Sample records for range 1y 7mo-3y

  1. La región intergénica del gen H2A apoya las subpoblaciones KP1(- y KP1(+ de Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Alejandro Suárez


    Conclusiones. Los análisis filogenéticos basados en la región intergénica de los genes h2a de las cepas estudiadas apoyan la división de T. rangeli en las subpoblaciones KP1(- y KP1(+. Sin embargo, se requiere estudiar un mayor número de cepas para confirmar estos hallazgos.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLPB-1Y6PB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)




    N. Alonso; R. García Iglesias; L. Martín Rodríguez; J.A. Minguéz Pargas; I. Gonzalez Blanco; A. San Miguel; F.J. Martín Gil


    RESUMENEn los últimos años, se realizaron numerosos estudios para establecer la predisposición hereditaria al cáncer y las alteraciones mutacionales a nivel de genes susceptibles de originar cáncer de mama y ovario. En 1994 se identificaron los genes BRCA1 (Breast Cancer Gene 1) y BRCA2 (Breast Cancer Gene 2) como susceptibles de cáncer de mama y ovario. En la actualidad se sabe que las mutaciones en BRCA1 y BRCA2 están lejos de explicar la totalidad de los casos de cáncer de mama y/o ovario,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alonso


    Full Text Available RESUMENEn los últimos años, se realizaron numerosos estudios para establecer la predisposición hereditaria al cáncer y las alteraciones mutacionales a nivel de genes susceptibles de originar cáncer de mama y ovario. En 1994 se identificaron los genes BRCA1 (Breast Cancer Gene 1 y BRCA2 (Breast Cancer Gene 2 como susceptibles de cáncer de mama y ovario. En la actualidad se sabe que las mutaciones en BRCA1 y BRCA2 están lejos de explicar la totalidad de los casos de cáncer de mama y/o ovario, y a pesar de que se postulan alteraciones mutacionales en otros genes como CHEK2, TP53 y PTEN, el BRCA1 y BRCA2, siguen teniendo su importancia y utilidad en la valoración del riesgo de predisposición hereditaria. Aunque las cifras son variables según los distintos estudios y autores, se trata en cualquier caso de porcentajes importantes. Entre el 15 y el 85% de las mujeres portadoras de mutación BRCA 1 o BRCA 2 tienen riesgo de desarrollar un cáncer de mama y entre un 10 y 60% de desarrollar un cáncer de ovario. ABSTRACT:In the last years, numerous studies were made to establish the hereditary predisposition to the cancer and the mutationals alterations at level of genes susceptible to originate breast and ovarian cancers. In 1994 genes BRCA1 (Breast Cancer Gene 1 and BRCA2 were identified (Breast Cancer Gene 2 as susceptible of both of breast and ovarian cancers. At the present time, it is knows that the mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are far from explaining the totality of the cases of breast cancer and/or ovary, and although mutationals alterations in other genes like CHEK2, TP53 and PTEN, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 are postulated, they continue having his importance and utility in the valuation of the risk of hereditary predisposition. Correlations between both BRCA1 and BRCA2 levels with tumour grade metastasis and prognostic accuracy. Between 15 and 85% of the carrying women of mutation BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 have risk of developing a cancer of breast

  5. First Principles and Monte Carlo Calculations of Structural and Magnetic Properties of FexNi2-xMn1+yAl1-y Heusler Alloys

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    Zagrebin Mikhail


    Full Text Available The composition dependences of crystal lattice parameters, bulk moduli, magnetic moments, magnetic exchange parameters, and Curie temperatures in FexNi2-xMn1+yAl1-y (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1.8; 0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.6 Heusler alloys are investigated with the help of first principles and Monte Carlo calculations. It is shown that equilibrium lattice parameters and MnY-MnZ magnetic exchange interactions increase with increasing Fe content (x. A crossover from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interaction between nearest neighbors MnY and MnZ atoms was observed in compositions with x ≥ 1.4 and 0.2 ≤ y ≤ 0.6. Such magnetic competitive behavior points to a complex magnetic structure in FexNi2-xMn1+yAl1-y. Calculated values of lattice parameters, magnetic moments, and Curie temperatures are in a good agreement with other theoretical results and available experimental data.

  6. Regulación del uniportador de calcio mitocondrial por MICU1 y MICU2


    Matesanz Isabel, Jessica


    La captación de calcio mitocondrial esta regulada por diferentes proteínas entre las que se encuentran las formadoras del complejo del uniportador de calcio mitocondrial, MCU, MICU1 y MICU2. MCU es la proteína formadora del poro del canal mientras que MICU1 y MICU2 son proteínas reguladoras. En esta tesis se ha estudiado el papel específico de estas dos proteínas reguladoras mediante la generación de clones estables con estas proteínas silenciadas. Estos clones han sido utilizados para estudi...

