a gain of 7.78 points±4.01 (range, 2-15). The CoC group had: Oxford=14.98±4.42 (range, 12-36) for a gain of 24.75 points±6.55 (range, 12-40), PMA 17.66±0.7 (range, 14-18) for a gain of 8 points±3.77 (range, 1-15). None of the gains and scores at follow-up differed significantly between

  4. Abdulmalik, MM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulmalik, MM. Vol 13, No 2 (2014) - Articles Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by vitrification. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 52 (2010) - Articles Cryopreservation of embryonic axes of maize (Zea mays L.) by vitrification protocol. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals ...

  5. Millimeter Wave Systems for Airports and Short-Range Aviation Communications: A Survey of the Current Channel Models at mmWave Frequencies (United States)

    Khatun, Mahfuza; Mehrpouyan, Hani; Matolak, David; Guvenc, Ismail


    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications will play a key role in enhancing the throughput, reliability, and security of next generation wireless networks. These advancements are achieved through the large bandwidth available in this band and through the use of highly directional links that will be used to overcome the large pathloss at these frequencies. Although the terrestrial application of mmWave systems is advancing at a rapid pace, the use of mmWave communication systems in aviation systems or airports is still in its infancy. This can be attributed to the challenges related to radio technology and lack of development, and characterization of mmWave wireless channels for the aviation field and the airport environment. Consequently, one of our goals is to develop methodologies that support mmWave air to ground links, and various links at airports, by applying new localization schemes that allow for application of highly directional links that can be deployed over longer distances despite the high path loss at mmWave frequencies. However, a very thorough understanding of the mmWave channel models are needed to enable such new applications. To this end, in this paper, we present a survey of the current channel models in the mmWave band. The 3-dimensional statistical channel model is also reviewed and its parameters and typical characteristics for this model are identified and computed through simulation for the Boise metropolitan area.

  6. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert (United States)

    Tueller, P. T.


    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  7. Non-thermal influence of the mm-range electromagnetic radiation on the peroxide oxidation of egg yolk lipoproteins (in English) (United States)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabolotna, N. M.

    The effect of weak electromagnetic radiation in the millimetre range upon the chemiluminescence intensity accompanying the process of peroxide oxidization of lipoproteins was studied. It is shown that in the temperature range of 35div 43°C the intensity is independent of the temperature up to the experimental errors. It is though strongly dependent on the composition of the buffer solution and radiation frequency. The results are explained using a modified Onsager model.

  8. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark


    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  9. 8 mm Film - Postscript (United States)

    Grimmett, George


    Supplements article in v1 n3 concerning practical methods of using transparencies and 8mm film in ETV presentations. (LS) Note: In referring to a previous issue of the journal being indexed, is it necessary to repeat the title of the journal in the annotation? Some standardization (i.e., aguideline) would be helpful

  10. A 1.2-V 165-μW 0.29-mm2 multibit Sigma-Delta ADC for hearing aids using nonlinear DACs and with over 91 dB dynamic-range. (United States)

    Custodio, José R; Goes, João; Paulino, Nuno; Oliveira, João P; Bruun, Erik


    This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of a multibit Sigma-Delta (ΣΔ) modulator (ΣΔM) with enhanced dynamic range (DR) through the use of nonlinear digital-to-analog converters (DACs) in the feedback paths. This nonlinearity imposes a trade-off between DR and distortion, which is well suited to the intended hearing aid application. The modulator proposed here uses a fully-differential self-biased amplifier and a 4-bit quantizer based on fully dynamic comparators employing MOS parametric pre-amplification to improve both energy and area efficiencies. A test chip was fabricated in a 130 nm digital CMOS technology, which includes the proposed modulator with nonlinear DACs and a modulator with conventional linear DACs, for comparison purposes. The measured results show that the ΣΔM using nonlinear DACs achieves an enhancement of the DR around 8.4 dB (to 91.4 dB). Power dissipation and silicon area are about the same for the two cases. The performance achieved is comparable to that of the best reported multibit ΣΔ ADCs, with the advantage of occupying less silicon area (7.5 times lower area when compared with the most energy efficient ΣΔM).

  11. 40mm Floating Flare Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renfroe, Donald W


    The 40mm Floating Flare can be launched from either the M79 or the M203 Grenade Launcher and provides troops with a standoff capability for marking a target or position in inundated areas during hours of darkness...

  12. 70 mm angiocardiography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehlmeyer, K.


    The image intensifier technology now available allows excellent recognition of details even on 35 mm cine film. The criteria to be met by modern angiocardiography can be attained in an optimal way by these imaging techniques, especially in cases requiring high time resolution as a consequence of hemodynamic changes caused by cardiac disorders. Since 70 mm imaging techniques yet offer certain advantages with respect to resolution, they should be employed whenever very small structures, mainly vessels, must be represented, as in the cases demonstrated here of pulmonary atresia with systemic pulmonary blood supply or in other cases, in which the out-flow of blood or contrast medium is blocked by single stenoses, which is the case in particular in stenosis of the aortic isthmus.

  13. Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Wen-Yen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most treatment failure of buccal mucosal cancer post surgery is locoregional recurrence. We tried to figure out how close the surgical margin being unsafe and needed further adjuvant treatment. Methods Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition were treated with surgery alone (n = 32, surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38 or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40. Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control. Results The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months. The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04 but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22 was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019. Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control. Conclusions Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested.

  14. 7 CFR 3.20 - Standards for suspending or terminating collection activities. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for suspending or terminating collection activities. 3.20 Section 3.20 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards... authorized or required by law. ...

  15. 17 CFR 210.3-20 - Currency for financial statements of foreign private issuers. (United States)


    ... statements of foreign private issuers. 210.3-20 Section 210.3-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... private issuers. (a) A foreign private issuer, as defined in § 230.405 of this chapter, shall state... the financial statements. If dividends on publicly-held equity securities will be declared in a...

  16. PWV, Temperature and Wind Statistics at Sites Suitable For mm and Sub-mm Wavelengths Astronomy (United States)

    Otarola, Angel; Travouillon, Tony; De Breuck, Carlos; Radford, Simon; Matsushita, Satoki; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan P.


    Atmospheric water vapor is the main limiting factor of atmospheric transparency in the mm and sub-mm wavelength spectral windows. Thus, dry sites are needed for the installation and successful operation of radio astronomy observatories exploiting those spectral windows. Other parameters that play an important role in the mechanical response of radio telescopes exposed to the environmental conditions are: temperature, and in particular temperature gradients that induce thermal deformation of mechanical structures, as well as wind magnitude that induce pointing jitter affecting this way the required accuracy in the ability to point to a cosmic source during the observations. Temperature and wind are variables of special consideration when planning the installation and operations of large aperture radio telescopes. This work summarizes the statistics of precipitable water vapor (PWV), temperature and wind monitored at sites by the costal mountain range, as well as on t he west slope of the Andes mountain range in the region of Antofagasta, Chile. This information could prove useful for the planning of the Atacama Large-Aperture Submm/mm Telescope (AtLast).

  17. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation. (United States)

    Reardon, P R; Scarborough, T K; Matthews, B D; Marti, J L; Preciado, A


    Laparoscopy has potential benefit in the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts. In patients who have undergone multiple shunt revisions or other abdominal operations, laparoscopy may be particularly beneficial when finding of a suitable area in which to place the shunt is a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, with an emphasis on using 2-mm instrumentation. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation was performed in eight adult hydrocephalus patients from August 1996 to September 1998. All eight patients had undergone 1 to 18 prior shunt revisions. The procedures were performed with two 2-mm trocars. The instrumentation consisted of a 2-mm laparoscope, a 2-mm grasper, and 2-mm scissors. All shunts were placed in an area free of adhesions and checked for flow under direct vision. Four of the patients required a lysis of adhesions to create a space adequate for catheter placement. All of the procedures were successful, with no operative complications. The operative times ranged from 29 to 99 min, (mean, 63 min). The blood loss in all of the procedures was minimal. At this writing, none of the patients have required subsequent distal shunt revisions. No conversions to larger instruments or an open procedure were required. Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement using 2-mm instrumentation is safe and effective, offering several advantages over the open procedure. This procedure is ideal for the use of 2-mm instruments.

  18. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, R.S. [Inst. of Radio Physics & Electronics, Ashtarack (Argentina); Gasparyan, L.V. [Republican Medical Centre Armenia, Yerevan (Argentina)


    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  19. Assessing the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 4. Accuracies of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methodologies evaluated by various simulation protocols using PDBbind data set. (United States)

    Sun, Huiyong; Li, Youyong; Tian, Sheng; Xu, Lei; Hou, Tingjun


    By using different evaluation strategies, we systemically evaluated the performance of Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) methodologies based on more than 1800 protein-ligand crystal structures in the PDBbind database. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) for the one-protein-family/one-binding-ligand case which represents the unbiased protein-ligand complex sampling, both MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA methodologies achieve approximately equal accuracies at the interior dielectric constant of 4 (with rp = 0.408 ± 0.006 of MM/GBSA and rp = 0.388 ± 0.006 of MM/PBSA based on the minimized structures); while for the total dataset (1864 crystal structures), the overall best Pearson correlation coefficient (rp = 0.579 ± 0.002) based on MM/GBSA is better than that of MM/PBSA (rp = 0.491 ± 0.003), indicating that biased sampling may significantly affect the accuracy of the predicted result (some protein families contain too many instances and can bias the overall predicted accuracy). Therefore, family based classification is needed to evaluate the two methodologies; (2) the prediction accuracies of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA for different protein families are quite different with rp ranging from 0 to 0.9, whereas the correlation and ranking scores (an averaged rp/rs over a list of protein folds and also representing the unbiased sampling) given by MM/PBSA (rp-score = 0.506 ± 0.050 and rs-score = 0.481 ± 0.052) are comparable to those given by MM/GBSA (rp-score = 0.516 ± 0.047 and rs-score = 0.463 ± 0.047) at the fold family level; (3) for the overall prediction accuracies, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation may not be quite necessary for MM/GBSA (rp-minimized = 0.579 ± 0.002 and rp-1ns = 0.564 ± 0.002), but is needed for MM/PBSA (rp-minimized = 0.412 ± 0.003 and rp-1ns = 0.491 ± 0.003). However, for the individual systems, whether to use MD simulation is depended. (4) both MM

  20. EM vs MM: A Case Study. (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yiwen


    The celebrated expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is one of the most widely used optimization methods in statistics. In recent years it has been realized that EM algorithm is a special case of the more general minorization-maximization (MM) principle. Both algorithms creates a surrogate function in the first (E or M) step that is maximized in the second M step. This two step process always drives the objective function uphill and is iterated until the parameters converge. The two algorithms differ in the way the surrogate function is constructed. The expectation step of the EM algorithm relies on calculating conditional expectations, while the minorization step of the MM algorithm builds on crafty use of inequalities. For many problems, EM and MM derivations yield the same algorithm. This expository note walks through the construction of both algorithms for estimating the parameters of the Dirichlet-Multinomial distribution. This particular case is of interest because EM and MM derivations lead to two different algorithms with completely distinct operating characteristics. The EM algorithm converges fast but involves solving a nontrivial maximization problem in the M step. In contrast the MM updates are extremely simple but converge slowly. An EM-MM hybrid algorithm is derived which shows faster convergence than the MM algorithm in certain parameter regimes. The local convergence rates of the three algorithms are studied theoretically from the unifying MM point of view and also compared on numerical examples.

  1. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming. (United States)

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua


    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  2. Magnetometer Data recovered from 35mm film (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The L57 CDMP recovery project takes magnetometer data on 35mm film stored at the archive's climate controlled warehouse and digitizes them.

  3. QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Bo, Carles; Maseras, Feliu


    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are a useful tool for the computational study of inorganic systems. They allow a quantitative description of systems larger than those treatable with pure QM methods, in principle with a comparable quality. QM/MM calculations are being currently applied to the research in a variety of topics, including structural effects of ligand bulk, selectivity in homogeneous catalysis and mechanical embedding in heterogeneous catalysis. The QM/MM approach is also useful for the separation of steric and electronic contributions, and as an auxiliary tool for geometry optimization when full QM methods are mandatory. The power of QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry is illustrated in this Perspective with a summary of recent representative applications.

  4. Titanium Socket for 120 mm Mortar Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The U.S. Army's Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal in Rockaway Township, New Jersey, was commissioned to reduce the weight of the base for the 120mm mortar...

  5. Optical coating uniformity of 200mm (8") diameter precut wafers (United States)

    Burt, Travis C.; Fisher, Mark; Brown, Dean; Troiani, David


    Automated spectroscopic profiling (mapping) of a 200 mm diameter near infrared high reflector (centered at 1064 nm) are presented. Spatial resolution at 5 mm or less was achieved using a 5 mm × 1.5 mm monochromatic beam. Reflection changes of 1.0% across the wafer diameter were observed under s-polarized and p- polarized conditions. Redundancy was established for each chord by re-measuring the center of the wafer and reproducibility of approximately used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of a sample across a range of angles (θi) at near normal angles of incidence (AOI). A recent development by Agilent Technologies, the Cary 7000 Universal Measurement Spectrophotometer (UMS) combines both reflection and transmission measurements from the same patch of a sample's surface in a single automated platform for angles of incidence in the range 5°use of MPS on the Cary 7000 UMS with rotational (Φ) and vertical (z) sample positioning control. MPS(θi,Φ,z) provides for automated unattended multi-angle R/T analysis of at 200 mm diameter samples with the goal to provide better spectroscopic measurement feedback into large wafer manufacturing to ensure yields are maximized, product quality is better controlled and waste is reduced before further down-stream processing.

  6. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  7. [120 mmHg for everyone?]. (United States)

    Wiersma, Tjerk


    The recently published Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) casts new light on the issue of lowering blood pressure to 120 mmHg. The trial randomized 9161 patients with systolic blood pressures of 130 mmHg - 180 mmHg and increased cardiovascular risk into a group receiving intensive treatment (target 120 mmHg) and a group given standard treatment (target 140 mmHg). The trial was stopped earlier than foreseen because interim analysis showed a lower incidence rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes in the group given intensive treatment (1.65 versus 2.19 per year, hazard ratio 0.75; 95% CI 0.64-0.89; p < 0.001). These results open up the possibility of aiming for lower blood pressure targets in antihypertensive treatment. It is questionable whether this strategy would be preferred by every patient. New guidelines on cardiovascular risk management should pay more attention to shared decision-making where doctors inform patients about the benefits and risks of strict or less strict blood pressure control and patients choose personal targets.

  8. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.


    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  9. Five mm laparoscopic varicocelectomy versus conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To compare the therapeutic success, morbidity and the costs of 5 mm laparoscopic varicocele ligation (LV) compared to inguinal varicocelectomy (IV). Patients and methods: Eighty patients with idiopathic symptomatic varicocele of grades I–III diagnosed by clinical examination and Doppler ...

  10. Wireless channel characterization for mm-size neural implants. (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Bjorninen, Toni; Chen, Yuhui David; Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Ukkonen, Leena; Sydanheimo, Lauri; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M


    This paper discusses an approach to modeling and characterizing wireless channel properties for mm-size neural implants. Full-wave electromagnetic simulation was employed to model signal propagation characteristics in biological materials. Animal tests were carried out, proving the validity of the simulation model over a wide range of frequency from 100MHz to 6GHz. Finally, effects of variability and uncertainty in human anatomy and dielectric properties of tissues on these radio links are explored.

  11. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  12. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.


    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  13. mmView: a web-based viewer of the mmCIF format. (United States)

    Cech, Petr; Svozil, Daniel


    Structural biomolecular data are commonly stored in the PDB format. The PDB format is widely supported by software vendors because of its simplicity and readability. However, the PDB format cannot fully address many informatics challenges related to the growing amount of structural data. To overcome the limitations of the PDB format, a new textual format mmCIF was released in June 1997 in its version 1.0. mmCIF provides extra information which has the advantage of being in a computer readable form. However, this advantage becomes a disadvantage if a human must read and understand the stored data. While software tools exist to help to prepare mmCIF files, the number of available systems simplifying the comprehension and interpretation of the mmCIF files is limited. In this paper we present mmView - a cross-platform web-based application that allows to explore comfortably the structural data of biomacromolecules stored in the mmCIF format. The mmCIF categories can be easily browsed in a tree-like structure, and the corresponding data are presented in a well arranged tabular form. The application also allows to display and investigate biomolecular structures via an integrated Java application Jmol. The mmView software system is primarily intended for educational purposes, but it can also serve as a useful research tool. The mmView application is offered in two flavors: as an open-source stand-alone application (available from that can be installed on the user's computer, and as a publicly available web server.

  14. 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics. This conference is a premier global event that brings together specialists from the university and industry sectors worldwide in order to promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and information on the latest developments and applied technologies in the dynamics of rotating machinery. The coverage is wide ranging, including, for example, new ideas and trends in various aspects of bearing technologies, issues in the analysis of blade dynamic behavior,  condition monitoring of different rotating machines, vibration control, electromechanical and fluid-structure interactions in rotating machinery, rotor dynamics of micro, nano, and cryogenic machines, and applications of rotor dynamics in transportation engineering. Since its inception 32 years ago, the IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics has become an irreplaceable point of reference for those working in the field, and this book reflects the high qua...

  15. The Same-Source Parallel MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michalakes


    Full Text Available Beginning with the March 1998 release of the Penn State University/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5, and continuing through eight subsequent releases up to the present, the official version has run on distributed -memory (DM parallel computers. Source translation and runtime library support minimize the impact of parallelization on the original model source code, with the result that the majority of code is line-for-line identical with the original version. Parallel performance and scaling are equivalent to earlier, hand-parallelized versions; the modifications have no effect when the code is compiled and run without the DM option. Supported computers include the IBM SP, Cray T3E, Fujitsu VPP, Compaq Alpha clusters, and clusters of PCs (so-called Beowulf clusters. The approach also is compatible with shared-memory parallel directives, allowing distributed-memory/shared-memory hybrid parallelization on distributed-memory clusters of symmetric multiprocessors.

  16. Use of 3 mm percutaneous instruments with 5 mm end effectors during different laparoscopic procedures. (United States)

    David, Giulia; Boni, Luigi; Rausei, Stefano; Cassinotti, Elisa; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Rovera, Francesca; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Colombo, Elisabetta Marta; Dionigi, Renzo


    With a recent focus on minimizing the visibility of scars, new techniques have been developed. Minilaparoscopy reemerged as an attractive option for surgery as it limits tissue trauma, reduces post-operative pain and improves cosmesis. This study was designed to describe our experience with percutaneous trocarless 3 mm instruments used in combination with standard 5 mm and 10 mm laparoscopic instruments in different general surgery procedures. We used the PSS (Percutaneous Surgical Set, Ethicon Endo surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA) in different surgical procedures as accessory instruments in combination with standard 5 mm and 10 mm standard laparoscopic instruments. The use of percutaneous instruments was safe and feasible in all performed procedures. The surgical technique was not modified. The percutaneous instruments can assure a good grip and can be used for traction and counter-traction. No complications have been described. No pain at the site of insertion has been reported. The skin, muscle and peritoneal defects were smaller than with the 3 mm laparoscopic traditional instruments. Percutaneous approach seems to be a good option in general surgery in terms of efficiency, offering better cosmetic results and good pain control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid-state pulsed microwave bridge for electron spin echo spectrometers of 8-mm wavelength range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabukhova E. N.


    Full Text Available The article presents a construction of a coherent pulsed microwave bridge with an output power up to 10 Wt with a time resolution of 10–8 seconds at a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz designed for electron spin echo spectrometers. The bridge is built on a homodyne scheme based on IMPATT diodes, which are used for modulation and amplification of microwave power coming from the reference Gunn diode oscillator. The advantages of the bridge are optimal power and minimum pulse width, simple operation, low cost.

  18. Early results with the 8 mm and 9 mm HEMA disc intraocular lens. (United States)

    Budo, C J; Montanus, F F; Poulicek, M J


    This study presents our experience with 34 HEMA disc intraocular lenses implanted in the capsular bag. Despite the small number of cases and the relatively short mean postoperative follow-up of nine months, the results show a low incidence of uveitis and capsular fibrosis and excellent biocompatibility. The following complications were observed: four luxations of the 8 mm lens and one of the 9 mm lens in the anterior chamber. A visual acuity of 20/20 to 20/40 was obtained in 32 patients (94%).

  19. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave VAlidation STandard antenna (mm-VAST) - detailed design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A design of a well-characterized, mechanically and thermally stable multi-frequency VAlidation STandard antenna for mm-wave frequencies (mm-VAST) developed in an ESA project is presented. The antenna will facilitate inter-comparison and validation of antenna measurement ranges at K/Ka and Q/V bands...

  20. A 14-megapixel 36 x 24-mm2 image sensor (United States)

    Meynants, Guy; Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Alaerts, Andre


    We will present a 3044 x 4556 pixels CMOS image sensor with a pixel array of 36 x 24 mm2, equal to the size of 35 mm film. Though primarily developed for digital photography, the compatibility of the device with standard optics for film cameras makes the device also attractive for machine vision applications as well as many scientific and highresolution applications. The sensor makes use of a standard rolling shutter 3-transistor active pixel in standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. On-chip double sampling is used to reduce fixed pattern noise. The pixel is 8 μm large, has 60,000 electrons full well charge and a conversion gain of 18.5 μV/electron. The product of quantum efficiency and fill factor of the monochrome device is 40%. Temporal noise is 35 electrons, offering a dynamic range of 65.4 dB. Dark current is 4.2 mV/s at 30 degrees C. Fixed pattern noise is less than 1.5 mV RMS over the entire focal plane and less than 1 mV RMS in local windows of 32 x 32 pixels. The sensor is read out over 4 parallel outputs at 15 MHz each, offering 3.2 images/second. The device runs at 3.3 V and consumes 200 mW.

  1. Intertarsal and tarsometatarsal arthrodesis using 2.0/2.7-mm or 2.7/3.5-mm hybrid dynamic compression plates. (United States)

    Fettig, Arthur A; McCarthy, Robert J; Kowaleski, Michael P


    Proximal intertarsal or tarsometatarsal arthrodesis was performed in four dogs using either 2.0/2.7-mm or 2.7/3.5-mm hybrid dynamic compression plates. Mean radiographic follow-up time was 30.5 weeks (range, 15 to 60 weeks). Mean owner follow-up time was 40.5 weeks (range, 27 to 60 weeks). All cases went on to form stable, healed arthrodeses. Owners reported no noticeable lameness problems long term. Complications occurred in one case and included pressure sores and fracture of the calcaneus. Implant failure did not occur in any case.

  2. Influence of oil on flow condensation heat transfer of R410A inside 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm inner diameter horizontal smooth tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Peng, Hao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yifeng [International Copper Association Shanghai Office, Shanghai 200020 (China); Deng, Bin [Institute of Heat Transfer Technology, Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Group Inc., Shanghai 200135 (China)


    The influence of oil on condensation heat transfer of R410A inside 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm inner diameter horizontal smooth tubes is investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer, and the deterioration effect becomes obvious with the increase of oil concentration. At oil concentration of 5%, the heat transfer coefficient decreases by maximum 24.9% and 28.5% for 4.18 mm and 1.6 mm tubes, respectively. A new correlation for heat transfer coefficients of R410A-oil mixture flow condensation inside smooth tubes is proposed, which agrees with all the experimental data within a deviation of -30% {proportional_to} +20%. (author)

  3. Measurements of Close Visual Binaries with a 280 mm Reflector and the ASI 290MM Camera (United States)

    Serot, J.


    This paper presents the measurements of 305 visual binary stars obtained between Feb and Oct 2016 with an 11" reflector telescope and a ASI 290MM CMOS-based camera. Binaries with a secondary component up to mag 12 or as close as 0.5 arcsec could be routinely measured. Exceptionally, pairs with very faint secondary components (up to mag 13) or with separation at the theoretical diffraction limit (0.4 arcsec) have also been measured. We also point out several binaries with known orbits for which our measurement, together with the latest ones, suggest a recalculation of the orbit. Finally, we report the discovery of a yet unobserved component for the star A 303 (WDS 21555+2724).

  4. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis (United States)


    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  5. Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, A = 3--20, Available from Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Cheves, C. M.; Chasteler, R. M.; Guillemette, J. F.; Laymon, C. M.; Weller, H. R.; Tilley, D. R.


    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) Nuclear Data Evaluation Group provides an extensive collection of nuclear data information for A=3--20 on the World Wide Web. Currently included are: Energy Level Diagrams for A=4--20. (2) Abridged versions of TUNL's most recent evaluations, ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' for A=16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 (preliminary). (3) Adopted levels and decay data in ENSDAT style for A=3--20 nuclei as well as reaction data for A=18, 19. This format is similar to the Nuclear Data Sheets style for higher mass nuclei and is based on information from the NNDC Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENSDF). (4) The A=1--20 portion of the Table of Isotopes, which was provided to TUNL by the Berkeley Isotopes Project. (5) Information about the current status of A=3--20 ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' reviews by Fay Ajzenberg-Selove and by the TUNL group. (6) Abridged versions of Fay Ajzenberg-Selove's most recent evaluation for A=5--10. Work supported by DOE Contract Nos. DEFG05-91-ER40619 and DEFG05-88-ER40441.

  6. Performance of modern tide gauges: towards mm-level accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martín Míguez


    Full Text Available Considerable efforts are being made worldwide to upgrade tide gauge networks using new technologies. Because of the unique location of the Kerguelen Islands, the measurement of sea level there has received particular attention, with up to four systems equipped with modern sensors functioning simultaneously (two pressure tide gauges, a radar tide gauge, and a GPS-equipped buoy. We analysed and compared the sea level data obtained with these systems from 2003 to 2010, together with a time series of tide pole observations. This is the first time that a multi-comparison study with tide gauges has been undertaken over such a long time span and that the stability of modern radar tide gauges has been examined. The multi-comparison enabled us to evaluate the performance of the tide gauges in several frequency ranges, identify errors and estimate their magnitude. The drift of the pressure sensors (up to 8.0 mm/yr was found to be one of the most relevant sources of systematic error. Other sources of difference such as clock drift, scale error and different locations of the instruments were also detected. After correcting the time series of sea level for these errors we estimated an upper bound for the radar instrumental error in field condition at ~0.3 cm.

  7. 3D mmWave Channel Model Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong; R. MacCartney Jr., George


    There is growing interest in using millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for future access communications based on the enormous amount of available spectrum. To characterize the mmWave channel in urban areas, wideband propagation measurements at 73 GHz have recently been made in New York City. Using...... mmWave channel model is developed with special emphasis on using the ray tracer to determine elevation model parameters. The channel model includes distance-dependent elevation modeling which is critical for the expected 2D arrays which will be employed at mmWave....

  8. Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacteriocin Production by Human Isolates of Lactococcus lactis MM19 and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33. (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Vu, Khanh Dang; Millette, Mathieu; Dupont, Claude; Lacroix, Monique


    The influence of temperature, initial pH, and carbon and nitrogen sources on bacteriocin secreted by Lactococcus lactis MM19 (MM19) and Pediococcus acidilactici MM33 (MM33) was evaluated. It was found that 30 and 45 °C were the growth temperatures for higher nisin and pediocin production by MM19 and MM33, respectively. The initial pH values for higher production of nisin and pediocin were 9 and 6, respectively. Glucose and wheat peptone E430 were found as suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for highest nisin production by MM19 at 30 °C and initial pH of 9. In these conditions, nisin production could be increased by 6.7 times as compared to the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe--MRS broth). Similarly, fructose and pea peptone were suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for highest production of pediocin by MM33 at 45 °C and initial pH of 6. In these conditions, pediocin production by MM33 was increased by three times as compared to the control medium (tryptone-glucose-yeast extract-TGE broth).

  9. Assessing the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods. 5. Improved docking performance using high solute dielectric constant MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring. (United States)

    Sun, Huiyong; Li, Youyong; Shen, Mingyun; Tian, Sheng; Xu, Lei; Pan, Peichen; Guan, Yan; Hou, Tingjun


    With the rapid development of computational techniques and hardware, more rigorous and precise theoretical models have been used to predict the binding affinities of a large number of small molecules to biomolecules. By employing continuum solvation models, the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA methodologies achieve a good balance between low computational cost and reasonable prediction accuracy. In this study, we have thoroughly investigated the effects of interior dielectric constant, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the number of top-scored docking poses on the performance of the MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA rescoring of docking poses for three tyrosine kinases, including ABL, ALK, and BRAF. Overall, the MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA rescoring achieved comparative accuracies based on a relatively higher solute (or interior) dielectric constant (i.e. ε = 2, or 4), and could markedly improve the 'screening power' and 'ranking power' given by Autodock. Moreover, with a relatively higher solute dielectric constant, the MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA rescoring based on the best scored docking poses and the multiple top-scored docking poses gave similar predictions, implying that much computational cost can be saved by considering the best scored docking poses only. Besides, compared with the rescoring based on the minimized structures, the rescoring based on the MD simulations might not be completely necessary due to its negligible impact on the docking performance. Considering the much higher computational demand of MM/PBSA, MM/GBSA with a high solute dielectric constant (ε = 2 or 4) is recommended for the virtual screening of tyrosine kinases.

  10. Broadband Mm-Wave OFDM Communications in Doubly Selective Channel: Performance Evaluation Using Measured Mm-Wave Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.


    In this work, we evaluate the performance of the broadband millimeter-wave (mm-wave) OFDM system in the presence of phase noise (PN) of phase-locked loop based oscillator and delay spread of measured mm-wave channel. It is shown, using Akaike's information criterion, that the channel tap coeffici...

  11. Propellant Residues Deposition from Firing of 40-mm Grenades (United States)


    sampling, the bag was labeled, a tag labeled and attached to the bag, the bag sealed with a tie-wrap, the sample recorded in a log book, and the...NG 1.5 11. 0.73% Leopard Tank2 105-mm (MIS) M1 DNT 300 6.7 2.2x10-3% 105-mm (Trays) M1 DNT 300 7.8 2.7x10-3% Howitzers 105-mm M1-I & II DNT 42

  12. L1448-MM Observations by the Herschel Key Program, "Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time" (DIGIT) (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Green, Joel. D.; Evans, Neal J., II; Choi, Minho; Kristensen, Lars; Dionatos, Odysseas; Jørgensen, Jes K.; the DIGIT Team


    We present Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations of L1448-MM, a Class 0 protostar with a prominent outflow. Numerous emission lines are detected at 55 1000 K) environment, indicative of a shock origin. For OH, IR-pumping processes play an important role in the level population. The molecular emission in L1448-MM is better explained with a C-shock model, but the atomic emission of PACS [O I] and Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph [Si II] emission is not consistent with C-shocks, suggesting multiple shocks in this region. Water is the major line coolant of L1448-MM in the PACS wavelength range, and the best-fit LVG models predict that H2O and CO emit (50%-80%) of their line luminosity in the PACS wavelength range.

  13. Rst-lämmönvaihtimen vaurioanalyysi


    Tikkanen, Jussi


    Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena oli selvittää, miksi lämmönvaihtimen ruostumattomasta teräksestä valmistettu vaippa on altistunut pistekorroosiolle, jonka seurauksena se on alkanut vuotamaan. Työn tilaajana on varustamoille laivakeittiökokonaisuuksia toimittava yritys. Höyry-vesi -periaatteella toimivaa lämmönvaihdinta on käytetty risteilijäaluksen astianpesukoneen käyttöveden lämmittämiseen. Lämmönvaihdin on alihankkijan valmistama ja toimittama. Työssä selvitetään ensin lämmönvaihtimen ...

  14. Photonics-assisted wireless link based on mm-wave reconfigurable antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliciano daCosta, Igor; Cerqueira Sodré, Arismar; Rodriguez Páez, Juan Sebastián


    is optically reconfigured by using photoconductive switches. In this way, the optical backhaul can either be used for high data rate transmission and remotely controlling the antenna operation. Experimental results on 40 Mbaud with complex modulation formats up to 64-QAM wireless transmission supported by PDC...... for access networks in the mm-wave frequency range....

  15. mm-Wave Wireless Communications based on Silicon Photonics Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Heck, Martijn; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Photonic integration may pave the way to practical...

  16. Structural Design of the DTU-ESA MM-Wave Validation Standard Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter; Markussen, Christen Malte


    in the range of temperatures 20±5°C under arbitrary orientation in the gravity field. The antenna has a characteristic length of approximately 500mm. And in order to obtain very low measuring error, the allowable deformations of the reflector and feeds are down to 2.5μm. The antenna is modelled structurally...

  17. Practice in 35-mm air remote sensing and aerophotogrammetry (United States)

    Jiang, Yuezu; Wang, Yangsheng; Du, Chuan


    With the development of light or super light aircraft that is used as the airborne platform for 35 mm air remote sensing, the updating of cameras and the improvement of sensitive films, an increasingly complete foundation has been laid for 35 mm air remote sensing. Practices show that this technology combined with analytical plotter produced satisfactory precision, achieving a major breakthrough in photogrammetry. It can also be used for large-scale topographic mapping in an engineering area.

  18. QM/MM free energy simulations: recent progress and challenges. (United States)

    Lu, Xiya; Fang, Dong; Ito, Shingo; Okamoto, Yuko; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Cui, Qiang

    Due to the higher computational cost relative to pure molecular mechanical (MM) simulations, hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy simulations particularly require a careful consideration of balancing computational cost and accuracy. Here we review several recent developments in free energy methods most relevant to QM/MM simulations and discuss several topics motivated by these developments using simple but informative examples that involve processes in water. For chemical reactions, we highlight the value of invoking enhanced sampling technique (e.g., replica-exchange) in umbrella sampling calculations and the value of including collective environmental variables (e.g., hydration level) in metadynamics simulations; we also illustrate the sensitivity of string calculations, especially free energy along the path, to various parameters in the computation. Alchemical free energy simulations with a specific thermodynamic cycle are used to probe the effect of including the first solvation shell into the QM region when computing solvation free energies. For cases where high-level QM/MM potential functions are needed, we analyze two different approaches: the QM/MM-MFEP method of Yang and co-workers and perturbative correction to low-level QM/MM free energy results. For the examples analyzed here, both approaches seem productive although care needs to be exercised when analyzing the perturbative corrections.

  19. No clinical difference between large metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and 28-mm-head total hip arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J M; van Raay, Jos J A M


    PURPOSE: We aimed to test the claim of greater range of motion (ROM) with large femoral head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We compared 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene (MP) total hip arthroplasty with large femoral head metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty in a randomised clinical

  20. 11.9 W output power at 4 GHz from 1 mm AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krämer, M.C.J.C.M.; Karouta, F.; Kwaspen, J.J.M.; Rudzinski, M.; Larsen, P.K.; Suijker, E.M.; Hek, P.A. de; Rödle, T.; Volokhine, I.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.


    A high electrical breakdown field combined with a high electron saturation velocity make GaN very attractive for high power high frequency electronics. The maximum drain current densities of AlGaN/GaN HFETs range from 1.0 A/mm to 1.5 A/mm [1-3]. Hence, it is obvious that breakdown voltages over 160

  1. Prostate biopsy outcome using 29 mm cutting length. (United States)

    Fink, K G; Hutarew, G; Pytel, A; Schmeller, N T


    The aim of the study was to compare the prostate biopsy outcome by using either standard or extended cutting length of the needles. A total of 74 consecutive prostates from radical prostatectomy were used. Two sextant biopsies were performed ex vivo. We developed a precise simulation of a transrectal biopsy procedure using ultrasound for guiding the needle. In the first set of biopsies an 18-gauge tru cut needle with 19 mm cutting length, powered by a automatic biopsy gun was used. In the second set a single use gun with an 18-gauge end-cutting needle and 29 mm cutting length was used. In the set of sextant biopsies using 19 mm cutting length 49 (66%) carcinomas were found. In the set of sextant biopsies using 29 mm cutting length 58 (78%) of the tumors were detected. 24 (32%) prostates showed tumor in the transition zones, but there was no transition-zone-only cancer in this study. Nevertheless taking longer cores led to an improvement in prostate cancer detection of 18%. In this ex vivo setting the use of 29 mm cutting length for prostate biopsy led to an significant improvement in cancer detection. As we found the end-cutting needle not suitable for use in the patient, these results support the idea to develop a longer tru cut needle and corresponding gun for further clinical investigations. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Laparoscopic 5-mm trocar site herniation and literature review. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miya; Minikel, Laura; Zaritsky, Eve


    To evaluate the evidence for fascial closure of 5-mm laparoscopic trocar sites. We conducted electronic database searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library for articles published between November 2008 and December 2010. We used the keywords trocar hernia, trocar-site hernia, laparoscopic hernia, trocar port-site hernia, laparoscopic port-site hernia. Prospective and retrospective case series, randomized trials, literature reviews, and randomized animal studies of trocar hernias on abdominal wall defects from gynecologic, urologic, and general surgery literature were reviewed. The Cochrane Database was reviewed for pertinent studies. Metaanalysis was not possible due to the significant heterogeneity between studies and lack of randomized trials large enough to assess the incidence of this rare complication. Trocar-site hernias are a rare but known complication of laparoscopic surgery. Trocar size ≥10mm is associated with an increased rate of hernia development. Currently, the accepted gynecologic surgical practice is closure of fascial incisions ≥10mm, while incisions manipulation of 5-mm trocar sites the surgeon should consider fascial closure, because extension of the initial incision may have occurred. There is no evidence to recommend routine closure of 5-mm trocar incisions; the choice should continue to be left to the discretion of the individual surgeon.

  3. QM/MM Calculations with deMon2k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Salahub


    Full Text Available The density functional code deMon2k employs a fitted density throughout (Auxiliary Density Functional Theory, which offers a great speed advantage without sacrificing necessary accuracy. Powerful Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM approaches are reviewed. Following an overview of the basic features of deMon2k that make it efficient while retaining accuracy, three QM/MM implementations are compared and contrasted. In the first, deMon2k is interfaced with the CHARMM MM code (CHARMM-deMon2k; in the second MM is coded directly within the deMon2k software; and in the third the Chemistry in Ruby (Cuby wrapper is used to drive the calculations. Cuby is also used in the context of constrained-DFT/MM calculations. Each of these implementations is described briefly; pros and cons are discussed and a few recent applications are described briefly. Applications include solvated ions and biomolecules, polyglutamine peptides important in polyQ neurodegenerative diseases, copper monooxygenases and ultra-rapid electron transfer in cryptochromes.

  4. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports. (United States)

    Bell-Allen, Nicholas; O'Rourke, Harriet; Hong, Lisa; O'Rourke, Nicholas


    The technique of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has been evolving since it was first described over 20 years ago. We report a new technique where polyester mesh was back loaded through a 5-mm port site, coming into contact with the skin. This avoids the need for any 10-12-mm ports. A prospective database of laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs was examined. A single surgeon performed 344 laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs using this technique over 60 months. Follow-up was conducted by both clinical and independent phone review. Laparoscopic access was achieved via a 5-mm optical port, adding two, or occasionally three, 5-mm extra ports. Hernia contents were reduced and the extra-peritoneal fat excised; 5-mm tooth graspers were placed through the lateral port and then in a retrograde fashion through the uppermost port. The port was removed, and the mesh pulled back into the abdominal cavity and positioned with a minimum of 3-cm overlap. The mesh was fixed using absorbable tacks and sutures. Most patients had primary umbilical hernias. There was one case of mesh infection due to enteric organisms. This occurred in a patient undergoing repair of a stoma site hernia, resulting from a Hartmann's procedure for perforated diverticulitis. There was no other evidence of acute or chronic mesh infection despite cutaneous contact with the mesh. In this series, there was an overall hernia recurrence rate of 2.4%. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports is a safe, effective technique with no extra risk of infection. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. QM/MM-MD simulations of conjugated polyelectrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöqvist, Jonas; Linares, Mathieu; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin


    A methodological development is reported for the study of luminescence properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes, encompassing systems in which dihedral rotational barriers are easily overcome at room temperature. The components of the model include (i) a molecular mechanics (MM) force field...... mechanics/molecular mechanics QM/MM approach. A detailed analysis of the combined polarization effects of the ionic moiety and the polar water solvent is presented. At an increased computational cost of 30% compared to a calculation excluding the solvent, the error in the transition wavelength...

  6. Composite outcomes in 2.25-mm drug eluting stents: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Justin Z. [Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States); Singh, Nirmal [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States); Ortega, Gilbert [College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States); Low, See Wei; Kanakadandi, Uday [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States); Fortuin, F. David [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ, 85054 (United States); Lassar, Tom [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States); Lee, Kwan S., E-mail: [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85724 (United States)


    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis often involves small-caliber coronaries, yet the safety and efficacy of 2.25-mm DES have been poorly defined, with a general lack of separation of 2.25 with 2.5-mm performance. No randomized head-to-head 2.25 mm DES studies have been reported. There are several single-arm prospective studies, and we aim to systematically review all published specific 2.25-mm data to estimate composite DES-specific performance and highlight current knowledge gaps. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane database for clinical trials of 2.25-mm DES. Angiographic and composite clinical outcomes were compared with descriptive statistics. Results: 2.25 mm-Paclitaxel (PES), sirolimus (SES), everolimus (EES) and platinum chromium EES DES-specific outcomes have been reported. Death at 12 months for SES, PES, EES and platinum chromium EES was 1.3%, 3.0%, 1.5%, and 4.4%. Rates of target vessel revascularization at 12 months for SES, PES, EES and platinum chromium EES were 5.7%, 13.3%, 8.8%, and 3.3%. Angiographic outcomes at 9 months to one year were as follows: mean late lumen loss (LLL) for SES, PES, and EES was 0.15 ± 0.11-mm, 0.28 ± 0.11-mm, and 0.16 ± 0.41-mm and mean diameter restenosis for SES, PES, and EES were 29.5 ± 6.2%, 34.7 ± 4.2%, and 20.9 ± 22.5%. Reported stent thrombosis rates for 2.25-mm DES were low ranging from 0% to 2.2% in up to 24-months of follow-up. Conclusions: This systematic review summarizes and tabulates all available specific data on 2.25-mm DES. Based on our descriptive analysis, 2.25-mm DESs have a favorable safety and efficacy profile for the treatment of very small coronary lesions. - Highlights: • Safety and efficacy of 2.25-mm DES have been poorly defined. • We performed a systematic review on all published 2.25 mm data to estimate composite DES-specific performance and highlight current knowledge gaps. • We pooled data from 9 clinical studies and 1

  7. A comparative study of trypsin specificity based on QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation and QM/MM GBSA calculation. (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinan; Zhang, Qinggang; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang


    Hydrogen bonding and polar interactions play a key role in identification of protein-inhibitor binding specificity. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations combined with DFT and semi-empirical Hamiltonian (AM1d, RM1, PM3, and PM6) methods were performed to study the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions of two inhibitors BEN and BEN1 with trypsin. The results show that the accuracy of treating the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions using QM/MM MD simulation of PM6 can reach the one obtained by the DFT QM/MM MD simulation. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (QM/MM-GBSA) method was applied to calculate binding affinities of inhibitors to trypsin and the results suggest that the accuracy of binding affinity prediction can be significantly affected by the accurate treatment of the hydrogen bonding and polar interactions. In addition, the calculated results also reveal the binding specificity of trypsin: (1) the amidinium groups of two inhibitors generate favorable salt bridge interaction with Asp189 and form hydrogen bonding interactions with Ser190 and Gly214, (2) the phenyl of inhibitors can produce favorable van der Waals interactions with the residues His58, Cys191, Gln192, Trp211, Gly212, and Cys215. This systematic and comparative study can provide guidance for the choice of QM/MM MD methods and the designs of new potent inhibitors targeting trypsin.

  8. Micromelanomas: A Review of Melanomas ≤2 mm and a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P. Paul


    Full Text Available The ABCD acronym used to screen pigmented lesions for melanoma obviously was not designed to contend with melanomas that are under 2 mm in diameter. Previously, views ranged that such small lesions could not be melanomas until a few reports of such “micromelanomas” emerged. The author presents a 2 mm melanoma in situ presenting as an insignificant pigmented lesion in a 60-year-old patient with no previous history of melanoma or multiple nevi—which is usually the norm in cases of small melanoma. This paper reiterates the fact that when it comes to a melanoma, size does not matter. In this paper, the term “micromelanoma” is used by the author to represent melanomas under 2 mm. Dermatoscopy and histopathology findings are discussed in this case, along with a review of small melanomas.

  9. Small margin (2 mm) excision of peri-ocular basal cell carcinoma with delayed repair. (United States)

    David, D B.; Gimblett, M L.; Potts, M J.; Harrad, R A.


    Successful surgical treatment of peri-ocular basal cell carcinomas requires complete excision. Mohs' micrographic surgery achieves this, but is not readily available in all hospitals. The standard 3-4 mm margin does not guarantee complete excision and histology is often not available until after a repair has been undertaken. The 3-4 mm margin has evolved to deal with all forms of BCC. In our opinion, this margin is unnecessarily large for nodular/ulcerative BCC. We report our interim results of excision of localised BCCs using a 2 mm margin in conjunction with a delayed repair following confirmation of histological clearance. Thirty-one patients were treated in this manner; there have been no recurrences after an average follow-up period of 36 months (range 24-57 months).

  10. OpenMM 4: A Reusable, Extensible, Hardware Independent Library for High Performance Molecular Simulation. (United States)

    Eastman, Peter; Friedrichs, Mark S; Chodera, John D; Radmer, Randall J; Bruns, Christopher M; Ku, Joy P; Beauchamp, Kyle A; Lane, Thomas J; Wang, Lee-Ping; Shukla, Diwakar; Tye, Tony; Houston, Mike; Stich, Timo; Klein, Christoph; Shirts, Michael R; Pande, Vijay S


    OpenMM is a software toolkit for performing molecular simulations on a range of high performance computing architectures. It is based on a layered architecture: the lower layers function as a reusable library that can be invoked by any application, while the upper layers form a complete environment for running molecular simulations. The library API hides all hardware-specific dependencies and optimizations from the users and developers of simulation programs: they can be run without modification on any hardware on which the API has been implemented. The current implementations of OpenMM include support for graphics processing units using the OpenCL and CUDA frameworks. In addition, OpenMM was designed to be extensible, so new hardware architectures can be accommodated and new functionality (e.g., energy terms and integrators) can be easily added.

  11. Development of a 1.0 mm inside diameter temperature-assisted focusing precolumn for use with 2.1 mm inside diameter columns. (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R; Horner, Anthony R; Weber, Stephen G


    On-column solute focusing is a simple and powerful method to decrease the influence of precolumn band spreading and increase the allowable volume injected increasing sensitivity. It relies on creating conditions so that the retention factor, k', is transiently increased during the injection process. Both solvent composition and temperature control can be used to effect solute focusing. In the case of temperature, the release of the transiently delayed solute band requires increasing the temperature rapidly and with a minimum of radial thermal gradients. Thus, the focus of attention in temperature-based efforts to carry out on-column focusing has been on capillary columns. As a result, the benefits of this simple and reliable approach, temperature-assisted solute focusing or TASF, are not available to those using larger diameter columns, in particular the highly successful 2.1mm inside diameter columns. Based on considerations of thermal entrance length at the volume flow rates used with 2.1mm inside diameter columns, TASF would not be effective with such columns. However, we determined that the thermal entrance length for a 1.0mm inside diameter precolumn is sufficiently short, about 2mm, that it could work as a precolumn before a 2.1mm inside diameter analytical column. Finite element calculations demonstrate that a 1.0×20mm precolumn packed with 5μm reversed phase particles is effective at a flow rate of 250μL/min, suitable for the 2.1mm inside diameter column. Eight 1-cm(2) Peltier devices are used to heat (and cool) the precolumn. The computed axial temperature profile shows that the center of the column heats more rapidly than the ends. Based on the changes in back pressure, the full temperature transient from 5°C (focus) to 80°C (release) takes about 10s. Experimental van Deemter curves indicate that the reduced velocity in the precolumn at 250μL/min flow rate is about 50. Nonetheless, about 1000 theoretical plates are generated. When operating as a

  12. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document outlines the background, objectives and the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no...