  7. Intrinsic superconducting transport properties of ultra-thin Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 microbridges (United States)

    Sun, HanCong; Lv, YangYang; Lu, DaChuan; Yang, ZhiBao; Zhou, XianJing; Hao, LuYao; Xing, XiangZhuo; Zou, Wei; Li, Jun; Shi, ZhiXiang; Xu, WeiWei; Wang, HuaBing; Wu, PeiHeng


    We investigated the superconducting properties of Fe1+ y Te0.6Se0.4 single-crystalline microbridges with a width of 4 μm and thicknesses ranging from 20.8 to 136.2 nm. The temperature-dependent in-plane resistance of the bridges exhibited a type of metal-insulator transition in the normal state. The critical current density ( J c) of the microbridge with a thickness of 136.2 nm was 82.3 kA/cm2 at 3K and reached 105 kA/cm2 after extrapolation to T = 0 K. The current versus voltage characteristics of the microbridges showed a Josephson-like behavior with an obvious hysteresis. These results demonstrate the potential application of ultra-thin Fe-based microbridges in superconducting electronic devices such as bolometric detectors.

  8. Electrical properties of the LaLi y Co1 - y O3 - δ (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.10) oxides (United States)

    Vecherskii, S. I.; Konopel'ko, M. A.; Batalov, N. N.; Antonov, B. D.; Reznitskikh, O. G.; Yaroslavtseva, T. V.


    The effect of the Li ion concentration on the phase composition, the electrical conductivity, and the thermoelectric power of the LaLi y Co1- y O3-δ (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.1) oxides synthesized by cocrystallization has been studied. It is found that the region of the perovskite-like solid solution LaLi y Co1- y O3-δ is no higher than y = 0.037. In the temperature range 300-1020 K, lithium alloying leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity and a decrease in the positive thermoelectric power of the single-phase samples compared to LaCoO3-δ. The results are discussed using the density of states model proposed by Senarus Rodriguez and Goodenough for LaCoO3-δ and La1- x Sr x CoO3-δ and using the Mott theory of noncrystalline substances.

  9. Field-Induced Magnetostructural Transitions in Antiferromagnetic Fe1+ y Te1- x S x (United States)

    Tokunaga, M.; Kihara, T.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Takano, Y.


    Transport and structural properties of Fe1+ y Te1- x S x were studied in pulsed magnetic fields. Application of high magnetic fields induces first order transitions showing positive magnetoresistance effects in the antiferromagnetic phase. Polarizing microscope images taken at high magnetic fields revealed the concomitant melting of the orbital order. These results indicate the importance of crossed coupling between spin and lattice or orbital degrees of freedom in this compound.

  10. In vitro corrosion of Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy

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    Rongchang Zeng


    Full Text Available The influence of the microstructure on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy was investigated using OM, SEM, XRD, EPMA, EDS, tensile tests and corrosion measurements. The results demonstrated that the microstructure of the Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy was characterized by α-Mg substrate and intermetallic compounds Mg2Ca and Mg24Y5. Most of the fine Mg2Ca particles for the as-cast alloy were distributed along the grain boundaries, while for the as-extruded along the extrusion direction. The Mg24Y5 particles with a larger size than the Mg2Ca particles were positioned inside the grains. The mechanical properties of Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy were improved by the grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Corrosion pits initiated at the α-Mg matrix neighboring the Mg2Ca particles and subsequently the alloy exhibited general corrosion and filiform corrosion as the corrosion product layer of Mg(OH2 and MgCO3 became compact and thick.

  11. Growth and Characterization of High-Quality, Relaxed In y Ga1- y N Templates for Optoelectronic Applications (United States)

    Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bharrat, D.; Liu, Z.; El-Masry, N. A.; Bedair, S. M.