  13. Security architecture of the M&M mobile agent framework (United States)

    Marques, Paulo J.; Santos, Nuno F.; Silva, Luis; Silva, Joao G.


    In the Mobile Agent programming model, small threads of execution migrate from machine to machine, performing their operations locally. For being able to deploy such a model into real world applications, security is a vital concern. In the M&M project we have developed a system that departures from the traditional platform-based execution model for mobile agents. In M&M there are no agent platforms. Instead there is a component framework that allows the applications to become able of sending and receiving agents by themselves in a straightforward manner. In this paper we examine the security mechanisms available in M&M, and how integration with existing applications is done. One difficult aspect of this work is that all the features must work with the security mechanisms that already exist on the applications. This is so because the components are integrated from within into the applications, which already have security mechanisms in place. Currently, M&M provides features like fine-grain security permissions, encryption of agents and data, certificate distribution using LDAP and cryptographic primitives for agents. For validating the approach and solutions found, we have integrated the framework into several off-the-shelf web servers, having the security mechanisms running, with no problems.

  14. Hypotension begins at 110 mm Hg: redefining "hypotension" with data. (United States)

    Eastridge, Brian J; Salinas, Jose; McManus, John G; Blackburn, Lorne; Bugler, Eileen M; Cooke, William H; Convertino, Victor A; Concertino, Victor A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B


    Clinicians routinely refer to hypotension as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) Data Bank with emergency department SBP and mortality data were analyzed. Patients (140,898) with severe head injuries, a Glasgow Coma Score definition of hypotension and hypoperfusion than is 90 mm Hg. This analysis will also be useful for developing appropriately powered studies of hemorrhagic shock.

  15. Analysis on MM5 predictions at Sriharikota during northeast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of the PSU-NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), for northeast monsoon 2008 that includes tropical cyclones – Rashmi, Khai-Muk and Nisha and convective events over Sriharikota region, the rocket launch centre. The impact of objective analysis system using ...

  16. SBI-lavenergihus model 79 - med 410 mm hulmur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach, K.; Kjær, B.

    Rapporten omfatter over et halvt hundrede detailtegninger til lavt byggeri med højisolerede ydervægge udført som 410 mm hulmur. Som eksempel vises et modulprojekteret enfamiliehus med 1/2 etage. Statiske forhold og alternative løsninger beskrives kortfattet. Rapporten redegør yderligere for et års...

  17. Two-port laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy using 3-mm instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Yoshiki


    Conclusion: Two-port laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy using 3-mm instruments is a feasible and safe approach by which surgeons expert in conventional multiport laparoscopy achieve minimally invasive surgery with low morbidity and a low rate of conversion to the conventional approach.

  18. Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    This document summarizes the main results of the project “Millimeter wave VAlidation STandard (mm-VAST) antenna” completed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with Danish company TICRA for the European Space Agency (ESA) under ESA contract no. 4000109866/13/NL/MH....

  19. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution. (United States)


    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  20. Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, M.; Ciaccia, E.; Dekeling, R.P.A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Liddell, K.; Gunnarsson, S.L.; Ludwig, S.; Nissen, I.; Lorenzen, D.; Kreimeyer, R.; Pavan, G.; Meneghetti, N.; Nordlund, N.; Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Fraser, L.; Johansson, T.; Garmelius, M.


    The EDA (European Defence Agency) project PoMM (Protection of Marine Mammals) is based on an agreement between the Ministries of Defence for Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The project, running for 3 years since August 2010, aims to protect marine mammals

  1. XM203 40mm Grenade Launcher Attachment Development (United States)

    The Army Concept Team in Vietnam evaluated the XM203 40mm Grenade Launcher Attachment Development to determine its suitability for tactical use by US...Army units in RVN. The XM203 was designed to provide the rifle squad’s grenadier with a weapon incorporating an M16 rifle and a grenade launcher.

  2. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David


    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  3. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity. (United States)

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E


    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl(-) conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α(+)/β(-) interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family.

  4. Mandibular movement range in children. (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de


    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  5. A 300-nm compact mm-wave linac FEL design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Microfabrication technology offers an alternative method for fabricating precision, miniature-size components suitable for use in accelerator physics and commercial applications. The original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf accelerating structure design, optical and x-ray masks production, deep x-ray lithography (LIGA exposures), and precision structural alignments. In this paper we will present a design study for a compact single pass mm-linac FEL to produce short wavelength radiation. This system will consists of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period. Initial experimental results on a scale model rf gun and microundulator will be presented.

  6. Introduction to statistics using interactive MM*Stat elements

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Rönz, Bernd


    MM*Stat, together with its enhanced online version with interactive examples, offers a flexible tool that facilitates the teaching of basic statistics. It covers all the topics found in introductory descriptive statistics courses, including simple linear regression and time series analysis, the fundamentals of inferential statistics (probability theory, random sampling and estimation theory), and inferential statistics itself (confidence intervals, testing). MM*Stat is also designed to help students rework class material independently and to promote comprehension with the help of additional examples. Each chapter starts with the necessary theoretical background, which is followed by a variety of examples. The core examples are based on the content of the respective chapter, while the advanced examples, designed to deepen students’ knowledge, also draw on information and material from previous chapters. The enhanced online version helps students grasp the complexity and the practical relevance of statistical...

  7. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor. (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho


    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded.

  8. Towards 0.1-mm spatial resolution in neutron diffractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stoica, A D


    A design goal for VULCAN, the SNS engineering neutron diffractometer, is to enable spatial mapping with 0.1-mm resolution. Because the targeted applications often involve the use of large samples or special environments, slits cannot be used for this purpose. In this paper, methods to achieve 0.1-mm spatial resolution are outlined. For the incident beam, a new compact focusing device is proposed. The device is made of a stack of bent silicon wafers, each having a reflective multilayer (supermirror) deposited on one side and a neutron-absorbing layer on the other side. The optimal design to minimize the optical spatial aberrations is discussed and Monte Carlo simulation results are presented. For the diffracted beam, imaging devices made from thick packets of diffracting bent silicon wafers (known as Bragg mirrors) could be used. The requirements to achieve sharp imaging together with a large phase-space acceptance window are discussed and preliminary testing results are presented. (orig.)

  9. Udtrækning af 10 mm ankerbolte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    Denne rapport beskriver forsøg med udtrækning af 10 mm ankerbolte udført af Laboratoriet for Bærende Konstruktioner, Instituttet for Bygningsteknik, Aalborg Universitet. Forsøgene blev udført d. 19. og 21. juni 2001. Forsøgene blev udført dels på Hjørring Sygehus og dels på Laboratoriet.......Denne rapport beskriver forsøg med udtrækning af 10 mm ankerbolte udført af Laboratoriet for Bærende Konstruktioner, Instituttet for Bygningsteknik, Aalborg Universitet. Forsøgene blev udført d. 19. og 21. juni 2001. Forsøgene blev udført dels på Hjørring Sygehus og dels på Laboratoriet....

  10. 1st International Conference of IFToMM Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparetto, Alessandro


    This volume contains the Proceedings of the First International Conference of IFToMM Italy (IFIT2016), held at the University of Padova, Vicenza, Italy, on December 1-2, 2016. The book contains contributions on the latest advances on Mechanism and Machine Science. The fifty-nine papers deal with such topics as biomechanical engineering, history of mechanism and machine science, linkages and mechanical controls, multi-body dynamics, reliability, robotics and mechatronics, transportation machinery, tribology, and vibrations.

  11. Experimental investigations of 3 mm aperture PPLN structures (United States)

    Kolker, D.; Pronyushkina, A.; Boyko, A.; Kostyukova, N.; Trashkeev, S.; Nuyshkov, B.; Shur, V.


    We are reporting about investigation of domestic 3 mm aperture periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures for cascaded mid-IR OPO. Wide aperture periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures at multigrating, fan-out and multi fan-out configuration were prepared at “Labfer LTD”. Laser source based on such structures can be used for special applications. Four different PPLN structures were investigated and effective aperture for effective pumping was defined.

  12. Fusion plasma diagnostics with mm-waves an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hartfuss, Hans-Jürgen


    Filling a gap in the literature, this introduction to the topic covers the physics of the standard microwave diagnostics established on modern fusion experiments, and the necessary technological background from the field of microwave engineering. Written by well-known mm-wave diagnosticians in the field of fusion physics, the textbook includes such major diagnostic techniques as electron cyclotron emission, interferometry, reflectometry, polarimetry, and scattering.



    Hizir Sofyan; Noer Azam Achsani


    In line with the development of computer and information technology, interactive learning become an alternative choice to the conventional one. MM*Indo is an interactive introductory to the world of statistics using Indonesian Language. This software would help the student to understand the statistic lectures, especially in the elementary phase, through it’s dynamic explanation and many practical exercises. The software is supported by the XploRe statistical programming language a...

  14. Laparoscopic 5-mm Trocar Site Herniation and Literature Review


    Yamamoto, Miya; Minikel, Laura; Zaritsky, Eve


    Objective: To evaluate the evidence for fascial closure of 5-mm laparoscopic trocar sites. Methods: We conducted electronic database searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library for articles published between November 2008 and December 2010. We used the keywords trocar hernia, trocar-site hernia, laparoscopic hernia, trocar port-site hernia, laparoscopic port-site hernia. Prospective and retrospective case series, randomized trials, literature reviews, and randomized animal studies of trocar h...

  15. An accidental death caused by an unexploded 40-mm grenade. (United States)

    Dulger, H E; Tokdemir, M


    Unexploded grenades are potentially dangerous materials. Numerous grenades have been found to be unexploded after wars have ended. We present an interesting case of an unexploded grenade that was found accidentally in a soldier's skull. On physical examination, the entrance wound of an unusual penetrating object was noted. This unusual physical finding led us to undertake radiographic examination. A 40-mm unexploded grenade was noticed on the radiograph of the soldier's skull.

  16. Survival, growth, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm PIT tags (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L.; Rabe, Craig; Nelson, Doug D


    The ability to represent a population of migratory juvenile fish with PIT tags becomes difficult when the minimum tagging size is larger than the average size at which fish begin to move downstream. Tags that are smaller (e.g., 8 and 9 mm) than the commonly used 12-mm PIT tags are currently available, but their effects on survival, growth, and tag retention in small salmonid juveniles have received little study. We evaluated growth, survival, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of three size-groups: 40–49-mm fish were implanted with 8- and 9-mm tags, and 50– 59-mm and 60–69-mm fish were implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm tags. Survival 28 d after tagging ranged from 97.8% to 100% across all trials, providing no strong evidence for a fish-size-related tagging effect or a tag size effect. No biologically significant effects of tagging on growth in FL (mm/d) or weight (g/d) were observed. Although FL growth in tagged fish was significantly reduced for the 40–49-mm and 50–59-mm groups over the first 7 d, growth rates were not different thereafter, and all fish were similar in size by the end of the trials (day 28). Tag retention across all tests ranged from 93% to 99%. We acknowledge that actual implantation of 8- or 9-mm tags into small fish in the field will pose additional challenges (e.g., capture and handling stress) beyond those observed in our laboratory. However, we conclude that experimental use of the smaller tags for small fish in the field is supported by our findings.

  17. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    CERN Document Server



    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons and protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5*10^34 1/cm^2s, background hit rates of more than 10 kHz/cm^2 are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drift-tubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit ...

  18. Cannon Wear and Erosion Science and Technology Objective Program (STO) 155-mm Projectile Rotating Band/Obturation for Extended Range (United States)


    models and body engraving models have been developed to aid in the design of new bands. Welding techniques and parameters for soft iron, nickel, MONEL...sticker test 21 TABLES 1 Candidate materials for rotating bands 7 2 Characterization of as- welded and fired bands 8 3 Mass properties...muzzle velocity (increased spin and frictional heating), poor obturation, and bore surface effects caused rapid heating and melting of the copper band

  19. 155-mm M795 Aerofuze Test at the KOFA Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, 19 May 2015 (United States)


    Monday, May 18, 2015, at gun location GP19-1 at YPG, a John Douglas Associates Decommutator/Breakout Box (JDA DECOM/BOB) was set up in the...DECOM lock was established and relayed to the gun crew before the round was screwed onto the projectile, which was the second M795 spotter round...during the 1BB test. The round was fired approximately 3:09 min later, and the signal lock was retained throughout 51 sec of flight until impact

  20. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras (United States)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei


    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  1. Does the St. Jude Regent 17-mm Offer Better Outcomes Than the Hemodynamic Plus 17-mm Aortic Valve Mechanical Prothesis? (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Baboci, Arben; Giunti, Gabriele; Esposito, Giampiero; Kajo, Efrosina; Nuellari, Edmond; Vanini, Vittorio


    The aim of the present study is to report the early and mid-term clinical and hemodynamic results of a prospective trial investigating the clinical performance of the St. Jude Medical Regent 17 mm (SJMR-17) versus St. Jude Medical Hemodynamic Plus 17 mm (SJMHP-17). Between January 2000 and August 2013, 20 patients (Group I) with aortic valve (AV) stenosis underwent first time AV replacement with a SJMR-17 and nine patients (Group II) underwent AV replacement with a SJMHP-17. The mean follow-up was 58 ± 31 months. There was one death in Group I. The end-diastolic IVS thickness and end-systolic posterior left ventricle (LV) wall thickness was reduced significantly in boths groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006 in Group I and p = 0.007 and p = 0.011 in Group II). The peak and mean transprosthesis gradients (P-TPG and M-TPG) were 29 ± 6.8 mmHg and 17.5 ± 4.5 mmHg in Group I, significantly lower than in Group II (55.2 ± 19.7 mmHg and 28.8 ± 7.7 mmHg). The postoperative left ventricular mass (LVM) and indexed left ventricular mass (LVMi) were reduced significantly in both groups versus the preoperative values. The postoperative LVMi was 114.5 ± 10.6 g/m(2) in Group I versus 127 ± 8 g/m(2) in Group II (p = 0.01). With dobutamine, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac output, transprosthesis peak, and mean gradients increased significantly in both groups, however, the P-TPG and M-TPG were significantly higher in Group II (p = 0.026 and p = 0.022) despite a non-significant increase of the indexed effective orifice area. The SJMR-17 can be employed with satisfactory postoperative clinical and hemodynamic outcomes in patients with small aortic annulus, especially in elderly patients offering better outcome than SJMHP-17. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Loukitcheva, Maria [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Shimojo, Masumi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Solanki, Sami K. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany); White, Stephen M., E-mail: [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  3. mm-wave EM-imaging chipless RFID system


    Zomorrodi, Mohammad


    A new mm-wave imaging chipless RFID system is proposed. The system comprises a multi-bit tiny chipless RFID tag, a double sided printed dipole array (DSPDA) as the reader antenna and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing algorithm. The multi-bit tags comprise a series of meander line and strip line polarizers on a paper substrate. A linearly polarized (LP) incident wave illuminates the tag surface at 60 GHz instrumentation scientific and medical (ISM) band. The DSPDA is a four-e...

  4. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  5. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.


    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  6. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.


    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  7. Living with Omniback and the 8mm drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.C.


    Apollo's OmniBack backup system provides a convenient and effective way of storing network backup information on 8mm tape. In addition it has a journaling facility to write extensive log files, recording the backup process in almost any degree of detail desired. The directory structure and file names used are logical and well-defined. Summary files announce the degree of success of the backup as specified in the work file. The system will run unattended under the UNIX cron command, allowing the backup to be performed during the night when user demands on the network are small and most user files are free.

  8. Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods in computational enzymology. (United States)

    van der Kamp, Marc W; Mulholland, Adrian J


    Computational enzymology is a rapidly maturing field that is increasingly integral to understanding mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and their practical applications. Combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are important in this field. By treating the reacting species with a quantum mechanical method (i.e., a method that calculates the electronic structure of the active site) and including the enzyme environment with simpler molecular mechanical methods, enzyme reactions can be modeled. Here, we review QM/MM methods and their application to enzyme-catalyzed reactions to investigate fundamental and practical problems in enzymology. A range of QM/MM methods is available, from cheaper and more approximate methods, which can be used for molecular dynamics simulations, to highly accurate electronic structure methods. We discuss how modeling of reactions using such methods can provide detailed insight into enzyme mechanisms and illustrate this by reviewing some recent applications. We outline some practical considerations for such simulations. Further, we highlight applications that show how QM/MM methods can contribute to the practical development and application of enzymology, e.g., in the interpretation and prediction of the effects of mutagenesis and in drug and catalyst design.

  9. Expanding Endovascular Therapy of Very Small Ruptured Aneurysms with the 1.5-mm Coil (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Masoud, Hesham; Tarlov, Nicholas; Holsapple, James; Chin, Lawrence S.; Norbash, Alexander M.


    Background Very small ruptured aneurysms (≤3 mm) demonstrate a significant risk for procedural rupture with endovascular therapy. Since 2007, 1.5-mm-diameter coils have been available (Micrus, Microvention, and ev3), allowing neurointerventionalists the opportunity to offer patients with very small aneurysms endovascular treatment. In this study, we review the clinical and angiographic outcome of patients with very small ruptured aneurysms treated with the 1.5-mm coil. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study in which we examined consecutive ruptured very small aneurysms treated with coil embolization at a single institution. The longest linear aneurysm was recorded, even if the first coil was sized to a smaller transverse diameter. Very small aneurysms were defined as ≤3 mm. Descriptive results are presented. Results From July 2007 to March 2015, 81 aneurysms were treated acutely with coils in 78 patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 5 patients with 3-mm aneurysms, of which the transverse diameter was ≤2 mm in 3 patients. In all 5 patients, a balloon was placed for hemostatic prophylaxis in case of rupture, and a single 1.5-mm coil was inserted for aneurysm treatment without complication. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 1 patient, residual neck in 2, and residual aneurysm in 2 patients. Aneurysm recanalization was present in 2 patients with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm; a recoiling attempt was unsuccessful in 1 of these 2 patients due to inadvertent displacement and distal coil embolization, but subsequent surgical clipping was successful. Another patient was retreated by surgical clipping for a residual wide-neck carotid terminus aneurysm. One patient died of ventriculitis 3 weeks after presentation; all 4 other patients had an excellent outcome with no rebleed at follow-up (mean 21 months, range 1-62). Conclusion The advent of the 1.5-mm coil may be used in the endovascular treatment of patients with very

  10. Structure and properties of sintered MM-Fe-B magnets (United States)

    Shang, R. X.; Xiong, J. F.; Li, R.; Zuo, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, T. Y.; Chen, R. J.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.


    MM14Fe79.9B6.1 magnets were prepared by conventional sintering method. The Curie temperature of the sintered MM2Fe14B magnet was about 210 °C. When the sintering temperature increased from 1010 °C to 1030 °C, the density of the magnet increased from 6.85 g/cm3 to 7.52 g/cm3. After the first stage tempering at 900 °C, the (BH)max and Hcj had a slight increase. The maximum value of (BH)max = 7.6 MGOe and Hcj = 1080 Oe was obtained when sintered at 1010 °C and tempering at 900 °C, respectively. The grain size grew very large when the sintering temperature increased to 1050 °C, and the magnetic properties deteriorated rapidly. La reduced by ˜ 7.5 at. % in grains, which is almost equal to the increased percentage of Nd. That is mainly because La-Fe-B is very difficult to form the 2: 14: 1 phase.

  11. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Vidossich


    Full Text Available Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-β-lactamases, α-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu and main group (Mg metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions.

  12. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels


    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...... of the AFM probe in space. This means that the limited measuring range of the AFM (40 mu m x 40 mu m x 2.7 um) can be extended by positioning the AFM probe using the movements of the CMM axes (400 mm x 100 mm x 75 mm). Evaluation of the background noise by determining the Sa value of an optical fiat gave...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Salopek


    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone, of 25 mm diameter has been tested on the laboratory hydrocyclonic device. There have been varied the values of relationship between Du/Do the concentration of feed suspension and the greatness of pressure. With thc suspension of fine grindeed limestone and water there have been examined 36 combinations of various values for the mentioned variables, The optimal efficiency of the liquid in overflow has been achieved hy the relationship Du/Do=0.73 ranging from 70...80 % with the concentration of the solids in overflow from 0.3..1.5 % and cut size of 0.004...0.006 mm. There have been shown three schemes of separation of drilling fluids proposing the application of multicyclones instead of centrifuges in the final phase of cleaning the fluids

  14. Conformational analysis of the anomeric forms of kojibiose, nigerose, and maltose using MM3. (United States)

    Dowd, M K; Zeng, J; French, A D; Reilly, P J


    Energy surfaces were computed for relative orientations of the relaxed pyranosyl rings of the two anomeric forms of kojibiose, nigerose, and maltose, the (1----2)-alpha, (1----3)-alpha, and (1----4)-alpha-linked D-glucosyl disaccharides, respectively. Twenty-four combinations of starting conformations of the rotatable side-groups were considered for each disaccharide. Optimized structures were calculated using MM3 on a 20 degree grid spacing of the torsional angles about the glycosidic bonds. The energy surfaces of the six disaccharides were similar in many respects but differed in detail within the low-energy regions. The maps also illustrate the importance of the exo-anomeric effect and linkage type in determining the conformational flexibility of disaccharides. Torsional conformations of known crystal structures of maltosyl-containing molecules lie in a lower MM3 energy range than previously reported.

  15. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates. (United States)

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein


    Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient's final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  16. Characterization of W CMP processes for 200-mm applications (United States)

    Hansen, David A.; Luo, J. S.; Nguyen, John; Fawley, Gregory; Davis, Sue B.; Marty, Lucky F.; Yang, Fermion


    This paper presents Design Of Experiment (DOE) experimental methodology used to determine W CMP process windows for 200 mm wafers using a multi-head polish system, Cybeq Systems IP 8000 polisher. A colloidal dispersed alumina nonferric nitrate slurry and concentric grooved polyurethane pad with a closed cell foam base layer, both from Rodel, were used to examine response matrices for W CMP. Removal rates, non- uniformity and metal: oxide selectivity as a function of polish head pressure and linear velocity were examined. Removal rate trends of W and PECVD oxide, non-uniformity and selectivity as a function of head pressure indicate removal rates > 2000 angstroms/minute, non-uniformity's 10 are achievable. The optimized process obtained through DOE methodology was applied to a device wafer. The corresponding results were a non-uniformity < 2.5%, with no observable dishing, and no observable oxide erosion.

  17. Hybrid QM/MM Molecular Dynamics with AMOEBA Polarizable Embedding. (United States)

    Loco, Daniele; Lagardère, Louis; Caprasecca, Stefano; Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta; Piquemal, Jean-Philip


    We present the implementation of a Born-Oppenheimer (BO) hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) strategy using density functional theory (DFT) and the polarizable AMOEBA force field. This approach couples the Gaussian and Tinker suite of programs through a variational formalism allowing for a full self-consistent relaxation of both the AMOEBA induced dipoles and the DFT electron density at each MD step. As the DFT SCF cycles are the limiting factor in terms of computational efforts and MD stability, we focus on the latter aspect and compare the time-reversible BO (TR-BO) and the extended BO Lagrangian approaches (XL-BO) to the MD propagation. The XL-BO approach allows for stable, energy-conserving trajectories offering various perspectives for hybrid simulations using polarizable force fields.

  18. Magnetic design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlot, Mona, E-mail: [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Mishra, G. [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Soleil, Paris (France); Trillaud, Frederic [Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Sharma, Geetanjali [Soleil, Paris (France)


    In this paper we report the design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator that is under fabrication at Insertion Device Development Laboratory (IDDL) at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India. The field computations are made in RADIA and results are presented in an analytical form for computation of the on axis field and the field on the surface of the coil. On the basis of the findings, a best fit is presented for the model to calculate the field dependence on the gap and the current density. The fit is compared with Moser-Rossmanith formula proposed earlier to predict the magnetic flux density of a superconducting undulator. The field mapping is used to calculate the field integrals and its dependence on gap and current densities as well.

  19. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.


    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such {open_quotes}supersonic{close_quotes} Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Sub-3mm spatial resolution from a large monolithic LaBr3 (Ce scintillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liprandi Silvia


    Full Text Available A Compton camera prototype for ion beam range monitoring via prompt (< 1 ns gamma detection in hadron therapy is being developed and characterized at the Medical Physics Department of LMU Munich. The system consists of a large (50x50x30 mm3 monolithic LaBr3(Ce scintillation crystal as absorber component to detect the multi-MeV Compton scattered photons, together with a stack of 6 double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD acting as scatterer component. Key ingredient of the γ-source reconstruction is the determination of the γ-ray interaction position in the scintillator, which is read out by a 256-fold segmented multi-anode photomultiplier tube (PMT. From simulations an angular resolution of about 1.5o for the photon source reconstruction can be expected for the energy range around 3 – 5 MeV, provided that a spatial resolution of 3 mm can be reached in the absorbing scintillator [1]. Therefore, particular effort was dedicated to characterize this latter property as a function of the γ-ray energy. Intense, tightly collimated 137Cs and 60Co photon sources were used for 2D irradiation scans (step size 0.5 mm as prerequisite for studying the performance of the “k-Nearest-Neighbors” algorithm developed at TU Delft [2] (together with its variant ”Categorical Average Pattern”, CAP and extending its applicability into the energy range beyond the original 511 keV. In this paper we present our most recent interaction position analysis in the absorbing scintillator, leading to a considerably improved value for the spatial resolution: systematic studies were performed as a function of the k-NN parameters and the PMT segmentation. A trend of improving spatial resolution with increasing photon energy was confirmed, resulting in the realization of the presently optimum spatial resolution of 2.9(1 mm @1.3 MeV, thus reaching the design specifications of the Compton camera absorber. The specification goal was reached also for a reduced PMT

  1. Canine laparoscopic ovariectomy using two 3- and 5-mm portal sites: A prospective randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Granados, Juan-Ramón; Usón-Casaus, Jesús; Martínez, José-Manuel; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco; Pérez-Merino, Eva


    Laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOve) was performed in 3 groups (2.7-mm/5-mm, 5-mm/3-mm, and 5-mm telescope/5-mm bipolar forceps) of small dogs (n = 60). Surgical times, bleeding rates, complications, and laparoscopic visualization were recorded and compared among groups. Use of the 3-mm bipolar forceps significantly increased the surgical time and showed higher bleeding rates compared with the 5-mm bipolar forceps. The 2.7-mm telescope significantly decreased the laparoscopic view. No complications were seen in any group. In conclusion, the 2.7-mm 30° telescope or the 3-mm bipolar forceps combined with the 5-mm instruments could be used as an alternative technique for LapOve in dogs up to 10 kg. The 2.7-mm telescope with the 5-mm bipolar forceps was the most efficient combination based on surgical time.

  2. Experimental approach for the uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometry dimensional measurements using computed tomography at the mm and sub-mm scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Roberto; Torralba, Marta; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.


    experimentally by using several calibrated reference artefacts. The main advantage of the presented method is that a previous calibration of the component by a more accurate Coordinate Measuring System (CMS) is not needed. In fact, such CMS would still hold all the typical limitations of optical and tactile...... with the component’s calibration and the micro manufacturing tolerances to demonstrate the suitability of the presented CT calibration procedure. The 2U/T ratios resulting from the validation workpiece are, respectively, 0.27 (VDI) and 0.35 (MPE), by assuring tolerances in the range of ± 20–30 µm. For the dental...... file, the EN analysis is favorable in the majority of the cases (70.4%) and 2U/T is equal to 0.31 for sub-mm measurands (L

  3. Updating the model TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM); Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)


    In the context of the project ''Development of a model for the computation of the air pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption of combustion engines in mobile devices and machines'', the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research GmbH (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) has created the model TREMOD-MM (TREMOD Mobile Machinery). Thus a detailed computation of the emissions from mobile devices and machines in the agriculture, construction industry, forestry and gardening as well as the sport shipping and passenger shipping can be accomplished. Strongly differentiated data are considered to the age structure, engine performance, use and emission behaviour. Thus it is possible to compute the emissions for different scenarios in high degree of detail.

  4. Radio pill antenna range test (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.


    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  5. The cosmic background radiation - Prospects for MM astronomy (United States)

    Lasenby, A. N.; Gull, S. F.

    The various ways in which anisotropies in the 3 K background are being investigated are reviewed. Intrinsic (primordial) anisotropy has either adiabatic or isothermal disturbances that are detected by their adiabatic, gravitational or Doppler signatures. Analytic models relate the observed anisotropies to variations in mass density fields to gain a perspective on the formation of galaxies and galactic clusters. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich decrement (SZD) is a perturbation of the black-body spectrum caused by passage of the radiation through hot intracluster gas. Analytic modeling of this effect permits extracting data on conditions in intracluster gas. Significant corrective efforts are required when using ground-based instrumentation because of distortions caused by atmospheric interference. Only balloon- or aircraft-borne bolometry has been carried out at mm wavelengths for intrinsic effects. The SZD has been examined using the Owens Valley 40 m dish, the Mauna Kea IR telescope, the Bell Labs 7 m dish and the NRAO 12 m dish, and the UKIRT facility on Mauna Kea. All experiments have illustrated the importance of minimizing and stabilizing sidelobe effects in the observations.

  6. A 24mm diameter fibre positioner for spectroscopic surveys (United States)

    Hörler, Philipp; Kronig, Luzius; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed


    One of the big research topics in modern cosmology is the mystery of dark Energy. To unveil the secret, cosmologists want to measure precisely the evolution of large scale structures in the universe. One way of doing so is to measure the 3D location of a high number of galaxies. By measuring the redshift of a galaxy, it is possible to find its distance. In order to measure a high number of galaxies in a practical amount of time, we need to observe multiple objects in parallel. Instead of a spectrograph, thousands of optical fibres are placed in the focal plane of a telescope. They will transmit the light of many objects to a spectrograph. Each fibre has to be positioned to several μm precision in the focal plane of a telescope for each exposure. Each fibre is positioned by a 2-axis fibre positioner. In this paper such a fibre positioner with 24-mm diameter is presented. It is driven by two brushless DC motors in combination with a backlash free gearbox. The positioner has an optimal central fibre path and improved angular alignment. The fibre runs through the centre of the positioner and is only bent at the top to reach its target position. In this way, the flexion and torsion of the fibre are minimal. In addition to the high positioning accuracy, the design is optimized to allow a minimal tilt error of the fibre. This is demonstrated using a novel optical tilt measurement system.

  7. Outpatient endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy using 2-mm instruments. (United States)

    Reardon, P R; Preciado, A; Scarborough, T; Matthews, B; Marti, J L


    For a long time it has been known that sympathectomy is an effective treatment for hyperhidrosis and other conditions. The surgical options available until recently usually have required thoracotomy or large posterior incisions, and physicians generally have been reluctant to recommend surgery for most patients with "benign" disorders. Recently, thoracoscopic techniques have allowed surgeons to offer these patients a permanent solution with minimal surgical trauma. In 20 patients, 30 endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies (ETS) were performed for several indications. Nine patients had bilateral sympathectomies. The procedures were performed on the day of admission, with the patient under general anesthesia using double lumen endotracheal intubation and hand temperature monitoring. Each lung was reinflated on completion of the sympathectomy, and residual pneumothorax aspirated before closure of the incisions. No placement of chest tubes was performed in the operating room. All sympathectomies were completed thoracoscopically. There were no major complications, and 90% of the patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission. The average operative time was 69 min. Findings from this study show that ETS is a safe and effective procedure that can be performed routinely on an outpatient basis. The use of miniendoscopic (2-mm) instrumentation is safe and effective in most patients and a helpful adjunct in providing these patients with minimally traumatic surgery. Long-term results should be evaluated on the basis of specific indications for sympathectomy.

  8. mm-Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for Ultra-High Speed Wireless Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Large FCC spectrum allocations for wireless transmission...... at 71–76GHz and 81–86GHz allow high-bandwidth, long and medium distance point-to-point links. Photonic integration may pave the way to practical applicability of such hybrid links by reduction in complexity, size and – most important – cost....

  9. MM&T: Bibliography on Optical Testing with Appendix. (United States)


    COMPARATORS OF HIGH PRECISSION FOR THE GONIOMETRY OF PRISMS" Trans. Opt. Soc., 23, 297 (1921) No abstract provided. HARPER, D.C. "A COMPARATIVE METHOD OF...computers are critical. Although reliable methods for measuring surface roughness in the 20 - 125 min. range have been in use for some time, no method in...of the laser is scheduled for 1982. Timely and reliable fabrication will be essential. Thus, single-point diamond turning forms an integral part of

  10. Use of Processed Nerve Allografts to Repair Nerve Injuries Greater Than 25 mm in the Hand. (United States)

    Rinker, Brian; Zoldos, Jozef; Weber, Renata V; Ko, Jason; Thayer, Wesley; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Leversedge, Fraser J; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory


    Processed nerve allografts (PNAs) have been demonstrated to have improved clinical results compared with hollow conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps less than 25 mm; however, the use of PNAs for longer gaps warrants further clinical investigation. Long nerve gaps have been traditionally hard to study because of low incidence. The advent of the RANGER registry, a large, institutional review board-approved, active database for PNA (Avance Nerve Graft; AxoGen, Inc, Alachua, FL) has allowed evaluation of lower incidence subsets. The RANGER database was queried for digital nerve repairs of 25 mm or greater. Demographics, injury, treatment, and functional outcomes were recorded on standardized forms. Patients younger than 18 and those lacking quantitative follow-up data were excluded. Recovery was graded according to the Medical Research Council Classification for sensory function, with meaningful recovery defined as S3 or greater level. Fifty digital nerve injuries in 28 subjects were included. There were 22 male and 6 female subjects, and the mean age was 45. Three patients gave a previous history of diabetes, and there were 6 active smokers. The most commonly reported mechanisms of injury were saw injuries (n = 13), crushing injuries (n = 9), resection of neuroma (n = 9), amputation/avulsions (n = 8), sharp lacerations (n = 7), and blast/gunshots (n = 4). The average gap length was 35 ± 8 mm (range, 25-50 mm). Recovery to the S3 or greater level was reported in 86% of repairs. Static 2-point discrimination (s2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWF) were the most common completed assessments. Mean s2PD in 24 repairs reporting 2PD data was 9 ± 4 mm. For the 38 repairs with SWF data, protective sensation was reported in 33 repairs, deep pressure in 2, and no recovery in 3. These data compared favorably with historical data for nerve autograft repairs, with reported levels of meaningful recovery of 60% to 88%. There were no reported adverse effects

  11. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthon Srivaro1,


    Full Text Available Lumber drying is the most energy and time consuming process within the rubberwood lumber industry. The aim ofthis study was to develop an effective drying schedule for rubberwood lumber by accelerating the moisture movement out oflumber without degrading the lumber during drying. The study explored the effect of dry bulb temperature (60oC, 75oC and90oC, steaming at the beginning of drying, predrying of lumber prior to drying, and top loading of lumber on the dryingcharacteristics and lumber quality (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color of 30mm thick rubberwood lumber under thetarget EMC at 4% and air velocity of 4m/s. Accelerated conventional temperature drying of lumber at 90oC reduced thedrying time by ~50% from 117 hours to 54 hours but increased the energy consumption by 22% with respect to the conventionaltemperature drying at 60oC. The average activation energy for drying was 26 kJ/mol. Drying temperature had verylittle effect on quality of lumber after drying (bow, crook, twist, end splitting and color. Steaming at the beginning of dryingand predrying of lumber prior to drying reduced and increased the percentage of end splitting, respectively. A top load ofabout 300 kg/m2 slightly decreased twist. Drying at higher temperatures produced more casehardening within the lumber butconditioning at higher temperatures was more effective in releasing the residual stress generated by drying. After conditioningat high temperatures prong of less than 0.5° casehardening was obtained.

  12. The proportions of people living with HIV in low and middle-income countries who test tuberculin skin test positive using either a 5 mm or a 10 mm cut-off: a systematic review. (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Gupta, Ankur; Samandari, Taraz; Lawn, Stephen D


    A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) is often defined by skin induration of ≥10 mm in people who are HIV-seronegative. However, to increase sensitivity for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the context of impaired immune function, a revised cut-off of ≥5 mm is used for people living with HIV infection. The incremental proportion of patients who are included by this revised definition and the association between this proportion and CD4+ cell count are unknown. The literature was systematically reviewed to determine the proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) without evidence of active tuberculosis in low and middle-income countries who tested TST-positive using cut-offs of ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm of induration. The difference in the proportion testing TST-positive using the two cut-off sizes was calculated for all eligible studies and was stratified by geographical region and CD4+ cell count. A total of 32 studies identified meeting criteria were identified, providing data on 10,971 PLWH from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas. The median proportion of PLWH testing TST-positive using a cut-off of ≥5 mm was 26.8% (IQR, 19.8-46.1%; range, 2.5-81.0%). Using a cut-off of ≥10 mm, the median proportion of PLWH testing TST-positive was 19.6% (IQR, 13.7-36.8%; range 0-52.1%). The median difference in the proportion of PLWH testing TST-positive using the two cut-offs was 6.0% (IQR, 3.4-10.1%; range, 0-37.6%). Among those with CD4+ cell counts of cut-off that were between 5.0 and 9.9 mm in diameter was similar (12.5%, 12.9% and 10.5%, respectively). There is a small incremental yield in the proportion of PLWH who test TST-positive when using an induration cut-off size of ≥5 mm compared to ≥10 mm. This proportion was similar across the range of CD4+ cell strata, supporting the current standardization of this cut-off at all levels of immunodeficiency.

  13. Establishment of Cell Lines from Both Myeloma Bone Marrow and Plasmacytoma: SNU_MM1393_BM and SNU_MM1393_SC from a Single Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Koh


    Full Text Available Purpose. We tried to establish clinically relevant human myeloma cell lines that can contribute to the understanding of multiple myeloma (MM. Materials and Methods. Mononuclear cells obtained from MM patient’s bone marrow were injected via tail vein in an NRG/SCID mouse. Fourteen weeks after the injection, tumor developed at subcutis of the mouse. The engraftment of MM cells into mouse bone marrow (BM was also observed. We separated and cultured cells from subcutis and BM. Results. After the separation and culture of cells from subcutis and BM, we established two cell lines originating from a single patient (SNU_MM1393_BM and SNU_MM1393_SC. Karyotype of the two newly established MM cell lines showed tetraploidy which is different from the karyotype of the patient (diploidy indicating clonal evolution. In contrast to SNU_MM1393_BM, cell proliferation of SNU_MM1393_SC was IL-6 independent. SNU_MM1393_BM and SNU_MM1393_SC showed high degree of resistance against bortezomib compared to U266 cell line. SNU_MM1393_BM had the greater lethality compared to SNU_MM1393_SC. Conclusion. Two cell lines harboring different site tropisms established from a single patient showed differences in cytokine response and lethality. Our newly established cell lines could be used as a tool to understand the biology of multiple myeloma.

  14. Dual frequency MM-wave radar for antitank helicopter (United States)

    Jehle, F. X.; Meinel, H.


    Helicopters are gaining increasing significance for air close support, airborne landing, tank unit interdiction and both helicopter and tank engagement missions. To support these mission phases, sensors are required for obstacle warning, navigation, and moving and fixed target indication for weapon designation. The majority of the present systems use optical and infrared sensors; some of them apply laser systems. These sensor systems are subject to considerable limitations with respect to their capability of penetrating bad weather zones, fog, and battlefield environment (dust, smoke, man-made fog etc.). The design concept of a dual-frequency radar operating in millimeter wave range which avoids these drawbacks and complements existing sensors is presented. It consists of a 60 GHz radar subsystem for obstacle warning including the detection of wires up to a range of approximately 500 m; due to the selection of a frequency in the absorption line of oxygen resulting in a high atmospheric attenuation (16 dB/km), the susceptibility to interception and thus also to interference electronic countermeasures can be maintained at a very low level. A 50 GHz radar subsystem (attenuation as low as 0.3 dB/km) with its range of approximately 5 km against targets of interest is used for navigation, fixed and moving target indication as well as weapon designation. Due to the combination of the two subsystems (50/60 GHz), high-value components (antenna, scanner, receiver assemblies, control and indicator units) can be used jointly for both subsystems, so that the special features of each subsystem become available at reasonable expenses.

  15. Reconfigurable Tri Band mm wave Low Noise Amplifier (United States)


    and constant “flat” gain across a wide frequency range from a low noise amplifier results in a significant sacrifice in amplifier linearity at the...conference. Figure 1 shows the predicted gain, noise figure, and in/out return loss response of a balanced wideband two-stage low- noise pHEMT...MMIC coupler loss increases LNA noise figure by 0.3 to 0.4 dB, and reduces LNA gain. Figure 1. Predicted performance for a balanced , wideband LNA

  16. 0.8mm extragalactic surveys of nearby galaxies (United States)

    Villicaña-Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Martín, Sergio; Martín-Pintado, Jesus; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Guesten, Rolf; Armijos, Jairo; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan Pablo; Klein, Bernd; Heyminck, Stefan; Díaz, Angeles I.; Binette, Luc; Carreto-Parra, Francisco; Aladro, Rebeca


    We present the first submillimetric line survey of extragalactic sources carried out by APEX. The surveys cover the 0.8 mm atmospheric window from 270 to 370GHz toward NGC253, NGC4945 and Arp220. We found in NGC 253, 150 transitions of 26 molecules. For NGC 4945, 136 transitions of 24 molecules, and 64 transitions of 17 molecules for Arp 220. Column densities and rotation temperatures have been determinate using the Local Thermodinamical Equilibrium(LTE) line profile simulation and fitting in the MADCUBA IJ software. The differences found in ratios between the Galactic Center and the starburst galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest that the gas is less processed in the latter than in the Galactic Center. The high 18O/17O ratios in the galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest also material less processed in the nuclei of these galaxies than in the Galactic Center. This is consistent with the claim that 17O is a more representative primary product than 18O in stellar nucleosynthesis (Wilson and Rood 1994); Also, we did a Multitransitions study of H3O+ at 307GHz, 364GHz, 388GHz and 396GHz. From our non-LTE analysis of H3O+ in NGC253 with RADEX we found that the collisional excitation can not explain the observed intensity of the ortho 396 GHz line. Excitation by radiation from the dust in the Far-IR can roughly explain the observations if the H2 densities are relatively low. From the derived H3O+ column densities we conclude that the chemistry of this molecule is dominated by ionization produce by the starburst in NGC253 (UV radiation from the O stars) and Arp 220 (cosmic rays from the supernovae) and likely from the AGN in NGC4549 (X-rays ); Finally, we report, for the first time, the tentative detection of the molecular ion HCNH+ (precursor of HCN and HNC) toward a galaxy, NGC4945, abundance explain the claimed enhancement of HCN abundance in the AGN, due to the enhancement of the ionization rate by X-rays. The abundance is much larger than the Galactic center of the

  17. Development of optical ground verification method for μm to sub-mm reflectors (United States)

    Stockman, Y.; Thizy, C.; Lemaire, P.; Georges, M.; Mazy, E.; Mazzoli, A.; Houbrechts, Y.; Rochus, P.; Roose, S.; Doyle, D.; Ulbrich, G.


    Large reflectors and antennas for the IR to mm wavelength range are being planned for many Earth observation and astronomical space missions and for commercial communication satellites as well. Scientific observatories require large telescopes with precisely shaped reflectors for collecting the electro-magnetic radiation from faint sources. The challenging tasks of on-ground testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of the reflector shapes and antenna structures and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperatures). Due to the specific surface characteristics of reflectors operating in these spectral regions, standard optical metrology methods employed in the visible spectrum do not provide useful measurement results. The current state-of-the-art commercial metrology systems are not able to measure these types of reflectors because they have to face the measurement of shape and waviness over relatively large areas with a large deformation dynamic range and encompassing a wide range of spatial frequencies. 3-D metrology (tactile coordinate measurement) machines are generally used during the manufacturing process. Unfortunately, these instruments cannot be used in the operational environmental conditions of the reflector. The application of standard visible wavelength interferometric methods is very limited or impossible due to the large relative surface roughnesses involved. A small number of infrared interferometers have been commercially developed over the last 10 years but their applications have also been limited due to poor dynamic range and the restricted spatial resolution of their detectors. These restrictions affect also the surface error slopes that can be captured and makes their application to surfaces manufactured using CRFP honeycomb technologies rather difficult or impossible. It has therefore been considered essential, from the viewpoint of supporting future ESA exploration missions, to

  18. The Power of (Near Simultaneous Multi-Frequency Observations for mm-VLBI and Astrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rioja


    Full Text Available Simultaneous or near-simultaneous observations at multiple frequency bands have the potential to overcome the fundamental limitation imposed by the atmospheric propagation in mm-VLBI observations. The propagation effects place a severe limit in the sensitivity achievable in mm-VLBI, reducing the time over which the signals can be coherently combined, and preventing the use of phase referencing and astrometric measurements. We present two demonstrations of the power of (near simultaneous multi-frequency observations with the KVN and VLBA, and our recently developed analysis strategies to enable new measurements at mm-VLBI. The first case comprises simultaneous observations at 22, 43, 87 and 130 GHz of a group of five AGNs, the weakest of which is ∼200 mJy at 130 GHz, with angular separations ranging from 3.6 to 11 degrees, using the KVN. We analysed this data using the Frequency Phase Transfer (FPT and the Source Frequency Phase Referencing (SFPR techniques, which use the observations at a lower frequency to correct those at a higher frequency. The results of the analysis provide an empirical demonstration of the increase in the coherence times at 130 GHz from a few tens of seconds to about twenty minutes, with FPT, and up to many hours with SFPR. Moreover the astrometric analysis provides high precision relative position measurements between two frequencies, including, for the first time, astrometry at 130 GHz. The second case is a variation of the above, whereby adding dedicated wide-band cm-wavelength observations to measure the ionosphere eliminates the need for a second, calibrator, source. This addresses the scarcity of calibrators at mm-VLBI. We dubbed this technique Multi Frequency Phase Referencing (MFPR. We present bona fide astrometrically aligned VLBA images of BL Lacertae at 22 and 43 GHz using MFPR, which, combined with results from conventional phase referencing at cm-wavelengths, suggests the VLBI core has a recollimation shock

  19. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  20. Stress Analysis on Single Cobalt/Chrome Prosthesis With a 15-mm Cantilever Placed Over 10/13/15-mm-length Implants: A Simulated Photoelastic Model Study. (United States)

    Gastaldo, José Fábio Guastelli; Pimentel, Angélica Castro; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Laganá, Dalva Cruz


    The aim of study was to assess the stress around 10/13/15-mm implants in the mandibular area with a 15-mm cantilevered acrylic-resin-coated prostheses following the application force, using the photoelasticity method. Three photoelastic mandibular models were created containing 10-, 13-, and 15-mm implants in length and 3.75 mm in diameter. The implants had bore internal hex connections and were placed parallel to the intermental region. Abutments with 1-mm high cuffs were placed over the implants, and a single cobalt/chrome metallic prosthesis with a 15-mm cantilever, coated with thermoplastic acrylic resin, was placed on top. Loads of 1.0 and 3.0 bars were applied, and the images were photographed and assessed by photoelasticity method. The greatest stress levels were observed for the 10-mm implants. The stress pattern was the same regardless of implant length; only the magnitude of the stress along the implant body revealed changes. Increased implant length played a role in reducing stress on the investigated area of the model, and the 15-mm implants exhibited the best performance in regard to stress distribution. The highest stress levels were found in the implants closest to the cantilever and the central implant. The longest implants were more favorable in regard to the stress distribution on the peri-implant support structures in the 15-mm cantilevered prosthesis under loads.