    Thick, high-quality InGaN layers can be used as templates for quantum well strain reduction in light-emitting diodes and as optical absorption layers in solar cell structures. Current InGaN growth technology, however, is primarily limited by V-pit formation and non-uniform indium composition. We report the growth and characterization of thick, strain-relaxed In y Ga1 - y N layers, with 0.08 ≤ y ≤ 0.11, by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using the semibulk approach, which consists in periodic insertion of 2-nm GaN interlayers into the bulk In y Ga1 - y N structure; these are then spike-annealed at 1000°C. Photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron and atomic force microscopy revealed that the semibulk In y Ga1 - y N had optical and electrical properties superior to those of conventional bulk In y Ga1 - y N grown at the same temperature. Homogeneous indium content and substantial reduction of V-pit density were observed for the semibulk In y Ga1 - y N films, even when grown above the critical layer thickness. Double-crystal x-ray diffraction rocking curves also revealed a one order of magnitude reduction of screw dislocation density in the semibulk In y Ga1 - y N film compared with the bulk In y Ga1 - y N film.

  12. Electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of BaxSr1 - xCoyFe1 - yO3 - dBaxSr1?xCoyFe1?yO3? perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yáng, Z.; Harvey, A.S.; Infortuna, A.; Schoonman, J.; Gauckler, L.J.


    Bulk BaxSr1 - xCoyFe1 - yO3 - dBaxSr1?xCoyFe1?yO3? compositions (BSCF) were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The electrical conductivity of ceramic bars was measured using a dc four-probe method as a function of temperature in air up to 970 °C. All compositions showed thermally

  13. Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors Pb1-yFeyTe (United States)

    Skipetrov, E. P.; Solovev, A. A.; Knotko, A. V.; Slynko, V. E.


    The phase and elemental composition and magnetic properties (B ≤ 7.5 T, 2.0 K ≤ T ≤ 70 K) of Pb1-yFeyTe alloys were studied under varied impurity concentration along the Bridgman-grown single-crystal ingot. The distribution of iron impurity along the length of the ingot in the main phase and the composition of microscopic inclusions of the second phase were determined. It was established that the magnetization of the samples contains several contributions: the paramagnetic contribution of impurity ions, crystal lattice diamagnetism, as well as the contributions of free charge carriers, charge carriers in the impurity band, clusters of iron ions, and the oscillating contribution of the de Haas-van Alphen effect. These contributions were systematically separated. Using an approximation for the magnetic field and temperature dependences of the impurity-ion contribution by a sum of two terms based on the modified Brillouin functions, we determined the variation of the concentration of iron ions in two different charge states along the ingot. It was shown that the charge carrier concentrations obtained from the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations are in satisfactory agreement with the Hall concentrations, indicating a weak effect of the inclusions of the second phase and magnetic clusters on homogeneity and physical properties of the main phase in Pb1-yFeyTe alloys.

  14. Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2

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    López-Moreno Héctor Samuel


    Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus, respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1.

  15. Structural properties of ZnSy Se1-yZnSe/GaAs (001) heterostructures grown by photoassisted metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (United States)

    Zhang, X. G.; Kalisetty, S.; Robinson, J.; Zhao, G.; Parent, D. W.; Ayers, J. E.; Jain, F. C.


    ZnSySe1-yZnSe/GaAs (001) heterostructures have been grown by photoassisted metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, using the sources dimethylzinc, dimethylselenium, diethylsulfur, and irradiation by a Hg arc lamp. The solid phase composition vs gas phase composition characteristics have been determined for ZnSyySe1-y grown with different mole fractions of dimethylselenium and different temperatures. Although the growth is not mass-transport controlled with respect to the column VI precursors, the solid phase composition vs gas phase composition characteristics are sufficiently gradual so that good compositional control and lattice matching to GaAs substrates can be readily achieved by photoassisted growth in the temperature range 360°C ≤ T ≤ 400°C. ZnSe/GaAs (001) single heterostructures were grown by a two-step process with ZnSe thicknesses in the range from 54 nm to 776 nm. Based on 004 x-ray rocking curve full width at half maximums (FWHMs), we have determined that the critical layer thickness is hc ≤200 nm. Using the classical method involving strain, lattice relaxation is undetectable in layers thinner than 270 nm for the growth conditions used here. Therefore, the rocking curve FWHM is a more sensitive indicator of lattice relaxation than the residual strain. For ZnSySe1-y layers grown on ZnSe buffers at 400°C, the measured dislocation density-thickness product Dh increases monotonically with the room temperature mismatch. Lower values of the Dh product are obtained for epitaxy on 135 nm buffers compared to the case of 270 nm buffers. This difference is due to the fact that the 135 nm ZnSe buffers are pseudomorphic as deposited. For ZnSySe1-y layers grown on 135 nm ZnSe buffers at 360°C, the minimum dislocation density corresponds approximately to room-temperature lattice matching (y ˜ 5.9%), rather than growth temperature lattice matching (y ˜ 7.6%). Epitaxial layers with lower dislocation densities demonstrated superior optical quality, as judged by