  1. The science case for simultaneous mm-wavelength receivers in radio astronomy (United States)

    Dodson, Richard; Rioja, María J.; Jung, Taehyun; Goméz, José L.; Bujarrabal, Valentin; Moscadelli, Luca; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.


    This review arose from the European Radio Astronomy Technical Forum (ERATec) meeting held in Firenze, October 2015, and aims to highlight the breadth and depth of the high-impact science that will be aided and assisted by the use of simultaneous mm-wavelength receivers. Recent results and opportunities are presented and discussed from the fields of: continuum VLBI (observations of weak sources, astrometry, observations of AGN cores in spectral index and Faraday rotation), spectral line VLBI (observations of evolved stars and massive star-forming regions) and time domain observations of the flux variations arising in the compact jets of X-ray binaries. Our survey brings together a large range of important science applications, which will greatly benefit from simultaneous observing at mm-wavelengths. Such facilities are essential to allow these applications to become more efficient, more sensitive and more scientifically robust. In some cases without simultaneous receivers the science goals are simply unachievable. Similar benefits would exist in many other high frequency astronomical fields of research.

  2. Polarimetric Imaging Of Protoplanetary Disks From The Optical To Sub-Mm (United States)

    De Boer, Jos; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; van der Plas, G.; Snik, F.


    To learn how planets form from the smallest building blocks within protoplanetary disks, we first need to know how dust grains grow from micron to mm sizes. Polarimetry across the spectrum has proven to be sensitive to grain properties like dust size distribution and composition and thus can be used to characterize the scattering grains. However, polarization measured with radio interferometric arrays is rarely studied in concert with optical polarimetry. Our team has successfully calibrated the NIR polarimetric imaging mode of VLT/SPHERE, hence upgrading the instrument from a high-contrast imager to a robust tool for quantitative characterization. In this presentation, we will discuss which lessons can be learned by comparing polarimetry in the optical and sub-mm and explore for which science cases both techniques can complement each other. When we combine the polarimetric capabilities of the most advanced optical high-contrast imagers (e.g., Gemini GPI or VLT SPHERE) with that of ALMA we will be able to study the spatial distribution of an extensive range of different grains, which allows us to take an essential step towards a deeper understanding of planet formation.

  3. Development of a 13C-optimized 1.5-mm high temperature superconducting NMR probe (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Hooker, Jerris W.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.; Edison, Arthur S.


    We report a 1.5-mm NMR probe based on high temperature superconductors operating at 14.1 T optimized for 13C detection. The probe has a total sample volume of about 35 microliters (μL) with an active volume of 20 μL and provides exceptional mass sensitivity for 13C detection. The probe also has excellent 1H sensitivity and employs a 2H lock; 15N irradiation capability can be added in the future. The coils are cooled to about 20 K using a standard Agilent cryogenic refrigeration system, and the sample temperature is regulated near room temperature. The coil design considerations are discussed in detail. This probe is ideal for directly detected 13C NMR experiments for natural products chemistry and metabolomics applications, for which 35 μL is an optimal sample volume. The outstanding 13C sensitivity of this probe allowed us to directly determine the 13C connectivity on 1.1 mg of natural abundance histidine using an INADEQUATE experiment. We demonstrated the utility of this probe for 13C-based metabolomics using a synthetic mixture of common natural abundance metabolites whose concentrations ranged from 1 to 5 mM (40-200 nmol).

  4. Stochastic properties of the geomagnetic field across the 210 mm chain (United States)

    Wanliss, J. A.; Shiokawa, K.; Yumoto, K.


    We explore the stochastic fractal qualities of the geomagnetic field from 210 mm ground-based magnetometers during quiet and active magnetospheric conditions. We search through 10 years of these data to find events that qualify. Quiet intervals are defined by Kp ≤ 1 for 1,440 consecutive minutes. Similarly, active intervals require Kp ≥ 4 for 1,440 consecutive minutes. The total for quiet intervals is ~4.3×106 minutes and 2×108 minutes for active data points. With this large number of events compiled we then characterize changes in the nonlinear statistics of the geomagnetic field via measurements of a fractal scaling exponent. A clear difference in statistical behavior during quiet and active intervals is implied through analysis of the scaling exponents; active intervals generally have larger values of scaling exponents. This means that although 210 mm data appears monofractal on shorter timescales, it is more properly described as a multifractional Brownian motion. Long-range statistical behavior of the geomagnetic field at a local observation site can be described as a multifractional Brownian motion, thus suggesting the statistical structure required of mathematical models of magnetospheric activity. We also find that low-latitudes have scaling exponents that are consistently larger than for high-latitudes.

  5. Interpreting the Thermal Lightcurve of Iapetus at 1.3mm (United States)

    Hagen, Norland Raphael; Moullet, A.; Gurwell, M. A.


    Saturn’s moon Iapetus is distinguished by a clearly defined hemispherical difference in albedo, ranging from 0.03-0.6. This makes it a unique object for re- solving a thermal light curve, because of how flux varies with respect to longitude. By using continuum data from the Submillimeter Array at 1.3 mm and 230 GHz, flux measurements of 0.0688 Jy (bright side) and 0.0899 Jy (dark side) were obtained. A 38-day observation window allowed for the highest contrast in albedo. By converting flux to brightness temperature via Planck’s Law and assuming a standard spectral emissivity value of 0.9, surface temperatures were derived. The darker hemisphere has a surface temperature of 91.899K with σ1 = 3.916 and σ3 = 11.746, while the bright hemisphere has a temperature of 63.939K with σ1 = 1.134 and σ3 = 3.429. This temperature difference at 1.3mm verifies the thermal dichotomy in the subsurface of Iapetus.

  6. 3rd IEEE/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xianwen; Dai, Jian; ReMAR 2015; Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II


    This book presents the most recent advances in the research and applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. It collects 93 independently reviewed papers presented at the Third ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2015) held in Beijing, China, 20-22 July 2015. The conference papers are organized into seven parts to cover the reconfiguration theory, topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. The most recent results on reconfigurable robots are presented including their analysis, design, simulation and control. Bio-inspired mechanisms are also explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. This book further addresses deployable mechanisms and origami-inspired mechanisms and showcases a wide range of successful applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II should be of interest for researchers, eng...

  7. Long-Term Prognosis for Patients with Kawasaki Disease Complicated by Large Coronary Aneurysm (diameter ≥6 mm) (United States)

    Bang, Ji Seok; Kwon, Bo Sang; Song, Mi Kyung; An, Hyo Soon; Song, Young Whan; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il


    Background and Objectives Some patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) develop large coronary aneurysms and subsequent coronary stenosis or obstruction, leading to ischemic heart disease. This study examined the long-term outcomes of patients with KD complicated by large coronary aneurysms. Subjects and Methods The medical records of 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) diagnosed with large coronary aneurysms (diameter ≥6 mm) between December 1986 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed from our institutional database. Results The mean age at onset was 4.6±3.3 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 12.5±6.9 years. Maximum coronary artery internal diameter ranged from 6.1 to 25 mm. Giant coronary aneurysms occurred in 48 patients and coronary aneurysms 6-8 mm in diameter developed in 23 patients. Coronary stenosis and/or complete occlusion occurred in 30 patients (42.3%). Catheter and/or surgical interventions (mean: 1.5 interventions, range: 1-5 interventions) were performed in 20 patients (28.2%), 9 months to 18 years after KD onset, resulting in 33.7% cumulative coronary intervention rates at 20 years after onset. There were no differences in cumulative coronary intervention rates between two coronary aneurysm groups (6-8 mm vs. ≥8 mm). Myocardial infarction occurred in 7 patients with a giant aneurysm and there was one death. Conclusions Long-term survival of patients with KD complicated by large coronary aneurysm was good even though 28.2% of patients underwent multiple catheter or surgical interventions. Careful follow-up is also necessary in KD patients with coronary aneurysms 6-8 mm in diameter, such as those with giant aneurysms. PMID:28765744

  8. Analogue saturation limit of single and double 10 mm microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, J. S., E-mail:; Conneely, T. M. [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Road, St Leonards on Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Horsfield, C. J. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)


    Photek are a well-established supplier of microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to the inertial confinement fusion community. The analogue signals produced at the major inertial confinement fusion facilities cover many orders of magnitude, therefore understanding the upper saturation limit of MCP-PMTs to large low rate signals takes on a high importance. Here we present a study of a single and a double MCP-PMT with 10 mm diameter active area. The saturation was studied for a range of optical pulse widths from 4 ns to 100 ns and at a range of electron gain values: 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} for the single and 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} for the double. We have shown that the saturation level of ∼1.2 nC depends only on the integrated charge of the pulse and is independent of pulse width and gain over this range, but that the level of charge available in deep saturation is proportional to the operating gain.

  9. Intraocular lens exchange through a 3.2-mm corneal incision for opacified intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubaloglu Anil


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate visual and refractive results and complications of intraocular lens (IOL exchange through a 3.2 mm corneal incision for opacified IOLs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 33 eyes of 32 patients with IOL opacification requiring an IOL exchange between July 2003 and March 2007. Exchange surgery was performed through a 3.2-mm temporal clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a new foldable hydrophobic IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, topographical astigmatism, and refractive cylinder were evaluated. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was calculated and complications were recorded. Results: Opacification was observed in 25 eyes (76% with Aqua-Sense, 3 eyes (9% with Hydroview, 3 eyes (9% with MemoryLens IOLs, and 2 eyes (6% with DgR. The mean follow-up period was 36.54 months. An uneventful IOL exchange was achieved in 18 eyes (55%. Zonular dehiscence occurred in 9 eyes (27%, and posterior capsule tear developed in 4 eyes (12%. The mean preoperative BSCVA (mean ± standard deviation, decimal scale was 0.13 ± 0.08 (mean: 20/150, range 20/2000 to 20/60 and improved to 0.63 ± 0.18 (mean: 20/32, range 20/60 to 20/20, P < 0.001. The mean SIA was 0.70 D. Seven eyes (21% had 0.5 D or lower SIA. Conclusion: IOL exchange is a technically challenging procedure with potential risks of reversing the advantages of a prior small-incision cataract surgery. The use of a small corneal incision for IOL exchange could preserve the advantages of modern phacoemulsification surgery with acceptable SIA related to the procedure.

  10. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry E


    is a concern with this material through the use of plain radiographs and computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: All patients received a Longevity HXLPE liner with tantalum beads and either a 28-mm or 36-mm femoral head. Twelve patients (6 in each head size group) agreed to return for 13-year RSA, plain...

  11. A QM/MM and QM/QM/MM study of Kerr, Cotton-Mouton and Jones linear birefringences in liquid acetonitrile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Norman, Patrick


    QM/MM and QM/QM/MM protocols are applied to the ab initio study of the three linear birefringences Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, and Jones, as shown by acetonitrile in the gas and pure liquid phases. The relevant first-order properties as well as linear, quadratic, and cubic frequency-dependent response...

  12. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  13. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  14. Experimental characterization and system simulations of depth of interaction PET detectors using 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm LSO arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St James, Sara; Yang Yongfeng; Wu Yibao; Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam; Shah, Kanai S [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., Watertown, MA 02172 (United States)


    Small animal PET scanners may be improved by increasing the sensitivity, improving the spatial resolution and improving the uniformity of the spatial resolution across the field of view. This may be achieved by using PET detectors based on crystal elements that are thin in the axial and transaxial directions and long in the radial direction, and by employing depth of interaction (DOI) encoding to minimize the parallax error. With DOI detectors, the diameter of the ring of the PET scanner may also be decreased. This minimizes the number of detectors required to achieve the same solid angle coverage as a scanner with a larger ring diameter and minimizes errors due to non-collinearity of the annihilation photons. In this study, we characterize prototype PET detectors that are finely pixelated with individual LSO crystal element sizes of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 20 mm and 0.7 mm x 0.7 mm x 20 mm, read out at both ends by position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). Both a specular reflector and a diffuse reflector were evaluated. The detectors were characterized based on the ability to clearly resolve the individual crystal elements, the DOI resolution and the energy resolution. Our results indicate that a scanner based on any of the four detector designs would offer improved spatial resolution and more uniform spatial resolution compared to present day small animal PET scanners. The greatest improvements to spatial resolution will be achieved when the detectors employing the 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 20 mm crystals are used. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to demonstrate that 2 mm DOI resolution is adequate to ensure uniform spatial resolution for a small animal PET scanner geometry using these detectors. The sensitivity of such a scanner was also simulated using Monte Carlo simulations and was shown to be greater than 10% for a four ring scanner with an inner diameter of 6 cm, employing 20 detectors per scanner ring.

  15. Sportautode MM

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Võrdlustestis ringrajal võtavad mõõtu üheksa sportautot: Lamborghini Aventador LP 700-4, Mercedes-Benz SL 500, Audi RS 5, Nissan GT-R, Bentley Continental Supersports Cabrio ISR, SLS AMG Roadster, Porsche 911 Carrera S, McLaren MP4-12C

  16. MmWave Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication :Analysis of Urban Microcellular Networks (United States)


    Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication may provide high data rates to vehicles via millimeterwave (mmWave) microcellular networks. This report uses stochastic geometry to analyze the coverage of urban mmWave microcellular networks. Prior work ...

  17. VLBA Scientific Memorandum n. 31: Astrometric calibration of mm-VLBI using "Source/Frequency Phase Referenced" observations


    Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria J.


    In this document we layout a new method to achieve "bona fide" high precision Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry (VLBI) astrometric measurements of frequency-dependent positions of celestial sources (even) in the high (mm-wavelength) frequency range, where conventional phase referencing techniques fail. Our method, dubbed "Source/Frequency Phase Referencing" (SFPR) combines fast frequency-switching (or dual-frequency observations) with the source switching of conventional phase referencing tec...

  18. Page 1 Ontheanthus polyandra gen, et sp. azov. 109 about 3 mm. to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in each row are also contiguous, those in the broad basal part of the scale (next to the sterile base) are about 7.4 mm. x 5 mm., those placed more distally about 7 mm. X 3 mm. Some of the synangia show clear signs of being divided, as in Cycadeoidea, into a number of chambers which lie on the two sides of median ...

  19. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E


    unicortical trephine defects was tested in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia using 3 different membranes. The critical-size defect in Copenhagen White rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm, because control defects 8 mm in diameter healed spontaneously. However, it is anatomically not possible to create defects larger...... than 8 mm in an adult Copenhagen White rabbit tibia....

  20. Is 2 mm a safe distance from the inferior alveolar canal to avoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 30, 2015 ... related to implants inserted closer than 2 mm to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) with those inserted further than 2 ... regarding implant proximity to the IAC (Group 1, distance ≤2 mm, Group 2, distance >2 mm). Postoperative .... such injury occurs, a complete healing is difficult if the extent of the injury is not ...

  1. Absorption cross section of building materials at mm wavelength in a reverberation chamber (United States)

    Micheli, D.; Delfini, A.; Pastore, R.; Marchetti, M.; Diana, R.; Gradoni, G.


    The reverberation chamber (RC) method is used to estimate the average absorption cross section of building materials at mm wave frequencies. Analysed samples include concrete, travertine and bricks of different types. The investigation is carried out in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 68 GHz, which is of interest in the next generation of mobile telecommunication system. A cylindrical cavity is transformed into a RC through the use of a mechanical model stirrer. The chamber field is statistically homogeneous and depolarized; therefore it can be used to probe the average response of the sample under test. In particular, through a differential measure of the average quality factor (average insertion loss) it is possible estimate the fraction of power absorbed by the sample under test. Several cube-shape samples have been characterized and compared. Obtained results show that analysed samples have remarkably different levels of the electromagnetic wave absorption, depending on both material density and chemical composition. The absorption of pure water is used as a baseline to determine the dynamic range of the measurement.

  2. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  3. Critical heat flux and boiling heat transfer to water in a 3-mm-diameter horizontal tube.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; Wambsganss, M. W.; Hull, J. R.; France, D. M.


    Boiling of the coolant in an engine, by design or by circumstance, is limited by the critical heat flux phenomenon. As a first step in providing relevant engine design information, this study experimentally addressed both rate of boiling heat transfer and conditions at the critical point of water in a horizontal tube of 2.98 mm inside diameter and 0.9144 m heated length. Experiments were performed at system pressure of 203 kPa, mass fluxes in range of 50 to 200 kg/m{sup z}s, and inlet temperatures in range of ambient to 80 C. Experimental results and comparisons with predictive correlations are presented.

  4. Long-term results using LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Trolle, Waldemar; Anthonsen, Kristian


    to all patients. The questions dealt with complaints according to a visual analog scale (VAS) and were sent a minimum of one year after the surgery (mean time 22 months, range 12-32 month). The overall response rate was 91%. The mean age of the patients was 69 years (range 37-89 years). The patients......%) reported no symptoms at all. Our results suggest that endoscopic management of ZD with the LigaSure™ 5 mm instrument is a minimally invasive, fast and safe method with solid long-term outcome with relief of symptoms and patient satisfaction. This new operative instrument was not found inferior...

  5. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  6. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  7. Hybrid Single-Incision Laparoscopic Colon Cancer Surgery Using One Additional 5 mm Trocar. (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ook; Choi, Dae Jin; Lee, Donghyoun; Lee, Sung Ryol; Jung, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hungdai; Chun, Ho-Kyung


    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a feasible and safe procedure for colorectal cancer. However, SILS has some technical limitations such as collision between instruments and inadequate countertraction. We present a hybrid single-incision laparoscopic surgery (hybrid SILS) technique for colon cancer that involves use of one additional 5 mm trocar. Hybrid SILS for colon cancer was attempted in 70 consecutive patients by a single surgeon between August 2014 and July 2016 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine. Using prospectively collected data, an observational study was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Hybrid SILS was technically completed in 66 patients, with a failure rate of 5.7% (4/70). One patient was converted to open surgery for para-aortic lymph node dissection. Another was converted to open surgery due to severe peritoneal adhesion. An additional trocar was inserted for adhesiolysis in the other two cases. Median lengths of proximal and distal margins were 12.8 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 10.0-18.6), and 8.2 cm (IQR, 5.5-18.3), respectively. Median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (IQR, 18-33). Overall rate of postoperative morbidity was 12.9%, but there were no Clavien-Dindo grade III or IV complications. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 5-7). Hybrid SILS using one additional 5 mm trocar is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical technique for colon cancer. Experienced laparoscopic surgeons can perform hybrid SILS without a learning curve based on the formulaic surgical techniques presented in this article.

  8. Stochastic Geometric Coverage Analysis in mmWave Cellular Networks with a Realistic Channel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebato, Mattia; Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar


    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation cellular networks, since the available spectrum is orders of magnitude larger than in current cellular allocations. To precisely design mmWave systems, it is important to examine mmWave...... interference and SIR coverage under large-scale deployments. For this purpose, we apply an accurate mmWave channel model, derived from experiments, into an analytical framework based on stochastic geometry. In this way we obtain a closed-form SIR coverage probability in large-scale mmWave cellular networks....

  9. Comparison of 6-mm Versus 8-mm-Tip Cryoablation Catheter for the Treatment of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Children: A Prospective Study. (United States)

    Tuzcu, Volkan; Gul, Enes Elvin; Karacan, Mehmet; Kamali, Hacer; Celik, Nida; Akdeniz, Celal


    Due to its safety profile, cryoablation (Cryo) for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is more commonly preferred over radiofrequency (RF) ablation in children in recent years. Recent studies demonstrated high long-term success rates comparable to radiofrequency ablation. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy and safety of an 8-mm-tip versus 6-mm-tip Cryo catheter in the treatment of AVNRT in children. A total of 125 consecutive patients over 10 years of age with AVNRT were included. EnSite system (St. JudeMedical, St Paul, MN, USA) was used to reduce or eliminate fluoroscopy. The acute procedural success was 100% in both groups. The prodecure duration for the 8-mm-tip group was shorter (151.6 ± 63.2 vs. 126.6 ± 36.7 min, p < 0.01, respectively). Fluoroscopy was used in only 7 patients. The mean follow-up duration was 14.6 ± 8.4 months (median 13.5 months, min. 3 months and max. 27 months). The recurrence rate for AVNRT was also comparable between the two groups (6-mm tip: 9.6 vs. 8-mm tip: 8%). Cryo of AVNRT is a safe and effective procedure with comparable acute and mid-term follow-up success rates using 6-mm and 8-mm-tip catheters in children. In addition, procedure duration is shorter with an 8-mm-tip Cryo catheter.

  10. Development and application of specially-focused ultrasonic transducers to location and sizing of defects in 75 mm- to 127 mm-thick austenitic stainless steel weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Benson, S.; McKinley, B.J.; Carodiskey, T.


    Special UT transducer parts, capable of focusing incident signals within a 25 mm {times} 25 mm {times} 25 mm volume in an austenitic stainless weld metal at depths that varied from 25 mm to 127 mm, were developed and demonstrated to be capable of detecting a defect with cross section equivalent to that of a 4.76 mm-dia flat-bottom hole. Defect length sizing could be accomplished to {plus_minus}50% for 100% of the time and to {plus_minus}25% on selected defect types as follows: porosity groups, 100%; cracks, 67%; combined slag and porosity, 60%; and linear slag indications, 59%. Extensive linear elastic-fracture-mechanics analyses were performed to establish allowable defect sizes at functions of stress, based on a cyclic-life criterion of 10{sup 3} full power cycles of the MFTF-B magnet system. These defect sizes were used to determine which UT indicating were to be removed and repaired and which were to be retained and their recorded sizes and locations.

  11. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. Comparison of Methods To Reweight from Classical Molecular Simulations to QM/MM Potentials. (United States)

    Dybeck, Eric C; König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R; Shirts, Michael R


    We examine methods to reweight classical molecular mechanics solvation calculations to more expensive QM/MM energy functions. We first consider the solvation free energy difference between ethane and methanol in a QM/MM Hamiltonian from configurations generated in a cheaper MM potential. The solute molecules in the QM/MM Hamiltonian are treated with B3LYP/6-31G*, and the solvent water molecules are treated classically. The free energy difference in the QM/MM Hamiltonian is estimated using Boltzmann reweighting with both the non-Boltzmann Bennett method (NBB) and the multistate Bennett acceptance ratio (MBAR), and the variance of each method is directly compared for an identical data set. For this system, MBAR-derived methods are found to produce smaller overall uncertainties than NBB-based methods. Additionally, we show that to reduce the variance in the overall free energy difference estimate in this system for a fixed amount of QM/MM calculations, the energy re-evaluations in the Boltzmann reweighting step should be concentrated on the physical MM states with the highest overlap to the QM/MM states, rather than allocated equally over all sampled MM states. We also show that reallocating the QM/MM re-evaluations can be used to diagnose poor overlap between the sampled and target state. The solvation free energies for molecules in the SAMPL4 solvation data set are also calculated in the QM/MM Hamiltonian with NBB and MBAR, and the variances are marginally smaller for MBAR. Overall, NBB and MBAR produce similar variances for systems with poor sampling efficiency, and MBAR provides smaller variances than NBB in systems with high sampling efficiency. Both NBB and MBAR converge to identical solvation free energy estimates in the QM/MM Hamiltonian, and the RMSD to experimental values for molecules in the SAMPL4 solvation data set decreases by approximately 28% when switching from the MM Hamiltonian to the QM/MM Hamiltonian.

  14. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  15. Turbulent Concentration of MM-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scaled-Dependent Multiplier Functions (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Weston, B.; Estremera, Shariff Kareem


    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (asteroids and TNOs) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Here we focus on the asteroids where constituent particle (read "chondrule") sizes are observationally known; similar arguments will hold for TNOs, but the constituent particles in those regions will be smaller, or will be fluffy aggregates, and are unobserved. Traditional growth-bysticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] (or even a mm-cm-size barrier [2]) in turbulent nebulae, while nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids [3]. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, other obstacles are encountered through the 1-10km size range [4]. Another clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids [5]; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios [6-8]. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation [7,8] are determined by a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence [9]. Nebula turbulence can be described by its Reynolds number Re = L/eta sup(4/3), where L = ETA alpha sup (1/2) the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, and a the nebula turbulent viscosity parameter, and ? is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t?. In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can

  16. Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.


    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be

  17. Orbital analysis of two-color laser ranging (United States)

    Schillak, S. R.


    The poster presents the results of analysis of Zimmerwald SLR data for two colors 423nm and 846 nm. Two-color laser ranging were performed by Zimmerwald SLR station from August 2002 to January 2008. The results in each color were treated as two independent stations 7810 Blue and 7810 Infrared. The station positions were determined by NASA Goddard's orbital program GEODYN-II from results of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites. The NEU positions stability were equal to 3.5 mm (N), 3.2 mm (E), 16.5 mm (U) for blue and 3.2 mm (N), 2.9 mm (E), 14.6 (U) for infrared. In the period of study were 47 common monthly points for both colors. The difference between N, E, U components in blue and infrared for common points were equal to 0.8×2.0 mm, 0.4×1.9 mm and -4.8×8.7 mm respectively. The differences between Range Biases for both colors independently for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 were equal to -5.7×8.6 mm and for -5.0×9.5 mm respectively. The same for both satellites annual wave with amplitude 10 mm was detected. This effect can to be explain by differences in atmospheric correction for each color. This same analysis for station Concepcion (7405) couldn't to be performed due to only 8 common points. In future very important should be laser ranging in two-colors 532 nm and 1064 nm for confirmation presented here results, especially that a new sensitive APD detectors for 1064 nm are now available. The atmospheric correction is critical for SLR accuracy upgrading.

  18. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...


    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.


    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  20. Atlantic Test Range (ATR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  1. Light Detection And Ranging (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  2. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  3. Nineteen year results of THA using modular 9 mm S-ROM femoral component in patients with small femoral canals. (United States)

    Drexler, Michael; Dwyer, Tim; Marmor, Meir; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Chakravertty, Rajesh; Chechik, Ofir; Cameron, Hugh U


    A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 30 consecutive THA performed in 25 patients with hypoplastic proximal femurs, who had received a 9-mm uncemented modular S-ROM stem. The mean patient age was 42 years (17-69 years), mean height was 152.5 cm (130-170.5 cm), mean weight was 63 kg (39-90 kg), and mean follow-up period was 19 years (range, 12-23 years). Subsidence was seen in 2 hips, with asymptomatic femoral osteolysis present in 11 hips; overall survival of the femoral stem was 93.3%, with two revisions of the femoral component required for aseptic loosening. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, the use of the S-ROM 9 mm femoral stem in the patient with the small femur was associated with a low revision rate due to aseptic loosening of the stem. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J; DeRijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Haro, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A


    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  5. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J C; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Härö, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A


    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  6. Electromagnetic modelling of GaAs membrane supported mm-wave receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neculoiu, D [IMT Bucharest, 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae str., 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Electronics Department, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, 1-3 Iuliu Maniu Av., 061071 Bucharest (Romania); Muller, A [IMT Bucharest, 32B Erou Iancu Nicolae str., 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Konstantinidis, G [MRG-IESL-FORTH Heraklion, PO Box 1527, Crete (Greece)


    This paper presents a new electromagnetic modelling approach for the design of GaAs membrane supported monolithically integrated mm-wave receivers. The receivers structures are divided into membrane supported sections and bulk GaAs supported sections. Each block is modelled and designed using the full-wave electromagnetic simulation software Zeland IE3D. The Schottky diode is included in the model using the internal port feature. The design steps include the Schottky diode experimental characterization, design and measurements of membrane supported antenna demonstrators and linear/nonlinear simulations of the final receiver structures. The fabrication processes is based on GaAs micromachining. Two types of video detection receivers were designed, fabricated and tested: a 38 GHz double folded slot antenna receivers and a 45 GHz Yagi-Uda antenna receiver. Both circuits monolithically integrated the antenna with the Schottky diode on the same 2.2 {mu}m thin semiinsulating GaAs membrane. The experimental results demonstrate an isotropic voltage sensitivity of 3000 mV/mW at 38 GHz and 6000 mV/mW at 45 GHz, respectively. The measurements validate the modelling approach and open a window of opportunity for the development of innovative RF MEMS architectures operating at higher frequency, up to the sub-millimetre wave frequency range.

  7. Electromagnetic modelling of GaAs membrane supported mm-wave receivers (United States)

    Neculoiu, D.; Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.


    This paper presents a new electromagnetic modelling approach for the design of GaAs membrane supported monolithically integrated mm-wave receivers. The receivers structures are divided into membrane supported sections and bulk GaAs supported sections. Each block is modelled and designed using the full-wave electromagnetic simulation software Zeland IE3D. The Schottky diode is included in the model using the internal port feature. The design steps include the Schottky diode experimental characterization, design and measurements of membrane supported antenna demonstrators and linear/nonlinear simulations of the final receiver structures. The fabrication processes is based on GaAs micromachining. Two types of video detection receivers were designed, fabricated and tested: a 38 GHz double folded slot antenna receivers and a 45 GHz Yagi-Uda antenna receiver. Both circuits monolithically integrated the antenna with the Schottky diode on the same 2.2 µm thin semiinsulating GaAs membrane. The experimental results demonstrate an isotropic voltage sensitivity of 3000 mV/mW at 38 GHz and 6000 mV/mW at 45 GHz, respectively. The measurements validate the modelling approach and open a window of opportunity for the development of innovative RF MEMS architectures operating at higher frequency, up to the sub-millimetre wave frequency range.

  8. Propellant combustion product analyses on an M16 rifle and a 105 mm caliber gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ase, P.; Eisenberg, W.; Gordon, S.; Taylor, K.; Snelson, A.


    Some of the propellant combustion products (particulates and gases) that are formed on firing an M16 rifle and 105 mm caliber gun have been subjected to qualitative, and to a more limited extent, quantitative chemical analyses. For both weapons, large numbers of trace gas species, 90 to 70 respectively, were identified in the combustion effluents from the small large bore weapons. Quantifiable data were obtained for 15 of these species in terms of mass of compound formed per unit mass of propellant burned. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 11 and 4 respectively, were identified and quantified in the combustion products from the small and large bore weapons. Metal particulates in the respirable range in the combustion products from the M16 rifle were analyzed and quantified. Many of the chemical species identified in the study have known toxicological properties. Although the data base is limited, it appears that within the confines of the different propellants' stoichiometries, the amounts of combustion products formed are approximately directly proportional to the masses of propellant burned.

  9. Changes of the ocular surface and tear film after the coaxial incision 2.5mm and 3.0mm in the phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tao


    Full Text Available AIM:To study the changes of tear film and ocular surface after the coaxial incision 2.5mm and 3.0mm in the phacoemulsification.METHODS: Seventy patients(92 eyesfrom February 2015 to February 2016 in our hospital were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty-four patients(46 eyesin Group A: coaxial 2.5mm incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation. Thirty-six patients(46 eyesin Group B: the conventional coaxial 3.0mm small incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and IOL implantation. The break up time(BUT, Schirmer's Ⅰ test(SⅠtand lid-parallel conjunctival folds(LIPCOFwere assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: At 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively, the BUT in two groups decreased after operations, and the BUT of Group B was significantly lower than those of Group A, the differences were statistically significant(t=3.089, 4.497, 4.322; all Pt=-6.286, -3.992, -3.278; all Pt=-6.552, -5.131, -3.652; all Pt=0.646, 0.551, 0.165; P>0.05. The BUT, SⅠt and LIPCOF score in Group B showed statistically significant differences(t=-4.059, 3.629, 4.211; all PCONCLUSION: Ocular surface has less damage and tear film has little influence at early stage after the coaxial 2.5mm incision phacoemulsmcation, compared with the conventional coaxial 3.0mm incision phacoemulsification surgery.

  10. Potential Evapotranspiration Estimates (mm) for for Alaska, CRU TS3.0. The Wilderness Society, 2011. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Potential Evapotranspiration (PET): These data represent decadal mean totals of potential evapotranspiration estimates (mm). The file name specifies the decade the...

  11. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi


    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  12. Conventional metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Fitz, C.R.; Chuang, H.S.; Armstrong, E.


    A retrospective examination was performed to assess the accuracy of metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis. Of 81 consecutive scoliotic children studied by myelography, 30 had only MM while the remaining 51 had CTMM immediately afterward. CTMM added esential diagnostic information in 13 cases of dysraphism and 4 cases, both methods gave the same imformation. The outhors conclude that in patients with severe scoliosis, dysraphism, and scoliosis with localized neurological disturbances, CTMM should always be added to MM or be the only examination; while in idiopathic scoliosis with vague neurological disturbances a survey of the entire spine is essential, preferably with MM.

  13. Seed coordinates of a new COMS-like 24 mm plaque verified using the FARO Edge. (United States)

    McCauley Cutsinger, Sarah E; Furutani, Keith M; Forsman, Renae M; Corner, Stephen M


    A 24 mm COMS-like eye plaque was developed to meet the treatment needs of our eye plaque brachytherapy practice. As part of commissioning, it was necessary to determine the new plaque's seed coordinates. The FARO Edge, a commercially available measurement arm, was chosen for this purpose. In order to validate the FARO Edge method, it was first used to measure the seed marker coordinates in the silastic molds for the standard 10, 18, and 20 mm COMS plaques, and the results were compared with the standard published Task Group 129 coordinates by a nonlinear least squares match in MATLAB version R2013a. All measured coordinates were within 0.60 mm, and root mean square deviation was 0.12, 0.23, and 0.35 mm for the 10, 18, and 20 mm molds, respectively. The FARO Edge was then used to measure the seed marker locations in the new 24 mm silastic mold. Those values were compared to the manufacturing specification coordinates and were found to demonstrate good agreement, with a maximum deviation of 0.56mm and a root mean square deviation of 0.37 mm. The FARO Edge is deemed to be a reliable method for determining seed coordinates for COMS silastics, and the seed coordinates for the new 24 mm plaque are presented.

  14. Potential Evapotranspiration Estimates (mm) for for Alaska, CCCMA - A1B scenario. The Wilderness Society, 2011. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Potential Evapotranspiration (PET): These data represent decadal mean totals of potential evapotranspiration estimates (mm). The file name specifies the decade the...

  15. Incision sizes with 5.5 mm total optic, 3-piece foldable intraocular lenses. (United States)

    Kohnen, T


    To determine incision sizes for 5.5 mm total optic, foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) made of silicone or hydrophobic acrylic. Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Ophthalmology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In a prospective randomized clinical study including 40 cataract procedures with a temporal limbal tunnel approach, incision sizes for 5.5 mm optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs were measured before and after phacoemulsification and before and after IOL implantation using calipers. Three 5.5 mm optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs were used: 2 silicone (Pharmacia CeeOn 912, Allergan SI-55NB) and 1 hydrophobic acrylic (Alcon AcrySof MA30BA). Ten lenses of each model were implanted with a forceps, and 10 SI-55NB IOLs were implanted with the AMO Unfolder injector. Measurements of the tunnel incisions at various times were statistically evaluated using an analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. Mean tunnel width before and after implantation, respectively, was 3.32 mm+/- 0.06 (SD) and 3.42+/- 0.06 mm for the CeeOn 912 using a Nichamin implantation forceps, 3.28+/- 0.09 mm and 3.42+/- 0.09 mm for the AcrySof MA30BA using a Buratto implantation forceps, 3.00+/- 0.07 mm and 3.10+/- 0.05 mm for the SI-55NB using a Fine Universal II Folder, and 2.66+/- 0.08 mm and 2.81+/- 0.11 mm for the SI-55NB using the AMO Unfolder. Incision sizes before and after implantation were statistically different between 2 IOLs (CeeOn 912 and MA30BA) and the SI-55NB groups. Implantation of the SI-55NB with the Unfolder was associated with significantly smaller incision sizes before and after implantation than implantation with the Fine folder. Incisions sizes of 2.8 to 3.4 mm were associated with 5.5 mm total optic, 3-piece foldable IOLs. The Allergan SI-55NB high-refractive-index silicone IOL implanted with the AMO Unfolder system provided the smallest postimplantation incision; however, the refractive optic of this IOL is 5.0 mm versus 5.5 mm for of the CeeOn 912

  16. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang


    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  17. [Reduction of astigmatism by 4mm long sutureless corneal cataract incision (stretch incision) with phacoemulsification and 5mm PMMA lens implantation]. (United States)

    Müller-Jensen, K; Schüler, M


    Refractive cataract surgery using corneal incisions is aiming at neutralization of preoperative astigmatism. 61 patients with preoperative astigmatism of 2.25 +/- 0.98 were included in the treatment. A self-sealing corneal tunnel incision measuring 4.0 to 4.1 mm in external diameter and 6.5 to 7.0 mm in internal diameter (stretch incision) was performed on the steeper axis. After capsulorhexis and phacoemulsification a 5 mm PMMA lens was implanted without suturing. Keratometry and corneal topography were performed preoperatively, 3 days and 1 year respectively following surgery. The statistical analysis was based on the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Surgical induced astigmatism (IA) following superior incisions in cases of astigmatism with the rule (n = 29) amounted to 1.93 +/- 0.97, while lateral incisions in cases of astigmatism against the rule (n = 29) led to an IA of 1.35 +/- 0.73. Axial shifts by more than 30 degrees were 23% following superior incisions and 17%, after lateral incisions. We observed. astigmatic reduction of 1.3 D after superior incisions and 0.7 D following lateral incisions. By 4 mm corneal cataract incisions on the steeper axis a high preoperative astigmatism can be reduced significantly without additional keratotomies.

  18. Short implants (6mm) vs. vertical bone augmentation and standard-length implants (≥9mm) in atrophic posterior mandibles: a 5-year retrospective study. (United States)

    Pieri, F; Forlivesi, C; Caselli, E; Corinaldesi, G


    This retrospective study compared the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes of short implants (6 mm) (short group), and standard-length implants (≥9mm) placed after a vertical augmentation with autologous bone blocks (augmentation group), supporting partial fixed prostheses in the posterior mandible. Forty-five partially edentulous patients were enrolled in the study and evaluated after 5 years: 22 (51 implants) in the augmentation group and 23 (46 implants) in the short group. Eight surgical complications occurred in the augmentation group versus none in the short group (P=0.003). One short implant failed before loading and one standard-length implant failed after 4 years because of peri-implantitis (P=1.0). Eight biological and two prosthetic complications occurred in the augmentation group vs. three biological and three prosthetic complications in the short group (P=0.09 and P=1.0, respectively). A mean marginal bone loss of 1.61±1.12mm in the augmentation group and 0.68±0.68mm in the short group was found (P=0.002). Within the limitations of this study, both techniques resulted in successful clinical results after 5 years, but short implants exhibited less surgical complications and marginal bone loss than standard-length implants placed in augmented bone. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A compare between myocardial topical negative pressure levels of -25 mmHg and -50 mmHg in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Sandra; Paulsson, Per; Mokhtari, Arash


    Topical negative pressure (TNP), widely used in wound therapy, is known to stimulate wound edge blood flow, granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, and revascularization. We have previously shown that application of a TNP of -50 mmHg to the myocardium significantly increases microvascular blood...

  20. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  1. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  2. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J


    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  3. Construction of an 8-mm time-lapse camera for biological research (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the construction of an 8mm camera for biological research. A time-lapse camera for use in biological research can be constructed from a super 8-mm...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Kwon, Woojin; Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Chapman, Nicholas; Novak, Giles; Davidson, Jacqueline; Vaillancourt, John E.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Matthews, Tristan


    We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10 '' resolution at 350 mu m) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.'' 2-4.'' 5 at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array

  5. Stochastic Geometric Coverage Analysis in mmWave Cellular Networks with a Realistic Channel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebato, Mattia; Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar


    Wave interference and SIR coverage under large-scale deployments. For this purpose, we apply an accurate mmWave channel model, derived from experiments, into an analytical framework based on stochastic geometry. In this way we obtain a closed-form SIR coverage probability in large-scale mmWave cellular networks....

  6. Quantum mechanics/coarse-grained molecular mechanics (QM/CG-MM). (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Voth, Gregory A


    Numerous molecular systems, including solutions, proteins, and composite materials, can be modeled using mixed-resolution representations, of which the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach has become the most widely used. However, the QM/MM approach often faces a number of challenges, including the high cost of repetitive QM computations, the slow sampling even for the MM part in those cases where a system under investigation has a complex dynamics, and a difficulty in providing a simple, qualitative interpretation of numerical results in terms of the influence of the molecular environment upon the active QM region. In this paper, we address these issues by combining QM/MM modeling with the methodology of "bottom-up" coarse-graining (CG) to provide the theoretical basis for a systematic quantum-mechanical/coarse-grained molecular mechanics (QM/CG-MM) mixed resolution approach. A derivation of the method is presented based on a combination of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, leading to an equation for the effective Hamiltonian of the QM part, a central concept in the QM/CG-MM theory. A detailed analysis of different contributions to the effective Hamiltonian from electrostatic, induction, dispersion, and exchange interactions between the QM part and the surroundings is provided, serving as a foundation for a potential hierarchy of QM/CG-MM methods varying in their accuracy and computational cost. A relationship of the QM/CG-MM methodology to other mixed resolution approaches is also discussed.

  7. 450 mm Silicon Wafers Are Imperative for Moore's Law but maybe Postponed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tu, Hailing


    ... of the adequate approaches is to introduce 450 mm silicon wafers for 10 nm techno-logy node and beyond. Mr. Moore saw wafers growing, as early as in 1965, ever large as a way to keep the device cost down. Historically, each wafer size transition has been technically more challenging as complexity increases. The lesson learned from 300 mm silico...

  8. Young’s modulus calculations for cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics (United States)

    Quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations were performed to elucidate Young’s moduli for a series of cellulose Iß models. Computations using the second generation empirical force field MM3 with a disaccharide cellulose model, 1,4'-O-dimethyl-ß-cellobioside (DMCB), and an analo...

  9. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics (United States)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  10. Quantum mechanics/coarse-grained molecular mechanics (QM/CG-MM) (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.


    Numerous molecular systems, including solutions, proteins, and composite materials, can be modeled using mixed-resolution representations, of which the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach has become the most widely used. However, the QM/MM approach often faces a number of challenges, including the high cost of repetitive QM computations, the slow sampling even for the MM part in those cases where a system under investigation has a complex dynamics, and a difficulty in providing a simple, qualitative interpretation of numerical results in terms of the influence of the molecular environment upon the active QM region. In this paper, we address these issues by combining QM/MM modeling with the methodology of "bottom-up" coarse-graining (CG) to provide the theoretical basis for a systematic quantum-mechanical/coarse-grained molecular mechanics (QM/CG-MM) mixed resolution approach. A derivation of the method is presented based on a combination of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, leading to an equation for the effective Hamiltonian of the QM part, a central concept in the QM/CG-MM theory. A detailed analysis of different contributions to the effective Hamiltonian from electrostatic, induction, dispersion, and exchange interactions between the QM part and the surroundings is provided, serving as a foundation for a potential hierarchy of QM/CG-MM methods varying in their accuracy and computational cost. A relationship of the QM/CG-MM methodology to other mixed resolution approaches is also discussed.

  11. AddRemove : A new link model for use in QM/MM studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M


    The division of a system under study in a quantum mechanical (QM) and a classical system in QM/MM molecular mechanical calculations is sometimes very natural, but a problem arises in the case of bonds crossing the QM/MM boundary. A new link model that uses a capping (link) atom to satisfy the

  12. Proton Transfer in Aqueous Solution: Exploring the Boundaries of Adaptive QM/MM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Tao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572118; Boereboom, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369185463; Michel, C.; Fleurat-Lessard, P.; Bulo, R.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272561495


    In this chapter, we review the current state-of-the-art in quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations of reactions in aqueous solutions, and we discuss how proton transfer poses new challenges for its successful application. In the QM/MM description of an aqueous reaction, solvent

  13. ICoNOs MM: The IT-enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.


    The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses five levels of maturity as well as four domains to

  14. Using 50-mm electrostatic membrane deformable mirror in astronomical adaptive optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokovinin, A.; Thomas, S.; Vdovin, G.


    Membrane micro-machined deformable mirrors (MMDM) feature low cost, low power consumption, small size and absence of hysteresis. Interested in using such a device for the adaptive optics system at the SOAR 4.1-m telescope, we evaluated the performance of a 79-channel 50-mm (pupil size 35mm) MMDM

  15. Is 2 mm a safe distance from the inferior alveolar canal to avoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the neurosensory complications related to implants inserted closer than 2 mm to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) with those inserted further than 2 mm. Materials and ... complications. Keywords: Dental implants, inferior alveolar nerve injury, neurosensory complication ...

  16. Mandibular Overdentures Supported by 6-mm Dental Implants : A 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Ter Meulen, Jan-Willem P.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Guljé, Felix

    Background: The extremely resorbed edentulous mandible, with a bone height of 8 mm or less, is still a challenge in implant dentistry. Recently, dental implants of 6 mm in length have been developed. Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year prospective cohort study was to evaluate treatment outcome of

  17. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet


    Kirby, G A; van Nugteren, J.; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L.; Chouika, N.; Clement, S.; Datskov, V.; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R.; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M.; Perez, J C; de Rijk, G


    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protect...

  18. [Instrumental delivery with perineum-fetal head distance >55 MM on ultrasound]. (United States)

    Magnard, C; Perrot, M; Fanget, C; Paviot-Trombert, B; Raia-Barjat, T; Chauleur, C


    Compare the issue of an operative vaginal delivery associated to the fetal presentation diagnosed by transperineal ultrasound. Three groups were formed: ≥55 mm, between 45 and 55 mm, and <45 mm. A monocentric prospective study on 108 patients has been conducted between April 2011 and August 2014. The distance between perinea and skull has been analyzed to compare the success of operative vaginal delivery considering the level of the fetal presentation in the pelvic cavity. The failed operative vaginal deliveries are more frequent while the fetal head is above 55 mm (16.7%) or while the fetal head is between 45 and 55 mm (9.1%) than while the fetal skull is under 45 mm (1.8%) (P=0.04). However there is no significant difference for the fetal shoulder dystocia (5.6% vs 3.0% vs 3.5%, P=0.5), nor for the newborn outcomes (16.7 vs 15.2 vs 14; P=0.9). Despite the high rate of failed operative vaginal delivery above 55 mm, it should be considered not to prohibit but send free to the obstetrician appreciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Retromandibular Transparotid Approach for the Management of Extracapsular Subcondylar Mandibular Fractures Using 2-mm Titanium Miniplates: A Prospective Clinical Study. (United States)

    Ghezta, Narotam Kumar; Bhardwaj, Yogesh; Rani, Pooja; Ram, Rangila


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiologic results of the retromandibular transparotid approach to displaced extracapsular subcondylar mandibular fractures. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of 5 years on patients surgically treated for displaced extracapsular subcondylar mandibular fractures by the retromandibular transparotid approach. Variables including the type of fracture, degree of mouth opening, fracture displacement, deviation, excursive movements of the mandible, and facial nerve function were monitored before and after treatment. Appropriate statistics were computed. Thirty-nine patients with 47 fractures were evaluated. There were 34 subcondylar fractures (located below the sigmoid notch) (87%), and 5 fractures were located in the head region in bilateral cases. Of the fractures, 31 (79%) were unilateral and 8 (21%) were bilateral. In a multivariate study, condylar coronal displacement, coronal sagittal displacement, difference in the ramal height, maximal interincisal distance, protrusive movements, and deviation of the mandible on opening showed statistically significant differences in pretreatment and post-treatment patients (P = .001). The interincisal distance was 46.8 mm (SD, 5.2 mm) postoperatively versus 24.1 mm (SD, 6.7 mm) before treatment. The average range of protrusion was significantly lower (P = .001) in patients before treatment, at 1.9 mm (SD, 1.2 mm), when compared with 6.1 mm (SD, 2.0 mm) postoperatively. During mouth opening, deviation of the mandible is often a sign of compensatory movement of the contralateral joint due to shortening of the ascending ramal height on the affected joint. The mean deviation of the mandible from the midline was 4.2 mm (SD, 1.0 mm) in patients before treatment, with a significant difference (P = .001) in patients after treatment, with a mean of 1.9 mm (SD, 0.995 mm). Temporary injuries to the facial nerve branches were observed in 3

  20. On the study of ricochet and penetration in sand, water and gelatin by spheres, 7.62 mm APM2, and 25 mm projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes


    Full Text Available We examine the ricochet and penetration behavior in sand, water and gelatin by steel spheres, 7.62 mm APM2 and 25 mm projectiles. A threshold impact angle (critical angle exists beyond which ricochet cannot occur. The Autodyn simulation code with the smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH method and Impetus Afea Solver with the corpuscular model are used and the results are compared with experimental and analytical results. The resistance force in sand for spheres was proportional to a term quadratic in velocity plus a term linear in velocity. The drag coefficient for the quadratic term was 0.65. The Autodyn and Impetus Afea codes simulate too large penetration due to the lack of a linear velocity resistance force. Critical ricochet angles were consistent with analytical results in the literature. In ballistic gelatin at velocities of 50–850 m/s a drag coefficient of 0.30 fits the high speed camera recordings if a linear velocity resistance term is included. However, only a quadratic velocity resistance force with drag coefficient that varies with the Reynolds number also fits the measurements. The simulation of a sphere in water with Autodyn showed too large drag coefficient. The 7.62 mm APM2 core simulations in sand fit reasonable well for both codes. The 25 mm projectile ricochet simulations in sand show consistency with the high speed camera recordings. Computer time was reduced by one to two orders of magnitudes when applying the Impetus Afea Solver compared to Autodyn code due to the use of the graphics processing units (GPU.

  1. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganowski, C. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Schnee, S. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Graninger, D.; Öberg, K. I.; Zhang, Q. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vasyunin, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Friesen, R., E-mail: [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)


    Core accretion models of massive star formation require the existence of stable massive starless cores, but robust observational examples of such objects have proven elusive. We report subarcsecond-resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm, 1.1 mm, and 0.88 mm and Very Large Array 1.3 cm observations of an excellent massive starless core candidate, G11.92–0.61-MM2, initially identified in the course of studies of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Separated by ∼7.''2 from the nearby MM1 protostellar hot core, MM2 is a strong, compact dust continuum source (submillimeter spectral index α = 2.6 ± 0.1), but is devoid of star formation indicators. In contrast to MM1, MM2 has no masers, no centimeter continuum, and no (sub)millimeter wavelength line emission in ∼24 GHz of bandwidth observed with the SMA, including N{sub 2}H{sup +}(3-2), HCO{sup +}(3-2), and HCN(3-2). Additionally, there is no evidence for an outflow driven by MM2. The (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution of MM2 is best fit with a dust temperature of ∼17-19 K and luminosity of ∼5-7 L {sub ☉}. The combined physical properties of MM2, as inferred from its dust continuum emission, are extreme: M ≳ 30 M {sub ☉} within a radius <1000 AU, N{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} and n{sub H{sub 2}} >10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. Comparison of the molecular abundance limits derived from our SMA observations with gas-grain chemical models indicates that extremely dense (n(H) >> 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}), cold (<20 K) conditions are required to explain the lack of observed (sub)millimeter line emission, consistent with the dust continuum results. Our data suggest that G11.92–0.61-MM2 is the best candidate for a bonafide massive prestellar core found to date, and a promising target for future higher-sensitivity observations.

  3. Design of mm-wave InP DHBT power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Yan, Lei


    power, gain, and efficiency. The design issues associated with cascode based power amplifiers at mm-wave frequencies is described. The experimental results on a two-way combined single-stage cascode based InP DHBT power amplifier demonstrate 13.4dB linear power gain and 12.5dBm saturated output power......In this paper suitable topologies for mm-wave integrated power amplifiers using InP DHBT technology is investigated. Among the standard topologies for mm-wave power cells: common-emitter, common-base, and cascode configuration, the cascode configuration proves the most promising in terms of output...

  4. Maalämmön toteuttaminen ja kannattavuus vanhassa kerrostalokohteessa


    Virkalevo, Jesse


    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia maalämmön toteuttamisen mahdollisuuksia ja kannattavuutta vanhoissa saneerattavissa kerrostalokohteissa. Työn tarkoitus oli myös tuottaa laskenta-alusta ja vertailla erilaisten energiasaneerausten investointien antamaa tuottoa eri aikaväleillä. Opinnäytetyössä ei kiinnitetty huomiota yksityiskohtaisesti maalämmön asennukseen ja yksityiskohtiin vaan kerrottiin periaatetasolla maalämmön toiminta, lainsäädäntö ja mahdolliset ongelmat kerrostalokohteissa...

  5. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Microhardness in 2 mm Slot Milling Hardened Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper presents an experimental study on the dependency of surface integrity on cutting parameters in slot milling of hardened tool steel. A series of 2 mm slot milling tests have been performed with different cutting parameters. Microhardness was chosen for evaluation of subsurface integrity....... The process was found to be sensitive to cutting parameters. An increase of feed per tooth or depth of cut produced a reduction of the microhardness of the slot surface. An optimal combination of machining parameters was found to be 80-110 m/min in cutting speed, 0.005 mm in feed per tooth and 0.1 mm in axial...... depth of cut....

  6. Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at 3.3and 9.1 MM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Smoot, G.F.; Friedman, S.D.


    The authors report the results of measurements of the cosmic background radiation temperature at wavelengths of 9.1 and 3.3 mm. The 9.1 mm result, T{sub CBR} = 2.87 {+-} 0.21 K, is in good agreement with previous results and those obtained at longer wavelengths during the same experiment. The 3.3 mm result, T{sub CBR} = 2.4 {+-} 1.0 K, is consistent with previous measurements, but has a large error due to uncertainty in the atmospheric correction.

  7. Analytic and Experimental Investigation of Beamforming Algorithms for MM-Wave Channel Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.


    Beamforming algorithms are expected to be extensively utilized in mm-wave systems to improve system performance. In this paper, we discuss three different beamforming algorithms based on uniform circular arrays (UCAs), i.e. classicial beamfomer, coventional frequency invariant beamformer. Numeric...... simulation results and channel sounding measurement results at mm-wave are provided to demonstrate and compare the performance of the different beamformers in channel parameter estimation applications.......Beamforming algorithms are expected to be extensively utilized in mm-wave systems to improve system performance. In this paper, we discuss three different beamforming algorithms based on uniform circular arrays (UCAs), i.e. classicial beamfomer, coventional frequency invariant beamformer. Numerical...

  8. Docking modes of BB-3497 into the PDF active site--a comparison of the pure MM and QM/MM based docking strategies. (United States)

    Kumari, Tripti; Issar, Upasana; Kakkar, Rita


    Peptide deformylase (PDF) has emerged as an important antibacterial drug target. Considerable effort is being directed toward developing peptidic and non-peptidic inhibitors for this metalloprotein. In this work, the known peptidic inhibitor BB-3497 and its various ionization and tautomeric states are evaluated for their inhibition efficiency against PDF using a molecular mechanics (MM) approach as well as a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, with an aim to understand the interactions in the binding site. The evaluated Gibbs energies of binding with the mixed QM/MM approach are shown to have the best predictive power. The experimental pose is found to have the most negative Gibbs energy of binding, and also the smallest strain energy. A quantum mechanical evaluation of the active site reveals the requirement of strong chelation by the ligand with the metal ion. The investigated ligand chelates the metal ion through the two oxygens of its reverse hydroxamate moiety, particularly the N-O(-) oxygen, forming strong covalent bonds with the metal ion, which is penta-coordinated. In the uninhibited state, the metal ion is tetrahedrally coordinated, and hence chelation with the inhibitor is associated with an increase of the metal ion coordination. Thus, the strong binding of the ligand at the binding site is accounted for.

  9. [The forensic medical characteristic of the factors associated with a shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and the inflicted injuries]. (United States)

    Raĭzberg, S A; Makarov, I Iu; Lorents, A S


    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the structural characteristics of the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle and three regular types of the bullets differing in the head shape fired from it. Morphological features of the injuries inflicted by such bullets are described in conjunction with the peculiarities of precipitation of the shot products in their projection as the prerequisites for their objective differentiation. Results: The study allowed to reveal the composition of the gunshot residues and to determine the maximum distance of their distribution. The specific features of experimental damage inflicted by the shots from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle to the coarse white calico fabric targets were shown to depend on the shot range. The objective signs of the so-called "short-range" shot from the 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle were described for the first time.

  10. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  11. Oesophageal heat exchangers with a diameter of 11mm or 14.7mm are equally effective and safe for targeted temperature management. (United States)

    Schroeder, Daniel C; Guschlbauer, Maria; Maul, Alexandra C; Cremer, Daniel A; Becker, Ingrid; de la Puente Bethencourt, David; Paal, Peter; Padosch, Stephan A; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Annecke, Thorsten; Böttiger, Bernd W; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Herff, Holger


    Targeted temperature management (TTM) is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial. Since the oesophagus is adjacent to heart and aorta, fast heat-convection to the central blood-stream could be achieved with a minimally invasive oesophageal heat exchanger (OHE). To date, the optimal diameter of an OHE is still unknown. While larger diameters may cause thermal- or pressure-related tissue damage after long-term exposure to the oesophageal wall, smaller diameter (e.g., gastric tubes, up to 11mm) may not provide effective cooling rates. Thus, the objective of the study was to compare OHE-diameters of 11mm (OHE11) and 14.7mm (OHE14.7) and their effects on tissue and cooling capability. Pigs were randomized to OHE11 (N = 8) or OHE14.7 (N = 8). After cooling, pigs were maintained at 33°C for 1 hour. After 10h rewarming, oesophagi were analyzed by means of histopathology. The oesophagus of four animals from a separate study that underwent exactly the identical preparation and cooling protocol described above but received a maintenance period of 24h were used as histopathological controls. Mean cooling rates were 2.8±0.4°C°C/h (OHE11) and 3.0±0.3°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.20). Occasional mild acute inflammatory transepithelial infiltrates were found in the cranial segment of the oesophagus in all groups including controls. Deviations from target temperature were 0.1±0.4°C (OHE11) and 0±0.1°C (OHE14.7; p = 0.91). Rewarming rates were 0.19±0.07°C °C/h (OHE11) and 0.20±0.05°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.75). OHE with diameters of 11 mm and 14.7 mm achieve effective

  12. Oesophageal heat exchangers with a diameter of 11mm or 14.7mm are equally effective and safe for targeted temperature management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Schroeder

    Full Text Available Targeted temperature management (TTM is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA. However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial. Since the oesophagus is adjacent to heart and aorta, fast heat-convection to the central blood-stream could be achieved with a minimally invasive oesophageal heat exchanger (OHE. To date, the optimal diameter of an OHE is still unknown. While larger diameters may cause thermal- or pressure-related tissue damage after long-term exposure to the oesophageal wall, smaller diameter (e.g., gastric tubes, up to 11mm may not provide effective cooling rates. Thus, the objective of the study was to compare OHE-diameters of 11mm (OHE11 and 14.7mm (OHE14.7 and their effects on tissue and cooling capability.Pigs were randomized to OHE11 (N = 8 or OHE14.7 (N = 8. After cooling, pigs were maintained at 33°C for 1 hour. After 10h rewarming, oesophagi were analyzed by means of histopathology. The oesophagus of four animals from a separate study that underwent exactly the identical preparation and cooling protocol described above but received a maintenance period of 24h were used as histopathological controls.Mean cooling rates were 2.8±0.4°C°C/h (OHE11 and 3.0±0.3°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.20. Occasional mild acute inflammatory transepithelial infiltrates were found in the cranial segment of the oesophagus in all groups including controls. Deviations from target temperature were 0.1±0.4°C (OHE11 and 0±0.1°C (OHE14.7; p = 0.91. Rewarming rates were 0.19±0.07°C °C/h (OHE11 and 0.20±0.05°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.75.OHE with diameters of 11 mm and 14.7 mm achieve

  13. Autoralli MM-sarja ootab ees vaheaasta / Ivo Dobkevitš ; fotod Karli Saul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dobkevitsch, Ivo, 1973-


    Tehasetiimide majandusraskustest ja vähesest huvist autoralli MM-sarja vastu 2009. aastal ning FIA poolt kehtestatavatest tehnilistest muudatustest 2010. aastal. Samas: Urmo Aava hooaega vahele jätta ei kavatse

  14. A prospective randomized study comparing transnasal and peroral 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Feng Lin


    Conclusion: PO intubation seems an excellent alternative method when using a 5-mm ultrathin endoscopy because it achieves comparable patient tolerance, acceptance, and satisfaction as TN intubation, takes less time and causes lower intubation failure and epistaxis.

  15. SDN Controlled mmWave Massive MIMO Hybrid Precoding for 5G Heterogeneous Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen


    Full Text Available In 5G mobile network, millimeter wave (mmWave and heterogeneous networks (Hetnets are significant techniques to sustain coverage and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we utilize the hybrid precoding to overcome hardware constraints on the analog-only beamforming in mmWave systems. Particularly, we identify the complicated antenna coordination and vast spatial domain information as the outstanding challenges in mmWave Hetnets. In our work, we employ software defined network (SDN to accomplish radio resource management (RRM and achieve flexible spacial coordination in mmWave Hetnets. In our proposed scheme, SDN controller is responsible for collecting the user channel state information (CSI and applying hybrid precoding based on the calculated null-space of victim users. Simulation results show that our design can effectively reduce the interference to victim users and support high quality of service.

  16. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features


    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders


    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.

  17. A 3.4-mm beam diameter system for retinal imaging with OCT and adaptive optics (United States)

    Reddikumar, Maddipatla; Cense, Barry


    We present an adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system with 3.4-mm beam diameter. A deformable mirror is used for the correction of two radial Zernike orders (defocus, vertical and oblique astigmatism). The aberrations are corrected sequentially with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and the deformable mirror. This system fills a gap between a standard clinical 1.2-mm beam diameter OCT system and a 6-mm beam diameter AO-OCT system. We also present 8° by 8° en face OCT images from a patient with macular degeneration. This system has a 25 cm by 50 cm footprint, which makes it considerably smaller to conventional 6-mm beam diameter AO-OCT system. Because of its larger field of view and smaller size, it is likely to be useful in the ophthalmic clinics for high-resolution imaging of the human eye retina.

  18. Totally stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis using hybrid NOTES: single 12-mm trocar approach in a porcine model. (United States)

    Polese, Lino; Merigliano, Stefano; Mungo, Benedetto; Rizzato, Roberto; Luisetto, Roberto; Ancona, Ermanno; Norberto, Lorenzo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a totally stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis performed using one transabdominal 12-mm trocar and a gastroscope in a porcine model. The procedure was carried out on six domestic pigs weighing 45 kg using a hybrid technique with a gastroscope and a 12-mm Hasson trocar, positioned in the left hypochondrium. At the end of the procedure a mechanical circular 21-mm gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed by inserting the stapler through a small gastrotomy after enlarging the trocar incision. In all six cases the procedure was completed through a single 3 cm abdominal incision and without complications. The mean operating time was 2 h, and endoscopic investigation showed that the anastomoses were intact, patent, and airtight. Totally stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis using a hybrid NOTES-single 12-mm trocar approach is a feasible procedure in the porcine model. Further survival studies are warranted, particularly to evaluate the functional results of this procedure.

  19. Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (mm) for Alaska and Western Canada. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average total precipitation (mm) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  20. Molecular properties from combined QM/MM methods. I. Analytical second derivative and vibrational calculations (United States)

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin


    Analytical second derivatives for combined QM/MM calculations have been formulated and implemented in the CHARMM program interfaced with the ab initio quantum mechanical GAMESS and CADPAC programs. This makes possible evaluation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities in large systems that cannot be treated effectively by QM or MM alone; examples are polarizable molecules in solution and substrates or transition states in enzymes. Test calculations on a number of systems, including formamide in water, butanol, a model transition state structure for triosephosphate isomerase and the active site model of myoglobin, show that the MM description of the environment can capture much of its polarization effects on the QM region. Thus the implementation of analytical second derivatives within the QM/MM framework has considerable potential for the study of large systems.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Engraving and Gun Launch of a 40-mm Sensor Grenade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, Nicholas; Carlucci, Pasquale; Mellini, Mark


    The U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey is developing an inert 40-mm sensor grenade, which houses an array of sensors and electronic components...

  2. mm-Wave Near Field Periodic Couplers For Future Module Interconnects Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communications have gained attention in recent years, primarily since the high fractional bandwidth potentially offers multi-Gb/s wireless...

  3. Low-Cost Beamforming SiGe MMIC Receivers at mm-Wave Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to perform technology research and development to integrate phase shifters and other needed electronics for electronically steered mmWave...

  4. Lightning detection and ranging (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.


    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  5. Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855 (United States)


    Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855 by Sidra I. Silton and Bradley E. Howell ARL-TR-5182 May...Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of 5.56-mm Ammunition: M855 Sidra I. Silton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Ammunition: M855 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sidra I. Silton and Bradley E. Howell* 5d. PROJECT

  6. Chemical Characterization of the Pyrotechnically Disseminated 66MM Red Phosphorous Smoke Screening IR, Vehicle Launched Grenade (United States)


    analysis from each 66mm RP grenade dissemination. Date of Sample MMAD Geometric SD Respirable Mass Dissemination Time T+ (pm) (%) (s) 10/11/2007 60-90...size of the aerosol would change over the course of the dissemination. Table 5 lists all the particle size data, including the MMAD , ag, and the percent...respirable mass determined for all the impactors collected for each 66mm RP grenade dissemination. The average MMAD , Yg., and the percent respirable

  7. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders


    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  8. Preliminary Milling Tests on STAVAX ESR 52 HRC using 2 mm carbide tools in the range 20 – 200 m/min

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    The opportunity to machine hardened tool steels, as widely demonstrated by many authors, is strictly connected with the high speed machining philosophy, namely that, increasing the cutting speed, the percentage of the generated heat during machining that goes away with the chip, increases as well...

  9. US characteristics for the prediction of neoplasm in gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Sil; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Sang Min [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology and Medical Research Institute, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the characteristics of gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger to predict a neoplasm in US examinations. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder polyps ≥ 10 mm with follow-up images or pathologic diagnosis were included in the retrospective study. All images and reports were reviewed to determine the imaging characteristics of gallbladder polyps. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate predictors for a neoplastic polyp. A neoplastic polyp was verified in 12 of 53 patients and the mean size was 13.9 mm. The univariate analysis revealed that adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, larger size (≥15 mm), older age (≥57 years), absence of hyperechoic foci in a polyp, CT visibility, sessile shape, a solitary polyp, and an irregular surface were significant predictors for a neoplastic polyp. In the multivariate analysis, larger size (≥15 mm) was a significant predictor for a neoplastic polyp. A polyp size ≥15 mm was the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. The hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility would be useful indicators for the differentiation of a neoplastic polyp, in addition to the established predictors. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno


    Full Text Available Heating treatment at the fabrication make the tensile strength, bending strength, and hardness strength are become lower. The research vision are to prover that heating at the plate without heating treatment, heating treatment 300 0C, heating treatment 600 0C. Welding at research use SMAW (Shield Metal Arc Welding welding method. The mean of tensile test without heating treatment (419 Kg/mm2, heating treatment 3000C (424 Kg/mm2, heating treatment 6000C (415 Kg/mm2. The mean of bending test without heating treatment (845 N/mm2, heating treatment 3000C (768 N/mm2, heating treatment 6000C (724 N/mm2. The mean of hardness test whitout heating treatment (129 HVN, heating treatment 3000C (147 HVN, heating treatment 6000C (160 HVN. From the test we get conslusion that the best result is Marine use plate ST 42 with BKI classification with heating treatment 300 0C, heating process is 60 minutes in the oven. After that cooling treatment to be done until back normal degree

  11. Ex vivo torsional properties of a 2.5 mm veterinary interlocking nail system in canine femurs. Comparison with a 2.4 mm limited contact bone plate. (United States)

    Macedo, Aline S; Moens, Noel M M; Runciman, John; Gibson, Tom W G; Minto, Bruno W


    To evaluate the torsional properties of the Targon ® Vet Nail System (TVS) in small canine femurs and to compare these properties to those of the 2.4 mm LC-DCP ® plates. Thirty-six cadaveric femurs were allocated to three groups (n = 12). In all bones, points just distal to the lesser trochanter and just proximal to the fabellae were marked and a midshaft transverse osteotomy was performed. Group 1: bones were fixed with the 2.5 mm TVS with the bolts applied at the pre-identified marks. Group 2: A TVS system with 25% shorter inter-bolt distance was used. Group 3: A 7-hole 2.4 mm LC-DCP ® plates were applied. All constructs were tested non-destructively for 10 cycles, followed by an acute torsion to failure. Torque at yield was 0.806 ± 0.183 and 0.805 ± 0.093 Nm for groups 1 and 2 and 1.737 ± 0.461 Nm for group 3. Stiffness was 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.05 ± 0.007, and 0.14 ± 0.015 Nm/° for groups 1 to 3 respectively. Maximal angular displacement under cyclic loading was 16.6° ± 2.5°, 15.6° ± 2.1°, and 7.8° ± 1.06° respectively. There was no significant difference for any of the parameters between groups 1 and 2. Both torque at yield and stiffness were significantly greater between group 3 and groups 1 and 2. The TVS had approximately half the torsional strength and approximately 1/3 of the stiffness of the 2.4 mm bone plate. Slippage of the locking mechanism was probably the cause of the early failure. The system should be considered as a low-strength and low-stiffness system when compared to bone plates.

  12. Investigation of a novel mechanically mixed mineral trioxide aggregate (MM-MTA(™) ). (United States)

    Khalil, I; Naaman, A; Camilleri, J


    To characterize a novel mechanically mixed mineral trioxide aggregate product (MM-MTA, MicroMega, Besançon, France) and to investigate the physical and chemical properties in comparison with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA) and MTA Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil). The three materials were mixed according to manufacturer's instructions. Specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm high were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis after 1-day and 28-day storage in physiological solution. Calcium ion leaching in solution and pH of the elution were also assessed. Furthermore, the setting time, radiopacity and material porosity were investigated. Statistical analysis was performed by anova and Tukey's post hoc tests. All the MTAs tested were composed primarily of tricalcium silicate and bismuth oxide. In addition, MM-MTA exhibited additional peaks for chlorine evident in the EDS analysis; calcium carbonate was present in the set material detected by XRD. Calcium hydroxide was present in the set ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus. Calcium ion leaching and alkalization of the storage solution were demonstrated in all the materials. Both MM-MTA and MTA Angelus had a shorter setting time when compared to ProRoot MTA (P bismuth oxide. In addition, MM-MTA contains calcium carbonate and a chloride accelerator. These additives affect the material hydration and the properties of the set material. The properties of MM-MTA are a result of a combination of factors, namely the particular cement mineralogy, radiopacifier loading, effective water-cement ratio and mechanical mixing. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Alpha spectroscopy by the Φ25 mm×0.1 mm YAlO{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasnicka, Jiri [Radiation Detection Systems, Unit 10, 186 Pulteney Street, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia); Urban, Tomas, E-mail: [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 78/7, 115 19 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Tous, Jan; Smejkal, Jan; Blazek, Karel [Crytur Ltd, Palackeho 175, 511 01 Turnov (Czech Republic); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)


    The YAlO{sub 3}:Ce scintillation crystal has excellent mechanical properties and is not affected if used in chemically aggressive environments. The detector with the diameter of Φ25.4 mm and thickness of 0.1 mm was coupled with the PMT, associated electronics and the MCA in order to study its alpha spectroscopy properties. The measured alpha spectra of the surface calibration sources of {sup 241}Am and {sup 230}Th were compared with results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The experiment and the simulation were carried out for three distances between the detector and the surface alpha source in order to assess the effect of the distance on the detected energy of alpha radiation. Finally, the detector was used for the monitoring of radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products (radon daughters) in the air. It was concluded that the detector is suitable for the in-situ alpha spectroscopy monitoring under ambient atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, in order to identify radionuclides and their activity from the measured alpha spectra a computer code would need to be developed. - Highlights: • Thin YAP: Ce scintillator crystal is proposed to be used for alpha spectrometry. • Experimental alpha spectra were compared with Monte Carlo simulated spectra. • The proposed detector assembly is suitable for the monitoring of radon decay products in air. • The results give a good potential for a quantitative analysis of the spectrum.

  14. Development and application of QM/MM methods to study the solvation effects and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibya, Pooja Arora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations have the advantage of attaining high-level accuracy, however QM calculations become computationally inefficient as the size of the system grows. Solving complex molecular problems on large systems and ensembles by using quantum mechanics still poses a challenge in terms of the computational cost. Methods that are based on classical mechanics are an inexpensive alternative, but they lack accuracy. A good trade off between accuracy and efficiency is achieved by combining QM methods with molecular mechanics (MM) methods to use the robustness of the QM methods in terms of accuracy and the MM methods to minimize the computational cost. Two types of QM combined with MM (QM/MM) methods are the main focus of the present dissertation: the application and development of QM/MM methods for solvation studies and reactions on the Si(100) surface. The solvation studies were performed using a discreet solvation model that is largely based on first principles called the effective fragment potential method (EFP). The main idea of combining the EFP method with quantum mechanics is to accurately treat the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions, such as electrostatic, polarization, dispersion and charge transfer, that are important in correctly calculating solvent effects on systems of interest. A second QM/MM method called SIMOMM (surface integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics) is a hybrid QM/MM embedded cluster model that mimics the real surface.3 This method was employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for reactions of atomic O on the Si(100) surface. The hybrid QM/MM method is a computationally inexpensive approach for studying reactions on larger surfaces in a reasonably accurate and efficient manner. This thesis is comprised of four chapters: Chapter 1 describes the general overview and motivation of the dissertation and gives a broad background of the computational methods that have been employed in this work

  15. Ultrasonic micro-motor using miniature piezoelectric tube with diameter of 1.0 mm. (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Wang, Tian-hua; Zhang, Zhong-ning; Fan, Li


    At the present moment, the smallest piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-motors utilizing miniature PZT piezoelectric ceramic tubes were developed. The motor consists of a PZT-metal composite tube stator, two steel rotors and a thin shaft that keeps the two rotors pressing on both ends of the stator elastically. The dimensions of the PZT tube are 1.0 mm in outer diameter, 0.6 mm in inner diameter and 5.0 mm in length. The diameter and total length of the assembled micro-motor is 1.0 mm and 8 mm (including an adjusting spring), respectively. The tube-type micro-motor is driven by two pairs of alternative voltages with phase shift 90 degrees between the adjacent electrodes and operated in the first circular-bending vibration mode of the stator with the resonance frequency about 58 kHz. The experimental results show that the tube-type micro-motors have perfect performances: (i) high rotation frequency over 3000 rpm and (ii) large starting torque over 7.8 microN m under the conditions of the input voltage of 110 V(p-p) and the resonance frequency. The micro-motor is well suitable for operating in micro-spaces, such as in intravascular, micro-robots and micro-craft applications.

  16. Dual-side backward coupler waveguide orthomode transducer for the 3 mm band (United States)

    Navarrini, Alessandro; Nesti, Renzo


    We describe the design, construction, and characterization results of a waveguide Orthomode Transducer (OMT) for the 3 mm band (84-116 GHz.) The OMT is based on a symmetric backward coupling structure and has a square waveguide input port (2.54 mm × 2.54 mm) and two single-mode waveguide outputs: a standard WR10 rectangular waveguide (2.54 mm × 1.27 mm,) and an oval waveguide with full-radius corners. The reverse coupling structure is located in the common square waveguide arm and splits one polarization signal in two opposite rectangular waveguide sidearms using broadband -3 dB E-plane branch-line hybrid couplers. The device was optimized using a commercial 3D electromagnetic simulator. The OMT consists of two mechanical blocks fabricated in split-block configuration using conventional CNC milling machine. From 84 to 116 GHz the measured input reflection coefficient was less than -17 dB, the isolation between the outputs was less than -50 dB, the cross polarization was less than -30 dB, and the transmission was larger than -0.35 dB at room temperature for both polarization channels. The device is suitable for scaling to higher frequency.

  17. Symmetric Reverse-Coupling Waveguide Orthomode Transducer for the 3-mm Band (United States)

    Navarrini, Alessandro; Nesti, Renzo


    We describe the design, construction, and performance of a waveguide orthomode transducer (OMT) for the 3-mm band (84-116 GHz). The OMT is based on a symmetric backward coupling structure and has a square waveguide input port (2.54 mm times 2.54 mm) and two single-mode waveguide outputs: a standard WR10 rectangular waveguide (2.54 mm times 1.27 mm), and an oval waveguide with full-radius corners. The reverse coupling structure is located in the common square waveguide arm and splits one polarization signal in two opposite rectangular waveguide sidearms using broadband -3-dB .E-plane branch-line hybrid couplers. The device was optimized using a commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulator. The OMT consists of two mechanical blocks fabricated in split- block configuration using conventional CNC milling machine. From 84 to 116 GHz, the measured input reflection coefficient was less than -17 dB, the cross polarization was less than -30 dB, the isolation between the outputs was greater than 50 dB, and the insertion loss was less than 0.35 dB at room temperature for both polarization channels. The device is suitable for scaling to higher frequency.

  18. Baerveldt 250 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Devices in Eyes With Preexisting Scleral Buckles. (United States)

    Zhang, Linda; Blachley, Taylor S; Weizer, Jennifer S


    To evaluate eyes with preexisting scleral buckles (SBs) that underwent placement of a 250 mm Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device (GDD). Records of all patients with a preexisting SB who underwent 250 mm Baerveldt GDD placement at the Kellogg Eye Center between January 1, 2005 and September 30, 2012 were reviewed. Outcome measures included visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and number of glaucoma medications prescribed. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 23.9 months. Twelve eyes (70.6%) achieved successful control of IOP (IOP reduction procedures, and no devastating complications). Preoperatively, mean IOP was 25.5 mm Hg, mean number of glaucoma medications was 3.5, and mean logMAR VA was 1.1 (Snellen equivalent 20/200). At 1 and 2 years postoperatively, mean IOP was 9.2 and 8.8 mm Hg (Pglaucoma medications was 0.9 and 0.3 (Pdevice (2 eyes, 12%), phthisis (2 eyes, 12%), and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment (1 eye, 6%). In eyes with preexisting SBs, the Baerveldt 250 mm GDD effectively lowers IOP and reduces the number of glaucoma medications. Complications related to conjunctival dehiscence are not uncommon in these eyes with significantly scarred conjunctiva.

  19. Time-Domain Sub-mm Astronomy. Measuring the Accretion Variability of Deeply Embedded Protostars. (United States)

    Johnstone, Douglas


    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion is expected to be variable, but this variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. We have undertaken a 3-year dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions (Herczeg et al. 2017) to search for sub-mm brightness variations as a proxy of episodic accretion. Here, we describe a sub-mm luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main (Yoo et al. 2017). The change in sub-mm brightness of EC 53 is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar. The sub-mm lightcurve resembles the historical K-band lightcurve, which varies by a factor of ˜6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. We further compare archival SCUBA-2 observations against the first year of our survey (Mairs et al. 2017) and perform a statistical analysis of the first eighteen months of the survey (Johnstone et al. 2017). We conclude that greater than 5% of the known deeply embedded protostars are found to vary in the sub-mm.

  20. Network level pavement evaluation with 1 mm 3D survey system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C.P. Wang


    Full Text Available The latest iteration of PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1 mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all 3 directions at highway speed up to 60 mph. This paper introduces the PaveVision3D Ultra technology for rapid network level pavement survey on approximately 1280 center miles of Oklahoma interstate highways. With sophisticated automated distress analyzer (ADA software interface, the collected 1 mm 3D data provide Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT with comprehensive solutions for automated evaluation of pavement surface including longitudinal profile for roughness, transverse profile for rutting, predicted hydroplaning speed for safety analysis, and cracking and various surface defects for distresses. The pruned exact linear time (PELT method, an optimal partitioning algorithm, is implemented to identify change points and dynamically determine homogeneous segments so as to assist ODOT effectively using the available 1 mm 3D pavement surface condition data for decision-making. The application of 1 mm 3D laser imaging technology for network survey is unprecedented. This innovative technology allows highway agencies to access its options in using the 1 mm 3D system for its design and management purposes, particularly to meet the data needs for pavement management system (PMS, pavement ME design and highway performance monitoring system (HPMS.

  1. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux Avances, Departement de genie des mines, de la metallurgie et des materiaux, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Hopital St Francois d' Assise, 10, rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Vallade, J. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Agence de l' environnement et de la Ma Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -carettrise de l' Energie, 20, avenue du Gresille, BP 90406, F-49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Nijnatten, P. van [OMT Solutions bv, High Tech Campus 9, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  2. Omental herniation through a 3-mm umbilical trocar site: unmasking a hidden umbilical hernia. (United States)

    Bergemann, J L; Hibbert, M L; Harkins, G; Narvaez, J; Asato, A


    The incidence of umbilical hernia following laparoscopic surgery varies from 0.02-3.6%. The incidence of pre-existing fascial defects, however, may be as high as 18% in patients undergoing abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Previous recommendations have been made to close any fascial defect greater than or equal to 10 mm. Reported here is a case of herniation through a 3-mm trocar site incision and the discovery of a pre-existing fascial defect. A 32-year-old female underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic tubal ligation using a 3-mm umbilical port. Prior to umbilical trocar removal at the completion of the case, the carbon dioxide was evacuated from the abdomen and the sleeve was withdrawn under direct vision. Neither the fascial nor skin incisions were sutured. On postoperative day two, the patient returned with omentum herniating from the 3-mm site. At surgery, a 1.5-cm pre-existing fascial defect was discovered adjacent to the trocar site. The hernia sac tracked laterally to the base of the umbilicus, and the omentum had slid into the sac and out the skin opening. As this report illustrates, herniation associated with laparoscopic trocar sites can occur with incisions as small as 3 mm. The presence of pre-existing fascial defects can cause increased morbidity in any laparoscopic surgery, and as illustrated in this report, may predispose the patient to site herniation. The detection and management of these defects is crucial in preventing postlaparoscopic complications.

  3. Small Caliber Lethality: 5.56mm Performance in Close Quarters Battle. WSTIAC Quarterly, Volume 8, Number 1 (United States)


    American Soldiers who continued to fight despite being hit by German 7.92mm, Japanese 6.5mm and 7.7mm, or Chinese or Vietnamese 7.62mm rounds. A more...everywhere should take heart from the fact that despite all the myth and superstition surrounding their rifles and ammunition, they are still being provided

  4. Electrical behaviour of heterobimetallic [MM'(EtCS2)4] (MM'=NiPd, NiPt, PdPt) and MM'X-chain polymers [PtM(EtCS2)4I] (M=Ni, Pd). (United States)

    Givaja, Gonzalo; Castillo, Oscar; Mateo, Eva; Gallego, Almudena; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Calzolari, Arrigo; di Felice, Rosa; Zamora, Félix


    Herein, we report the isolation of new heterobimetallic complexes [Ni(0.6)Pd(1.4)(EtCS(2))(4)] (1), [NiPt(EtCS(2))(4)] (2) and [Pd(0.4)Pt(1.6)(EtCS(2))(4)] (3), which were constructed by using transmetallation procedures. Subsequent oxidation with iodine furnished the MM'X monodimensional chains [Ni(0.6)Pt(1.4)(EtCS(2))(4)I] (4) and [Ni(0.1)Pd(0.3)Pt(1.6)(EtCS(2))(4)I] (5). The physical properties of these systems were investigated and the chain structures 4 and 5 were found to be reminiscent of the parent [Pt(2)(EtCS(2))(4)I] species. However, they were more sensitively dependent on the localised nature of the charge on the Ni ion, which caused spontaneous breaking of the conduction bands. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. LICHEM: A QM/MM program for simulations with multipolar and polarizable force fields. (United States)

    Kratz, Eric G; Walker, Alice R; Lagardère, Louis; Lipparini, Filippo; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Andrés Cisneros, G


    We introduce an initial implementation of the LICHEM software package. LICHEM can interface with Gaussian, PSI4, NWChem, TINKER, and TINKER-HP to enable QM/MM calculations using multipolar/polarizable force fields. LICHEM extracts forces and energies from unmodified QM and MM software packages to perform geometry optimizations, single-point energy calculations, or Monte Carlo simulations. When the QM and MM regions are connected by covalent bonds, the pseudo-bond approach is employed to smoothly transition between the QM region and the polarizable force field. A series of water clusters and small peptides have been employed to test our initial implementation. The results obtained from these test systems show the capabilities of the new software and highlight the importance of including explicit polarization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Opportunistic beam training with hybrid analog/digital codebooks for mmWave systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.


    © 2015 IEEE. Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is one solution to provide more spectrum than available at lower carrier frequencies. To provide sufficient link budget, mmWave systems will use beamforming with large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver. Training these large arrays using conventional approaches taken at lower carrier frequencies, however, results in high overhead. In this paper, we propose a beam training algorithm that efficiently designs the beamforming vectors with low training overhead. Exploiting mmWave channel reciprocity, the proposed algorithm relaxes the need for an explicit feedback channel, and opportunistically terminates the training process when a desired quality of service is achieved. To construct the training beamforming vectors, a new multi-resolution codebook is developed for hybrid analog/digital architectures. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a comparable rate to that obtained by exhaustive search solutions while requiring lower training overhead when compared to prior work.

  7. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.


    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  8. DTU-ESA millimeter-wave validation standard antenna (mm-vast) – performance verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A new multi-frequency Validation Standard (VAST) antenna covering upper microwave (K/Ka) and millimeter wave (Q/V) bands, and thus called mmVAST, was developed in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under contract from the European Space Agency. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical requirem......A new multi-frequency Validation Standard (VAST) antenna covering upper microwave (K/Ka) and millimeter wave (Q/V) bands, and thus called mmVAST, was developed in cooperation between DTU and TICRA under contract from the European Space Agency. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical...... requirements as well as the design and manufacturing of the mm-VAST antenna are briefly presented. The focus is then given to the details of conducted mechanical and electrical tests aimed at verifying the performance of the manufactured antenna and to the obtained measurement results....

  9. Hardware modification of a 7 mm MAS NMR probe to a single-crystal goniometer. (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Rohonczy, János


    Tensorial terms of the Hamiltonian can be measured by solid-state single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy which requires a goniometer NMR probehead. Goniometer probes; however, are not standard parts of solid NMR spectrometers and are available only at a much higher price than magic-angle spinning (MAS) probeheads widely used in research. Due to requirements of MAS experiments, modern probeheads are designed for small ceramic rotors, which are 1-4 mm in diameter, to reach very high angular frequencies, so there are several older 7 mm MAS probeheads used rarely todays in NMR laboratories. In this paper, a simple method is presented how to rebuild step-by-step a 7 mm Bruker MAS probehead to be suitable for single-crystal spectroscopy. In the second part (31)P chemical shift tensors of Na(4)P(2)O(7) x 10H(2)O are determined to demonstrate the functionality of the rebuilt probehead.

  10. Simultaneous multi-band channel sounding at mm-Wave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Robert; Häfner, Stephan; Dupleich, Diego


    and verification of those novel technologies required an understanding of the propagation effects at mm-Wave which enabled by channel sounding measurements and analysis. Due to the variety of considered frequency bands and the necessity of spatial resolved measurements for e.g. testing of beamforming approaches......The vision of multi Gbit/s data rates in future mobile networks requires the change to millimeter wave (mm-Wave) frequencies for increasing bandwidth. As a consequence, new technologies have to be deployed to tackle the drawbacks of higher frequency bands, e.g. increased path loss. Development......, which comprises the microwave band at 10 GHz and the mm-Wave band at 30 GHz. Preliminary analysis results are presented....

  11. Improvement of rolling 6 mm thin plates in plate rolling mill PT. Krakatau Posco (United States)

    Pujiyanto, Hamdani


    A 6-mm thin plate is difficult to produce especially if the product requires wide size and high strength. Flatness is the main quality issue in rolling 6-mm plate using a 4-high reversing mill which use ±1100-mm work roll. Thus some methods are applied to overcome such issue in order to comply to customer quality requirement. Pre-rolling, rolling, and post-rolling conditions have to be considered comprehensively. Roll unit management will be the key factor before rolling condition. The roll unit itself has a significant impact on work roll crown wearness in relation with work roll intial crown and thermal crown. Work roll crown along with the modification of hydraulic gap control (HGC) could directly alter the flatness of the plate.

  12. Ozone sensitivity analysis with the MM5-CMAQ modeling system for Shanghai. (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Haiying; Zhang, Gangfeng; Wangi, Yangjun; Chen, Minghua; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Yiran; Streets, D G; Fu, Jiamo


    Ozone has become one of the most important air pollution issues around the world. This article applied both O3/(NO(y)-NO(x)) and H2O2/HNO3 indicators to analyze the ozone sensitivity in urban and rural areas of Shanghai, with implementation of the MM5-CMAQ modeling system in July, 2007. The meteorological parameters were obtained by using the MM5 model. A regional emission inventory with spatial and temporal allocation based on the statistical data has been developed to provide input emission data to the MM5-CMAQ modeling system. Results showed that the ozone concentrations in Shanghai show clear regional differences. The ozone concentration in rural areas was much higher than that in the urban area. Two indicators showed that ozone was more sensitive to VOCs in urban areas, while it tended to be NO(x) sensitive in rural areas of Shanghai.

  13. 21th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner


    This proceedings volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ROMANSY 2016, the 21th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. These papers cover advances on several aspects of the wide field of Robotics as concerning Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. ROMANSY 2016 is the 21st event in a series that started in 1973 as one of the first conference activities in the world on Robotics. The first event was held at CISM (International Centre for Mechanical Science) in Udine, Italy on 5-8 September 1973. It was also the first topic conference of IFToMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science) and it was directed not only to the IFToMM community.

  14. Induced astigmatism in a 6.0 mm no-stitch frown incision. (United States)

    Sinskey, R M; Stoppel, J O


    Fifty-five consecutive patients had cataract extraction with a 6 mm no-stitch frown incision and implantation of a 6 mm optic three-piece posterior chamber lens. Vector analysis calculations of diopters (D) of mean induced keratometric astigmatism for this incision were 0.70 D at one day, 0.76 D at one week, 0.50 D at one month, and 0.50 D at three months. The Naeser's polar value showed a mean with-the-rule astigmatism of +0.42 D at one day and -0.08 D against-the-rule astigmatism at three months. The results suggest that the 6.0 mm no-stitch frown incision induces a low postoperative astigmatism and provides a stable incision.

  15. Correcting groove error in gratings ruled on a 500-mm ruling engine using interferometric control. (United States)

    Mi, Xiaotao; Yu, Haili; Yu, Hongzhu; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Xuefeng; Qi, Xiangdong; Bayinhedhig; Wan, Qiuhua


    Groove error is one of the most important factors affecting grating quality and spectral performance. To reduce groove error, we propose a new ruling-tool carriage system based on aerostatic guideways. We design a new blank carriage system with double piezoelectric actuators. We also propose a completely closed-loop servo-control system with a new optical measurement system that can control the position of the diamond relative to the blank. To evaluate our proposed methods, we produced several gratings, including an echelle grating with 79  grooves/mm, a grating with 768  grooves/mm, and a high-density grating with 6000  grooves/mm. The results show that our methods effectively reduce groove error in ruled gratings.

  16. Efficient approach to obtain free energy gradient using QM/MM MD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Toshio; Koseki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); The Research Institute for Molecular Electronic Devices (RIMED), Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Ando, Kanta [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)


    The efficient computational approach denoted as charge and atom dipole response kernel (CDRK) model to consider polarization effects of the quantum mechanical (QM) region is described using the charge response and the atom dipole response kernels for free energy gradient (FEG) calculations in the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method. CDRK model can reasonably reproduce energies and also energy gradients of QM and MM atoms obtained by expensive QM/MM calculations in a drastically reduced computational time. This model is applied on the acylation reaction in hydrated trypsin-BPTI complex to optimize the reaction path on the free energy surface by means of FEG and the nudged elastic band (NEB) method.