  16. Evaluation of the elastic constants of the high burnup nuclear fuel (U{sub 1-y},Gd{sub y})O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Luciana T.; Dias, Marcio S., E-mail: ltl@cdtn.b, E-mail: marciod@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Nuclear fuels with burnable poisons are applications in the scope of the nuclear energy for electricity generation. The discharge burnups of this type of fuel are higher than the discharge burnups of pure UO{sub 2} fuels with same enrichment of the fissile element. In conditions of high burnups and moderate transients, the fuel rods can be subject to the pellet/cladding mechanical interactions (PCMI). Elastic constants of the fuel and cladding are used in the thermo-mechanical evaluation of the PCMI. The fuel elastic constants are usually expressed as a function of temperature, composition and porosity. Data survey and modeling of elastic constants for the (U{sub 1-y},Gd{sub y})O{sub 2} fuel are developed in this paper. Due to small amount of the available measurements for the (U{sub 1-y},Gd{sub y})O{sub 2}, the modeling taken into account the data from UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} measurements. Available measurements of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also used in the model validation. The elastic constants of these materials have been fitted by an analytic equation, which depicts the whole range the dependences. (author)

  17. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+y Te (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo


    We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe–Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic–paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180–250 meV at about 50–65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

  18. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+yTe. (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo


    We investigate with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe 1+y Te thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe 1+y Te thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place, and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons.

  19. Atomic-scale distortions and temperature-dependent large pseudogap in thin films of the parent iron-chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+yTe. (United States)

    Gerbi, Andrea; Buzio, Renato; Kawale, Shrikant S; Bellingeri, Emilio; Martinelli, Alberto; Bernini, Cristina; Tresca, Cesare; Capone, Massimo; Profeta, Gianni; Ferdeghini, Carlo


    We investigate by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations the surface structures and the electronic properties of Fe1+yTe thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Contrary to the regular arrangement of antiferromagnetic nanostripes previously reported on cleaved single-crystal samples, the surface of Fe1+yTe thin films displays a peculiar distribution of spatially inhomogeneous nanostripes. Both STM and DFT calculations show the bias-dependent nature of such features and support the interpretation of spin-polarized tunneling between the FeTe surface and an unintentionally magnetized tip. In addition, the spatial inhomogeneity is interpreted as a purely electronic effect, related to changes in hybridization and Fe-Fe bond length driven by local variations in the concentration of excess interstitial Fe cations. Unexpectedly, the surface density of states measured by STS strongly evolves with temperature in close proximity to the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic first-order transition, and reveals a large pseudogap of 180-250 meV at about 50-65 K. We believe that in this temperature range a phase transition takes place and the system orders and locks into particular combinations of orbitals and spins, because of the interplay between excess interstitial magnetic Fe and strongly correlated d-electrons. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Phase formation in the (1-y)BiFeO3-yBiScO3 system under ambient and high pressure (United States)

    Salak, A. N.; Khalyavin, D. D.; Pushkarev, A. V.; Radyush, Yu. V.; Olekhnovich, N. M.; Shilin, A. D.; Rubanik, V. V.


    Formation and thermal stability of perovskite phases in the BiFe1-yScyO3 system (0≤y≤0.70) were studied. When the iron-to-scandium substitution rate does not exceed about 15 at%, the single-phase perovskite ceramics with the rhombohedral R3c symmetry (as that of the parent compound, BiFeO3) can be prepared from the stoichiometric mixture of the respective oxides at ambient pressure. Thermal treatment of the oxide mixtures with a higher content of scandium results in formation of two main phases, namely a BiFeO3-like R3c phase and a cubic (I23) sillenite-type phase based on γ-Bi2O3. Single-phase perovskite ceramics of the BiFe1-yScyO3 composition were synthesized under high pressure from the thermally treated oxide mixtures. When y is between 0 and 0.25 the high-pressure prepared phase is the rhombohedral R3c with the √2ap×√2ap×2√3ap superstructure (ap 4 Å is the pseudocubic perovskite unit-cell parameter). The orthorhombic Pnma phase (√2ap×4ap×2√2ap) was obtained in the range of 0.30≤y≤0.60, while the monoclinic C2/c phase (√6ap×√2ap×√6ap) is formed when y=0.70. The normalized unit-cell volume drops at the crossover from the rhombohedral to the orthorhombic composition range. The perovskite BiFe1-yScyO3 phases prepared under high pressure are metastable regardless of their symmetry. At ambient pressure, the phases with the compositions in the ranges of 0.20≤y≤0.25, 0.30≤y<0.50 and 0.50≤y≤0.70 start to decompose above 970, 920 and 870 K, respectively.