  17. [Exclusive piezoelectric lithotripsy in the treatment of calculi larger than 30 mm (partial or complete coralliform, pyelic calculi)]. (United States)

    Amiel, J A; Peyrottes, A Y; Dujardin, T; Benizri, E J; Toubol, J


    Thirty patients with partial or total staghorn stones or calculi larger than 30 mm were treated by piezoelectric lithotripsy (PEL) monotherapy using an EDAP LT-01 lithotripter with ultrasound guidance. Nineteen of these patients had pelvic stones; the other 11 had partial (9) or total (2) staghorn stones. All patients first underwent an initial lithotripsy session. No anesthesia or IV sedation was required in any case. If stone fragmentation was achieved during this first session, a double-J stent was inserted before the second lithotripsy session. Prior to the first session, 18 of 30 patients had sterile urine cultures; 12 of 30 presented major distension of the excretory tract. Results were analyzed to determine the factors influencing the outcome of this therapy. Three months after the first session, patients were considered cured if their stones had completely disappeared according to plain abdominal films (14 of 30, 46%). In seven patients (23.3%) fragmentation had occurred but residual fragments remained (1 to 3 fragments less than or equal to 4 mm). No fragmentation was obtained after the first session in nine patients (30.7%) (1 total staghorn stone, 8 pelvic stones). The mean number of treatment sessions was five (range, 1 to 15). Complications occurred in only 10% of patients (3 of 30): two steinstrassen and one acute pyelonephritis. Eighty-three percent of patients without major excretory tract distension and 55% of patients whose initial urine culture was sterile achieved a stone-free state. Therefore the best indications for PEL monotherapy for calculi larger than 30 mm are pelvic stones and partial staghorn stones and no major excretory tract dilatation in patients with sterile initial urine cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. IVF outcome is optimized when embryos are replaced between 5 and 15 mm from the fundal endometrial surface: a prospective analysis on 1184 IVF cycles (United States)


    Background Some data suggest that the results of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be affected by the site of the uterine cavity where embryos are released. It is not yet clear if there is an optimal range of embryo-fundus distance (EFD) within which embryos should be transferred to optimize IVF outcome. Methods The present study included 1184 patients undergoing a blind, clinical-touch ET of 1–2 fresh embryos loaded in a soft catheter with a low amount of culture medium. We measured the EFD using transvaginal US performed immediately after ET, with the aim to assess (a) if EFD affects pregnancy and implantation rates, and (b) if an optimal EFD range can be identified. Results Despite comparable patients’ clinical characteristics, embryo morphological quality, and endometrial thickness, an EFD between 5 and 15 mm allowed to obtain significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates than an EFD above 15 mm. The abortion rate was much higher (although not significantly) when EFD was below 5 mm than when it was between 5 and 15 mm. Combined together, these results produced an overall higher ongoing pregnancy rate in the group of patients whose embryos were released between 5 and 15 mm from the fundal endometrial surface. Conclusions The site at which embryos are released affects IVF outcome and an optimal EFD range exists; this observations suggest that US-guided ET could be advantageous vs. clinical-touch ET, as it allows to be more accurate in releasing embryos within the optimal EFD range. PMID:24341917

  19. Percutaneous handling of coronary lesions >20mm through stents. Is there a first choice strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando L. Tanajura


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - This study compared the early and late results of the use of one single stent with those of the use of multiple stents in patients with lesions longer than 20mm. METHODS - Prospective assessment of patients electively treated with stents, with optimal stent deployment and followed-up for more than 3 months. From February '94 to January '98, 215 patients with lesions >20mm were treated. These patients were divided into 2 groups as follows: Group A - 105 patients (49% with one stent implanted; Group B - 110 patients (51% with multiple stents implanted. RESULTS - The mean length of the lesions was 26mm in group A (21-48mm versus 29mm in group B (21-52mm (p=0.01. Major complications occurred in one patient (0.9% in group A (subacute thrombosis, myocardial infarctionand death and in 2 patients (1.8% in group B (one emergency surgery and one myocardial infarction (p=NS. The results of the late follow-up period (>6 months were similar for both groups (group A = 82% vs group B = 76%; p=NS, and we observed an event-free survical in 89% of the patients in group A and in 91% of the patients in group B (p=NS. Angina (group A = 11% vs group B = 7% and lesion revascularization (group A = 5% vs group B = 6%; p=NS also occurred in a similar percentage. No infarction or death was observed in the late follow-up period; restenosis was identified in 33% and 29% of the patients in groups A and B, respectively (p=NS. CONCLUSION - The results obtained using one stent and using multiple stents were similar; the greater cost-effectiveness of one stent implantation, however, seems to make this strategy the first choice.

  20. Data requirements for a 5-mm quasi-geoid in the Netherlands


    Farahani, H.; Klees, R.; Slobbe, D.C.


    We assess the surface gravity data requirements for a 5-mm quasi-geoid model for the Netherlands mainland and continental shelf in terms of omission and commission errors. The omission error critically depends on the roughness of the topography and bathymetry. For the Netherlands continental shelf, Central and Northern Netherlands, the omission error is well described by the model 0.32d mm, where d is the data spacing in km. For the more hilly Southern Netherlands, the omission error model is...

  1. 2-way coupling the hydrological land surface model PROMET with the regional climate model MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zabel


    Full Text Available Most land surface hydrological models (LSHMs consider land surface processes (e.g. soil–plant–atmosphere interactions, lateral water flows, snow and ice in a spatially detailed manner. The atmosphere is considered as exogenous driver, neglecting feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs generally simulate land surface processes through coarse descriptions and spatial scales but include land–atmosphere interactions. What is the impact of the differently applied model physics and spatial resolution of LSHMs on the performance of RCMs? What feedback effects are induced by different land surface models? This study analyses the impact of replacing the land surface module (LSM within an RCM with a high resolution LSHM. A 2-way coupling approach was applied using the LSHM PROMET (1 × 1 km2 and the atmospheric part of the RCM MM5 (45 × 45 km2. The scaling interface SCALMET is used for down- and upscaling the linear and non-linear fluxes between the model scales. The change in the atmospheric response by MM5 using the LSHM is analysed, and its quality is compared to observations of temperature and precipitation for a 4 yr period from 1996 to 1999 for the Upper Danube catchment. By substituting the Noah-LSM with PROMET, simulated non-bias-corrected near-surface air temperature improves for annual, monthly and daily courses when compared to measurements from 277 meteorological weather stations within the Upper Danube catchment. The mean annual bias was improved from −0.85 to −0.13 K. In particular, the improved afternoon heating from May to September is caused by increased sensible heat flux and decreased latent heat flux as well as more incoming solar radiation in the fully coupled PROMET/MM5 in comparison to the NOAH/MM5 simulation. Triggered by the LSM replacement, precipitation overall is reduced; however simulated precipitation amounts are still of high uncertainty, both

  2. Clinical research of 1.8mm microincision phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation combined with trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Li


    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effect and safety of 1.8mm coaxial microincision phacoemulsification-trabeculetomy with ultra-thin intraocular lens(IOLimplants for treating glaucoma complicated with cataract, and to compare with the traditional 3.0mm small phacoemulsification-trabeculetomy with foldable IOL implantion.METHODS: In this prospective study, 36 patients(36 eyeswith glaucoma and cataract in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regian People's Hospital were collected and randomly divided into 2 groups. For the small incision group: 18 cases(18 eyesunderwent 3.0mm coaxial incision phacoemulsification-trabeculetomy with foldable IOL implantion; In th microincision group: 18 cases(18 eyesunderwent 1.8mm microincision phacoemulsification-trabeculetomy with ultra-thin IOL implantion. The two groups were recorded for 1wk, 1 and 3mo of visual acuity, corneal endothelial cell density, surgically induced astigmatism, intraocular pressure(IOP, filtering bleb and complications. Pearson's Chi-square test ande t-test were used to determine differences between the two groups.RESULTS: At 1wk postoperatively, visual acuity in the microincision group was better than that of small incision group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. At 1wk, 1 and 3mo, there was a significant different between the 2 groups in surgically induced astigmetism(PPP>0.05. IOP reduced after surgy(microincision group: 15.26±3.12mmHg, small incision group: 14.57±2.86mmHg, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups(P>0.05. There was no significant different between the 2 groups in blebs(P>0.05. Neither iris injury, posterior capsule rupture nor anterior chamber bleeding complications was found in any groups. CONCLUSION: TBy compared with traditional 3.0mm coaxial small incision phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy with foldable IOL implantion, 1.8mm microincision phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy withe ultra-thin IOL implantion can effectively reduce the astigmatism

  3. Linearization and efficiency enhancement techniques for silicon power amplifiers from RF to mmW

    CERN Document Server

    Kerhervé, Eric


    This book provides an overview of current efficiency enhancement and linearization techniques for silicon power amplifier designs. It examines the latest state of the art technologies and design techniques to address challenges for RF cellular mobile, base stations, and RF and mmW WLAN applications. Coverage includes material on current silicon (CMOS, SiGe) RF and mmW power amplifier designs, focusing on advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional GaAs implementations. With this book you will learn: The principles of linearization and efficiency improvement techniquesThe arch

  4. 2016 IFToMM Asian Conference on Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM Asian MMS 2016) & 2016 International Conference on Mechanism and Machine Science (CCMMS 2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Nianfeng; Huang, Yanjiang


    These proceedings collect the latest research results in mechanism and machine science, intended to reinforce and improve the role of mechanical systems in a variety of applications in daily life and industry. Gathering more than 120 academic papers, it addresses topics including: Computational kinematics, Machine elements, Actuators, Gearing and transmissions, Linkages and cams, Mechanism design, Dynamics of machinery, Tribology, Vehicle mechanisms, dynamics and design, Reliability, Experimental methods in mechanisms, Robotics and mechatronics, Biomechanics, Micro/nano mechanisms and machines, Medical/welfare devices, Nature and machines, Design methodology, Reconfigurable mechanisms and reconfigurable manipulators, and Origami mechanisms. This is the fourth installment in the IFToMM Asian conference series on Mechanism and Machine Science (ASIAN MMS 2016). The ASIAN MMS conference initiative was launched to provide a forum mainly for the Asian community working in Mechanism and Machine Science, in order to ...

  5. Ex vivo cyclic mechanical behaviour of 2.4 mm locking plates compared with 2.4 mm limited contact plates in a cadaveric diaphyseal gap model. (United States)

    Irubetagoyena, I; Verset, M; Palierne, S; Swider, P; Autefage, A


    To compare the mechanical properties of locking compression plate (LCP) and limited contact dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) constructs in an experimental model of comminuted fracture of the canine femur during eccentric cyclic loading. A 20 mm mid-diaphyseal gap was created in eighteen canine femora. A 10-hole, 2.4 mm stainless steel plate (LCP or LC-DCP) was applied with three bicortical screws in each bone fragment. Eccentric cyclic loadings were applied at 10 Hertz for 610,000 cycles. Quasistatic loading / unloading cycles were applied at 0 and 10,000 cycles, and then every 50,000 cycles. Structural stiffness was calculated as the slope of the linear portion of the load-displacement curves during quasistatic loading / unloading cycles. No bone failure or screw loosening occurred. Two of the nine LCP constructs failed by plate breakage during fatigue testing, whereas no gross failure occurred with the LC-DCP constructs. The mean first stiffness of the LCP constructs over the course of testing was 24.0% lower than that of constructs stabilized by LC-DCP. Construct stiffness increased in some specimens during testing, presumably due to changes in bone-plate contact. The first stiffness of LC-DCP constructs decreased by 19.4% and that of locked constructs by 34.3% during the cycling period. A biphasic stiffness profile was observed: the second stiffness was significantly greater than the first stiffness in both groups, which allowed progressive stabilization at elevated load levels. Because LCP are not compressed to the bone, they may have a longer working length across a fracture, and thus be less stiff. However, this may cause them to be more susceptible to fatigue failure if healing is delayed.

  6. Benchmarking Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Methods on the Thymidylate Synthase-Catalyzed Hydride Transfer. (United States)

    Świderek, Katarzyna; Arafet, Kemel; Kohen, Amnon; Moliner, Vicent


    Given the ubiquity of hydride-transfer reactions in enzyme-catalyzed processes, identifying the appropriate computational method for evaluating such biological reactions is crucial to perform theoretical studies of these processes. In this paper, the hydride-transfer step catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TSase) is studied by examining hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials via multiple semiempirical methods and the M06-2X hybrid density functional. Calculations of protium and tritium transfer in these reactions across a range of temperatures allowed calculation of the temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIE). Dynamics and quantum-tunneling effects are revealed to have little effect on the reaction rate, but are significant in determining the KIEs and their temperature dependence. A good agreement with experiments is found, especially when computed for RM1/MM simulations. The small temperature dependence of quantum tunneling corrections and the quasiclassical contribution term cancel each other, while the recrossing transmission coefficient seems to be temperature-independent over the interval of 5-40 °C.

  7. Neli kulda juunioride MM-ilt. Mis saab edasi? / Märt Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Märt


    Juunioride kergejõustiku MM-il Pekingis võitsid eestlased neli kuldmedalit: Kaire Leibak kolmikhüppes, Marek Niit 200 m jooksus, Margus Hunt kuulitõukes ja kettaheites. Lisaks vestlus Kaire Leibaku treeneri Kersti Viruga, Marek Niiduga ja Margus Hundiga

  8. Effect for a single roughness ε = 9,11mm of experimental to study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness ε = 9,11mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained.

  9. Pupil-expansion ring implantation through a 0.9 mm incision. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Suven


    Disposable square and hexagonal Bhattacharjee pupil-expansion rings are made of 5-0 nylon, have notches at the corners, and flanges at the sides in a single 0.1 mm thin plane. To insert the ring, a flange is held with a 23-gauge forceps and the ring is inserted through a 0.9 mm (20-gauge) or larger main- or side-port incision. Alternate flanges are tucked under the iris using a Kuglen hook. A 23-gauge forceps and an iris hook can also be used to tuck the flanges bimanually. The ring is removed by disengaging 2 notches and pulling it out of a 0.9 mm (20-gauge) incision. No snagging of the incision occurs at insertion or removal. No injector is required. The device is useful in standard coaxial phacoemulsification, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, biaxial microincision cataract surgery (MICS), coaxial sub-2.0 mm MICS, and small-pupil microincision vitreous surgery and in eyes with shallow anterior chambers. Dr. Bhattacharjee has a pending international patent application (PCT-WIPO) for the pupil-expansion devices. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CVB: The Constrained Vapor Bubble 40 mm Capillary Experiment on the ISS (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel


    Discuss the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) 40mm Fin experiment on the ISS and how it aims to achieve a better understanding of the physics of evaporation and condensation and how they affect cooling processes in microgravity using a remotely controlled microscope and a small cooling device


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expérimentation. Le fond du canal est parfaitement horizontal ou de pente nulle. Un bassin d'alimentation est relié au canal par le moyen d'une conduite circulaire de 100 mm de diamètre. Celle-ci est reliée à une boite métallique ...

  12. Bycatch in 36 and 40 mm PA Turkish twin rigged beam trawl codends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... which are caught by the beam trawl fishery with nominal mesh sizes 36 and 40 mm PA (diamond) codend in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) and also on the minimum landing size (MLS) established for Merluccius merluccius, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, Mullus surmuletus, Trachurus trachurus and Pomatomus saltatrix.

  13. Data requirements for a 5-mm quasi-geoid in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farahani, H.; Klees, R.; Slobbe, D.C.


    We assess the surface gravity data requirements for a 5-mm quasi-geoid model for the Netherlands mainland and continental shelf in terms of omission and commission errors. The omission error critically depends on the roughness of the topography and bathymetry. For the Netherlands continental

  14. Silicon Photonics Integrated Circuits for 5th Generation mm-Wave Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Photonic integration may pave the way to practical applicability...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Schnee, Scott [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)


    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  16. The M&M Approach: Using Mental and Mechanical Strategies in Teaching and Coaching (United States)

    Rhea, Chris K.; Wisdom, Stacey


    Mental and mechanical (M&M) techniques are very useful in teaching and coaching. Mental techniques are strategies that enhance movement through psychological preparation, such as using imagery to practice a skill. Mechanical techniques are strategies that enhance the physical side of the movement, such as correcting the biomechanics of a golf…

  17. Sub-Arcsecond Sub-mm Continuum Observations of Orion-KL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuther, H


    We present the first 865 {micro}m continuum image with sub-arcsecond resolution obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These data resolve the Orion-KL region into the hot core, the nearby radio source I, the sub-mm counterpart to the infrared source n (radio source L), and new sub-mm continuum sources. The radio to submillimeter emission from source I may be modeled as either the result of proton-electron free-free emission that is optically thick to {approx} 100 GHz plus dust emission that accounts for the majority of the submillimeter flux, or H{sup -} free-free emission that gives rise to a power-law spectrum with power-law index of {approx} 1.6. The latter model would indicate similar physical conditions as found in the inner circumstellar environment of Mira variable stars. Future sub-arcsecond observations at shorter sub-mm wavelengths should easily discriminate between these two possibilities. The sub-mm continuum emission toward source n can be interpreted in the framework of emission from an accretion disk.

  18. Evaluation of MM5 model resolution when applied to prediction of national fire danger rating indexes (United States)

    Jeanne L. Hoadley; Miriam L. Rorig; Larry Bradshaw; Sue A. Ferguson; Kenneth J. Westrick; Scott L. Goodrick; Paul Werth


    Weather predictions from the MM5 mesoscale model were used to compute gridded predictions of National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes. The model output was applied to a case study of the 2000 fire season in Northern Idaho and Western Montana to simulate an extreme event. To determine the preferred resolution for automating NFD RS predictions, model...

  19. A Nb-Ti 90 mm Double-Aperture Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Segreti, M; Todesco, E


    The luminosity upgrade of the LHC requires replacing the magnets around the ATLAS and CMS experiments with larger aperture dipoles, quadrupoles and correctors. The goal is to have a magnetic lattice that can allow to halve the beam size in the collision points with respect to present baseline. Within the framework of HiLumi LHC, CEA-Saclay studied the replacement of the 70-mm double aperture quadrupole Q4, with a 90-mm magnet based on Nb-Ti technology. The main challenges are due to the distance between the beams of 194 mm, giving a non-negligible magnetic coupling between the two apertures. The coil chosen to be the baseline is a single layer with 15-mm-width cable of the LHC MQ quadrupole. The mechanical structure is based on stainless steel collars to withstand the Lorentz forces. The iron yoke has a magnetic function, and guarantees the alignment of the two apertures. Electromagnetic and mechanical aspects and effects of unbalanced regimes on the field quality have been analyzed. A 3-D design of the coil ...

  20. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm (United States)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of Koala Drive.

  1. White fir stands killed by tussock moth...70-mm. color photography aids detection (United States)

    Steven L. Wert; Boyd E. Wickman


    The use of large-scale 70 mm. aerial photography proved to be an effective technique for detecting trees in white fir stands killed by Douglas-fir tussock moth in northeastern California. Correlations between ground and photo estimates of dead trees were high. But correlations between such estimates of lesser degrees of tree damage--thin tops and topkill--were much...

  2. Dalit humanization: A Quest based on M.M. Thomas' theology of salvation and humanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaiah, J.


    Chapter one states the central quest of this thesis: to develop a Dalit theology on the basis of the concepts salvation and humanization of M.M. Thomas. Chapter two elucidates the socio- political and religious milieu which influenced his theology. Thomas’ theology has evolved and developed in

  3. Frequency Invariant Uniform Circular Array for Wideband mm-Wave Channel Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.


    A new approach for designing frequency invariant (FI) uniform circular array (UCA) is proposed, and its application to wideband multipath estimation at millimeter wave bands is studied. Both numerical simulations and channel sounding results at mm-Wave bands are provided to demonstrate...

  4. The use of 16 mm movie cameras for evaluation of the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system (United States)

    van Wijk, M. C.; Kratky, V.

    Six 16 mm movie cameras, installed in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle 'Columbia', are used to monitor the performance of the remote manipulator system during several flight missions. Calibration procedures carried out in the laboratory and on board of the Space Shuttle are described. The accuracy of the photogrammetrically compiled information and initial results are discussed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 déc. 2012 ... This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness ε = 9,11mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the ...

  6. On the IFToMM Permanent Commission for History of MMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceccarelli, Marco; Koetsier, Teun


    In this paper we have outlined the historical development of the IFToMM Permanent Commission for History of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science) by also looking at the recently established field of History of MMS with technical perspectives. The activity of the PC for History of MMS has been

  7. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  8. Leveraging Data Fusion Strategies in Multireceptor Lead Optimization MM/GBSA End-Point Methods. (United States)

    Knight, Jennifer L; Krilov, Goran; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Williams, Joshua; Gunn, John R; Clowes, Alec; Cheng, Luciano; Friesner, Richard A; Abel, Robert


    Accurate and efficient affinity calculations are critical to enhancing the contribution of in silico modeling during the lead optimization phase of a drug discovery campaign. Here, we present a large-scale study of the efficacy of data fusion strategies to leverage results from end-point MM/GBSA calculations in multiple receptors to identify potent inhibitors among an ensemble of congeneric ligands. The retrospective analysis of 13 congeneric ligand series curated from publicly available data across seven biological targets demonstrates that in 90% of the individual receptor structures MM/GBSA scores successfully identify subsets of inhibitors that are more potent than a random selection, and data fusion strategies that combine MM/GBSA scores from each of the receptors significantly increase the robustness of the predictions. Among nine different data fusion metrics based on consensus scores or receptor rankings, the SumZScore (i.e., converting MM/GBSA scores into standardized Z-Scores within a receptor and computing the sum of the Z-Scores for a given ligand across the ensemble of receptors) is found to be a robust and physically meaningful metric for combining results across multiple receptors. Perhaps most surprisingly, even with relatively low to modest overall correlations between SumZScore and experimental binding affinities, SumZScore tends to reliably prioritize subsets of inhibitors that are at least as potent as those that are prioritized from a "best" single receptor identified from known compounds within the congeneric series.

  9. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Kalidass


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1  queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme. The corresponding steady state probabilities have been obtained. We also obtain the time dependent performance measures of the systems

  10. Transient analysis of an M/M/1 queue with multiple vacations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaliappan Kalidass; Kasturi Ramanath


    ...; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; mso-no-proof: yes;">In this paper, we have obtained explicit expressions for the time dependent probabilities of the M/M/1 queue with server vacations under a multiple vacation scheme...

  11. Design of a Practical and Compact mm-Wave MIMO System with Optimized Capacity and Phased Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Cella


    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the feasibility of short range outdoor mm-wave MIMO links in the 70 GHz portion of the E-band (71–76 GHz. We use phased arrays in order to strongly reduce the impact of the multipath components, thus making the channel mainly line-of-sight (LOS. We design the array using a simple patch as a single element and simulate the performances for a 200 m link and a MIMO system with equal element spacing at the transmitter and the receiver. Each node of the MIMO system consists of a uniform rectangular array (URA where the single element is a patch antenna, in order to achieve higher gains and narrow beams. Such configuration is much more compact compared to the antennas currently employed for the same bandwidth. We optimize the interelement distances at the transmitter and the receiver and evaluate the capacity achievable with different array sizes. The results show that, for the proposed link budget, capacity up to 29 bit/s/Hz is achievable at a range of 200 m, with practical dimensions. We also show that the beamforming capabilities make the design much more flexible than the single reflector antenna systems. In the last part of the paper, we verify that our antenna can also operate in rainy conditions and longer ranges.

  12. Rapid Enhanced MM3-COPRO ELISA for Detection of Fasciola Coproantigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández


    Full Text Available ELISA-based methods of detecting Fasciola cathepsins in feces are powerful techniques for diagnosing infections by F. hepatica and F. gigantica. In the last decade, the in-house MM3-COPRO ELISA and its commercial version BIO K 201 (BIO X Diagnostics, Belgium have been recognized as useful tools for detecting early infections by such trematodes and for monitoring the efficacy of anthelmintic treatments in human and animal species, as they provide some advantages over classic fecal egg counts. However, the sensitivity of MM3-COPRO ELISA can sometimes be compromised by the high variability in the concentration of cathepsins in fecal samples throughout the biological cycle of Fasciola (mainly in cattle and by differences in the between-batch performance of peroxidase-labeled anti-mouse IgG polyclonal antibodies. To prevent such problems, we investigated whether the incorporation of a commercial streptavidin-polymerized horseradish peroxidase conjugate, in order to reveal bound biotinylated monoclonal antibody MM3, can improve the sensitivity of the MM3-COPRO ELISA. We observed that inclusion of this reagent shifted the previous detection limit of the assay from 0.6 ng/mL to 150 pg/mL and that the modified test is able to identify infection in cows harboring only one fluke. Moreover, we demonstrated that maximal OD values can be achieved with short incubations (30 min each step at RT with shaking, rather than standard incubations, which significantly accelerates the diagnostic procedure. Finally, we did not find a significant correlation between coproantigen concentration and parasite burden in cattle, which may be due to the low parasite burden (1-10 adult flukes of the animals used in the present study. As the usefulness of the classic MM3-COPRO test for detecting animal and human infections has already been demonstrated, it is expected that the improvements reported in this study will add new insights into the diagnosis and control of fasciolosis.

  13. Using the WorldWind at the MM5 Grid Portal (United States)

    Kwon, O.; Joh, M.; Hahm, J.; Lee, P.


    The MM5 Grid Portal is the weather-GRID integrated portal to produce, analyze and visualize weather information on the computational GRID infrastructure. The MM5 is a limited-area, nonhydrostatic, terrain- following sigma coordinate model designed to simulate mesoscale atmospheric circulation. The portal is consisted of 4 building blocks to process the MM5 as follows: Terrain-, Pre-, Main-, and Post-Processing. We use the WorldWind to visualize the input and result data from the each block at the portal. The WorldWind is a virtual globe developed by NASA. The program overlays satellite imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps and publicly available GIS data on 3D models of the Earth. The Terrain-Processing lets users design mesoscale model configuration including where to place your grid, the grid size, what resolution data to use to generate terrain elevation, landuse category, and other datasets. At the Terrain-Processing, the WorldWind takes advantages of specifying the input parameters, and verifying the output of terrain processing. Instead of specifying manually the input parameters for model configuration using the keyboard, users can easily select the inputs using the mouse at the globe. Also, regarding the output of terrain data, users can check if it is generated at the right values on the virtual globe. The Pre-Processing is to execute a sequence of programs for preparing analyses to an MM5 model. In order to check if it has valid inputs for the Main-Processing, users can overlay the image on the globe. Finally, the Post-Processing is to visualize the output of the MM5 system programs using graphics tool such as RIP. All outputs related with this model are overlaid on the globe. This allows users to see the trail of typhoon tracks on the WorldWind.

  14. Cardiac energetics analysis after aortic valve replacement with 16-mm ATS mechanical valve. (United States)

    Ushijima, Tomoki; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Uchida, Takayuki; Matsuyama, Sho; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tominaga, Ryuji


    The 16-mm ATS mechanical valve is one of the smallest prosthetic valves used for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a very small aortic annulus, and its clinical outcomes are reportedly satisfactory. Here, we analyzed the left ventricular (LV) performance after AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve, based on the concept of cardiac energetics analysis. Eleven patients who underwent AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve were enrolled in this study. All underwent echocardiographic examination at three time points: before AVR, approximately 1 month after AVR, and approximately 1 year after AVR. LV contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees]), afterload (effective arterial elastance [Ea]), and efficiency (ventriculoarterial coupling [Ea/Ees] and the stroke work to pressure-volume area ratio [SW/PVA]) were noninvasively measured by echocardiographic data and blood pressure measurement. Ees transiently decreased after AVR and then recovered to the pre-AVR level at the one-year follow-up. Ea significantly decreased in a stepwise manner. Consequently, Ea/Ees and SW/PVA were also significantly improved at the one-year follow-up compared with those before AVR. The midterm LV performance after AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve was satisfactory. AVR with the 16-mm ATS mechanical valve is validated as an effective treatment for patients with a very small aortic annulus. The cardiac energetics variables, coupling with the conventional hemodynamic variables, can contribute to a better understanding of the patients' clinical conditions, and those may serve as promising indices of the cardiac function.

  15. Where, When, and How mmWave is Used in 5G and Beyond (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Haustein, Thomas; Barbarossa, Sergio; Strinati, Emilio Calvanese; Clemente, Antonio; Destino, Giuseppe; Pärssinen, Aarno; Kim, Ilgyu; Chung, Heesang; Kim, Junhyeong; Keusgen, Wilhelm; Weiler, Richard J.; Takinami, Koji; Ceci, Elena; Sadri, Ali; Xian, Liang; Maltsev, Alexander; Tran, Gia Khanh; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Mahler, Kim; Heath, Robert W., Jr.

    Wireless engineers and business planners commonly raise the question on where, when, and how millimeter-wave (mmWave) will be used in 5G and beyond. Since the next generation network is not just a new radio access standard, but instead an integration of networks for vertical markets with diverse applications, answers to the question depend on scenarios and use cases to be deployed. This paper gives four 5G mmWave deployment examples and describes in chronological order the scenarios and use cases of their probable deployment, including expected system architectures and hardware prototypes. The paper starts with 28 GHz outdoor backhauling for fixed wireless access and moving hotspots, which will be demonstrated at the PyeongChang winter Olympic games in 2018. The second deployment example is a 60 GHz unlicensed indoor access system at the Tokyo-Narita airport, which is combined with Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) to enable ultra-high speed content download with low latency. The third example is mmWave mesh network to be used as a micro Radio Access Network ({\\mu}-RAN), for cost-effective backhauling of small-cell Base Stations (BSs) in dense urban scenarios. The last example is mmWave based Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) and Vehicular-to-Everything (V2X) communications system, which enables automated driving by exchanging High Definition (HD) dynamic map information between cars and Roadside Units (RSUs). For 5G and beyond, mmWave and MEC will play important roles for a diverse set of applications that require both ultra-high data rate and low latency communications.

  16. Antiproliferative and Antiangiogenic Effects of Punica granatum Juice (PGJ in Multiple Myeloma (MM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tibullo


    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PC in the bone marrow (BM leading to bone destruction and BM failure. Despite recent advances in pharmacological therapy, MM remains a largely incurable pathology. Therefore, novel effective and less toxic agents are urgently necessary. In the last few years, pomegranate has been studied for its potential therapeutic properties including treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice (PGJ contains a number of potential active compounds including organic acids, vitamins, sugars, and phenolic components that are all responsible of the pro-apoptotic effects observed in tumor cell line. The aim of present investigation is to assess the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic potential of the PGJ in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative potential of PGJ in MM cells; its ability to induce G0/G1 cell cycle block and its anti-angiogenic effects. Interestingly, sequential combination of bortezomib/PGJ improved the cytotoxic effect of the proteosome inhibitor. We investigated the effect of PGJ on angiogenesis and cell migration/invasion. Interestingly, we observed an inhibitory effect on the tube formation, microvessel outgrowth aorting ring and decreased cell migration and invasion as showed by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. Analysis of angiogenic genes expression in endothelial cells confirmed the anti-angiogenic properties of pomegranate. Therefore, PGJ administration could represent a good tool in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for MM treatment, exploiting its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects. Finally, the present research supports the evidence that PGJ could play a key role of a future therapeutic approach for treatment of MM in order to optimize the pharmacological effect of bortezomib, especially as adjuvant after treatment.

  17. Cryoablation with an 8-mm-Tip Catheter for Right-Sided Accessory Pathways in Children. (United States)

    Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Ergul, Yakup; Ozturk, Erkut; Dalgic, Fuheda; Kiplapinar, Neslihan; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Akdeniz, Celal; Tuzcu, Volkan


    Cryoablation is increasingly utilized in children because of its safety profile. Recently, larger catheter tips have been more widely used to improve long-term success rates. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of 8-mm-tip catheters for cryoablation of right-sided accessory pathways (APs) in children. Electrophysiological procedures were performed using the EnSite™ system (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA). Between July 2010 and July 2014, 54 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 3.7 years) underwent cryoablation using an 8-mm-tip catheter. In 18 of 54 (33%) patients where an 8-mm-tip catheter was the first-choice catheter, the success rate was 18 of 18 (100%). There was a history of previous failed attempts or recurrence with radiofrequency ablation and/or 6-mm-tip cryoablation in 36 of 54 (67%) patients. The success rate in these patients was 24 of 36 (67%). No fluoroscopy was used in 34 of 54 procedures. The recurrence rate was six of 42 (14%) during a mean follow-up period of 32 ± 15 months. In one patient, transient atrioventricular block occurred. Cryoablation with an 8-mm-tip catheter for right-sided APs in children who weigh over 40 kg appears to be safe and acutely effective in cases where conventional ablation methods fail and also as a first choice for ablation procedure. However, the recurrence rate still seems to be high. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Grid-Based Projector Augmented Wave (GPAW) Implementation of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Electrostatic Embedding and Application to a Solvated Diplatinum Complex. (United States)

    Dohn, A O; Jónsson, E Ö; Levi, G; Mortensen, J J; Lopez-Acevedo, O; Thygesen, K S; Jacobsen, K W; Ulstrup, J; Henriksen, N E; Møller, K B; Jónsson, H


    A multiscale density functional theory-quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (DFT-QM/MM) scheme is presented, based on an efficient electrostatic coupling between the electronic density obtained from a grid-based projector augmented wave (GPAW) implementation of density functional theory and a classical potential energy function. The scheme is implemented in a general fashion and can be used with various choices for the descriptions of the QM or MM regions. Tests on H 2 O clusters, ranging from dimer to decamer show that no systematic energy errors are introduced by the coupling that exceeds the differences in the QM and MM descriptions. Over 1 ns of liquid water, Born-Oppenheimer QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD) are sampled combining 10 parallel simulations, showing consistent liquid water structure over the QM/MM border. The method is applied in extensive parallel MD simulations of an aqueous solution of the diplatinum [Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 ] 4- complex (PtPOP), spanning a total time period of roughly half a nanosecond. An average Pt-Pt distance deviating only 0.01 Å from experimental results, and a ground-state Pt-Pt oscillation frequency deviating by <2% from experimental results were obtained. The simulations highlight a remarkable harmonicity of the Pt-Pt oscillation, while also showing clear signs of Pt-H hydrogen bonding and directional coordination of water molecules along the Pt-Pt axis of the complex.

  19. Zadoff-Chu coded ultrasonic signal for accurate range estimation

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed H.


    This paper presents a new adaptation of Zadoff-Chu sequences for the purpose of range estimation and movement tracking. The proposed method uses Zadoff-Chu sequences utilizing a wideband ultrasonic signal to estimate the range between two devices with very high accuracy and high update rate. This range estimation method is based on time of flight (TOF) estimation using cyclic cross correlation. The system was experimentally evaluated under different noise levels and multi-user interference scenarios. For a single user, the results show less than 7 mm error for 90% of range estimates in a typical indoor environment. Under the interference from three other users, the 90% error was less than 25 mm. The system provides high estimation update rate allowing accurate tracking of objects moving with high speed.

  20. The use of the 1.0 mm handpiece in high energy, pulsed CO2 laser destruction of facial adnexal tumors. (United States)

    Sajben, F P; Ross, E V


    The treatment of syringoma and trichoepithelioma has included punch and shave biopsy, excision, electrodessication, as well as continuous wave and superpulsed carbon dioxide laser ablation. More recently, high-energy pulsed CO2 lasers have been reported to be effective with standard available handpieces that deliver collimated beams. To report our experience using a focusing handpiece (1.0 mm spot at focus) with a high energy pulsed CO2 laser. Four patients with syringoma and two with multiple trichoepithelioma were treated with a high energy pulsed CO2 laser using a 1 mm spot size focusing handpiece. Pulse energies ranged from 125 to 250 mJ. All patients were followed 2 weeks after treatment and then for variable periods ranging from 8 to 18 months (mean=13.3 months). The 1 mm spot focusing handpiece permitted rapid tumor ablation with optimal matching of lesion size and laser spot diameter. Recurrence of tumor was associated with superficial ablation while complications such as hypopigmentation and atrophy were associated with deeper ablation. Facial adnexal tumors such as syringoma and trichoepithelioma can be successfully treated with the 1.0 mm handpiece in tandem with high energy pulsed CO2 lasers.

  1. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  2. GPS and gravity constraints on continental deformation in the Alborz mountain range, Iran (United States)

    Djamour, Yahya; Vernant, Philippe; Bayer, Roger; Nankali, Hamid Reza; Ritz, Jean-François; Hinderer, Jacques; Hatam, Yaghoub; Luck, Bernard; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Sedighi, Morteza; Khorrami, Fateme


    A network of 54 survey GPS sites, 28 continuous GPS stations and three absolute gravity (AG) observation sites have been set up in the Alborz mountain range to quantify the present-day kinematics of the range. Our results allow us to accurately estimate the motion of the South Caspian block (SCB) for the first time, and indicate rotation of the SCB relative to Eurasia, accounting for the left lateral motion in the Alborz range. In light of these new results, it clearly appears that deformation rates vary along the range, the eastern part accommodating mainly left lateral strike slip (2 mm yr-1 south of the range and 5 mm yr-1 north of the range) with a very low range normal shortening rate on the Khazar thrust fault (~2 mm yr-1), and the western part accommodating range normal shortening (~6 mm yr-1) on the Khazar thrust fault with a left lateral component of ~2 mm yr-1 north of the range and 1 mm yr-1 south of the range. These present-day kinematics agree with geomorphologic estimated slip rates, but not the long-term deformation, corroborating the idea that the kinematics of the range have changed recently due to the change of SCB motion. Modelling of the interseismic deformation suggests a deep locking depth on the central-western segment of the Khazar fault (~30 km) in agreement with the Baladeh earthquake rupture and aftershock ranging between 10 and 30 km. Given this unusual deep locking depth and the 34° dip of the thrust, a large part of the Alborz range is located above the seismically coupled part of the fault. Based on our AG measurements this part of the range seems to uplift at a rate of 1-5 mm yr-1, in agreement with terrace uplift.

  3. Surecut 0.6 mm liver biopsy in the diagnosis of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, S; Vyberg, Mogens; Smith, E


    Liver biopsy with the 0.6 mm (23 gauge) Surecut needle was compared to conventional Menghini biopsy in the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (mainly alcoholics) with a clinical indication for liver biopsy had both biopsies performed simultaneously. In 71 patients sufficient...... material for a morphological diagnosis concerning liver architecture was obtained with both biopsy techniques (Surecut insufficient in 5 cases and Menghini insufficient in 2 cases). The biopsies were classified as cirrhosis or non-cirrhosis. There was agreement in 69 cases (97%, confidence limits 90......-100%). Using the result of the Menghini biopsy as the final diagnosis, the predictive values for a positive and negative diagnosis for the Surecut needle were 96% and 98%, respectively. There were no complications to either of the biopsies. It is suggested that the 0.6 mm Surecut biopsy may be used...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Kwon, Woojin; Crutcher, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L. [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chapman, Nicholas; Novak, Giles; Matthews, Tristan [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Shinnaga, Hiroko, E-mail: [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10'' resolution at 350 {mu}m) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.''2-4.''5 at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations are consistent with each other and show inferred magnetic field lines aligned with the outflow. The CARMA observations suggest a full hourglass magnetic field morphology centered about the core; this is only the second well-defined hourglass detected around a low-mass protostar to date. We apply two different methods to CARMA polarimetric observations to estimate the plane-of-sky magnetic field magnitude, finding values of 1.4 and 3.4 mG.

  5. Thermal Stability of Hexamethyldisiloxane (MM for High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Preißinger


    Full Text Available The design of efficient Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC units for the usage of industrial waste heat at high temperatures requires direct contact evaporators without intermediate thermal oil circuits. Therefore, the thermal stability of high-temperature working fluids gains importance. In this study, the thermal degradation of hexamethyldisiloxane (MM is investigated in an electrically heated tube. Qualitative results concerning remarks on degradation products as well as quantitative results like the annual degradation rate are presented. It is shown that MM is stable up to a temperature of 300 °C with annual degradation rates of less than 3.5%. Furthermore, the break of a silicon–carbon bond can be a main chemical reaction that influences the thermal degradation. Finally, it is discussed how the results may impact the future design of ORC units.

  6. Opto-mechanical design and development of a 460mm diffractive transmissive telescope (United States)

    Qi, Bo; Wang, Lihua; Cui, Zhangang; Bian, Jiang; Xiang, Sihua; Ma, Haotong; Fan, Bin


    Using lightweight, replicated diffractive optics, we can construct extremely large aperture telescopes in space.The transmissive primary significantly reduces the sensitivities to out of plane motion as compared to reflective systems while reducing the manufacturing time and costs. This paper focuses on the design, fabrication and ground demonstration of a 460mm diffractive transmissive telescope the primary F/# is 6, optical field of view is 0.2° imagine bandwidth is 486nm 656nm.The design method of diffractive optical system was verified, the ability to capture a high-quality image using diffractive telescope collection optics was tested.The results show that the limit resolution is 94lp/mm, the diffractive system has a good imagine performance with broad bandwidths. This technology is particularly promising as a means to achieve extremely large optical primaries from compact, lightweight packages.

  7. GaudiMM: A modular multi-objective platform for molecular modeling. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Guerra Pedregal, Jaime; Sciortino, Giuseppe; Guasp, Jordi; Municoy, Martí; Maréchal, Jean-Didier


    GaudiMM (for Genetic Algorithms with Unrestricted Descriptors for Intuitive Molecular Modeling) is here presented as a modular platform for rapid 3D sketching of molecular systems. It combines a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm with diverse molecular descriptors to overcome the difficulty of generating candidate models for systems with scarce structural data. Its grounds consist in transforming any molecular descriptor (i.e. those generally used for analysis of data) as a guiding objective for PES explorations. The platform is written in Python with flexibility in mind: the user can choose which descriptors to use for each problem and is even encouraged to code custom ones. Illustrative cases of its potential applications are included to demonstrate the flexibility of this approach, including metal coordination of multidentate ligands, peptide folding, and protein-ligand docking. GaudiMM is available free of charge from © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Method for producing La/Ce/MM/Y base alloys, resulting alloys and battery electrodes (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Schmidt, Frederick A.


    A carbothermic reduction method is provided for reducing a La-, Ce-, MM-, and/or Y-containing oxide in the presence of carbon and a source of a reactant element comprising Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, and/or P to form an intermediate alloy material including a majority of La, Ce, MM, and/or Y and a minor amount of the reactant element. The intermediate material is useful as a master alloy for in making negative electrode materials for a metal hydride battery, as hydrogen storage alloys, as master alloy additive for addition to a melt of commercial Mg and Al alloys, steels, cast irons, and superalloys; or in reducing Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 to Sm metal for use in Sm--Co permanent magnets.

  9. Fabrication and Analysis of 150 mm Aperture Nb3Sn LARP MQXF Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, E F; Anerella, M; Bossert, R; Cavanna, E; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A K; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Krave, S; Nobrega, A; Perez, J C; Pong, I; Rochepault; Sabbi, G L; Schmalzle, J; Yu, M


    The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are combining efforts for the HiLumi-LHC upgrade to design and fabricate 150 mm aperture, interaction region quadrupoles with a nominal gradient of 130 T/m using Nb3Sn. To successfully produce the necessary long MQXF triplets, the HiLumi-LHC collaboration is systematically reducing risk and design modification by heavily relying upon the experience gained from the successful 120 mm aperture LARP HQ program. First generation MQXF short (MQXFS) coils were predominately a scaling up of the HQ quadrupole design allowing comparable cable expansion during Nb3Sn formation heat treatment and increased insulation fraction for electrical robustness. A total of 13 first generation MQXFS coils were fabricated between LARP and CERN. Systematic differences in coil size, coil alignment symmetry, and coil length contraction during heat treatment are observed and likely due to slight variances in tooling and insulation/cable systems. Analysis of coil cross sections indic...

  10. A second-order theory for piezoelectricity with 6mm and m3 crystal classes (United States)

    Feng, W. J.; Gazonas, G. A.; Hopkins, D. A.; Pan, E.


    The present paper concentrates on the basic equations of three-dimensional problems for nonlinear piezoelectric materials of hexagonal systems with symmetry class 6mm and of cubic systems with symmetry class m3. Emphasis is placed on developing the nonlinear constitutive relations between extended traction (including elastic stress and polarization) and extended strain (including elastic strain and electric field). The corresponding one-dimensional mathematical models for piezoelectric ceramic with symmetry classes 6mm and m3 are also given. Numerical examples are also carried out for the impact problem to show the important effect of the piezoelectric nonlinearity on the stress wave. Therefore, the derived concise equations can directly be applied to evaluate the nonlinear piezoelectric effects of piezoelectricity by the nonlinear finite element method.

  11. Silicon Photonics Integrated Circuits for 5th Generation mm-Wave Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Photonic integration may pave the way to practical applicability...... of such photonic-wireless hybrid links by reduction in complexity, size and – most importantly – cost....

  12. Rapid Enhanced MM3-COPRO ELISA for Detection of Fasciola Coproantigens


    Mart?nez-Sern?ndez, Victoria; Orbegozo-Medina, Ricardo A.; Gonz?lez-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Ubeira, Florencio M.


    ELISA-based methods of detecting Fasciola cathepsins in feces are powerful techniques for diagnosing infections by F. hepatica and F. gigantica. In the last decade, the in-house MM3-COPRO ELISA and its commercial version BIO K 201 (BIO X Diagnostics, Belgium) have been recognized as useful tools for detecting early infections by such trematodes and for monitoring the efficacy of anthelmintic treatments in human and animal species, as they provide some advantages over classic fecal egg counts....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of the passive protection concept of high-speed passenger trains at accident collisions on 1520 mm gauge railways have been developed. The scientific methodology and mathematical models for the analysis of plastic deformation of cab frame elements and energy-absorbing devices (EAD at an impact have been developed. The cab frame and EAD for a new-generation locomotive have been designed. The EAD prototype crash test has been carried out.

  14. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition (United States)


    10 The impulse from the primer firing was calculated from the integration of the first primer pressure pulse over the time for which it is...ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer

  15. Feasibility of 1.6-mm isotropic voxel diffusion tensor tractography in depicting limbic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Takizawa (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Kanbara, Yoshiyuki [Iwate Medical University, Memorial Heart Center, Morioka (Japan); Inoue, Takashi [Kohnan Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Taihaku-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirooka, Ryonoshin; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan)


    We attempted to assess the feasibility of a 1.6-mm isotropic voxel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography at 3T in visualizing nerve bundles in the limbic system. We examined 20 healthy volunteers by conventional DTI with a voxel size of 1.6 x 1.6 x 3.0 mm and by high-resolution DTI with a voxel size of 1.6 x 1.6 x 1.6 mm and generated tractographs of three limbic nerve bundles: the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. We visually assessed whether these bundles reached their targets and compared their diffusion parameters between the two techniques. The entire pathways of the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus were more readily visualized by high-resolution DTI than by conventional DTI. Among these, the fimbria of the fornix and the uncinate fasciculus adjacent to the temporal pole were identified more frequently by high-resolution DTI (visualization rate 83 and 100%, respectively) than by conventional DTI (visualization rate 63 and 83%, respectively) at a statistical significance of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. Fractional anisotropy values in the fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus by high-resolution DTI were significantly higher than those by conventional DTI (P < 0.01); in contrast, the apparent diffusion coefficient values of all these fibers except that of the fornix remained unchanged between the two techniques. The 1.6-mm istropic voxel DTI at 3T is a feasible visualization tool and can improve the precision of tracking nerve bundles of the limbic system. (orig.)

  16. Graft-free Ahmed valve implantation through a 6 mm scleral tunnel. (United States)

    Gdih, Gdih; Jiang, Kailun


    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost savings of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube implantation through a 6-mm scleral tunnel (graft-free technique). Retrospective cohort study. The 95% confidence interval for fractional survival at any particular time was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Failure was defined as (i) intraocular pressure (IOP) 21 mm Hg or AGV with a success rate of 83% at 2 years. Fourteen eyes failed: 4 no light perception, 1 hypotony, 1 elevated IOP, 5 secondary glaucoma surgeries, 2 AGV extractions, and 1 corneal decompensation. The rate of transient hypotony peaked at 33% on postoperative day 1, reducing to 4% by 6 weeks. Transient flat anterior chamber developed in 8% of eyes. Eight percent of eyes experienced a hypertensive phase (mean IOP = 28 mm Hg). Preoperatively, eyes received 3.8 units of glaucoma medication on average. Postoperatively, 8 eyes required no medication for IOP control. Of the eyes requiring postoperative glaucoma medication, 33% restarted during week 4; an additional 25% of eyes were restarted 6 weeks postoperatively. By 6 months, eyes were on average using 2.2 units of glaucoma medication. Hyphema (18%) was the most common early postoperative complication. The rates of conjunctival and scleral erosion by 2 years were 2.4% and 0%, respectively. Within our institution, excluding valve cost, there was a 39%-45% ($192-$376) cost reduction with the graft-free technique. The safety and efficacy of a 6-mm scleral tunnel is comparable to conventional scleral-graft method. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



    Spartak Sh. Aytov


    The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of theoretical approaches to the philosophical concepts of culture M. M. Bakhtin on the genesis and implementation of historical and anthropological concepts and renovations mentality and socio-cultural characteristics and behavior of individuals and societies of the past. Methodology. Methodological tools are methods of system and source analyses. Theoretical basis and results: analyzes the concept of the philosophy of culture such M.M....