  1. Crystal structure and electrical conductivity of lanthanum-calcium chromites-titanates La 1-xCa xCr 1-yTi yO 3-δ ( x=0-1, y=0-1) (United States)

    Vashook, V.; Vasylechko, L.; Zosel, J.; Gruner, W.; Ullmann, H.; Guth, U.


    Five series of perovskite-type compounds in the system La1-xCaxCr1-yTiyO3 with the nominal compositions y = 0 , x = 0 - 0.5 ; y = 0.2 , x = 0.2 - 0.8 ; y = 0.5 , x = 0.5 - 1.0 ; y = 0.8 , x = 0.6 - 1.0 and y = 1 , x = 0.8 - 1 were synthesized by a ceramic technique in air (final heating 1350 °C). On the basis of the X-ray analysis of the samples with (Ca/Ti)⩾1, the phase diagram of the CaTiO3-LaCrIIIO3-CaCrIVO3 quasi-ternary system was constructed. Extended solid solution with a wide homogeneity range is formed in the quasi-ternary system CaCrIVO3-CaTiO3-LaCrIIIO3. The solid solution La(1-x‧-y)Ca(x‧+y)CrIVx‧CrIII(1-x‧-y)TiyO3 exists by up to 0.6-0.7 mol fractions of CaCrIVO3 (x‧ phases with an orthorhombic structure. In the temperature range between 850 and 1000 °C, the synthesized single-phase compositions are stable at pO2=6×10-16-0.21×105 Pa. Oxygen stoichiometry and electrical conductivity of the separate compounds were investigated as functions of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The chemical stability of these oxides with respect to oxygen release during thermal dissociation decreases with increasing Ca-content. At 900 °C and oxygen partial pressure 1×10-15-0.21×105 Pa, the compounds with x > y (acceptor doped) are p-type semiconductors and those with x < y (donor doped) and x = y are n-type semiconductors. The type and level of electrical conductivity are functions of the concentration ratios of cations occupying the B-sites of the perovskite structures: [Cr3+]/[Cr4+] and [Ti4+]/[Ti3+]. The maximum electrical conductivity at 900 °C and pO2=10-15 Pa was found for the composition La0.1Ca0.9TiO3 (near 50 S/cm) and in air at 900 °C for La0.5Ca0.5CrO3 (close to 100 S/cm).

  2. Mutaciones de brca1 y brca2 en familias aragonesas de alto riesgo de cancer de mama/ovario


    Polo Marqués, Eduardo; Tres Sánchez, Alejandro; Mayordomo Cámara, José Ignacio


    Este trabajo revisa desde un punto de vista prospectivo la asociación entre criterios clínicos personales y familiares en pacientes con tumores de mama y ovario y la probabilidad de identificar en estas pacientes mutaciones de BRCA 1 y BRCA 2 en familias aragonesas de alto riesgo de cáncer de mama-ovario. De 53 familias estudiadas en la Consulta de Consejo Genético del Hospital Clínico Universitario de Zaragoza de 1997 a 2004, se identificaron 3 mutaciones de BRCA1 y 6 mutaciones de BRCA 2. S...

  3. Drastic difference between hole and electron injection through the gradient shell of CdxSeyZn1-xS1-y quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdellah, Mohamed; Poulsen, Felipe; Zhu, Qiushi


    were carried out to confirm that the hole injection from the active core through the gradient shell to NiO takes place. The hole injection from the valence band of the QDs to NiO depends much less on the shell thickness when compared to the corresponding electron injection to n-type semiconductor (Zn...... between the hole and electron injection are consistent with a model where the hole effective mass decreases, while the gradient shell thickness increases.......Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the hole injection in CdxSeyZn1-xS1-y gradient core-shell quantum dot (CSQD) sensitized p-type NiO photocathodes. A series of CSQDs with a wide range of shell thicknesses was studied. Complementary photoelectrochemical cell measurements...