  18. Dynamic Subarrays for Hybrid Precoding in Wideband mmWave MIMO Systems


    Park, Sungwoo; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath Jr., Robert W.


    Hybrid analog/digital precoding architectures can address the trade-off between achievable spectral efficiency and power consumption in large-scale MIMO systems. This makes it a promising candidate for millimeter wave systems, which require deploying large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver to guarantee sufficient received signal power. Most prior work on hybrid precoding focused on narrowband channels and assumed fully-connected hybrid architectures. MmWave systems, though, ...

  19. Analysis of a Compressible Fluid Soft Recoil (CFSR) Concept Applied to a 155 MM Howitzer (United States)


    which is being expanded IS 7r(b -a^) LiPs where pg is the density of the material. One equation of motion becomes V- h2-;i2 + Vj / (22) Where...of the piston at this point is very low about 17 8 mm/sec (0.7 in./sec) . A bumper pad of this type should probably be added in any case. 36

  20. Regresi Robust Mm-estimator Untuk Penanganan Pencilan Pada Regresi Linier Berganda


    Candraningtyas, Sherly; Safitri, Diah; Ispriyanti, Dwi


    The multiple linear regression model is used to study the relationship between a dependent variable and more than one independent variables. Estimation method which is the most frequently be used to analyze regression is Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). OLS for linear regression models is known to be very sensitive to outliers. Robust regression is an important method for analyzing data contaminated by outliers. This paper will discuss the robust regression MM-estimator. This estimation is a com...

  1. Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round (United States)


    operates ). This can have a significant effect in improving the radar detection performance. However, these bistatic radar configurations also...the bistatic RCS of this target placed in a fixed, upright position, without any reference to specific radar implementations or operational ...ARL-TR-8045 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round by

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Engraving and Gun Launch of a 40-mm Sensor Grenade (United States)


    The U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey is developing an inert 40-mm sensor grenade , which...houses an array of sensors and electronic components. This grenade is intended to be fired from a hand-held launcher and once deployed, relay sensor...g-levels. Also, radio transmitting components within the grenade require unimpeded ability to transmit radio frequency signal, thus prohibiting the

  3. Transient behaviour of the M/M/2 queue with catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Krishna Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a transient solution for the system size in the M/M/2 queue with the possibility of catastrophes at the service stations. The state probability of the system size at time t, where the queue starts with any number of customers, in obtained. Asymptotic behaviour of the probability of the server being idle and mean system size are discussed.

  4. Is a 5 mm rat calvarium defect really critical? Um defeito de 5 mm em calota craniana de rato é realmente critico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Granja Porto


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate bone regeneration in critical defects in the rats' calvarium. METHODS: Eighteen rats Wistar were divided into three groups of six animals each according to the time of evaluation (15, 30 and 60 days. One calvarium defect of 5mm was made in the parietal bone of each animal under general anesthesia. After the time of evaluation, the animals were killed, when the bone was histological studied and classified according to the type of tissue found: fibrosis or bone. RESULTS: The results showed that in the group of 15 days, in five animals there was only fibrosis. In the group of 30 days, the process of regeneration was growing and in four animals was found bone, in three with partial filling and in the other one with complete filling of the defect. In the group of 60 days, out of the three animals with bone, two had a complete filling of the defect. CONCLUSIONS: There was no bone regeneration in critical defects in 15 days. There was regeneration in the most part of the animals in 30 and 60 days.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a regeneração óssea de defeitos críticos em calota craniana de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos Wistar que foram distribuídos em três grupos de acordo com o tempo de avaliação (15, 30 e 60 dias. Na calota craniana desses animais foi realizado defeito de 5mm, após anestesia geral prévia. Após o tempo de avaliação, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e a calota foi enviada para estudo histológico, quando foi classificada de acordo o tecido encontrado: fibroso ou ósseo. RESULTADOS: Diante dos achados deste estudo, pode-se observar que para o grupo de 15 dias na maioria dos animais, n=5, foi encontrado apenas fibrose. Com o passar do tempo de avaliação, no grupo de 30 dias, o processo de reparo foi evoluindo e em quatro animais já foi encontrado osso, sendo em três com preenchimento parcial e em um completo. No grupo de 60 dias, o processo praticamente permaneceu o mesmo, onde em tr

  5. On the Frequency Dependency of Radio Channel's Delay Spread: Analyses and Findings From mmMAGIC Multi-frequency Channel Sounding


    Nguyen, Sinh L. H.; Medbo, Jonas; Peter, Michael; Karttunen, Aki; Haneda, Katsuyuki; Bamba, Aliou; D'Errico, Raffaele; Iqbal, Naveed; Diakhate, Cheikh; Conrat, Jean-Marc


    This paper analyzes the frequency dependency of the radio propagation channel's root mean square (rms) delay spread (DS), based on the multi-frequency measurement campaigns in the mmMAGIC project. The campaigns cover indoor, outdoor, and outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) scenarios and a wide frequency range from 2 to 86 GHz. Several requirements have been identified that define the parameters which need to be aligned in order to make a reasonable comparison among the different channel sounders employed...

  6. Dysphotopsia outcomes analysis of two truncated acrylic 6.0-mm intraocular optic lenses. (United States)

    Jin, Yian; Zabriskie, Norman; Olson, Randall J


    To determine the incidence of pseudophakic dysphotopsia complaints in patients successfully implanted with two 6.0-mm acrylic intraocular optic lenses (IOL) with treated edges: the Sensar AR-40-e (Advanced Medical Optics, Santa Ana, Calif., USA) and the SA-60AT (Alcon, Fort Worth, Tex., USA). A patient history and telephone survey at least 1 year after uncomplicated surgery at an academic eye hospital. Patients operated on for cataract with no pathology noted that the procedure could have an impact upon vision. At least 20/25 best corrected vision was documented after surgery, and patients were asked to rate specific dysphotopsia complaints. A single relevant case study is also presented. the patient had unremitting dysphotopsia with an SA-60AT IOL and had an AR-40-e implanted in the second eye. She went on to have the SA-60AT exchanged with an AR-40-e IOL with relief of symptoms. Main study: the survey showed both 6.0-mm optic acrylic IOL were similar, except there was significantly more midday dysphotopsia with the SA-60AT in a subgroup (p = 0.014). Both were generally superior to the MA-30 with the SA-30AT between the two extremes. The control group did better than all IOL in general, except in overall satisfaction where the AR-40-e and SA-60AT were better. Pseudophakia induces dysphotopsia which can be minimized by a 6.0-mm optic and treated IOL edge. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Victor


    This proceedings volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ROMANSY 2014, the 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. These papers cover advances on several aspects of the wide field of Robotics as concerning Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. ROMANSY 2014 is the twentieth event in a series that started in 1973 as one of the first conference activities in the world on Robotics. The first event was held at CISM (International Centre for Mechanical Science) in Udine, Italy on 5-8 September 1973. It was also the first topic conference of IFToMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science) and it was directed not only to the IFToMM community. Proceedings volumes of ROMANSY have been always published to be available, also after the symposium, to a large public of scholars and designers with the aim to give an overview of new advances and trends in the theory, design, and practice of robots....

  8. Performance of HQ02, an optimized version of the 120 mm $Nb_3Sn$ LARP quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Chlachidze, G; Anerella, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Caspi, S; Cheng, D W; Dietderich, D; Felice, H; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Godeke, A; Hafalia A R; Marchevsky, M; Orris, D; Roy, P K; Sabbi, G L; Salmi, T; Schmalzle, J; Sylvester, C; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J; Wanderer, P; Wang, X R; Zlobin, A V


    In preparation for the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a new generation of large aperture high-field quadrupoles based on Nb3Sn technology. One meter long and 120 mm diameter HQ quadrupoles are currently produced as a step toward the eventual aperture of 150 mm. Tests of the first series of HQ coils revealed the necessity for further optimization of the coil design and fabrication process. A new model (HQ02) has been fabricated with several design modifications, including a reduction of the cable size and an improved insulation scheme. Coils in this magnet are made of a cored cable using 0.778 mm diameter Nb3Sn strands of RRP 108/127 sub-element design. The HQ02 magnet has been fabricated at LBNL and BNL, and then tested at Fermilab. This paper summarizes the performance of HQ02 at 4.5 K and 1.9 K temperatures.

  9. Dynamic QM/MM: a hybrid approach to simulating gas-liquid interactions. (United States)

    Yockel, Scott; Schatz, George C


    In this chapter we describe molecular dynamics simulation methods in which the system being studied is divided into a region where quantum mechanics (QM) is used to determine forces for doing Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics calculations (i.e., doing electronic structure calculations on the fly to determine energies and forces) and another region where empirical potentials that are commonly used in molecular mechanics (MM) calculations are used to determine forces. The two regions are linked through an embedding process that may or may not involve the possibility that atoms can be passed back and forth between regions at each time step. The idea with this dynamic QM/MM methodology is that one uses QM calculations to define the potential surface in portions of the system where reaction occurs, and MM to determine forces in what is typically a much larger region where no reaction occurs. This approach thereby enables the description of chemical reactions in the QM region, which is a technology that can be used in many different applications. We illustrate its use by describing work that we have done with gas-liquid reactions in which a reactive atom (such as an oxygen or fluorine atom) reacts with the surface of a liquid and the products can either remain in the liquid or emerge into the gas phase. Applications to hydrocarbon and ionic liquids are described, including the characterization of reaction mechanisms at hyperthermal energies, and the determination of product branching and product energy distributions.

  10. Dual Connectivity in Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks with mmWave Backhauls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim


    Full Text Available Ultradense Network (UDN with small cells is a key feature to begin a new era of 5G communication, which provides higher data rate, and accommodate explosive mobile traffic. Recently, mmWave-based wireless backhauls accelerate deployment of the UDN by reducing cost of fiber-optic cabling to small cells. The small cells can deliver user data to macro enhanced NodeBs (eNBs using multihop relay in wireless backhaul mesh that consists of small and macro cell eNBs connected by the mmWave links. For such a heterogeneous small cell network (HetNet, 3GPP introduced dual connectivity (i.e., dual connections to macro and small cell eNBs, which is an attractive standard feature to manage user mobility and network access in the small cells. In this paper, we exploit dual connectivity scheme in a HetNet with the mmWave-based backhaul mesh which introduces two main challenges for throughput maximization, multihop routing from small to macro cell, and selection of a small cell eNB for user equipment (UE. We establish an optimization model and find an optimal solution in terms of throughput and fairness using an IBM CPLEX solver. Additionally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for complexity reduction and compare it with the optimal results in evaluation.

  11. Robust Wireless Power Transmission to mm-Sized Free-Floating Distributed Implants. (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam


    This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively. We have built several FFI prototypes to conduct accurate measurements and to characterize the performance of the proposed WPT method. Measurement results on 1-mm receivers operating at 60 MHz show power transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load at 2.4% and 1.3 mW, respectively, within 14-18 mm of Tx-Rx separation and 7 cm(2) of brain surface.

  12. Measurement and analysis of signal to noise ratio for image intensifier tube, 18mm microchannel plate (United States)

    Bai, Xiaofeng; Shi, Feng; Feng, Hanliang; Liu, Rong; Yin, Lei; He, Yingping


    Output signal to noise ratio is an important technical index for evaluating detectability of microchannel plate image intensifier tube, and the characteristic for detecting of microchannel plate image intensifier tube restricts the detectability of the night vision system. It has been proved in theory and in practice that the value of output signal to noise ratio of image intensifier tube equipped for night vision system decides the farthest distance and imaging definition of system which used under low light level in square root way. In this article, method and device for measuring the output signal to noise ratio of 18mm microchannel plate image intensifier tube has been introduced in detail. Output signal to noise ratio values of several 18mm microchannel plate image intensifier tube selected have been measured. Contacting to work condition of image intensifier tube, relationship between voltage of cathode, microchannel plate, screen and output signal to noise ratio of 18mm microchannel plate image intensifier tube bas been studied, which is available for other image intensifier tube.

  13. [An 18 month evaluation of MM-MTA pulpotomy on primary decayed molars]. (United States)

    Abou Chedid, J C; Mchayleh, N; Khalil, I; Melki, B; Hardan, L S


    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. 40 molars were pulpotomized using Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), which eliminates the need for the use of formocresol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post-operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 18 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 18 months post operatively. Thirty six molar treated with the MM-MTA didn't show any mobility or pain, one molar presented a pathological resorption and one molar presented an abscess without a fistula at 12 month. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol, ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the Chi-square test x2. The abundance of positive result strongly demonstrate that the MM-MTA pulpotomy on carious temporary molars is a promising technique.

  14. The integration of InGaP LEDs with CMOS on 200 mm silicon wafers (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Cong; Wang, Yue; Made, Riko I.; Sasangka, Wardhana Aji; Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Tan, Chuan Seng; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Michel, Jurgen


    The integration of photonics and electronics on a converged silicon CMOS platform is a long pursuit goal for both academe and industry. We have been developing technologies that can integrate III-V compound semiconductors and CMOS circuits on 200 mm silicon wafers. As an example we present our work on the integration of InGaP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with CMOS. The InGaP LEDs were epitaxially grown on high-quality GaAs and Ge buffers on 200 mm (100) silicon wafers in a MOCVD reactor. Strain engineering was applied to control the wafer bow that is induced by the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion between III-V films and silicon substrate. Wafer bonding was used to transfer the foundry-made silicon CMOS wafers to the InGaP LED wafers. Process trenches were opened on the CMOS layer to expose the underneath III-V device layers for LED processing. We show the issues encountered in the 200 mm processing and the methods we have been developing to overcome the problems.

  15. The Green Bank Telescope: First Full Winter of Operation at 3mm (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.


    The winter of 2016-2017 marks the first season for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) with full instrumentation in the 3mm band. ARGUS, a 16-pixel array, provides spectroscopic capabilities over 80-116 GHz. MUSTANG-2, a 223 pixel bolometer array, provides extremely sensitive continuum mapping capabilities over a 30 GHz band centered on 90 GHz at an angular resolution of 9”. In addition, there is a 2-pixel receiver that covers the lower part of the 3mm band, 67-93 GHz, for spectroscopy, continuum measurements, and VLBI.In March, under good night-time conditions, the GBT angular resolution at 109 GHz was measured to be 6.5”. This corresponds to 1.16 lambda/Diameter, exactly as expected from theoretical considerations and identical to the wavelength/Diameter ratio measured at much lower frequencies. Near sidelobe levels are below -20 dB.This poster will review some results that highlight the GBT’s new capabilities in the 3mm band, including new insights into the origin of the anomalous microwave emission, 13CO measurements of a cloud in the Milky Way halo that is in the process making the transition between atomic and molecular gas, HCO+ measurements of infall in a star-forming region, and measurements of dust emission and its spectrum in Orion.The Green Bank Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Is 5 mm MMLC suitable for VMAT-based lung SBRT? A dosimetric comparison with 2.5 mm HDMLC using RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for both conventional and high-dose flattening filter-free photon beams. (United States)

    Subramanian, Shanmuga V; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Thirumalai Swamy, Shanmugam; Gandhi, Arun; Chilukuri, Srinivas; Kathirvel, Murugesan


    The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of 5 mm millennium multileaf collimator (MMLC) for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Thirty lung SBRT patient treatment plans along with their planning target volumes (ranging from 2.01 cc to 150.11 cc) were transferred to an inhomogeneous lung phantom and retrospectively planned using VMAT technique, along with the high definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC) and MMLC systems. The plans were evaluated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-0813) treatment planning criteria for target coverage, normal tissue sparing, and treatment efficiency for both the MMLC and HDMLC systems using flat and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. Irrespective of the target volumes, both the MLC systems were able to satisfy the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria without having any major deviation. Dose conformity was marginally better with HDMLC. The average conformity index (CI) value was found to be 1.069 ± 0.034 and 1.075 ± 0.0380 for HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. For the 6 MV FFF beams, the plan was slightly more conformal, with the average CI values of 1.063 ± 0.029 and 1.073 ± 0.033 for the HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. The high dose spillage was the maximum for 2 cc volume set (3% for HDMLC and 3.1% for MMLC). In the case of low dose spillage, both the MLCs were within the protocol of no deviation, except for the 2 cc volume set. The results from this study revealed that VMAT-based lung SBRT using 5 mm MMLC satisfies the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for the studied target size and shapes.

  17. VLBA imaging of the 3 mm SiO maser emission in the disk-wind from the massive protostellar system Orion Source I (United States)

    Issaoun, S.; Goddi, C.; Matthews, L. D.; Greenhill, L. J.; Gray, M. D.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Chandler, C. J.; Krumholz, M.; Falcke, H.


    Context. High-mass star formation remains poorly understood due to observational difficulties (e.g. high dust extinction and large distances) hindering the resolution of disk-accretion and outflow-launching regions. Aims: Orion Source I is the closest known massive young stellar object (YSO) and exceptionally powers vibrationally-excited SiO masers at radii within 100 AU, providing a unique probe of gas dynamics and energetics. We seek to observe and image these masers with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Methods: We present the first images of the 28SiO v = 1, J = 2-1 maser emission around Orion Source I observed at 86 GHz (λ3 mm) with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). These images have high spatial ( 0.3 mas) and spectral ( 0.054 km s-1) resolutions. Results: We find that the λ3 mm masers lie in an X-shaped locus consisting of four arms, with blue-shifted emission in the south and east arms and red-shifted emission in the north and west arms. Comparisons with previous images of the 28SiO v = 1,2, J = 1-0 transitions at λ7 mm (observed in 2001-2002) show that the bulk of the J = 2-1 transition emission follows the streamlines of the J = 1-0 emission and exhibits an overall velocity gradient consistent with the gradient at λ7 mm. While there is spatial overlap between the λ3 mm and λ7 mm transitions, the λ3 mm emission, on average, lies at larger projected distances from Source I ( 44 AU compared with 35 AU for λ7 mm). The spatial overlap between the v = 1, J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions is suggestive of a range of temperatures and densities where physical conditions are favorable for both transitions of a same vibrational state. However, the observed spatial offset between the bulk of emission at λ3 mm and λ7 mm possibly indicates different ranges of temperatures and densities for optimal excitation of the masers. We discuss different maser pumping models that may explain the observed offset. Conclusions: We interpret the λ3 mm and λ7 mm

  18. A 4 mm² Double Differential Torsional MEMS Accelerometer Based on a Double-Beam Configuration. (United States)

    Miao, Tongqiao; Xiao, Dingbang; Li, Qingsong; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wu, Xuezhong


    This paper reports the design and simulation of a 4 mm² double differential torsional MEMS accelerometer based on a double-beam configuration. Based on the structure of conventional torsional accelerometers, normally composed of one pair of proof masses and one torsional beam, this work explores the double differential configuration: a torsional accelerometer with two pairs of unbalanced proof masses rotating in reverse. Also, the torsional beam is designed as a double-beam structure, which is a symmetrical structure formed by two torsional beams separated by a certain distance. The device area of the novel accelerometer is more than 50 times smaller than that of a traditional double differential torsional MEMS accelerometer. The FEM simulation results demonstrate that the smaller device does not sacrifice other specifications, such as mechanical sensitivity, nonlinearity and temperature robustness. The mechanical sensitivity and nonlinearity of a ±15 g measuring range is 59.4 fF/g and 0.88%, respectively. Compared with traditional single-beam silicon structures, the novel structure can achieve lower maximum principle stress in critical regions and reduce the possibility of failure when high-g acceleration loading is applied along all three axes. The mechanical noise equivalent acceleration is about 0.13 mg / Hz in the theoretical calculations and the offset temperature coefficient is 0.25 mg/ ℃ in the full temperature range of - 40 ℃ to 60 ℃ .

  19. Development of an MM5-Based Four Dimensional Variational Analysis System for Distributed Memory Multiprocessor Computers (United States)

    Nehrkorn, T.; Modica, G. D.; Cerniglia, M.; Ruggiero, F. H.; Michalakes, J. G.; Zou, X.


    The MM5 four-dimensional variational analysis system (4DVAR) is being updated to allow its efficient execution on parallel distributed memory computers. The previous version of the MM5 4DVAR system (Zou et al. 1998 [3]) is coded for single processor computer architectures and its nonlinear, tangent-linear, and adjoint components are based on version 1 of the MM5. In order to take advantage of the parallelization mechanisms (Michalakes 2000 [2]) already in place for the latest release (Version 3.4) of the MM5 nonlinear model (NLM), the existing (Version 1) tangent linear (TLM) and adjoint model codes are also being updated to Version 3.4. We are using the Tangent Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC; Giering and Kaminski 1988 [1]) in this process. The TAMC is a source-to-source translator that generates Fortran code for the TLM or adjoint from the Fortran code of the NLM. While it would be possible to incorporate the TAMC as part of a pre-compilation process--thus requiring the maintenance of the NLM code only--this would require that the NLM code first be modified as needed to result in the correct TLM and adjoint code output by TAMC. For the development of the MM5 adjoint, we have chosen instead to use TAMC as a development tool only, and separately maintain the TLM and adjoint versions of the model code. This approach makes it possible to minimize changes to the MM5 code as supported by NCAR. The TLM and adjoint are tested for correctness, using the standard comparison of the TLM and finite difference gradients to check for correctness of the former, and the definition of the adjoint to check for consistency of the TLM and adjoint. This testing is performed for individual subroutines (unit testing) as well as the complete model integration (unit integration testing), with objective functions designed to test different parts of the model state vector. Testing can be done for the entire model domain, or for selected model grid points. Finally, the TLM and

  20. OAM-enhanced transmission for multimode short-range links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We propose, experimentally demonstrate, and evaluate the performance of a multimode (MM) transmission fiber data link which is based on orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. The proposed scheme uses OAM modes to increase capacity or reach without recurring to mode division multiplexing (MDM......) or special fibers: we first excite an OAM mode and couple it to a 50 m, 100 m, 200 m and 400m MM fibers. We compare three OAM modes and a conventional optical multimode under the same launch and received optical power conditions. The proposed OAM based solution is a promising candidate for the data centers...... interconnects and short range links that employ the existing multimode fiber infrastructure....

  1. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope. (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H


    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartak Sh. Aytov


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of theoretical approaches to the philosophical concepts of culture M. M. Bakhtin on the genesis and implementation of historical and anthropological concepts and renovations mentality and socio-cultural characteristics and behavior of individuals and societies of the past. Methodology. Methodological tools are methods of system and source analyses. Theoretical basis and results: analyzes the concept of the philosophy of culture such M.M. Bakhtin as a carnival, folk culture, culture of humor, doubleworld, concept social-cultural projection material and cultural bottom and its impact on the culture of laughter European Middle Ages and Renaissance. Methodological approaches Bakhtin recreated for historical and anthropological reconstruction mentality and socio-cultural realities of the high Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Investigated the perception of philosophical and cultural concepts M. M. Bakhtin, the scientific community and their impact on the historical and anthropological studies. It was also analyzed the influence of the respective ideas M.M. Bakhtin's historical and anthropological studies of the last quarter of XX - beginning of XXI century. in particular on the work of D. Likhachev, A. Gurevich, E. Thompson and other researchers. Conclusion: concept of the philosophy of culture, MM Bakhtin, in particular, the culture of humor, the popular perception of the world, carnival, social and cultural doubleworld, reconstruction of the domestic foundations of culture laughter Europe era high Middle Ages and the Renaissance were one of the most important conceptual elements in the study of the mentality of socially significant behavior and daily life as these periods, so or any other, from the early Middle Ages to the present.

  3. First indirect x-ray imaging tests with an 88-mm diameter single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Macrander, A. T. [Argonne


    Using the 1-BM-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have performed the initial indirect x - ray imaging point-spread-function (PSF) test of a unique 88-mm diameter YAG:Ce single crystal of only 100 - micron thickness. The crystal was bonded to a fiber optic plat e (FOP) for mechanical support and to allow the option for FO coupling to a large format camera. This configuration resolution was compared to that of self - supported 25-mm diameter crystals, with and without an Al reflective coating. An upstream monochromator was used to select 17-keV x-rays from the broadband APS bending magnet source of synchrotron radiation. The upstream , adjustable Mo collimators were then used to provide a series of x-ray source transverse sizes from 200 microns down to about 15-20 microns (FWHM) at the crystal surface. The emitted scintillator radiation was in this case lens coupled to the ANDOR Neo sCMOS camera, and the indirect x-ray images were processed offline by a MATLAB - based image processing program. Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray image projected profiles, we observed a 10.5 micron PSF. This sample thus exhibited superior spatial resolution to standard P43 polycrystalline phosphors of the same thickness which would have about a 100-micron PSF. Lastly, this single crystal resolution combined with the 88-mm diameter makes it a candidate to support future x-ray diffraction or wafer topography experiments.

  4. Characterization study of an aqueous developable photosensitive polyimide on 300-mm wafers (United States)

    Flack, Warren W.; Kulas, Scott; Franklin, Craig L.


    The advent of 300 mm wafer processing for semiconductor manufacturing has had a great impact on the development of photolithographic materials, equipment and associated processes. At the same time advanced packaging techniques for these semiconductor devices are making strides for smaller, faster and lower cost parts with improved reliability. Photosensitive polyimides are used for passivation stress buffer relief and soft error protection on almost all memory devices such as DRAM as well as final passivation layers for subsequent interconnect bumping operations on most of today's advanced microprocessors. For processing simplicity and total cost of ownership, it is desirable to use an aqueous developable polyimide to maintain compatibility with standard photoresist processes. This study will investigate the feasibility of processing photosensitive polyimides on 300 mm wafers. The performance of a commercially available, positive acting, aqueous developable polyimide is examined at a thickness appropriate for logic devices. A broadband stepper is utilized since polyimides are highly aromatic polymers that strongly absorb UV light below 350 nm. This stepper exposes photosensitive films using mercury vapor spectrum output from 390 nm to 450 nm (g and h-line) and allows rapid exposure of both broadband as well as narrow spectral sensitive films. The system has been optimized for thick photoresists and polyimides and uses a combination of low numerical aperture with maximum wafer level intensity to achieve well formed images in thick films. Process capability for 300 mm wafers is determined by analyzing polyimide film thickness uniformity and critical dimension (CD) control across the wafer. Basic photoresist characterization techniques such as cross sectional SEM analysis, process linearity and process windows are also used to establish lithographic capabilities. The trade-offs for various process capability windows are reviewed to determine the optimum process

  5. QM-MM investigation of the reaction products between nitroxyl and O 2 in aqueous solution (United States)

    Guardia, Carlos M. A.; González Lebrero, Mariano C.; Bari, Sara E.; Estrin, Darío A.


    By means of combined quantum-classical molecular (QM/MM) dynamics simulations, we investigated the structural properties and the vibrational spectra in aqueous solution of four possible intermediate species of the oxidation of nitroxyl (HNO/NO -) by dioxygen, the cis- and trans-isomers of peroxynitrous acid and nitroxyl-dioxygen adduct. Our study suggests that Raman spectroscopy will provide signals for discrimination between the peroxynitrous acid isomers from both adducts, and that infrared spectroscopy will probably assist the discrimination between the cis-peroxynitrous acid isomer from the other compounds considered. This application of hybrid simulation methods highlights the benefits of explicit solvent representations.

  6. Evaluation of cleft lip and palate by computed tomography with 2 mm thin slice scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi


    Computed tomography was carried out in 65 patients of cleft lip and palate with continuous 2 mm slice scanning. The cleft lip and palate was classified by shape of the hard palate as normal, hypoplasia, and aplasia, depending on its developmental degree. The shape of alveolus was also grouped as circular, triangular, and asymmetric forms for the evaluation of maxillar development. The hard palatal development well correlated with the shape of the alveolus. Frequency of sinusitis and mastoiditis increased with the severity of hard palatal malformation. Evaluation of the hard palate by thin slice scanning is usefull standpoint of presumption of future maxillary development.

  7. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  8. High Resolution Sub-MM Fiberoptic Endoscope Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1447-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Gary F. [Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, John [CML Fiberoptics, Inc., Auburn, NY (United States)


    At the time of the CRADA, LLNL needed to develop a sub-mm outer diameter fiberoptic endoscope with 25pm or better resolution at 3-lOmm working distance to support the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) and the Core Surveillance Program for DOE. The commercially available systems did not meet the image resolution requirements and development work was needed to reach three goals. We also needed to perform preliminary investigations into the production of such an endoscope with a steerable-articulated distal end. The goal of such an endoscope was to allow for a 45 degree inspection cone including the lens field of view.

  9. 5th IFToMM Symposium on the History of Machines and Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, Marco


    This volume includes contributions presented at the Fifth IFToMM Symposium on the History of Machines and Mechanisms, held at Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Santiago de Queretaro, QRO, Mexico, in June 2016. It contains work on theories and facts concerning mechanisms and machines from antiquity to current times as viewed in the present day. Topics include modern reviews of past works; people, history, and their works; direct memories of the recent past; historic development theories; the history of the design of machines and mechanisms; developments of mechanical design and automation; the historic development of teaching; the history of schools of engineering and the education of engineers. .

  10. Compressive Channel Estimation and Tracking for Large Arrays in mm Wave Picocells (United States)


    and blockage (which occurs more easily at smaller wavelengths). We do not count on reciprocity. The uplink could be a standard LTE or WiFi link at...on both sides of the street. We consider mm wave transmission on the downlink (for beaconing and downlink data) and LTE or WiFi at lower carrier...available bandwidth for communication and sounding is 2GHz. A. Transmit power We fix the effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) to 40dBm, consistent

  11. Silicon-Based Technology for Integrated Waveguides and mm-Wave Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Vladimir; Gentile, Gennaro; Dekker, Ronald


    IC processing is used to develop technology for silicon-filled millimeter-wave-integrated waveguides. The front-end process defines critical waveguide sections and enables integration of dedicated components, such as RF capacitors and resistors. Wafer gluing is used to strengthen the mechanical...... insertion loss is only 0.12 dB/mm at 105 GHz. The optimized planar transition, the components of a beam-forming network, and a slotted waveguide antenna array are fabricated as further technology demonstrators. The broadside radiation of the antenna array has a beam steering of 63° using a frequency...

  12. Validation of a 1-mm transit time flow probe and the potential for use in microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian T; Elberg, Jens J; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.


    The objective of this study was to validate a prototype transit time ultrasound flow probe (Medi-Stim Butterfly Flowmeter BF 2004) of only 1 mm and to evaluate its potential for use in microsurgery. Knowledge of the ability of this kind of system to measure flow in small vessels and at small flow....../min. Transit time flow was measured continuously. The results showed very accurate flow measurements at all flow rates when compared to the known infusion rate of the Gemini pump. However, at flow rates below 4 ml/min, variation became a problem....

  13. Evaluation of cleft lip and palate by computed tomography with 2 mm thin slice scanning, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Mayuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Harada, Junta (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Computed tomography was performed on 104 patients with cleft lip and palate by continuous 2 mm slice scanning. The type of hard palate was classified as normal, hypoplasia and aplasia, depending on its developmental degree. The shape of alveolus was also classified as circular, triangular and asymmetric forms for the evaluation of the maxillary development. The hard palate development correlated with the shape of the alveolus, the diameter of maxillary and mandibular bone, and frequency of sinusitis and otitis media. Evaluation of the hard palate by thin slice scanning is useful in presumption of future fecial development. (author).

  14. The control system of the 3 mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (United States)

    Ladu, A.; Ortu, P.; Saba, A.; Pili, M.; Guadiomonte, F.; Navarrini, A.; Urru, E.; Pisanu, T.; Valente, G.; Marongiu, P.; Mazzarella, G.


    We present the control system of the 84-116 GHz (3 mm band) Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) heterodyne receiver to be installed at the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The control system is based on a single-board computer from Raspberry, on microcontrollers from Arduino, and on a Python program for communication between the receiver and the SRT antenna control software, which remotely controls the backshorttuned SIS mixer, the receiver calibration system and the Local Oscillator (LO) system.

  15. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, G; Wanderer, P; Ferracin, P; Sabbi, G


    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  16. First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley


    The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.

  17. A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies (United States)

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G.


    This lab experiment for undergraduate or high school students presents the separation and analysis of dyes in the candy shell of M&M chocolate candies. The dyes in the shells of M&Ms are separated using paper chromatography and are identified by comparison of the Rf values, color, and fluorescence properties with those of standard FD&C ([U.S. Federal] Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) dyes. The experiment introduces students to chromatography of mixtures, compound identification by using Rf values, and fluorescence. They learn about fluorescence and how it appears in everyday substances and can be used to help identify compounds.

  18. Polarization and charge-transfer effects in aqueous solution via ab initio QM/MM simulations. (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali


    Combined ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations coupled with the block-localized wave function energy decomposition (BLW-ED) method have been conducted to study the solvation of two prototypical ionic systems, acetate and methylammonium ions in aqueous solution. Calculations reveal that the electronic polarization between the targeted solutes and water is the primary many-body effect, whereas the charge-transfer term only makes a small fraction of the total solute-solvent interaction energy. In particular, the polarization effect is dominated by the solvent (water) polarization.

  19. 3rd IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccarelli, Marco


    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 3rd IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics, held in Aalborg, Denmark, 2-4 June, 2015. The book contains papers on recent advances in the design of mechanisms and their robotic applications. It treats the following topics: mechanism design, mechanics of robots, parallel manipulators, actuators and their control, linkage and industrial manipulators, innovative mechanisms/robots and their applications, among others. The book can be used by researchers and engineers in the relevant areas of mechanisms, machines and robotics.

  20. DFT based spatial multiplexing and maximum ratio transmission for mm-wawe large MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan-Huy, D.-T.; Tölli, A.; Rajatheva, N.


    By using large point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO), spatial multiplexing of a large number of data streams in wireless communications using millimeter-waves (mm-waves) can be achieved. However, according to the antenna spacing and transmitter-receiver distance, the MIMO channel...... and compensates for arrays misalignments. Simulation results show that, although the DFT-SM-MRT scheme has a much lower complexity than the SVD scheme, it still achieves large spectral efficiencies and is robust to misalignment and reflection....

  1. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.


    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  2. Achieving linear scaling in computational cost for a fully polarizable MM/continuum embedding. (United States)

    Caprasecca, Stefano; Jurinovich, Sandro; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Lipparini, Filippo


    In this paper, we present a new, efficient implementation of a fully polarizable QM/MM/continuum model based on an induced-dipoles polarizable force field and on the Conductor-like Screening Model as a polarizable continuum in combination with a self-consistent field QM method. The paper focuses on the implementation of the MM/continuum embedding, where the two polarizable methods are fully coupled to take into account their mutual polarization. With respect to previous implementations, we achieve for the first time a linear scaling with respect to both the computational cost and the memory requirements without limitations on the molecular cavity shape. This is achieved thanks to the use of the recently developed ddCOSMO model for the continuum and the Fast Multipole Method for the force field, together with an efficient iterative procedure. Therefore, it becomes possible to include in the classical layer as much as several tens of thousands of atoms with a limited computational effort.

  3. Rutting analysis of 100 mm diameter polypropylene modified asphalt specimens using gyratory and Marshall compactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Tapkın


    Full Text Available Compaction technique used in Marshall design does not model the process of actual rolling procedures on site exactly. Carrying out laboratory compaction of dense bituminous mixtures with Superpave gyratory compactors is a more realistic way of simulating actual compaction. In this study, mechanical differences of reference and polypropylene modified asphalt mixtures were compared using Superpave gyratory and Marshall compaction methods by carrying out repeated creep tests utilising universal testing machine. In addition, there is no standard Superpave design procedure for 100 mm diameter samples till date. The other purpose of this study is to propose new standards for the compaction and testing procedures of these 100 mm specimens. Indeed, extensive studies have shown that the design gyration number should be 40 for reference and 33 for polypropylene modified specimens under medium traffic conditions for the similar and specific type of aggregate sources, bitumen, aggregate gradation, mix proportioning, modification technique and laboratory conditions. Moreover, it was shown that, the asphalt samples produced by Superpave gyratory compactor were much resistant to destructive rutting effects than the asphalt specimens prepared by Marshall design.

  4. Linear sign in cystic brain lesions ≥5 mm. A suggestive feature of perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jinhee; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the prevalence of a linear sign within enlarged perivascular space (EPVS) and chronic lacunar infarction (CLI) ≥ 5 mm on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the linear signs for EPVS over CLI. This study included 101 patients with cystic lesions ≥ 5 mm on brain MRI including TOF MRA. After classification of cystic lesions into EPVS or CLI, two readers assessed linear signs on T2WI and TOF MRA. We compared the prevalence and the diagnostic performance of linear signs. Among 46 EPVS and 51 CLI, 84 lesions (86.6%) were in basal ganglia. The prevalence of T2 and TOF linear signs was significantly higher in the EPVS than in the CLI (P <.001). For the diagnosis of EPVS, T2 and TOF linear signs showed high sensitivity (> 80%). TOF linear sign showed significantly higher specificity (100%) and accuracy (92.8% and 90.7%) than T2 linear sign (P <.001). T2 and TOF linear signs were more frequently observed in EPVS than CLI. They showed high sensitivity in differentiation of them, especially for basal ganglia. TOF sign showed higher specificity and accuracy than T2 sign. (orig.)

  5. Linear sign in cystic brain lesions ≥5 mm: A suggestive feature of perivascular space. (United States)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Jang, Jinhee; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-Soo


    To determine the prevalence of a linear sign within enlarged perivascular space (EPVS) and chronic lacunar infarction (CLI) ≥ 5 mm on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the linear signs for EPVS over CLI. This study included 101 patients with cystic lesions ≥ 5 mm on brain MRI including TOF MRA. After classification of cystic lesions into EPVS or CLI, two readers assessed linear signs on T2WI and TOF MRA. We compared the prevalence and the diagnostic performance of linear signs. Among 46 EPVS and 51 CLI, 84 lesions (86.6%) were in basal ganglia. The prevalence of T2 and TOF linear signs was significantly higher in the EPVS than in the CLI (P linear signs showed high sensitivity (> 80%). TOF linear sign showed significantly higher specificity (100%) and accuracy (92.8% and 90.7%) than T2 linear sign (P linear signs were more frequently observed in EPVS than CLI. They showed high sensitivity in differentiation of them, especially for basal ganglia. TOF sign showed higher specificity and accuracy than T2 sign. • Linear sign is a suggestive feature of EPVS. • Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography can reveal the lenticulostriate artery within perivascular spaces. • Linear sign helps differentiation of EPVS and CLI, especially in basal ganglia.

  6. 2D Magnetic Design and Optimization of a 88-mm Aperture 15 T Dipole for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, A; Leroy, D


    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity supported by the European Union aims at the development of a high-performance Nb3Sn conductor ( c = 1500A mm 2 @15 T, 4.2 K) in collaboration with European industry and at the design of a highfield dipole magnet making use of this conductor. In the framework of the NED collaboration which coordinates the activity of several institutes,CERNhas contributed to the electromagnetic design study of a cos , layer-type superconducting dipole with an 88 mm aperture that is able to reach 15 T at 4.2 K. Part of the optimization process was dedicated to the reduction of the multipole coefficients so as to improve field quality while keeping an efficient peak-field to main-field ratio. In this paper, we present the optimization of the coil cross-section and of the shape of the iron yoke to reduce saturation-induced field errors during ramp. The effects of persistent magnetization currents are also estimated and different methods to compensate persistent-current-induced field distort...

  7. Claisen rearrangements: insight into solvent effects and "on water" reactivity from QM/MM simulations. (United States)

    Acevedo, Orlando; Armacost, Kira


    An "on water" environment, defined by the absence of water solubility of the reactants, has been reported to provide increased rate accelerations, yields, and specificity for several types of organic reaction classes compared to organic solvents. The aromatic Claisen rearrangements of allyl p-R-phenyl ethers (R = CH(3), Br, and OCH(3)) and allyl naphthyl ether have been investigated to determine the origin of the on water effect using QM/MM Monte Carlo calculations and free-energy perturbation theory. The simulations indicate that on water rate enhancements for the rearrangements are derived from the ability of the interfacial waters to stabilize the polar transition state via enhanced hydrogen bonding at the oil/water interface. The position and orientation of the aromatic ethers at the interface are crucial factors affecting solvent accessibility during the reaction pathway; computed solute-solvent energy pair distributions and radial distribution functions showed that hydrophobic substituents on the solute provided a more polar solvent environment than hydrophilic substituents by tilting the reacting oxygen toward the water surface. Calculations in 16 different solvents accurately reproduced the experimental trend of increased rates correlated to increasing solvent polarity. Hydrophobic effects did not provide a substantial contribution to the lowering of the free energy activation barrier (Claisen rearrangement is presented herein, and a QM/MM approach for computing reactions on a liquid surface is highlighted.

  8. Fast-ramp rapid vertical processor for 300-mm Si wafer processing (United States)

    Porter, Cole; Laser, Allan; Herring, Robert; Pandey, Pradeep


    Fast-ramp vertical furnace technology has been established on the 200-nm wafer platform providing higher capacity production, decreased cycle time and lower thermal budgets. Fast-ramp furnaces are capable of instantaneous temperature ramp rates up to 100 degrees C/min. This fast-ramp technology is now applied to 300-nm wafer processing on the SVG/Thermco Rapid Vertical Processor Vertical Furnace. 300- mm fast-ramp capability using the latest in real-time adaptive model based temperature control technology, Clairvoyant Control, is reported. Atmospheric Thermal Oxidation, LPCVD Nitride and Polysilicon Deposition, and LPCVD TEOS-based SiO2 Deposition results are discussed. 300- mm wafer Radial Delta Temperature dependence on temperature ramp rate, wafer pitch, and wafer support fixtures are discussed. Wafer throughput is calculated and reported. The Clairvoyant Control methodology of combining thermal, direct and virtually-sensed parameters to produce real-tim e estimation of wafer temperatures, thermal trajectory optimization, and feedback to minimize variations in film thickness and electrical properties is presented.

  9. FT-Raman and QM/MM study of the interaction between histamine and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Chica, A.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Soriano, A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Tunon, I. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Jimenez, F.M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Silla, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Ramirez, F.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail:


    The interaction between histamine and highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the hybrid QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) methodology. Raman spectra of solutions containing histamine and calf-thymus DNA, at different molar ratios, were recorded. Solutions were prepared at physiological settings of pH and ionic strength, using both natural and heavy water as the solvent. The analysis of the spectral changes on the DNA Raman spectra when adding different concentrations of histamine allowed us to identify the reactive sites of DNA and histamine, which were used to built two minor groove and one intercalated binding models. They were further used as starting points of the QM/MM theoretical study. However, minimal energy points were only reached for the two minor groove models. For each optimized structure, we calculated analytical force constants of histamine molecule in order to perform the vibrational dynamics. Normal mode descriptions allowed us to compare calculated wavenumbers for DNA-interacting histamine to those measured in the Raman spectra of DNA-histamine solutions.

  10. Muscular Dysbalance in Mm. Coxae Area and its Clinical Significance for Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendlová J


    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit einem biomechanischen Modell von Gelenken und Mm. coxae und charakterisiert die Vektoren der Reaktionskraft von Flexoren und Extensoren 1 in muskulärer Balance, 2 in muskulärer Dysbalance, 2a bei permanenter Belastung der Coxa durch das Körpergewicht, 2b mit simulierter Belastung während eines Sturzes oder sonstiger Einwirkung. Im Falle der muskulären Dysbalance ergibt die Einwirkung einer Kraft auf die Coxa während eines Sturzes einen starken Anstieg der Kompressionskraft der Flexoren und der Entspannungskraft der Extensoren. Eine muskuläre Dysbalance der Mm. coxae ermöglicht auf diese Weise komplizierte Splitterbrüche im Bereich des Oberschenkelhalses sowie des Peritrochanters und Subtrochanters. Eine muskuläre Balance, die durch Übungen, aber auch durch mechanische Protektoren der Gelenke erreicht werden kann, verringert das Risiko von komplizierten Splitterfrakturen in den beschriebenen Bereichen.

  11. Static and dynamic analysis of 1 220 mm steel last stage blade for steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubín Z.


    Full Text Available The 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade for a steam turbine was developed with application of new design features. The last stage moving blade is designed with an integral cover, a mid-span tie-boss connection and a fir-tree dovetail. With this configuration the blades are continuously coupled by the blade untwist due to the centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed, so that vibration control and increased structural damping are provided. Blade was tuned in order to eigen-frequencies were safely far from possible excitation. Because of connection members, the number of the resonant vibration modes can be reduced by virtue of the vibration characteristics of the circumferentially continuous blades. The last stage airfoil was optimalized from view of minimalization of its centrifugal force. In order to develop the 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade, the advanced analysis methods to predict dynamics behavior of the bladed structure were applied. Coupled rotor-blade analysis was also aim of the attention. To validate calculated results the verification measurement such as rotational vibration tests was carried out in the high-speed test rig. Relation of the friction damping of the bladed structure on amount of excitation level was also monitored and evaluated.

  12. Mutations in MYH7 cause Multi-minicore Disease (MmD) with variable cardiac involvement. (United States)

    Cullup, T; Lamont, P J; Cirak, S; Damian, M S; Wallefeld, W; Gooding, R; Tan, S V; Sheehan, J; Muntoni, F; Abbs, S; Sewry, C A; Dubowitz, V; Laing, N G; Jungbluth, H


    Central Core Disease (CCD) and Multi-minicore Disease (MmD) (the "core myopathies") have been mainly associated with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) and the selenoprotein N (SEPN1) gene. A proportion of cases remain unresolved. Mutations in MYH7 encoding the beta myosin heavy chain protein have been implicated in cardiac and, less frequently, skeletal muscle disorders. Here we report four patients from two families with a histopathological diagnosis of MmD, presenting in childhood with slowly progressive muscle weakness, more proximal in Family 1 and more distal in Family 2, and variable degrees of cardiorespiratory impairment evolving later in life. There was also a strong family history of sudden death in the first family. Muscle biopsies obtained in early childhood showed multiple minicores as the most prominent feature. Sequencing of the MYH7 gene revealed heterozygous missense mutations, c.4399C>G; p.Leu1467Val (exon 32) in Family 1 and c.4763G>C; p.Arg1588Pro (exon 34) in Family 2. These findings suggest MYH7 mutations as another cause of a myopathy with multiple cores, in particular if associated with dominant inheritance and cardiac involvement. However, clinical features previously associated with this genetic background, namely a more distal distribution of weakness and an associated cardiomyopathy, may only evolve over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early clinical experience with the Baerveldt 350-mm2 glaucoma implant and associated extraocular muscle imbalance. (United States)

    Smith, S L; Starita, R J; Fellman, R L; Lynn, J R


    The Baerveldt glaucoma implant is a new commercially available aqueous drainage device. Clinical data on the performance of the implant are relatively limited. The purpose of this investigation is to explore potential advantages and disadvantages of this implant over the more widely used Molteno implant. Retrospective analysis was performed on 37 eyes of 36 patients with refractory glaucoma who underwent placement of a mid-sized Baerveldt 350-mm2 implant. Patient selection was based on previous failure of conventional medical, laser, and surgical management, with poor prognosis for further glaucoma surgery and adjunctive antifibrosis therapy. Significant postoperative extraocular motility restriction and heterotropia were found in the operated eyes. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 eyes measured have significant heterotropia in primary gaze and restriction of gaze into the quadrant of the implant. As a result, 11 (65%) of 17 functionally binocular patients have diplopia in primary gaze. Pending further study, the authors are avoiding placement of the Baerveldt 350-mm2 implant in both binocular and monocular patients due to the high frequency of induced heterotropia and motility restriction.

  14. Outcomes of the Tower Crane Technique with a 15-mm Trocar in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax. (United States)

    Chong, Yooyoung; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kang, Shin Kwang; Na, Myung Hoon; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Lim, Seung Pyung; Kang, Min-Woong


    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pulmonary wedge resection has emerged as the standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recently, single-port VATS has been introduced and is now widely performed. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Tower crane technique as novel technique using a 15-mm trocar and anchoring suture in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Patients who underwent single-port VATS wedge resection in Chungnam National University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled. The medical records of the enrolled patients were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1,251 patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax during this period, 270 of whom underwent VATS wedge resection. Fifty-two of those operations were single-port VATS wedge resections for primary spontaneous pneumothorax performed by a single surgeon. The median age of the patients was 19.3±11.5 years old, and 43 of the patients were male. The median duration of chest tube drainage following the operation was 2.3±1.3 days, and mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2±1.3 days. Prolonged air leakage for more than three days following the operation was observed in one patient. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.7±6.1 months, with a recurrence rate of 3.8%. The tower crane technique with a 15-mm trocar may be a promising treatment modality for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  15. QM/MM studies of cisplatin complexes with DNA dimer and octamer

    KAUST Repository

    Gkionis, Konstantinos


    Hybrid QM/MM calculations on adducts of cisplatin with DNA dimer and octamer are reported. Starting from the crystal structure of a cisplatin-DNA dimer complex and an NMR structure of a cisplatin-DNA octamer complex, several variants of the ONIOM approach are tested, all employing BHandH for the QM part and AMBER for MM. We demonstrate that a generic set of molecular mechanics parameters for description of Pt-coordination can be used within the subtractive ONIOM scheme without loss of accuracy, such that dedicated parameters for new platinum complexes may not be required. Comparison of optimised structures obtained with different strategies indicates that electrostatic embedding is vital for proper description of the complex, while inclusion of water molecules as explicit solvent further improves performance. The resulting DNA structural parameters are in good general agreement with the experimental structure obtained, particularly when the inherent variability in NMR-derived parameters is taken into account. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Weak annihilation and new physics in charmless B → MM decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobeth, Christoph [Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Gorbahn, Martin [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Vickers, Stefan [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)


    We use currently available data of nonleptonic charmless 2-body B → MM decays (MM = PP, PV,VV) that are mediated by b → (d, s) QCD- and QED-penguin operators to study weak annihilation and new-physics effects in the framework of QCD factorization. In particular we introduce one weak-annihilation parameter for decays related by (u <-> d) quark interchange and test this universality assumption. Within the standard model, the data supports this assumption with the only exceptions in the B → Kπ system, which exhibits the well-known ''ΔA{sub CP} puzzle'', and some tensions in B → K*φ. Beyond the standard model, we simultaneously determine weak-annihilation and new-physics parameters from data, employing model independent scenarios that address the ''ΔA{sub CP} puzzle'', such as QED-penguins and b → s anti uu current-current operators. We discuss also possibilities that allow further tests of our assumption once improved measurements from LHCb and Belle II become available. (orig.)

  17. A 4-mm Spectral Line Survey of Orion-KL with the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Meijer, Michelle; Maddalena, R. J.; Frayer, D. T.; Hough, L.


    The KL region of the Orion Giant Molecular Cloud is one of the nearest sites of massive star formation. Its proximity, size, and favorable position in the sky have made it an area of intense scientific study across multiple wavelengths. The new 4-mm receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was used to carry out a spectral-line survey between 67.0 and 93.6 GHz. In comparison to the best previous survey in this band by Turner (1989) using the NRAO 12-m telescope, the new survey is both significantly more sensitive and covers the poorly-explored frequencies at the low-frequency end of the 3-mm atmospheric window. The survey has detected new lines and identified several previously unidentified lines. Additionally, from this research a high school project was created where by students enrolled in an introductory astronomy course at Eleanor Roosevelt High School were able to explore the methodologies used by modern radio astronomers to determine the composition of molecular clouds. Students were expected to perform a procedure similar to that performed by the researchers to explore both how radio telescopes ‘see’ the universe and to use the frequency spectra acquired to determine which molecules are present in the Orion-KL Nebula. This work was supported in part by the NSF-RET and the NSF-REU programs. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Intelligent control of neurosurgical robot MM-3 using dynamic motion scaling. (United States)

    Ko, Sunho; Nakazawa, Atsushi; Kurose, Yusuke; Harada, Kanako; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Sora, Shigeo; Shono, Naoyuki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito; Morita, Akio


    OBJECTIVE Advanced and intelligent robotic control is necessary for neurosurgical robots, which require great accuracy and precision. In this article, the authors propose methods for dynamically and automatically controlling the motion-scaling ratio of a master-slave neurosurgical robotic system to reduce the task completion time. METHODS Three dynamic motion-scaling modes were proposed and compared with the conventional fixed motion-scaling mode. These 3 modes were defined as follows: 1) the distance between a target point and the tip of the slave manipulator, 2) the distance between the tips of the slave manipulators, and 3) the velocity of the master manipulator. Five test subjects, 2 of whom were neurosurgeons, sutured 0.3-mm artificial blood vessels using the MM-3 neurosurgical robot in each mode. RESULTS The task time, total path length, and helpfulness score were evaluated. Although no statistically significant differences were observed, the mode using the distance between the tips of the slave manipulators improves the suturing performance. CONCLUSIONS Dynamic motion scaling has great potential for the intelligent and accurate control of neurosurgical robots.

  19. Progress in the development of an 88-mm bore 10 T $Nb_{3}$Sn dipole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    den Ouden, A; Kirby, G A; Taylor, T; Siegel, N; ten Kate, H H J


    A 10 T, 2-layer cos( theta )-dipole model magnet with an 88 mm clear bore utilizing an advanced powder-in-tube Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor is being developed for the LHC. A dedicated conductor development program has resulted in a well performing Rutherford cable containing strands that uniquely exhibit both an overall current density of 600 A/mm/sup 2/ @ 11 T and filaments with a diameter of 20 mu m. The resistance between crossing strands amounts to 30-70 mu Omega by insertion of a stainless steel core. After being exposed to a transverse pressure of 200 MPa identical cables show negligible permanent degradation of the critical current. The mechanical support structure is further optimized in order to reduce the peak stress in the mid-plane to below 130 MPa at full excitation and to control the pre-stress build-up during system assembly. Prior to the manufacturing of the final coils a dummy 2-layer pole is wound, heat- treated at 675 degrees C and vacuum resin impregnated. This paper presents the current status o...

  20. Experimental analysis of 7.62 mm hydrodynamic ram in containers (United States)

    Deletombe, E.; Fabis, J.; Dupas, J.; Mortier, J. M.


    The design of fuel tanks with a reduced vulnerability with respect to hydrodynamic ram pressure (HRAM) effects is of an increasing need in the Civil (e.g. the Concorde accident), and Defence (military aircraft, unmanned vehicle systems) aircraft industries. The presented work concerns experimental research which aims at observing two hydraulic ram events - both induced by a 7.62 mm bullet shot in very different containers - throughout their various steps until the final collapse of the generated cavity, in order to study the nature of HRAM, the influence of the containers geometry, and to measure original dynamic data for numerical modelling developments and validation. For that purpose, test configurations and experimental results are described, documented and discussed. They concern two types of firing tests that were performed at ONERA using the NATO 7.62 mm projectile, respectively in the frame of ONERA (pool) and EUCLID (caisson) funded research projects. The authors concentrate on two topics: on the one hand, digital image analysis to measure the cavity geometry during its growth and collapse phases and, on the other hand, pressure measurements that catch the transient shock wave. The originality of the work consists in the fact that - compared with other published works - the phenomenon is studied up to tens of milliseconds in a very large pool for theoretical analysis of the bullet/liquid interactions only, and in a realistic fuel tank specimen to consider influence of boundary conditions onto the cavity characteristics (geometry, dynamics).

  1. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo


    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  2. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens. (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes, et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Lesarri, A. [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, J. C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allèe de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J., E-mail: [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Laboratory of Molecular Astrophysics, Department of Astrophysics, Ctra. De Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)


    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  4. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  6. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.


    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  7. 42 CFR 3.20 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... otherwise authorized under State law to provide health care services, including— (i) A hospital, nursing..., psychologist, certified social worker, registered dietitian or nutrition professional, physical or occupational...

  8. Nonsecretory Multiple Myeloma and AL Amyloidosis Presenting with Nephrotic Range Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Beyler Kilic


    Full Text Available Nonsecretory multiple myeloma (NSMM is the absence of a detectable monoclonal protein in serum and urine of a multiple myeloma (MM patient and immunoglobulin light chain (AL amyloidosis is a significantly rare complication. A case of NSMM with AL amyloidosis and nephrotic range proteinuria is presented. Sharing clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic characteristics with MM, real challenge may be during initial diagnosis of NSMM and assessment of treatment response. In elderly patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, MM should be in the differential diagnosis and the absence of a monoclonal protein should not rule out MM but should remind us of the possibility of NSMM.

  9. Nonsecretory Multiple Myeloma and AL Amyloidosis Presenting with Nephrotic Range Proteinuria (United States)

    Beyler Kilic, Ozlem; Oguz, Ali Kemal; Ergun, Ihsan; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Ayli, Meltem


    Nonsecretory multiple myeloma (NSMM) is the absence of a detectable monoclonal protein in serum and urine of a multiple myeloma (MM) patient and immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a significantly rare complication. A case of NSMM with AL amyloidosis and nephrotic range proteinuria is presented. Sharing clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic characteristics with MM, real challenge may be during initial diagnosis of NSMM and assessment of treatment response. In elderly patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, MM should be in the differential diagnosis and the absence of a monoclonal protein should not rule out MM but should remind us of the possibility of NSMM. PMID:26090243

  10. Posterior atrophic jaws rehabilitated with prostheses supported by 6 mm long 4 mm wide implants or by longer implants in augmented bone. One-year post-loading results from a pilot randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Pistilli, Roberto; Felice, Pietro; Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Piatelli, Maurizio; Corvino, Valeria; Barausse, Carlo; Buti, Jacopo; Soardi, Elisa; Esposito, Marco


    To evaluate whether 6 mm long by 4 mm wide dental implants could be an alternative to implants at least 10 mm long placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. A total of 20 patients with bilateral atrophic mandibles and 20 patients with bilateral atrophic maxillae, having 5 to 7 mm of bone height above the mandibular canal or below the maxillary sinus, had each side of the jaws randomly allocated according to a split-mouth design. They were allocated to receive one to three 6 mm long and 4 mm wide implants, or implants at least 10 mm long in augmented bone by two different surgeons in different centres. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional equine bone blocks and resorbable barriers, and implants were placed 3 months later. Maxillary sinuses were augmented with particulated porcine bone via a lateral window and implants were placed simultaneously. All implants were submerged and loaded, after 4 months, with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive metal-ceramic prostheses were delivered. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, any complication and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone level changes. One patient treated in the mandible dropped out before the 1-year post-loading follow-up. All maxillary implants and prostheses were successful, whereas 2 mandibular prostheses could not be placed on implants at least 10 mm long due to graft failures; one was associated with the loss of 3 implants because of infection. There were no statistically significant differences in implant and prosthesis failures, though significantly more complications occurred at grafted sites in mandibles (P = 0.0078), but not in maxillae (P = 0.1250). In total, 14 complications occurred in 12 patients at augmented sites versus none at 6 mm-long implants. All failures and complications occurred before loading. Patients with mandibular 6 mm-long implants lost an average of 1.05 mm of peri-implant bone at 1 year and

  11. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  12. Simulation of High Impact Rainfall Events Over Southeastern Hilly Region of Bangladesh Using MM5 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ahasan


    Full Text Available Simulation of high impact rainfall events over southeastern hilly region of Bangladesh has been carried out using Fifth-Generation PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 conducting two historical rainfall events, namely, 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004. These extraordinary rainfall events were localized over the Rangamati region and recorded 304 mm and 337 mm rainfall on 21 June, 2004 and 11 July, 2004, respectively, over Rangamati within a span of 24 h. The model performance was evaluated by examining the different predicted and derived parameters. It is found that the seasonal monsoon trough has northerly position compared to normal and pass through Bangladesh extending up to northeast India for both cases. The heat low was found to be intense (996 hPa with strong north-south pressure gradient (12–15 hPa. The analysis of the geopotential height field at 200 hPa shows that the Tibetan high is shifted towards south by 7-8° latitudes with axis along 22–25°N for both cases. The analysis of the wind field shows that the areas of high impact rainfall exhibit strong convergence of low level monsoon circulation (~19–58 knots. The strong southwesterlies were found to exist up to 500 hPa level in both cases. The lower troposphere (925–500 hPa was characterized by the strong vertical wind shear (~9–18 ms−1 and high relative vorticity (~20–40 × 10−5 s−1. The analysis also shows that the areas of high impact rainfall events and neighbourhoods are characterized by strong low level convergence and upper level divergence. The strong southwesterly flow causes transportation of large amount of moisture from the Bay of Bengal towards Bangladesh, especially over the areas of Rangamati and neighbourhoods. The high percentage of relative humidity extends up to the upper troposphere along a narrow vertical column. Model produced details structure of the spatial patterns of rainfall over Bangladesh reasonably well though there are some

  13. Using mm-scale seafloor roughness to improve monitoring of macrobenthos by remote sensing (United States)

    Feldens, Peter; Schönke, Mischa; Wilken, Dennis; Papenmeier, Svenja


    In this study, we determine seafloor roughness at mm-scales by laser line-scanning to improve the remote marine habitat monitoring of macrobenthic organisms. Towards this purpose, a new autonomous lander system has been developed. Remote sensing of the seafloor is required to obtain a comprehensive view of the marine environment. It allows for analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics, monitoring of natural seabed variations, and evaluating possible anthropogenic impacts, all being crucial in regard to marine spatial planning as well as the sustainable and economic use of the sea. One aspect of ongoing remote sensing research is the identification of marine life, including both fauna and flora. The monitoring of seafloor fauna - including benthic communities - is mainly done using optical imaging systems and sample retrieval. The identification of new remote sensing indicator variables characteristic for the physical nature of the respective habitat would allow an improved spatial monitoring. A poorly investigated indicator variable is mm-scale seafloor microtopography and -roughness, which can be measured by laser line scanning and in turn strongly affects acoustic scatter. Two field campaigns have been conducted offshore Sylt Island in 2015 and 2016 to measure the microtopography of seafloor covered by sand masons, blue mussels, and oysters and to collect multi-frequency acoustic data. The acoustic data and topography of the blue mussel and oyster fields are currently being analyzed. The mm-scale microtopography of sand mason covered seafloor were transformed into the frequency domain and the average of the magnitude at different spatial wavelengths was used as a measure of roughness. The presence of sand masons causes a measurable difference in roughness magnitude at spatial wavelengths between 0.02 m and 0.0036 m, with the magnitude depending on sand mason abundance. This effect was not detected by commonly used 1D roughness profiles but required consideration of the

  14. Structure and kinematics of the clouds surrounding the Galactic mini-starburst W43 MM1 (United States)

    Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Herpin, F.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.


    Massive stars have a major influence on their environment, yet their formation is difficult to study as they form quickly in highly obscured regions and are rare, hence more distant than lower mass stars. Westerhout 43 (W43) is a highly luminous galactic massive star-forming region at a distance of 5.5 kpc and the MM1 part hosts a particularly massive dense core (1000 M⊙ within 0.05 pc). We present new Herschel HIFI maps of the W43 MM1 region covering the main low-energy water lines at 557, 987, and 1113 GHz; their HO counterparts; and other lines such as 13CO (10-9) and C18O (9-8), which trace warm gas. These water lines are, with the exception of line wings, observed in absorption. Herschel SPIRE and JCMT 450 μm data have been used to make a model of the continuum emission at the HIFI wavelengths. Analysis of the maps, and in particular the optical depth maps of each line and feature, shows that a velocity gradient, possibly due to rotation, is present in both the envelope (r ≳ 0.5 pc) and the protostellar core (r ≲ 0.2 pc). Velocities increase in both components from SW to NE, following the general source orientation. While the H2O lines trace essentially the cool envelope, we show that the envelope cannot account for the HO absorption, which traces motions close to the protostar. The core has rapid infall, 2.9 km s-1, as manifested by the HO absorption features which are systematically redshifted with respect to the 13CO (10-9) emission line which also traces the inner material with the same angular resolution. Some HO absorption is detected outside the central core and thus outside the regions expected (from a spherical model) to be above 100 K; we attribute this to warm gas associated with the other massive dense cores in W43 MM1. Using the maps to identify absorption from cool gas on large scales, we subtract this component to model spectra for the inner envelope. Modeling the new, presumably corrected, spectra results in a lower water abundance

  15. Photonic bandgap structures for guiding of long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, K.; Nikolajsen, T.; Boltasseva, Alexandra


    We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined.......We present the first observations of long-range plasmon polariton guiding in photonic bandgap structures. The transmission of waveguide structures is characterized at telecommunication wavelengths and a propagation loss below 4 dB/mm is determined....

  16. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen


    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  17. Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and Propellant Evaluation (United States)


    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and Propellant...21005-5066 ARL-SR-88 January 1999 Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and...blank) 2. REPORT DATE January 1999 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final, Mar 96-Feb 97 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Data Transfer Report - 30-mm

  18. Ex vivo biomechanical comparison of the 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plate using 2.4 mm locking versus standard screws for fixation of acetabular osteotomy in dogs. (United States)

    Amato, Nicole S; Richards, Andrew; Knight, Trevor A; Spector, Daniel; Boudrieau, Randy J; Belkoff, Stephen


    To compare the accuracy of reduction and the biomechanical characteristics of canine acetabular osteotomies stabilized with locking versus standard screws in a locking plate. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine hemipelves and corresponding femurs (n=10 paired). Transverse acetabular osteotomies stabilized with 5-hole 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plates using either 2.4 mm locking monocortical or standard bicortical screw fixation (Synthes Maxillofacial). Fracture reduction was assessed directly (craniocaudal acetabular width measurements and gross observation) and indirectly (impression casts). All constructs were fatigue-tested, followed by acute destructive testing. All outcome measures (mean+/-SD) were evaluated for significance (Plocking -0.4+/-0.4 mm; standard -0.4+/-0.3 mm; P=.76). Grossly, there was no significant difference in the repairs and impression casts did not reveal a significant (P=.75) difference in congruency between the groups. No significant differences were found in fracture gap between groups either dorsally (locking 0.38+/-0.23 mm versus standard 0.22+/-0.05 mm; P=.30) or ventrally (locking 0.80+/-0.79 mm versus standard 0.35+/-0.13 mm; P=.23), and maximum change in amplitude dorsally (locking 0.96+/-2.15 mm versus standard 0.92+/-0.89 mm; P=.96) or ventrally (locking 2.02+/-2.93 mm versus standard 0.15+/-0.81 mm; P=.25). There were no significant differences in stiffness (locking 241+/-46 N/mm versus standard 283+/-209 N/mm; P=.64) or load to failure (locking 1077+/-950 N versus standard 811+/-248 N; P=.49). No significant differences were found between pelves stabilized with locking monocortical screw fixation or standard bicortical screw fixation with respect to joint congruity, displacement of fracture gap after cyclic loading, construct stiffness, or ultimate load to failure. There is no apparent advantage of locking plate fixation over standard plate fixation of 2-piece ex vivo acetabular fractures using the 2.4 mm uni

  19. Kinetics and the thermal decomposition of Sodium Alanate in the presence of MmNi4.5Al0.5 nanoparticles (United States)

    Edla, Raju; Gangal, Aneesh C.; Manna, Joydev; Vashistha, Manvendra; Sharma, Pratibha


    Sodium Alanate (NaAlH4) is a promising hydrogen storage material due to its high hydrogen content (7.6 wt% of H2), and relatively moderate dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation temperatures. The addition of an appropriate catalyst to NaAlH4 results in a reversible release of 5.5 wt% H2 in a low temperature range of about 90 to 150 °C. Catalyst nano particles of MmNi4.5Al0.5 (henceforth referred to as Mm) to NaAlH4 were added by mechanical ball milling (BM) in mass ratios of 100:5, 100:10, and 100:20, respectively. Thermal decomposition studies were performed at various temperatures (90-150 °C) and a significant improvement in the dehydrogenation was observed after the addition of Mm to the NaAlH4. Un-doped ball milled NaAlH4 released 1.55 wt% of H2 at 150 °C in 60 min, and Mm added NaAlH4 released 3.10-3.25 wt% of H2 were released, respectively. Kinetics analysis was done by using model fit, model free fitting and the obtained activation energy values for both have shown good agreement and the possible decomposition mechanism in all samples by nucleation-growth-saturation mechanism. The improved thermodynamics and kinetics can be attributed to the uniform dispersion and catalytic effect of the Mm nanoparticles, and also to the effect of ball milling.

  20. Magnet Design of the 150 mm Aperture Low-β Quadrupoles for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P; Anerella, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D R; Felice, H; Ghosh , A; Godeke, A; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Fessia, P; Krave, S; Juchno, M; Perez, J C; Oberli, L; Sabbi, G; Todesco, E; Yu, M


    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project is aimed at studying and implementing the necessary changes in the LHC to increase its luminosity by a factor five. Among the magnets that will be upgraded are the 16 superconducting low-β quadrupoles placed around the two high luminosity interaction regions (ATLAS and CMS experiments). In the current baseline scenario, these quadrupole magnets will have to generate a gradient of 140 T/m in a coil aperture of 150 mm. The resulting conductor peak field of more than 12 T will require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. We present in this paper the HL-LHC low-β quadrupole design, based on the experience gathered by the US LARP program, and, in particular, we describe the support structure components to pre-load the coils, withstand the electro-magnetic forces, provide alignment and LHe containment, and integrate the cold mass in the LHC IRs.

  1. Design of a Low Voltage 0.18 mm CMOS Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW gas sensor is designed and tested in this paper. The objective of the designed SAW Gas sensor is to detect H2S and NOX gases. The inter-digital transducers (IDT antennas in the proposed sensor are coated with thin film WO3, which mass is sensitive to mentioned gas concentrations upon close contact. The changes in WO3 mass are registered as frequency shift from 300 to 500 MHz. The sensor blocks are simulated, fabricated and tested for an operating frequency of 300 MHz to 350 MHz. A relatively linear response is achieved with a step of 0.1 V for 10 MHz step frequency shift emitted from WO3 coated IDTs. This fully integrated signal processing circuitry designed by 0.18 mm CMOS process is simple, cost effective, small in size, has low power consumption, and fast real-time operation response as well.

  2. Yb-fibre Laser Welding of 6 mm Duplex Stainless Steel 2205 (United States)

    Bolut, M.; Kong, C. Y.; Blackburn, J.; Cashell, K. A.; Hobson, P. R.

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is one of the materials of choice for structural and nuclear applications, having high strength and good corrosion resistance when compared with other grades of stainless steel. The welding process used to join these materials is critical as transformation of the microstructure during welding directly affects the material properties. High power laser welding has recently seen an increase in research interest as it offers both speed and flexibility. This paper presents an investigation into the important parameters affecting laser welding of DSS grade 2205, with particular focus given to the critical issue of phase transformation during welding. Bead-on-plate melt-run trials without filler material were performed on 6mm thick plates using a 5 kW Yb-fibre laser. The laser beam was characterized and a Design of Experiment approach was used to quantify the impact of the process parameters. Optical metallographic methods were used to examine the resulting microstructures.

  3. Analysis and Design of Transformer-Based mm-Wave Transmit/Receive Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adabi


    Full Text Available Transformer-based shunt single pole, double-throw (SPDT switches are analyzed, and design equations are provided. A mm-wave transformer-based SPDT shunt switch prototype was designed and fabricated in 90 nm digital CMOS process. It has a minimum insertion loss of 3.4 dB at 50 GHz from the single pole to the ON-thru port and a leakage of 19 dB from the single pole to the OFF-thru port. The isolation is 13.7 dB between the two thru ports. Large signal measurements verify that the switch is capable of handling +14 dBm of input power at its 1 dB compression point. The fabricated SPDT switch has a minute active area size of 60 μm×60 μm.

  4. Adding Fludarabine to Cyclophophamide-dexamethason induction therapy impair stem cell harvest in MM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Meldgaard Knudsen, Lene; Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard

    the bone marrow. The pathophysiological significance of these cells is unknown, but hypothetically they may serve as "sleeping" myeloma stem cells responsible for and "feeding" post-treatment relapse and disease progression. The impact of chemotherapy resistant B cells in MM needs to be evaluated......, placebo controlled, single blinded, phase II study evaluating This was a randomized, placebo controlled, single blinded, phase II study evaluating toxicity and safety of Fludarabine added to Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone (CyDex) as induction therapy in younger patients with untreated and treatment...... demanding newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The treatment regimen CyDex as standard induction therapy was documented in NMSG trial #11/01. Patients were randomized at diagnosis either to CyDex + Placebo (control Arm A) or CyDex + Fludarabine (experimental Arm B). See Figure 1. Arm A (Conventional arm): Cy...

  5. New technique of three-dimensional imaging through a 3-mm single lens camera (United States)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Korniski, Ron; Ream, Allen; Shahinian, Hrayr; Manohara, Harish M.


    We present a technique for imaging full-color 3-D images with a single camera in this paper. Unlike a typical 3-D-imaging system comprising two independent cameras each contributing one viewpoint, the technique presented here creates two viewpoints using a single-lens camera with a bipartite filter whose bandpass characteristics are complementary to each other. The bipartite filter divides the camera's limiting aperture into two spatially separated apertures or viewpoints that alternately image an object field using filter-passband matched, time-sequenced illumination. This technique was applied to construct a 3-D camera to image scenes at a working distance of 10 mm. We evaluated the effectiveness of the 3-D camera in generating stereo images using statistical comparison of the depth resolutions achieved by the 3-D camera and a similar 2D camera arrangement. The comparison showed that the complementary filters produce effective stereopsis at prescribed working distances.

  6. Status of the engineering treatment model for mis-matched welds (ETM-MM) handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalbe, K.H.; Hao, S.; Cornec, A.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung


    The Engineering Treatment Model (ETM) has been extended to heterogeneous structures such as yield strength mismatched welded joints. The document ETM-MM describes four levels with increasing complexity. On the first level mismatch can be ignored if specific conditions are satisfied. The second level refers to the ETM for homogeneous structures, and mismatch is accounted for by using the lowest yield strength and hardening exponent of the weld metal and base plate, respectively. Within a specified window the third level can be used which is based on all weld metal configurations. If the mismatch yield load solution is available the fourth level can be applied which represents a solution of general validity. Some examples for validation are presented. (orig.)

  7. A coordinate descent MM algorithm for fast computation of sparse logistic PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho


    Sparse logistic principal component analysis was proposed in Lee et al. (2010) for exploratory analysis of binary data. Relying on the joint estimation of multiple principal components, the algorithm therein is computationally too demanding to be useful when the data dimension is high. We develop a computationally fast algorithm using a combination of coordinate descent and majorization-minimization (MM) auxiliary optimization. Our new algorithm decouples the joint estimation of multiple components into separate estimations and consists of closed-form elementwise updating formulas for each sparse principal component. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested using simulation and high-dimensional real-world datasets. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalytic mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase: the chemical step revisited by QM/MM calculations. (United States)

    Tian, Bo-Xue; Erdtman, Edvin; Eriksson, Leif A


    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the asymmetric condensation and cyclization of two 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) substrate molecules to give porphobilinogen (PBG). The chemical step of PBGS is herein revisited using QM/MM (ONIOM) calculations. Two different protonation states and several different mechanisms are considered. Previous mechanisms based on DFT-only calculations are shown unlikely to occur. According to these new calculations, the deprotonation step rather than ring closure is rate-limiting. Both the C-C bond formation first mechanism and the C-N bond formation first mechanism are possible, depending on how the A-site ALA binds to the enzyme. We furthermore propose that future work should focus on the substrate binding step rather than the enzymatic mechanism.

  9. On Low-Pass Phase Noise Mitigation in OFDM System for mmWave Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei


    . It is also shown that the PN spectral shape of the phase-lockedloop (PLL) based oscillator also aects the PN mitigation and that a larger PN may not necessarily degrade the performance of the OFDM system with PN mitigation. Simulations with realistic millimeter-wave (mmWave) PN and channel models......A phase noise (PN) mitigation scheme was proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in a previous work. The proposed scheme does not require detailed knowledge of PN statistics and can eectively compensate the PN with sucient number of unknowns. In this paper, we analyze...... the performance of PN estimation/ mitigation using the proposed scheme. It is shown that increasing the number of unknowns reduces the modeling error, yet increases the additive noise. Hence, increasing the number of unknowns increases the computational complexity and can even degrade the estimation performance...

  10. Directed self-assembly process implementation in a 300mm pilot line environment (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Chun; Estrada-Raygoza, I. Cristina; Abdallah, Jassem; Holmes, Steven; Yin, Yunpeng; Schepis, Anthony; Cicoria, Michael; Hetzer, David; Tsai, Hsinyu; Guillorn, Michael; Tjio, Melia; Cheng, Joy; Somervell, Mark; Colburn, Matthew


    The patterning capability of the directed self-assembly (DSA) of a 42nm-pitch block copolymer on an 84nm-pitch guiding pattern was investigated in a 300mm pilot line environment. The chemoepitaxy guiding pattern was created by the IBM Almaden approach using brush materials in combination with an optional chemical slimming of the resist lines. Critical dimension (CD) uniformity, line-edge/line-width roughness (LER/LWR), and lithographic process window (PW) of the DSA process were characterized. CD rectification and LWR reduction were observed. The chemical slimming process was found to be effective in reducing pattern collapse, hence, slightly improving the DSA PW under over-dose conditions. However, the overall PW was found to be smaller than without using the slimming, due to a new failure mode at under-dose region.

  11. Fluid queues driven by an M/M/1/N queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Lenin


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider fluid queue models with infinite buffer capacity which receives and releases fluid at variable rates in such a way that the net input rate of fluid into the buffer (which is negative when fluid is flowing out of the buffer is uniquely determined by the number of customers in an M/M/1/N queue model (that is, the fluid queue is driven by this Markovian queue with constant arrival and service rates. We use some interesting identities of tridiagonal determinants to find analytically the eigenvalues of the underlying tridiagonal matrix and hence the distribution function of the buffer occupancy. For specific cases, we verify the results available in the literature.

  12. Analysis of 38 GHz mmWave Propagation Characteristics of Urban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    The 38 GHz mm-wave frequency band is a strong candidate for the future deployment of wireless systems. Compared to lower frequency bands, propagation in the 38 GHz band is relatively unexplored for access networks in urban scenarios. This paper presents a detailed measurement-based analysis......, diffraction, transmission, as well as polarization effects. The measurement results confirm that, at this particular frequency, propagation in urban scenarios is mainly driven by line-of-sight and reflection. The proposed models are practical for implementation in system level simulators or ray-tracing tools...... of urban outdoor and outdoor-to-indoor propagation characteristics at 38 GHz. Different sets of measurements were performed in order to understand, quantify and model the behavior of the different underlying propagation mechanisms. The study considers line-of-sight propagation, reflection, scattering...

  13. Analysis of In-Room mm-Wave Propagation: Directional Channel Measurements and Ray Tracing Simulations (United States)

    Fuschini, F.; Häfner, S.; Zoli, M.; Müller, R.; Vitucci, E. M.; Dupleich, D.; Barbiroli, M.; Luo, J.; Schulz, E.; Degli-Esposti, V.; Thomä, R. S.


    Frequency bands above 6 GHz are being considered for future 5G wireless systems because of the larger bandwidth availability and of the smaller wavelength, which can ease the implementation of high-throughput massive MIMO schemes. However, great challenges are around the corner at each implementation level, including the achievement of a thorough multi-dimensional characterization of the mm-wave radio channel, which represents the base for the realization of reliable and high-performance radio interfaces and system architectures. The main properties of the indoor radio channel at 70 GHz, including angular and temporal dispersion as well as an assessment of the major interaction mechanisms, are investigated in this study by means of UWB directional measurements and ray tracing simulations in a reference, small-indoor office environment.

  14. Conservative treatment of a Class I malocclusion with 12 mm overjet, overbite and severe mandibular crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A female patient aged 12 years and 2 months had molars and canines in Class II relationship, severe overjet (12 mm, deep overbite (100%, excessive retroclination and extrusion of the lower incisors, upper incisor proclination, with mild midline diastema. Both dental arches appeared constricted and a lower arch discrepancy of less than -6.5 mm. Facially, she had a significant upper incisors display at rest, interposition and eversion of the lower lip, acute nasolabial angle and convex profile. OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical case consisting of Angle Class I malocclusion with deep overbite and overjet in addition to severe crowding treated with a conservative approach. METHODS: Treatment consisted of slight retraction of the upper incisors and intrusion and protrusion of the lower incisors until all crowding was eliminated. RESULTS: Adequate overbite and overjet were achieved while maintaining the Angle Class I canine and molar relationships and coincident midlines. The facial features were improved, with the emergence of a slightly convex profile and lip competence, achieved through a slight retraction of the upper lip and protrusion of the lower lip, while improving the nasolabial and mentolabial sulcus. CONCLUSIONS: This conservative approach with no extractions proved effective and resulted in a significant improvement of the occlusal relationship as well as in the patient's dental and facial aesthetics.INTRODUÇÃO: paciente do sexo feminino, 12 anos e 2 meses de idade, apresentava molares em relação de chave de oclusão e caninos em relação de Classe II de Angle, sobressaliência acentuada (12mm, sobremordida profunda (100%, excessiva retroinclinação e extrusão dos incisivos inferiores e projeção dos superiores, com leves diastemas interincisais. Ambas as arcadas apresentavam-se constritas e a discrepância dentária inferior era de -6,5mm. Do ponto de vista facial, apresentava grande exposição dos incisivos

  15. Features of 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[CERN, Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules, Geneva (Switzerland)


    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10-m long, 50-mm-twin-aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three of these prototypes were built in Italy, in collaboration with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, by Ansaldo Energia Spa, two were built in Germany by Noell GmbH, one was built in France by a consortium constituted by Jeumont Industries and GEC Alsthom, and the last one was built by a consortium constituted by Elin in Austria and Holec in the Netherlands. In this paper, we review the design and specific features of the seven LHC dipole magnet prototypes. (author) 21 refs.

  16. Measurements of 208 Aitken Visual Binary Stars with a 280 mm Reflector (United States)

    Serot, J.


    This paper presents the measurements of 208 visual binary stars discovered by R.G. Aitken and listed in the WDS catalog. These measurements were obtained between November 2016 and January 2017 with an 11" reflector telescope and an ASI 290MM CMOS-based camera. Binaries with a secondary component up to magnitude 15 and separation between 0.6 and 5 arcsec have been measured. Measurements were carried out on auto-correlograms computed on sequences of a thousand images. This approach allowed us to obtain reliable measurements for pairs with very large difference of magnitude (up to 6). A significant part of the observed pairs had not been observed in the previous decades and show significant movement compared to their last measurement. We also report the discovery of a yet unobserved component for the star A 2455 (WDS 06426+1937).

  17. 4th IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Laribi, Med; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre


    This volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ISRM 2015, the Fourth IFToMM International Symposium on Robotics and Mechatronics held in Poitiers, France 23-24 June 2015. These papers  provide a vision of the evolution of the disciplines of robotics and mechatronics, including but not limited to: mechanism design; modeling and simulation; kinematics and dynamics of multibody systems; control methods; navigation and motion planning; sensors and actuators; bio-robotics; micro/nano-robotics; complex robotic systems; walking machines, humanoids-parallel kinematic structures: analysis and synthesis; smart devices; new design; application and prototypes. The book can be used by researchers and engineers in the relevant areas of robotics and mechatronics.

  18. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, G.L.


    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  19. Proper motions of L1551 IRS 5 binary system using 7 mm VLA observations (United States)

    Villa, A. M.; Trinidad, M. A.; de la Fuente, E.; Rodríguez-Esnard, T.


    We analyzed high angular resolution observations of the Very Large Array archive at a wavelength of 7 mm made for the L1551 IRS 5 binary system. Six sets of observations, five with the A configuration and one with the B configuration, were used, covering a time span of about 15 years. With these multi-epoch data, we estimated the absolute and relative proper motions of the binary system, which are about 25.1 mas yr-1 (≈ 16.7 km s-1 considering a distance of 140 pc) and 4.2 mas yr-1, respectively. Finally, based on the relative proper motion, we estimated a total mass for the L1551 IRS 5 binary system of 1.7 M⊙ and an orbital period of 246 years.

  20. Optimization of an M/M/1/N Feedback Queue with Retention of Reneged Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Customer impatience has become a threat to the business world. Firms employ various customer retention strategies to retain their impatient (or reneged customers. Customer retention mechanisms may help to retain some or all impatient customers. Further, due to unsatisfactory service, customers may rejoin a queue immediately after departure. Such cases are referred to as feedback customers. Kumar and Sharma take this situation into account and study an M/M/1/N feedback queuing system with retention of reneged customers. They obtain only a steady-state solution for this model. In this paper, we extend the work of Kumar and Sharma by performing an economic analysis of the model. We develop a model for the costs incurred and perform the appropriate optimization. The optimum system capacity and optimum service rate are obtained. (original abstract

  1. Interface traps at Al2O3/InAlN/GaN MOS-HEMT -on- 200 mm Si (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Remesh, Nayana; Dolmanan, S. B.; Tripathy, S.; Raghavan, S.; Muralidharan, R.; Nath, Digbijoy N.


    We report on the characterization of the interfaces of Al2O3/InAlN/GaN HEMT structure grown on 200 mm diameter silicon using conductance dispersion technique. Irreversible threshold voltage (VTH) shift of up to +∼2.5 V was observed due to the gate stress induced activation of acceptor states. Further, frequency dependent VTH shift during capacitance voltage measurements were also recorded due to the presence of slow traps at InAlN/GaN interface. The conductance dispersion indicated the presence of acceptor traps of the order of ∼4 × 1012 to 7 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 with a time constant of ∼10 to 350 μs at the InAlN/GaN interface. Trap density at the Al2O3/InAlN was found to be in similar range but with a time constant of ∼2 μs. The presence of high density of traps at InAlN/GaN interface is attributed to the unavoidable growth interruption before the start of InAlN growth.

  2. LHC IR Upgrade Nb-Ti, 120mm Aperture Model Quadrupole Test Results at 1.8K

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bajko, M; Datskov, V I; Durante, M; Fessia, P; Feuvrier, J; Guinchard, M; Giloux, C; Granieri, P P; Manil, P; Perez, J C; Ravaioli, E; Rifflet, J M; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Segreti, M; Todesco, E; Willering, G


    Over the last five years, the model MQXC quadruple, a 120 mm aperture, 120 T/m, 1.8 m long, Nb-Ti version of the LHC insertion upgrade (due in 2021), has been developed at CERN. The magnet incorporates several novel concepts to extract high levels of heat flux and provide high quality field harmonics throughout the full operating current range. Existing LHC-dipole cable with new, open cable and ground insulation was used. Two, nominally identical 1.8 m long magnets were built and tested at 1.8 K at the CERN SM18 test facility. This paper compares in detail the two magnet tests and presents: quench performance, internal stresses, heat extraction simulating radiation loading in the superconducting coils, and quench protection measurements. The first set of tests highlighted the conflict between high magnet cooling capability and quench protection. The second magnet had additional instrumentation to investigate further this phenomenon. Finally we present test results from a new type of superconducting magnet pro...

  3. Argus+: The Future of Wide-Field, Spectral-Line Imaging at 3-mm with the Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald; Frayer, David; Lockman, Felix; O'Neil, Karen; White, Steven; Argus+ Collaboration


    The Robert C Byrd Green Bank Telescope has met its design goal of providing high-quality observations at 115 GHz. Observers also have access to the new, 16-pixel, 3-mm Argus receiver, which is providing high-dynamic range images over wide fields for the multitude of spectral lines between 85 and 115 GHz, including CO, 13CO, C18O, SiO, HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, and CS. The small number of pixels in Argus limits its ability to map many of the most interesting objects whose extent exceeds many arc-minutes. The successful performance of Argus, and its modular design, demonstrates that receivers with many more pixels could be built for the GBT. A 12 x 12 array of the Argus design would have mapping speeds about nine times faster than Argus without suffering any degradation in performance for the outer pixels in the array. We present our plans to build the next-generation Argus instrument (Argus+) with 144-pixels, a footprint 5’x5’, and 7" resolution at 110 GHz. The project will be a collaboration between the Green Bank Observatory and university groups, who will supply key components. The key science drivers for Argus+ are studies of molecular filaments in the Milky Way, studies of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and the observations of rapidly evolving solar system objects.

  4. Foraging optimally for home ranges (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.


    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  5. Surface Energy Balance in Jakarta and Neighboring Regions As Simulated Using Fifth Mesoscale Model (MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yopi Ilhamsyah


    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to assess the surface energy balance particularly in terms of the computed surface energy and radiation balance and the development of boundary layer over Jakarta and Neighboring Regions (JNR by means of numerical model of fifth generation of Mesoscale Model (MM5. The MM5 with four domains of 9 kilometers in spatial resolution presenting the outermost and the innermost of JNR is utilized. The research focuses on the third and fourth domains covering the entire JNR. The description between radiation and energy balance at the surface is obtained from the model. The result showed that energy balance is higher in the city area during daytime. Meanwhile, energy components, e.g., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that at the sea and in the city areas were higher than other areas. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern region was higher than others. In general, radiation and energy balance was higher in the daytime and lower in the nighttime for all regions. The calculation of Bowen Ratio, the ratio of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, was also higher in the city area, reflecting the dominations of urban and built-up land in the region. Meanwhile, Bowen Ratio in the rural area dominated by irrigated cropland was lower. It is consistent with changes of land cover properties, e.g. albedo, soil moisture, and thermal characteristics. In addition, the boundary layer is also higher in the city. Meanwhile western region dominated by suburban showed higher boundary layer instead of eastern region.

  6. Sequential vs alternating administration of VMP and Rd in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM. (United States)

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Hernández, Miguel-Teodoro; Ocio, Enrique-M; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez, Rafael; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Martín Ramos, María-Luisa; Oriol, Albert; Bargay, Joan; Bengoechea, Enrique; González, Yolanda; Pérez de Oteyza, Jaime; Gironella, Mercedes; Encinas, Cristina; Martín, Jesús; Cabrera, Carmen; Paiva, Bruno; Cedena, María-Teresa; Puig, Noemí; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; San-Miguel, Jesús


    Bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone (VMP) and lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) are 2 standards of care for elderly untreated multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We planned to use VMP and Rd for 18 cycles in a sequential or alternating scheme. Patients (233) with untreated MM, >65 years, were randomized to receive 9 cycles of VMP followed by 9 cycles of Rd (sequential scheme; n = 118) vs 1 cycle of VMP followed by 1 cycle of Rd, and so on, up to 18 cycles (alternating scheme; n = 115). VMP consisted of one 6-week cycle of bortezomib using a biweekly schedule, followed by eight 5-week cycles of once-weekly VMP. Rd included nine 4-week cycles of Rd. The primary end points were 18-month progression free survival (PFS) and safety profile of both schemes. The 18-month PFS was 74% and 80% in the sequential and alternating arms, respectively (P = .21). The sequential and alternating groups exhibited similar hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. Both arms yielded similar complete response rate (42% and 40%), median PFS (32 months vs 34 months, P = .65), and 3-year overall survival (72% vs 74%, P = .63). The benefit of both schemes was remarkable in patients aged 65 to 75 years. In addition, achieving complete and immunophenotypic response was associated with better outcome. The present approach, based on VMP and Rd, is associated with high efficacy and acceptable toxicity profile with no differences between the sequential and alternating regimens. This trial was registered at as #NCT00443235. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Outcomes of the Tower Crane Technique with a 15-mm Trocar in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong


    Full Text Available Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS pulmonary wedge resection has emerged as the standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recently, single-port VATS has been introduced and is now widely performed. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Tower crane technique as novel technique using a 15-mm trocar and anchoring suture in primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: Patients who underwent single- port VATS wedge resection in Chungnam National University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 were enrolled. The medical records of the enrolled patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1,251 patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax during this period, 270 of whom underwent VATS wedge resection. Fifty-two of those operations were single-port VATS wedge resections for primary spontaneous pneumothorax performed by a single surgeon. The median age of the patients was 19.3±11.5 years old, and 43 of the patients were male. The median duration of chest tube drainage following the operation was 2.3±1.3 days, and mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.2±1.3 days. Prolonged air leakage for more than three days following the operation was observed in one patient. The mean duration of follow-up was 18.7±6.1 months, with a recurrence rate of 3.8%. Conclusion: The tower crane technique with a 15-mm trocar may be a promising treatment modality for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  8. Sviluppi di Ricevitori E di Componentistica Per Banda 3 mm Ad INAF-OA Cagliari (United States)

    Navarrini, Alessandro


    L'INAF-OA Cagliari (OACa) sta sviluppando un ricevitore criogenico a basso rumore basato su un mixer SSB (Single Side Band) a superconduttore SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) per la banda 3 mm. Il ricevitore, acquistato da IRAM, è stato fortemente modificato per essere adattato al fuoco Gregoriano di SRT (Sardinia Radio Telescope). Lo strumento è caratterizzato da una nuova criogenia a ciclo chiuso 4 K (per evitare l'uso di elio liquido in antenna), da un nuovo oscillatore locale (di tipo ALMA Banda 3) e da un nuovo sistema di controllo e di monitoraggio basato su schede Raspberry ed Arduino sviluppato ad OACa. Verranno presentati i recenti sviluppi sul ricevitore, inclusi i risultati preliminari della misura della temperatura di rumore, che raggiunge un valore pari a Trec=66 K alla frequenza di 86 GHz, nonostante la criogenia non sia ancora ottimizzata. L'INAF-OACa è coinvolto nel progetto AETHRA (Advanced European Technologies for Heterodyne Receivers for Astronomy) nel quadro del programma Radionet/Horizon2020 per il quale sta contribuendo al WP1 (Work Package 1). Lo scopo del WP1 è di sviluppare e costruire un dimostratore di un array di ricevitori a doppia polarizzazione per la banda 3 mm basato su amplificatori criogenici a basso rumore (LNA) in tecnologia a semiconduttore MMIC. Nell'ambito del WP1 l'OACa ha in carico il progetto di un OrthomodeTransducer (OMT) in guida d'onda o in tecnologia planare per la banda 72-116 GHz che sia integrabile con amplificatori MMICs ed adatto all'integrazione in un array da installare nel piano focale di un radiotelescopio. Verranno presentati i design preliminari degli OMT per AETHRA, che sono basati su prototipi sviluppati in passato da OACa.