  4. Electroanalytical Assessment of the Effect of Ni:Fe Stoichiometry and Architectural Expression on the Bifunctional Activity of Nanoscale NiyFe1-yOx. (United States)

    Ko, Jesse S; Chervin, Christopher N; Vila, Mallory N; DeSario, Paul A; Parker, Joseph F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R


    Electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was assessed for a series of Ni-substituted ferrites (Ni y Fe 1-y Ox, where y = 0.1 to 0.9) as expressed in porous, high-surface-area forms (ambigel and aerogel nanoarchitectures). We then correlate electrocatalytic activity with Ni:Fe stoichiometry as a function of surface area, crystallite size, and free volume. In order to ensure in-series comparisons, calcination at 350 °C/air was necessary to crystallize the respective Ni y Fe 1-y Ox nanoarchitectures, which index to the inverse spinel structure for Fe-rich materials (y ≤ 0.33), rock salt for the most Ni-rich material (y = 0.9), and biphasic for intermediate stoichiometry (0.5 ≤ y ≤ 0.67). In the intermediate Ni:Fe stoichiometric range (0.33 ≤ y ≤ 0.67), the OER current density at 390 mV increases monotonically with increasing Ni content and increasing surface area, but with different working curves for ambigels versus aerogels. At a common stoichiometry within this range, ambigels and aerogels yield comparable OER performance, but do so by expressing larger crystallite size (ambigel) versus higher surface area (aerogel). Effective OER activity can be achieved without requiring supercritical-fluid extraction as long as moderately high surface area, porous materials can be prepared. We find improved OER performance (η decreases from 390 to 373 mV) for Ni 0.67 Fe 0.33 Ox aerogel heat-treated at 300 °C/Ar, owing to an increase in crystallite size (2.7 to 4.1 nm). For the ORR, electrocatalytic activity favors Fe-rich Ni y Fe 1-y Ox materials; however, as the Ni-content increases beyond y = 0.5, a two-electron reduction pathway is still exhibited, demonstrating that bifunctional OER and ORR activity may be possible by choosing a nickel ferrite nanoarchitecture that provides high OER activity with sufficient ORR activity. Assessing the catalytic activity requires an appreciation of the multivariate interplay

  5. Inoculation with endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31 increases Mn accumulation and induces the growth and energy metabolism-related differentially-expressed proteome in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-hui; He, Lin-yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang


    In this study, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to investigate the molecular and microbial mechanisms involved in the endophytic Bacillus megaterium 1Y31-enhanced Mn tolerance and accumulation in Mn hyperaccumulator hybrid pennisetum. Strain 1Y31 significantly increased the dry weights (ranging from 28% to 94%) and total Mn uptake (ranging from 23% to 112%) of hybrid pennisetum treated with 0, 2, and 10mM Mn compared to the control. Total 98 leaf differentially expressed proteins were identified between the live and dead bacterial inoculated hybrid pennisetum. The major leaf differentially expressed proteins were involved in energy generation, photosynthesis, response to stimulus, metabolisms, and unknown function. Furthermore, most of the energy generation and photosynthesis-related proteins were up-regulated, whereas most of the response to stimulus and metabolism-related proteins were down-regulated under Mn stress. Notably, the proportion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing endophytic bacteria was significantly higher in the bacterial inoculated plants under Mn stress. The results suggested that strain 1Y31 increased the growth and Mn uptake of hybrid pennisetum through increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis and energy metabolism as well as the proportion of plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria in the plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of Co1+ySnyFe2–2y–xCrxO4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 5. Structural and magnetic properties of Co 1 + y Sn y Fe 2 – 2 y – x Cr x O4 ferrite system. A A Pandit S S More R G Dorik K M Jadhav. Magnetic Materials Volume 26 Issue 5 August 2003 pp 517-521 ...

  7. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; van Hassel, B.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.


    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane

  8. Enhanced Crystal Quality of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y for Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zederbauer


    Full Text Available This work provides a detailed study on the growth of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y lattice-matched to InAs by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. In order to find the conditions which lead to high crystal quality deep within the miscibility gap, AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y with x = 0.462 was grown at different growth temperatures as well as As2 and Sb2 beam equivalent pressures. The crystal quality of the grown layers was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the incorporation of Sb into Al0.462In0.538AsySb1-y is strongly temperature-dependent and reduced growth temperatures are necessary in order to achieve significant Sb mole fractions in the grown layers. At 480 ∘ C lattice matching to InAs could not be achieved. At 410 ∘ C lattice matching was possible and high quality films of Al0.462In0.538AsySb1-y were obtained.

  9. Range management visual impacts (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel


    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  10. Influence of Mn site doping on electrical resistivity of polycrystalline La1-yAyMn1-xBxO3 (A=Ba, Sr; B=Cu, Cr, Co Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović N.


    Full Text Available We have the measured electrical resistivity of La1-yBayMn1-xCuxO3 (0.17≤y≤0.30; 0.04≤x≤0.10, La1-ySryMn1-xCrxO3 and La1-ySryMn1-xCoxO3 (0.270≤y≤0.294; 0.02≤x≤0.10 polycrystalline samples in the 25-325 K temperature range. The increase of Mn site doping concentration leads to an increase of the electrical resistivity of the samples and the appearance of a “double-peak” structure in the electrical resistivity versus temperature graphs. The first peak represents the insulator-metal transition in vicinity of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition (TC. We have found that the intensity of the second peak increases with an increase of concentration of Mn substituents, due to the hole scattering by the random potential of the Mn site impurities.

  11. Minnesota Pheasant Range (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  12. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  13. Pressure-induced reinforcement of interfacial superconductivity in a Bi2Te3/Fe1+yTe heterostructure (United States)

    Shen, Junying; Heuckeroth, Claire; Deng, Yuhang; He, Qinglin; Liu, Hong Chao; Liang, Jing; Wang, Jiannong; Sou, Iam Keong; Schilling, James S.; Lortz, Rolf


    We investigate the hydrostatic pressure dependence of interfacial superconductivity occurring at the atomically sharp interface between two non-superconducting materials: the topological insulator (TI) Bi2Te3 and the parent compound Fe1+yTe of the chalcogenide iron-based superconductors. Under pressure, a significant increase in the superconducting transition temperature Tc is observed. We interpret our data in the context of a pressure-induced enhanced coupling of the Fe1+yTe interfacial layer with the Bi2Te3 surface state, which modifies the electronic properties of the interface layer in a way that superconductivity emerges and becomes further enhanced under pressure. This demonstrates the important role of the TI in the interfacial superconducting mechanism.

  14. A magnetic topological semimetal Sr1-yMn1-zSb2 (y, z < 0.1) (United States)

    Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Graf, D.; Cao, H. B.; Radmanesh, S. M. A.; Adams, D. J.; Zhu, Y. L.; Cheng, G. F.; Liu, X.; Phelan, W. A.; Wei, J.; Jaime, M.; Balakirev, F.; Tennant, D. A.; Ditusa, J. F.; Chiorescu, I.; Spinu, L.; Mao, Z. Q.


    Weyl (WSMs) evolve from Dirac semimetals in the presence of broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) or space-inversion symmetry. The WSM phases in TaAs-class materials and photonic crystals are due to the loss of space-inversion symmetry. For TRS-breaking WSMs, despite numerous theoretical and experimental efforts, few examples have been reported. In this Article, we report a new type of magnetic semimetal Sr1-yMn1-zSb2 (y, z mass). This material exhibits a ferromagnetic order for 304 K < T < 565 K, but a canted antiferromagnetic order with a ferromagnetic component for T < 304 K. The combination of relativistic fermion behaviour and ferromagnetism in Sr1-yMn1-zSb2 offers a rare opportunity to investigate the interplay between relativistic fermions and spontaneous TRS breaking.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Co1+ySnyFe2–2y–xCrxO4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A A PANDIT, S S MORE, R G DORIK and K M JADHAV*. Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431 004, India. MS received 12 February 2001; revised 23 May 2003. Abstract. The samples of the series Co1+ySnyFe2–2y–xCrxO4 ferrites with x = 0⋅0, 0⋅1, 0⋅2, 0⋅3, 0⋅4, ...

  16. Electronic structure-sunlight driven water splitting activity correlation of (Zn1-yGay)(O1-zNz). (United States)

    RajaAmbal, Sivaraman; Yadav, A K; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Gopinath, Chinnnakonda S


    (Zn1-yGay)(O1-zNz) (y≤ 0.10; z≤ 0.15) solid solutions have been investigated for their electronic structure and visible light photocatalytic activity, and a correlation was found between them. (Zn1-yGay)(O1-zNz) with ZnO as the major component have been synthesized by a solution combustion method in 10 minutes using simple raw materials. The local structures of Zn K edge and Ga K edge, and changes in the chemical environment with the incorporation of Ga and N in ZnO were determined by EXAFS study. EXAFS and XRD results suggested the dissolution of GaN in the ZnO lattice. The homogeneity of the solid solution was demonstrated from HRTEM studies. Photoluminescence studies revealed the creation of a new band at the top of the ZnO valence band (VB), and thus the broadening of the VB of (Zn1-yGay)(O1-zNz) or a decrease in the band gap was attributed to the origin of visible light absorption. UV-Vis spectral studies showed light absorption up to 550 nm, which directly supports the VB broadening. Predominant oxygen vacancies and high photocorrosion observed for ZnO were fully suppressed for (Zn1-yGay)(O1-zNz), indicating the minimization of defects, and thus more sustainability under irradiation conditions. The bare solid solution exhibited reasonable and promising activity for solar hydrogen evolution and photoelectrochemical current generation at 0 V. The present work explained factors such as the preparation method, single phase structure with the stabilization of integral parts, homogeneity in the structure, compensation of oxygen vacancies, and suppression of the density of recombination centres that play a pivotal role in realizing solar energy harvesting.