  9. Fabrication and Microassembly of a mm-Sized Floating Probe for a Distributed Wireless Neural Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyungwoo Yeon


    Full Text Available A new class of wireless neural interfaces is under development in the form of tens to hundreds of mm-sized untethered implants, distributed across the target brain region(s. Unlike traditional interfaces that are tethered to a centralized control unit and suffer from micromotions that may damage the surrounding neural tissue, the new free-floating wireless implantable neural recording (FF-WINeR probes will be stand-alone, directly communicating with an external interrogator. Towards development of the FF-WINeR, in this paper we describe the micromachining, microassembly, and hermetic packaging of 1-mm3 passive probes, each of which consists of a thinned micromachined silicon die with a centered Ø(diameter 130 μm through-hole, an Ø81 μm sharpened tungsten electrode, a 7-turn gold wire-wound coil wrapped around the die, two 0201 surface mount capacitors on the die, and parylene-C/Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS coating. The fabricated passive probe is tested under a 3-coil inductive link to evaluate power transfer efficiency (PTE and power delivered to a load (PDL for feasibility assessment. The minimum PTE/PDL at 137 MHz were 0.76%/240 μW and 0.6%/191 μW in the air and lamb head medium, respectively, with coil separation of 2.8 cm and 9 kΩ receiver (Rx loading. Six hermetically sealed probes went through wireless hermeticity testing, using a 2-coil inductive link under accelerated lifetime testing condition of 85 °C, 1 atm, and 100%RH. The mean-time-to-failure (MTTF of the probes at 37 °C is extrapolated to be 28.7 years, which is over their lifetime.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of undoped and Cu-doped (80-x)Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20Li{sub 2}O-xMoO{sub 3} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkova, P., E-mail:; Vasilev, P.; Mustafa, M. [Shumen University “Konstantin Preslavsky”, 115 Universitetskastreet, 9712 Shumen (Bulgaria); Boubaker, K. [École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Tunis, Université de Tunis/63 Rue Sidi Jabeur, 5100, Mahdia (Tunisia); Yumak, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, Göztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Touihri, H.; Soltani, M. T. [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering sciences, University “Mohamed Khider” 07000 Biskra (Algeria)


    In this work, the absorption spectra of the undoped and doped with 0.1% and 0.2% CuO{sub 2} glasses with the composition (80-x)Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20Li{sub 2}O-xMoO{sub 3} are measured in the spectral region 1300-1800 nm. The optical structure of Cu{sup 2+} is investigated and the energies of the electron transitions in this metal cation are determined. The spin-orbit interaction, Lattice Compatibility Theory (LCT) analyses and the influence of molybdenum are also discussed.

  11. Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV


    The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

  12. Potential Evapotranspiration Estimates (mm) for for Alaska, ECHAM5 - A1B scenario. The Wilderness Society, 2011. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Potential Evapotranspiration (PET): These data represent decadal mean totals of potential evapotranspiration estimates (mm). The file name specifies the decade the...

  13. Multiscale Free Energy Simulations: An Efficient Method for Connecting Classical MD Simulations to QM or QM/MM Free Energies Using Non-Boltzmann Bennett Reweighting Schemes (United States)


    The reliability of free energy simulations (FES) is limited by two factors: (a) the need for correct sampling and (b) the accuracy of the computational method employed. Classical methods (e.g., force fields) are typically used for FES and present a myriad of challenges, with parametrization being a principle one. On the other hand, parameter-free quantum mechanical (QM) methods tend to be too computationally expensive for adequate sampling. One widely used approach is a combination of methods, where the free energy difference between the two end states is computed by, e.g., molecular mechanics (MM), and the end states are corrected by more accurate methods, such as QM or hybrid QM/MM techniques. Here we report two new approaches that significantly improve the aforementioned scheme; with a focus on how to compute corrections between, e.g., the MM and the more accurate QM calculations. First, a molecular dynamics trajectory that properly samples relevant conformational degrees of freedom is generated. Next, potential energies of each trajectory frame are generated with a QM or QM/MM Hamiltonian. Free energy differences are then calculated based on the QM or QM/MM energies using either a non-Boltzmann Bennett approach (QM-NBB) or non-Boltzmann free energy perturbation (NB-FEP). Both approaches are applied to calculate relative and absolute solvation free energies in explicit and implicit solvent environments. Solvation free energy differences (relative and absolute) between ethane and methanol in explicit solvent are used as the initial test case for QM-NBB. Next, implicit solvent methods are employed in conjunction with both QM-NBB and NB-FEP to compute absolute solvation free energies for 21 compounds. These compounds range from small molecules such as ethane and methanol to fairly large, flexible solutes, such as triacetyl glycerol. Several technical aspects were investigated. Ultimately some best practices are suggested for improving methods that seek to connect

  14. Single crowns in the resorbed posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm implants or by 11-mm implants combined with sinus floor elevation surgery : A 1-year randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guljé, Felix L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A


    Purpose: The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess the clinical performance of single crowns in the posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm or 11-mm implants combined with maxillary sinus floor elevation. Materials and methods: 41 consecutive patients with one missing premolar or

  15. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.


    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  16. Outcome of Repair of Distal Radial and Ulnar Fractures in Dogs Weighing 4 kg or Less Using a 1.5-mm Locking Adaption Plate or 2.0-mm Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate. (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas A; Strom, Adam


    Objectives  Retrospective evaluation of repairing distal radial and ulnar fractures in small breed dogs with the Synthes 1.5-mm locking Adaption plate system and compare results in a similar group of patients repaired with the Synthes 2.0-mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP). Methods  Electronic medical records from one specialty referral centre were reviewed from March 21, 2010, to October 9, 2015, for patients weighing less than or equal to 4 kg that had a distal one-third radial and ulnar fracture repaired with a Synthes 1.5-mm locking adaption plate or Synthes 2.0-mm LC-DCP. Further inclusion criteria included application of the plate to the cranial surface of the radius via open reduction and internal fixation. Results  Six 1.5-mm Adaption plates and 7 2.0-mm LC-DCPs were used to repair 13 distal radial and ulnar fractures in 12 dogs. There were three major complications in the 1.5-mm adaption plate group (one plate fracture, one screw pull-out and one fracture through a distal screw hole) and one major complication in the 2.0-mm LC-DCP group due to a re-fracture. All patients without a complication had good or excellent functional outcome. Clinical Significance  The authors recommend that the 1.5-mm Adaption plate be used only when a 2.0-mm LC-DCP would not allow for a minimum of two screws in the distal segment and at the discretion of the surgeon. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  17. Spatiao – Temporal Evaluation and Comparison of MM5 Model using Similarity Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Siabi


    Full Text Available Introduction temporal and spatial change of meteorological and environmental variables is very important. These changes can be predicted by numerical prediction models over time and in different locations and can be provided as spatial zoning maps with interpolation methods such as geostatistics (16, 6. But these maps are comparable to each other as visual, qualitative and univariate for a limited number of maps (15. To resolve this problem the similarity algorithm is used. This algorithm is a simultaneous comparison method to a large number of data (18. Numerical prediction models such as MM5 were used in different studies (10, 22, and 23. But a little research is done to compare the spatio-temporal similarity of the models with real data quantitatively. The purpose of this paper is to integrate geostatistical techniques with similarity algorithm to study the spatial and temporal MM5 model predicted results with real data. Materials and Methods The study area is north east of Iran. 55 to 61 degrees of longitude and latitude is 30 to 38 degrees. Monthly and annual temperature and precipitation actual data for the period of 1990-2010 was received from the Meteorological Agency and Department of Energy. MM5 Model Data, with a spatial resolution 0.5 × 0.5 degree were downloaded from the NASA website (5. GS+ and ArcGis software were used to produce each variable map. We used multivariate methods co-kriging and kriging with an external drift by applying topography and height as a secondary variable via implementing Digital Elevation Model. (6,12,14. Then the standardize and similarity algorithms (9,11 was applied by programming in MATLAB software to each map grid point. The spatial and temporal similarities between data collections and model results were obtained by F values. These values are between 0 and 0.5 where the value below 0.2 indicates good similarity and above 0.5 shows very poor similarity. The results were plotted on maps by MATLAB

  18. Reference Ranges & What They Mean (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  19. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  20. Development and testing of soil microtensiometers with less than 2 mm diameter (United States)

    Holeckova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Picek, Tomas; Martan, Jiri; Schwen, Andreas


    Testing of the prototype was conducted at University of Natural Resources and Life Science in Vienna. Prototypes have been tested in three different experiments with aim to: a) test the pressure measurement accuracy, where the negative water pressures were measured in bulk water; b) determine response time and measuring range of the device; and c) to conduct a pilot measurement in two samples of different soil types (Sample I: 64.8 % sand, 28.5 % silt, 6.7 % clay and Sample II: 37.9 % sand, 50.4 % silt, 11.7 % clay). The tensiometers embedded in HYPROP (Decagon Devices) were used to perform simultaneous measurement in all three types of experiments, thus serving as a reference. Pressure values obtained by the prototype microtensiometer were compared with pressure values given by the HYPROP device. Results indicate a very good agreement of pressures sensed by prototype microtensiometers and the HYPROP device. The response of tested microtensiometers to the external pressure changes was almost immediate in bulk water. Maximum range of tested microtensiometers (during short-term experiments) was from - 750 hPa to + 850 hPa. Practical measuring range of tested microtensiometers during long-term experiments varied between ± 230 hPa, while outside of this range the air bubbles developed in the tensiometer body, due to slow air leak to the pressure sensor through moveable part of catheter. The newly developed microtensiometer proved as a robust device suitable for installation in soils. Despite the pressure measurement range is already sufficient for many applications extending the range for long-term measurements represents a challenge for the next stage of the tensiometers development.

  1. Modeling and numerical simulation of interior ballistic processes in a 120mm mortar system (United States)

    Acharya, Ragini

    Numerical Simulation of interior ballistic processes in gun and mortar systems is a very difficult and interesting problem. The mathematical model for the physical processes in the mortar systems consists of a system of non-linear coupled partial differential equations, which also contain non-homogeneity in form of the source terms. This work includes the development of a three-dimensional mortar interior ballistic (3D-MIB) code for a 120mm mortar system and its stage-wise validation with multiple sets of experimental data. The 120mm mortar system consists of a flash tube contained within an ignition cartridge, tail-boom, fin region, charge increments containing granular propellants, and a projectile payload. The ignition cartridge discharges hot gas-phase products and unburned granular propellants into the mortar tube through vent-holes on its surface. In view of the complexity of interior ballistic processes in the mortar propulsion system, the overall problem was solved in a modular fashion, i.e., simulating each physical component of the mortar propulsion system separately. These modules were coupled together with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The ignition cartridge and mortar tube contain nitrocellulose-based ball propellants. Therefore, the gas dynamical processes in the 120mm mortar system are two-phase, which were simulated by considering both phases as an interpenetrating continuum. Mass and energy fluxes from the flash tube into the granular bed of ignition cartridge were determined from a semi-empirical technique. For the tail-boom section, a transient one-dimensional two-phase compressible flow solver based on method of characteristics was developed. The mathematical model for the interior ballistic processes in the mortar tube posed an initial value problem with discontinuous initial conditions with the characteristics of the Riemann problem due to the discontinuity of the initial conditions. Therefore, the mortar tube model was solved

  2. An analysis of MM5 sensitivity to different parameterizations for high-resolution climate simulations (United States)

    Argüeso, D.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, J. M.; Gámiz-Fortis, S. R.; Esteban-Parra, M. J.; Castro-Díez, Y.


    An evaluation of MM5 mesoscale model sensitivity to different parameterizations schemes is presented in terms of temperature and precipitation for high-resolution integrations over Andalusia (South of Spain). As initial and boundary conditions ERA-40 Reanalysis data are used. Two domains were used, a coarse one with dimensions of 55 by 60 grid points with spacing of 30 km and a nested domain of 48 by 72 grid points grid spaced 10 km. Coarse domain fully covers Iberian Peninsula and Andalusia fits loosely in the finer one. In addition to parameterization tests, two dynamical downscaling techniques have been applied in order to examine the influence of initial conditions on RCM long-term studies. Regional climate studies usually employ continuous integration for the period under survey, initializing atmospheric fields only at the starting point and feeding boundary conditions regularly. An alternative approach is based on frequent re-initialization of atmospheric fields; hence the simulation is divided in several independent integrations. Altogether, 20 simulations have been performed using varying physics options, of which 4 were fulfilled applying the re-initialization technique. Surface temperature and accumulated precipitation (daily and monthly scale) were analyzed for a 5-year period covering from 1990 to 1994. Results have been compared with daily observational data series from 110 stations for temperature and 95 for precipitation Both daily and monthly average temperatures are generally well represented by the model. Conversely, daily precipitation results present larger deviations from observational data. However, noticeable accuracy is gained when comparing with monthly precipitation observations. There are some especially conflictive subregions where precipitation is scarcely captured, such as the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, mainly due to its extremely convective nature. Regarding parameterization schemes performance, every set provides very

  3. Constraints on spatially oscillating sub-mm forces from the Stanford Optically Levitated Microsphere Experiment data (United States)

    Antoniou, I.; Perivolaropoulos, L.


    A recent analysis by one of the authors [L. Perivolaropoulos, Phys. Rev. D 95, 084050 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084050] has indicated the presence of a 2 σ signal of spatially oscillating new force residuals in the torsion balance data of the Washington experiment. We extend that study and analyze the data of the Stanford Optically Levitated Microsphere Experiment (SOLME) [A. D. Rider et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 101101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.101101] (kindly provided by A. D. Rider et al.) searching for sub-mm spatially oscillating new force signals. We find a statistically significant oscillating signal for a force residual of the form F (z )=α cos (2/π λ z +c ) where z is the distance between the macroscopic interacting masses (levitated microsphere and cantilever). The best fit parameter values are α =(1.1 ±0.4 )×10-17N , λ =(35.2 ±0.6 ) μ m . Monte Carlo simulation of the SOLME data under the assumption of zero force residuals has indicated that the statistical significance of this signal is at about 2 σ level. The improvement of the χ2 fit compared to the null hypothesis (zero residual force) corresponds to Δ χ2=13.1 . There are indications that this previously unnoticed signal is indeed in the data but is most probably induced by a systematic effect caused by diffraction of non-Gaussian tails of the laser beam. Thus the amplitude of this detected signal can only be useful as an upper bound to the amplitude of new spatially oscillating forces on sub-mm scales. In the context of gravitational origin of the signal emerging from a fundamental modification of the Newtonian potential of the form Veff(r )=-G M/r (1 +αOcos (2/π λ r +θ ))≡VN(r )+Vosc(r ) , we evaluate the source integral of the oscillating macroscopically induced force. If the origin of the SOLME oscillating signal is systematic, the parameter αO is bounded as αOchameleon oscillating potentials etc.).

  4. Improving the iMM904 S. cerevisiae metabolic model using essentiality and synthetic lethality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the first eukaryotic organism for which a multi-compartment genome-scale metabolic model was constructed. Since then a sequence of improved metabolic reconstructions for yeast has been introduced. These metabolic models have been extensively used to elucidate the organizational principles of yeast metabolism and drive yeast strain engineering strategies for targeted overproductions. They have also served as a starting point and a benchmark for the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models for other eukaryotic organisms. In spite of the successive improvements in the details of the described metabolic processes, even the recent yeast model (i.e., iMM904 remains significantly less predictive than the latest E. coli model (i.e., iAF1260. This is manifested by its significantly lower specificity in predicting the outcome of grow/no grow experiments in comparison to the E. coli model. Results In this paper we make use of the automated GrowMatch procedure for restoring consistency with single gene deletion experiments in yeast and extend the procedure to make use of synthetic lethality data using the genome-scale model iMM904 as a basis. We identified and vetted using literature sources 120 distinct model modifications including various regulatory constraints for minimal and YP media. The incorporation of the suggested modifications led to a substantial increase in the fraction of correctly predicted lethal knockouts (i.e., specificity from 38.84% (87 out of 224 to 53.57% (120 out of 224 for the minimal medium and from 24.73% (45 out of 182 to 40.11% (73 out of 182 for the YP medium. Synthetic lethality predictions improved from 12.03% (16 out of 133 to 23.31% (31 out of 133 for the minimal medium and from 6.96% (8 out of 115 to 13.04% (15 out of 115 for the YP medium. Conclusions Overall, this study provides a roadmap for the computationally driven correction of multi-compartment genome

  5. Flexible ureterorenoscopy versus miniaturized PNL for solitary renal calculi of 10-30 mm size. (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Jessen, Jan Peter; Honeck, Patrick; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar


    The value of flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) and miniaturized PNL (mPNL) for larger renal calculi is under discussion. This non-randomized prospective study aimed to evaluate fURS and mPNL for solitary renal stones of 10-30 mm size. fURS was carried out in 21 patients with last generation 7.5F endoscopes. Ureteral access sheaths were used in 19 patients. For mPNL, an 18F modified Amplatz sheath with a 14F nephroscope were used (n = 25). The procedure was performed either tubeless with an antegrade stent or a nephrostomy. Outcome and complications of both procedures were assessed. Patients' demographics and stone sizes were comparable (18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 4 mm, P = 0.08). Patients in the fURS group had a higher mean BMI (31 vs. 27, P < 0.05). Total OR time was significantly longer for fURS (106 ± 51 vs. 59 ± 19 min., P < 0.001). More patients were stone-free after one single percutaneous treatment, while 2nd-stage treatments with fURS were common (total procedures 1.04 vs. 1.52, P < 0.001; immediate stone-free rate (SFR) 96% vs. 71.5%, P < 0.001). SFR after 4 weeks was 100% (mPNL) and 85.8% (fURS) (P < 0.01). Minor complications as classified by Clavien I or II occurred in 16 and 23.8%, mPNL and fURS, respectively, P = 0.13). No major complications (Clavien III-V) occured in both groups. Our series supports both the concept of either percutaneous or retrograde endoscopic treatment for renal calculi with both modalities offering excellent safety. However, while for fURS, a significantly higher rate of 2nd-stage procedures was necessary, and mPNL led to faster and higher SFR without increasing complication rate.

  6. Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Liu, Patrick; Roth, Gregory A


    Importance: Elevated systolic blood (SBP) pressure is a leading global health risk. Quantifying the levels of SBP is important to guide prevention policies and interventions. Objective: To estimate the association between SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg and SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher and the bur...

  7. Performance of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in mmWave wireless communications for 5G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcano, Andrea; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann


    Among the key technologies that have been identified as capacity boosters for fifth generation - 5G - mobile networks, are millimeter wave (mmWave) transmissions and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). The large amount of spectrum available at mmWave frequencies combined with a more effective...

  8. Rattaorienteerumise tiitlivõistluste järelkajad - maailmameistrivõistlused ja juunioride MM Portugalis / Margus Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Margus, 1978-


    Orienteerumine on portugallaste seas populaarne; Meie MM-koondise moodustamisest; Katsevõistlused ja teised MM-i eelsed rahvusvahelised stardid; Head treeningvõimalused- ratta-o teisipäevakud ja mägiratta kolmapäevakud; erialastest karditreeningutest; füüsilisest ettevalmistusest; Eel-laager

  9. MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: neuropathological, biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain. (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Suardi, Silvia; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Indaco, Antonio; Limido, Lucia; Vimercati, Chiara; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Langeveld, Jan; Terruzzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Antonio; Zerbi, Pietro; Fociani, Paolo; Bishop, Matthew T; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio


    In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: L1544 1.2 and 2mm emission maps (Chacon-Tanarro+, 2017) (United States)

    Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Pineda, J. E.; Harju, J.; Spaans, M.; Desert, F.-X.


    Millimeter observations of the pre-stellar core L1544 are presented. These observations were carried out at the IRAM 30m telescope, located at Pico Veleta (Spain) using the New IRAM KID Array (NIKA). The project number is 151-13. A region of 3°x3° was mapped using the Lissajous pattern at 1.2 and 2mm. The main beam widths are 12.5-arcsec at 1.2mm and 18.5 arcsec at 2mm. The KID array has a field-of-view is 1.8' at 1.2mm and 2.0' at 2mm. (2 data files).

  11. Channel Sounding System for MM-Wave Bands and Characterization of Indoor Propagation at 28 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbæk, Johannes; Ji, Yilin; Fan, Wei


    The aim of this work is to present a vector network analyzer (VNA) based channel sounding sys- tem capable of performing measurements in the range from 2 to 50 GHz. Further, this paper describes an indoor measurement campaign performed at 26 to 30 GHz. The sounding system is capable of receiving...

  12. Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Bai

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology that can provide anatomic, functional, and molecular information about biological tissue. Intravascular spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve the identification of atherosclerotic plaque composition, the detection of inflammation, and ultimately the risk stratification of atherosclerosis. In this study, a first-of-its-kind intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography (OR-PAT system with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter is developed, offering optical-diffraction limited transverse resolution as fine as 19.6 μm, ∼ 10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging. To offer complementary imaging information and depth, the system also acquires co-registered intravascular ultrasound images in parallel. Imaging of an iliac stent and a lipid phantom shows that the high resolution and contrast of OR-PAT can enable improved stent implantation guidance and lipid identification. In the future, these capabilities may ultimately improve the diagnosis and interventional treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are prone to cause thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke.

  13. Structure for an LHC 90 mm $Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupole magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Hafalia, Aurelio R; Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hannaford, C R; Higley, H; Lau, B; Lietzke, A F; Liggins, N; Mattafirri, S; McInturff, A D; Nyman, M A; Sabbi, G L; Scanlan, R M; Swanson, J


    A full-scale mechanical model of the LHC Nb/sub 3/Sn quadrupole magnet structure has been designed, built and tested. The structure will support a 90 mm bore, lm long magnet prototype as part of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The structure utilizes Bladder and Key Technology to control and transfer pre-stress from an outer aluminum shell to an inner coil. Axial aluminum rods take care of pre-stress at the ends-ensuring that the coil is fully constrained along all three axes. The outer aluminum shell and an inner "dummy coil" (aluminum tube) were extensively instrumented with strain gauges. The gauges were used to monitor and map the effectiveness of the stress relation between the loading structure and a "dummy" coil through varying mechanical load conditions-from bladder and key pre- stress at room temperature through cool-down. Test results of the stress distribution in the structure and the in dummy coil is reported and compared with expected results calculated with the structural analysis...

  14. Prospects for mm-wave aperture synthesis from spaceborne and aerial platforms (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew R.; Appleby, Roger


    Passive imaging using mm-waves offers very significant advantages in scientific and military surveillance. However, the relatively long wavelengths mean that for the resolutions that are sought, the input aperture of the imager needs to be quite large, typically in excess of one meter. Deployment of conventional dish antennas of these dimensions on aircraft and in Low Earth Orbit is highly problematic. The use of snapshot synthetic aperture interferometric radiometry (SAIR) offers an attractive route to integrating a two-dimensional antenna array into the structure of an aircraft so that the transverse dimensions of the antenna can be almost as large as the aircraft. We report here a study into the feasibility of deployment of a SAIR on unmanned airborne vehicles and the achievable performance parameters. The critical considerations are the achievement of acceptable sensitivity and angular resolution from a SAIR that does not require excessive complexity. It is shown that traditional approaches based on fully sampling the spatial frequencies in the scene are unable to simultaneously meet all of these criteria, but a that a SAIR based on thinned sampling of the spatial frequencies shows promise.

  15. QM/MM Study of the Conversion of Oxophlorin Into Verdoheme by Heme Oxygenase. (United States)

    Alavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Zahedi, Mansour; Safari, Nasser; Ryde, Ulf


    Heme oxygenase is an enzyme that degrades heme, thereby recycling iron in most organisms, including human. Pervious density functional theory (DFT) calculations have suggested that iron(ІІI) hydroxyheme, an intermediate generated in the first step of heme degradation by heme oxygenase, is converted to iron(ІІІ) superoxo oxophlorin in the presence of dioxygen. In this paper, we have studied the detailed mechanism of conversion of iron(ІІІ) superoxo oxophlorin to verdoheme by using combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. The calculations employed the B3LYP method and the def2-QZVP basis set, considering dispersion effects with the DFT-D3 approach, obtaining accurate energies with large QM regions of almost 1000 atoms. The reaction was found to be exothermic by -35 kcal/mol, with a rate-determining barrier of 19 kcal/mol in the doublet state. The protein environment significantly affects the reaction by decreasing the reaction and activation energies and changing the structures by providing strategic hydrogen bonds.

  16. Production optimization of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 and its immobilization on alginate beads. (United States)

    Awad, Ghada E A; Amer, Hassan; El-Gammal, Eman W; Helmy, Wafaa A; Esawy, Mona A; Elnashar, Magdy M M


    A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs, was employed to enhance the production of invertase by Lactobacillus brevis Mm-6 isolated from breast milk. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the bioprocess parameters that significantly influence the invertase production. The second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of variables have the highest positive significant effect on the invertase production. A maximal enzyme activity of 1399U/ml was more than five folds the activity obtained using the basal medium. Invertase was immobilized onto grafted alginate beads to improve the enzyme's stability. Immobilization process increased the operational temperature from 30 to 60°C compared to the free enzyme. The reusability test proved the durability of the grafted alginate beads for 15 cycles with retention of 100% of the immobilized enzyme activity to be more convenient for industrial uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop. (United States)

    Gurney, Jud W


    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  18. A NMR bioreactor setup for 5 mm high-resolution probes at 800 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramm, Paul [Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Bogdahn, Ulrich [Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Aigner, Ludwig [Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)


    NMR spectroscopy (MRS) of cells and tissues provides a quantitative insight into cellular composition and metabolism. A common approach is MRS of cell extracts, which can be used to distinguish e.g. different neural cell types. MRS of living cells more closely resembles the in vivo situation, but is restricted due to unphysiological conditions in a NMR tube. Therefore, we are realizing a cell perfusion setup for a Bruker Avance 800 MHz spectrometer equipped with a 5 mm cryo probe. Immobilized cells can then be perfused with variably composed media saturated with a tunable gas mixture of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Highly-resolved {sup 1}H-NMR spectra (FWHM<3 Hz) can be acquired with a temporal resolution <5 min. Based on our former investigations on stem cell-specific biomarkers of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), MRS of NPCs under controllable cell culture conditions will be the next step towards a metabolic profiling and biomarker screening of neurogenesis, leading to both a better understanding of stem cell metabolism and to a possible detection of neurogenesis in humans.

  19. Phase-locked Josephson flux flow local oscillator for sub-mm integrated receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mygind, J; Dmitriev, P N; Ermakov, A B; Koshelets, V P; Shitov, S V; Sobolev, A S; Torgashin, M Y; Khodos, V V; Vaks, V L; Wesselius, P R


    The Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) has proven to be one of the best on-chip local oscillators for heterodyne detection in integrated sub-mm receivers based on SIS mixers. Nb-AlO sub x -Nb FFOs have been successfully tested from about 120 to 700 GHz (gap frequency of Nb) providing enough power to pump an SIS mixer (about 1 mu W at 450 GHz). Both the frequency and the power of the FFO can be dc-tuned. Extensive measurements of the dependence of the free-running FFO linewidth on the differential resistances associated with both the bias current and the control-line current (applied magnetic field) have been performed. The FFO line is Lorentzian both in the resonant regime, on Fiske steps (FSs), and on the flux flow step (FFS). This indicates that internal wide-band noise is dominant. A phenomenological noise model can account for the FFO linewidth dependence on experimental parameters. The narrow free-running FFO linewidth achieved, in combination with the construction of a wide-band phase-locked loop (PLL...

  20. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader


    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  1. Measurement of 9 mm cartridge case external temperatures and its forensic application. (United States)

    Gashi, B; Edwards, M R; Sermon, P A; Courtney, L; Harrison, D; Xu, Y


    The external temperature of the cartridge cases of 9 mm parabellum ammunition during the firing sequence was measured by a series of methods. Using a thermal imaging camera was the most successful method and showed that aluminium alloy cases reached higher temperatures than did brass cases. Peak temperatures for brass cases were 336 K at the case mouth after 1.2 ms and 331 K at the case base after 2 ms. Corresponding temperatures for aluminium alloy cases were 363 K at the mouth after 0.8 ms and 372 K at the base after 1.2 ms. These times at temperature would not be sufficient to destroy any DNA residues left on the case. Measurement of the DNA of fired cartridges showed that DNA deposited on the cartridge case before firing was not affected by the temperatures reached during the firing sequence. Estimates of temperatures to be found in pure aluminium and mild steel cases were made, these indicating that pure aluminium would give higher temperatures than aluminium alloy and steel a lower temperature than for brass. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of uninterruptedly widing human solidarity. The final stage of social and political development should be the creation of national and federal unions, which in their turn would unify in international union. The union built on the principles of democracy and observance of international right standards was destined not only to keep and to ensure the common peace, but also to promote the development of international trade and industry. Kovalevsky played important role in building the peace-making movement in Russia by supporting it with his high scientific and moral authority. In particular, he headed the St. Petersburg’s peace society, established in 1909. Besides, there were a lot of contradictions in his peaceful views. Being the patriot and supporter of the state, the scientist was very far from peace when Russian national interests were taken ino account. This contradiction was clearly revealed during Balkan’s conflict (1912-1913 and the First World War.

  3. Combined QM/MM Study of Thyroid and Steroid Hormone Analogue Interactions with v3 Integrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Freindorf


    Full Text Available Recent biochemical studies have identified a cell surface receptor for thyroid and steroid hormones that bind near the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD recognition site on the heterodimeric αvβ3 integrin. To further characterize the intermolecular interactions for a series of hormone analogues, combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM methods were used to calculate their interaction energies. All calculations were performed in the presence of either calcium (Ca2+ or magnesium (Mg2+ ions. These data reveal that 3,5′-triiodothyronine (T3 and 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyroacetic acid (T4ac bound in two different modes, occupying two alternate sites, one of which is along the Arg side chain of the RGD cyclic peptide site. These orientations differ from those of the other ligands whose alternate binding modes placed the ligands deeper within the RGD binding pocket. These observations are consistent with biological data that indicate the presence of two discrete binding sites that control distinct downstream signal transduction pathways for T3.

  4. Anatomical and biochemical changes during adventitious rooting of apple rootstocks MM 106 cultured in vitro. (United States)

    Naija, Sélima; Elloumi, Nadhra; Jbir, Najoua; Ammar, Saida; Kevers, Claire


    Adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Malus rootstocks MM106 was studied as regards their histological and biochemical aspects. Microcuttings from shoots raised in Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium were transferred into a rooting medium containing IBA in the dark, then fixed 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after. Some cambial zone and adjacent phloem cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed at day 3. Meristemoids became individualized, consisting of densely staining cells (with enlarged nucleoli) formed outside the xylem by day 5. Identifiable root primordia with a conical shape and several cell layers were present at day 7. Roots with organized tissue system emerged from the stem 10 days after the root induction treatment. From these histological observations, it can be established that the rooting induction stage ended before day 3. The initiation stage, with the first histological modifications to the formation of meristemoids, would correspond to the transient increase of our biochemical marker (peroxidase activity) until day 5. The best rooting percentage obtained with cultures in the presence of auxin during 5 days confirms this hypothesis. The expression of rooting can then take place.

  5. Study of tropical cyclone "Fanoos" using MM5 model – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramalingeswara Rao


    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones are one of the most intense weather hazards over east coast of India and create a lot of devastation through gale winds and torrential floods while they cross the coast. So an attempt is made in this study to simulate track and intensity of tropical cyclone "Fanoos", which is formed over the Bay of Bengal during 5–10 December 2005 by using mesoscale model MM5. The simulated results are compared with the observed results of India Meteorological Department (IMD; results show that the cumulus parameterization scheme, Kain-Fritsch (KF is more accurately simulated both in track and intensity than the other Betts-Miller (BM and Grell Schemes. The reason for better performance of KF-1 scheme may be due to inclusion of updrafts and downdrafts. The model could predict the minimum Central Sea Level Pressure (CSLP as 983 hPa as compared to the IMD reports of 984 hPa and the wind speed is simulated at maximum 63 m/s compared to the IMD estimates of 65 m/s. Secondly "Fanoos" development from the lagrangian stand point in terms of vertical distribution of Potential Vorticity (PV is also carried out around cyclone centre.

  6. Toxicity of diesel water accommodated fraction toward microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella sp. MM3. (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi


    Diesel is a commonly used fuel and a key pollutant on water surface through leaks and accidental spills, thus creating risk directly to planktons as well as other aquatic organisms. We assessed the toxicty of diesel and its water accommodated fraction (WAF) towards two microalgal species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella sp. MM3. The toxicity criteria included were: chlorophyll a content as a growth parameter and induction of enzyme activities linked to oxidative stress. Increase in concentrations of diesel or its WAF significantly increased toxicity towards growth, measured in terms of chlorophyll a content in both the algae. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) in response to addition of diesel or diesel WAF to the microalgal cultures were dose-dependent. Diesel WAF was more toxic than diesel itself, suggesting that use of WAF may be more relevant for environmental risk assessment of diesel. The overall response of the antioxidant enzymes to toxicants' stress followed the order: POX≥SOD>CAT. The present study clearly demonstrated the use of SOD, POX and CAT as suitable biomarkers for assessing diesel pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. III/V nano ridge structures for optical applications on patterned 300 mm silicon substrate (United States)

    Kunert, B.; Guo, W.; Mols, Y.; Tian, B.; Wang, Z.; Shi, Y.; Van Thourhout, D.; Pantouvaki, M.; Van Campenhout, J.; Langer, R.; Barla, K.


    We report on an integration approach of III/V nano ridges on patterned silicon (Si) wafers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Trenches of different widths (≤500 nm) were processed in a silicon oxide (SiO2) layer on top of a 300 mm (001) Si substrate. The MOVPE growth conditions were chosen in a way to guarantee an efficient defect trapping within narrow trenches and to form a box shaped ridge with increased III/V volume when growing out of the trench. Compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells with 19% indium were deposited on top of the fully relaxed GaAs ridges as an active material for optical applications. Transmission electron microcopy investigation shows that very flat quantum well (QW) interfaces were realized. A clear defect trapping inside the trenches is observed whereas the ridge material is free of threading dislocations with only a very low density of planar defects. Pronounced QW photoluminescence (PL) is detected from different ridge sizes at room temperature. The potential of these III/V nano ridges for laser integration on Si substrates is emphasized by the achieved ridge volume which could enable wave guidance and by the high crystal quality in line with the distinct PL.

  8. The Power of Simultaneous Multi-frequency Observations for mm-VLBI: Beyond Frequency Phase Transfer (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-Yao; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Lee, Sang Sung; Jung, Taehyun; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, María; Byun, Do-Young; Hodgson, Jeffrey; Kang, Sincheol; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Wook; Kino, Motoki; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Park, Jong-Ho; Trippe, Sascha; Wajima, Kiyoaki


    Atmospheric propagation effects at millimeter wavelengths can significantly alter the phases of radio signals and reduce the coherence time, putting tight constraints on high-frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. In previous works, it has been shown that non-dispersive (e.g., tropospheric) effects can be calibrated with the frequency phase transfer (FPT) technique. The coherence time can thus be significantly extended. Ionospheric effects, which can still be significant, remain however uncalibrated after FPT as well as the instrumental effects. In this work, we implement a further phase transfer between two FPT residuals (i.e., so-called FPT-square) to calibrate the ionospheric effects based on their frequency dependence. We show that after FPT-square, the coherence time at 3 mm can be further extended beyond 8 hr and the residual phase errors can be sufficiently canceled by applying the calibration of another source, which can have a large angular separation from the target (> 20^\\circ ) and significant temporal gaps. Calibrations for all-sky distributed sources with a few calibrators are also possible after FPT-square. One of the strengths and uniqueness of this calibration strategy is the suitability for high-frequency all-sky survey observations including very weak sources. We discuss the introduction of a pulse calibration system in the future to calibrate the remaining instrumental effects, allowing the possibility of imaging the source structure at high frequencies with FPT-square, where all phases are fully calibrated without involving any additional sources.

  9. Control wafer bow of InGaP on 200 mm Si by strain engineering (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Bao, Shuyu; Made, Riko I.; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Cong; Eng Kian Lee, Kenneth; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Michel, Jurgen


    When epitaxially growing III–V compound semiconductors on Si substrates the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between III–V and Si causes stress and wafer bow. The wafer bow is deleterious for some wafer-scale processing especially when the wafer size is large. Strain engineering was applied in the epitaxy of InGaP films on 200 mm silicon wafers having high quality germanium buffers. By applying compressive strain in the InGaP films to compensate the tensile strain induced by CTE mismatch, wafer bow was decreased from about 100 μm to less than 50 μm. X-ray diffraction studies show a clear trend between the decrease of wafer bow and the compensation of CTE mismatch induced tensile strain in the InGaP layers. In addition, the anisotropic strain relaxation in InGaP films resulted in anisotropic wafer bow along two perpendicular (110) directions. Etch pit density and plane-view transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that threading dislocation densities did not change significantly due to the lattice-mismatch applied in the InGaP films. This study shows that strain engineering is an effective method to control wafer bow when growing III–V semiconductors on large size Si substrates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has revolutionized automotive industries since early 1970s for its mechanical assemblies. To date one mechanical assembly out five is welded using spot welding technology in various industries and stainless steel became very popular among common materials. As such this research paper analyses the spot weld growth on 304 austenitic stainless steels with 2mm sample sheets. The growth of a spot weld is primarily determined by its parameters such as current, weld time, electrode tip and force. However other factors such as electrode deformations, corrosions, dissimilar materials and material properties are also affect the weld growth. This paper is intended to analyze only the effects of nuggets growth due to the current and weld time increment with constant force and unchanged electrode tips. A JPC 75kVA spot welder was used to accomplish it and the welded samples were undergone tensile test, hardness test and metallurgical test to characterize the formation of weld nuggets.

  11. Investigational agent MLN9708/2238 targets tumor-suppressor miR33b in MM cells (United States)

    Tian, Ze; Zhao, Jian-jun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Amin, Samir B.; Hu, Yiguo; Berger, Allison J.; Richardson, Paul


    miRs play a critical role in tumor pathogenesis as either oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. However, the role of miRs and their regulation in response to proteasome inhibitors in multiple myeloma (MM) is unclear. In the current study, miR profiling in proteasome inhibitor MLN2238-treated MM.1S MM cells shows up-regulation of miR33b. Mechanistic studies indicate that the induction of miR33b is predominantly via transcriptional regulation. Examination of miR33b in patient MM cells showed a constitutively low expression. Overexpression of miR33b decreased MM cell viability, migration, colony formation, and increased apoptosis and sensitivity of MM cells to MLN2238 treatment. In addition, overexpression of miR33b or MLN2238 exposure negatively regulated oncogene PIM-1 and blocked PIM-1 wild-type, but not PIM-1 mutant, luciferase activity. Moreover, PIM-1 overexpression led to significant abrogation of miR33b- or MLN2238-induced cell death. SGI-1776, a biochemical inhibitor of PIM-1, triggered apoptosis in MM. Finally, overexpression of miR33b inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in both subcutaneous and disseminated human MM xenograft models. Our results show that miR33b is a tumor suppressor that plays a role during MLN2238-induced apoptotic signaling in MM cells, and these data provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies targeting miR33b in MM. PMID:22983447

  12. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.


    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  13. All-Russian conference on legal and forensic psychology dedicated to the memory of M.M. Kochenov-2016 in MSUPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozortseva E.G.


    Full Text Available In November 2016 the traditional All-Russian conference on legal and forensic psychology dedicated to the memory of the prominent Russian psychologist M.M. Kochenov took place. In the article a brief description of the history of the biennial conference is given, as well as problems of the current scientific event under the title “Psychology and Law in the modern Russia”, which united Russian and foreign specialists. A range of topics of the articles presented at the conference and being published in the current journal issue is introduced.

  14. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)


    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  15. Contribution of thin slice (1 mm) oblique coronal proton density-weighted MR images for assessment of anteromedial and posterolateral bundle damage in anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokalp, Gokhan, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Demirag, Burak, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Nas, Omer Fatih, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Aydemir, Mehmet Fatih, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedy, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Yazici, Zeynep, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of using additional oblique coronal 1 mm proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging of the knee for detection and grading anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), anteromedial bundle (AMB) and posterolateral bundle (PLB) injuries. Materials and methods: We prospectively assessed preoperative MR images of 50 patients (36 men, 14 women; age range, 18–62 years). First, we compared the diagnostic performance of routine sagittal (3 mm) and additional oblique coronal images (1 mm) for ACL tears. Then, we compared the tear types (AMB or PLB) and grade presumed from oblique coronal MR imaging with arthroscopy. Results: Arthroscopy revealed ACL tear in 24 (48%) patients. There was significant difference between sagittal images and arthroscopy results for ACL tear recognition (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected for oblique coronal images when compared with arthroscopy results (p = 0.180). Sensitivity and specificity values for ACL tear diagnosis were 37.04% and 95.65% for sagittal images; 74.07% and 91.30% for oblique coronal images. There was no significant difference between arthroscopy and oblique coronal MR images in grading AMB and PLB injuries (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of thin slice oblique coronal images to conventional sequences could better contribute to better verifying the presence of ACL tear and in determining its grade.

  16. Fatigue propagation behaviour of short cracks (1-2 mm) in steels (United States)


    ESDU 93033 presents data that compare the behavior of long and short cracks which are longer than the typical microstructural dimension but are not substantially larger than the radius of the plastic zone at the crack tip. Experimental data extracted from the literature for crack growth rate under constant amplitude loading are presented graphically against stress intensity factor range for both long and short cracks at various stress ratios in air for AISI 4340, HY 130, AISI 1045, SAE 0030 (UNS J 03010), and AISI 1020. In addition, there are data obtained in vacuum for E460, and in salt solution and sea water for HY 130. Data in air for E460, A508, QIN, and 304 are for only one stress ratio (but include the effect of sea water for QIN). Data for AISI 316 are for short cracks only in air at two stress ratios and for EN5 are for short and long cracks in sea water and one stress ratio only. No consistent relationship between yield strength and either short or long crack growth behavior was found, but where a short crack effect was evident the threshold value of stress intensity factor range was lower than for long cracks, and the crack growth rate at low values of stress intensity factor range was greater.

  17. QM/MM calculations suggest a novel intermediate following the proton abstraction catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ferrer, Silvia; Moliner, Vicent; Kohen, Amnon


    The cleavage of covalent C-H bonds is one of the most energetically demanding, yet biologically essential, chemical transformations. Two C-H bond cleavages are involved in the reaction catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TSase), which provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate (i.e. the DNA base T) for most organisms. Our QM/MM free energy calculations show that the C-H→O proton transfer has three transition states that are energetically similar but structurally diverse. These characteristics are different from our previous calculation results on the C-H→C hydride transfer, providing an explanation for differences in temperature dependences of KIEs on these two C-H bond activation steps. The calculations also suggest that the traditionally-proposed covalent bond between the protein and substrate (the C6-S bond) is very labile during the multi-step catalytic reaction. Collective protein motions not only assist cleavage of the C6-S bond to stabilize the transition state of the proton transfer step, but also rearrange the H-bond network at the end of this step to prepare the active site for subsequent chemical steps. These computational results illustrate functionalities of specific protein residues that reconcile many previous experimental observations, and provide guidance for future experiments to examine the proposed mechanisms. The synchronized conformational changes in the protein and ligands observed in our simulations demonstrate participation of protein motions in the reaction coordinate of enzymatic reactions. Our computational findings suggest the existence of new reaction intermediates not covalently bound to TSase, which may lead to a new class of drugs targeting DNA biosynthesis. PMID:23464672

  18. Modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launching system for thermonuclear fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, Christos, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 136 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannopoulos, Iordanis K.; Vasileiadou, Soultana; Kakogiannos, Ioannis D.; Kalligeropoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Automation, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 122 44 Piraeus (Greece)


    Highlights: • Open-loop modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launcher. • Simulations of the experiment without employing the real (hardware) system. • Launcher mirror dynamics correspond to a second-order weakly-nonlinear system. • Closed-loop control design in terms of cascade PIDs achieves required performance. - Abstract: Controlled thermonuclear fusion via magnetic confinement, still in experimental stage, has the potential to become a viable and environment-friendly solution to the energy problem, especially for the high-power needs of modern industry. In order to optimize the operation of devices based on the tokamak principle, automatic control systems are envisaged to fulfill the requirements for the magnetic equilibrium and plasma stability, with copper coils, neutral gas injectors and microwave sources used as actuators. In present-day experiments, the implemented control loops are simple and practical, however in future devices like ITER (presently under construction) more sophisticated control design will be required, based on realistic closed-loop simulations with efficient computational tools and real-time diagnosing. For magnetohydrodynamic instability control, the system should include physics/engineering models for the plasma dynamics, the wave actuation and the diagnostic sensors, as well as controllers based on classical or modern principles. In this work, we present a model for a specific design of a controlled electromechanical millimeter-wave launcher, which executes the major part of the wave actuation, and perform numerical simulations of its open-loop dynamics and closed-loop control for scenarios relevant to tearing mode stabilization in medium-sized tokamaks.

  19. Race, ethnicity, and sex affect risk for polyps >9 mm in average-risk individuals. (United States)

    Lieberman, David A; Williams, J Lucas; Holub, Jennifer L; Morris, Cynthia D; Logan, Judith R; Eisen, Glenn M; Carney, Patricia


    Colorectal cancer risk differs based on patient demographics. We aimed to measure the prevalence of significant colorectal polyps in average-risk individuals and to determine differences based on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. In a prospective study, colonoscopy data were collected, using an endoscopic report generator, from 327,785 average-risk adults who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 84 gastrointestinal practice sites from 2000 to 2011. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The primary outcome was the presence of suspected malignancy or large polyp(s) >9 mm. The benchmark risk for age to initiate screening was based on white men, 50-54 years old. Risk of large polyps and tumors increased progressively in men and women with age. Women had lower risks than men in every age group, regardless of race. Blacks had higher risk than whites from ages 50 through 65 years and Hispanics had lower risk than whites from ages 50 through 80 years. The prevalence of large polyps was 6.2% in white men 50-54 years old. The risk was similar among the groups of white women 65-69 years old, black women 55-59 years old, black men 50-54 years old, Hispanic women 70-74 years old, and Hispanic men 55-59 years old. The risk of proximal large polyps increased with age, female sex, and black race. There are differences in the prevalence and location of large polyps and tumors in average-risk individuals based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity. These findings could be used to select ages at which specific groups should begin colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing cold dark matter subhaloes with simulated ALMA observations of macrolensed sub-mm galaxies (United States)

    Asadi, Saghar; Zackrisson, Erik; Freeland, Emily


    If the dark matter haloes of galaxies contain large numbers of subhaloes as predicted by the Λ cold dark matter model, these subhaloes are expected to appear in strong galaxy-galaxy lens systems as small-scale perturbations in individual images. We simulate observations of multiply lensed sub-mm galaxies at z ˜ 2 as a probe of the dark matter halo of a lens galaxy at z ˜ 0.5. We present detection limits for dark substructures based on a visibility plane analysis of simulated Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data in bands 7, 8 and 9. We explore two effects: local surface brightness anomalies on angular scales similar to the Einstein radius and the astrometric shift of macroimages. This improves the sensitivity of our lens modelling to the mass of the lens perturber. We investigate the sensitivity of the detection of low-mass subhaloes to the projected position of the subhalo on the image plane as well as the source structure and inner density profile of the lens. We demonstrate that, using the most extended ALMA configuration, pseudo-Jaffe subhaloes can be detected with 99 per cent confidence down to M = 107 M⊙. We show how the detection threshold for the three ALMA bands depends on the projected position of the subhalo with respect to the lensed images and conclude that, despite the highest nominal angular resolution, band 9 provides the poorest sensitivity due to observational noise. All simulations use the ALMA Full ops most extended ALMA configuration setup in casa.