  17. Pseudogap and proximity effect in the Bi2Te3/Fe1+yTe interfacial superconductor. (United States)

    He, M Q; Shen, J Y; Petrović, A P; He, Q L; Liu, H C; Zheng, Y; Wong, C H; Chen, Q H; Wang, J N; Law, K T; Sou, I K; Lortz, R


    In the interfacial superconductor Bi2Te3/Fe1+yTe, two dimensional superconductivity occurs in direct vicinity to the surface state of a topological insulator. If this state were to become involved in superconductivity, under certain conditions a topological superconducting state could be formed, which is of high interest due to the possibility of creating Majorana fermionic states. We report directional point-contact spectroscopy data on the novel Bi2Te3/Fe1+yTe interfacial superconductor for a Bi2Te3 thickness of 9 quintuple layers, bonded by van der Waals epitaxy to a Fe1+yTe film at an atomically sharp interface. Our data show highly unconventional superconductivity, which appears as complex as in the cuprate high temperature superconductors. A very large superconducting twin-gap structure is replaced by a pseudogap above ~12 K which persists up to 40 K. While the larger gap shows unconventional order parameter symmetry and is attributed to a thin FeTe layer in proximity to the interface, the smaller gap is associated with superconductivity induced via the proximity effect in the topological insulator Bi2Te3.

  18. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.


    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  19. Magnetic phase diagram of multiferroic delafossite CuFe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, N; Kitazawa, H [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan 305-0047 (Japan); Nakajima, T; Mitsuda, S, E-mail: terada.noriki@nims.go.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)


    We report magnetic susceptibility measurements on nonmagnetic impurity-doped multiferroic CuFe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 2} with 0 <= y <= 0:08. The temperature versus Ga concentration magnetic phase diagram was obtained. Comparing the presently obtained phase diagram of CuFe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 2} with that of CuFe{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 2}, we find that the stability of 4SL ground state for substitution of nonmagnetic ions does not depend on the nonmagnetic ionic radius significantly. On the other hand, the FEIC phase in CuFe{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 2} exists in a wider region of 0:02 <= y <= 0:05 than CuFe{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 2}. We thus find that the local lattice distortion caused by large difference in ionic radii between Al3{sup +} and Fe3{sup +} affects the stability of the FEIC phase for nonmagnetic ion substitution significantly.

  20. Antioxidant Treatment Reduces Formation of Structural Cores and Improves Muscle Function in RYR1Y522S/WT Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Michelucci


    Full Text Available Central core disease (CCD is a congenital myopathy linked to mutations in the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle. CCD is characterized by formation of amorphous cores within muscle fibers, lacking mitochondrial activity. In skeletal muscle of RYR1Y522S/WT knock-in mice, carrying a human mutation in RYR1 linked to malignant hyperthermia (MH with cores, oxidative stress is elevated and fibers present severe mitochondrial damage and cores. We treated RYR1Y522S/WT mice with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant provided ad libitum in drinking water for either 2 or 6 months. Our results show that 2 months of NAC treatment starting at 2 months of age, when mitochondrial and fiber damage was still minimal, (i reduce formation of unstructured and contracture cores, (ii improve muscle function, and (iii decrease mitochondrial damage. The beneficial effect of NAC treatment is also evident following 6 months of treatment starting at 4 months of age, when structural damage was at an advanced stage. NAC exerts its protective effect likely by lowering oxidative stress, as supported by the reduction of 3-NT and SOD2 levels. This work suggests that NAC administration is beneficial to prevent mitochondrial damage and formation of cores and improve muscle function in RYR1Y522S/WT mice.

  1. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  2. Investigation of the Spin-glass Regime Between the Antiferromagnetic and Superconducting Phases in Fe1+ySexTe1−x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, N.; Wen, J.; Ji, S.; Louca, D.; Lee, S.-H.; Fujita, M.; Sato, T.J.; Wen, J.S.; Xu, Z.J.; Gu, G.D.; Xu, G.; Lin, Z.W.; Enoki, M.; Chang, S.; Yamada, K.; Tranquada, J.M.


    Using bulk magnetization along with elastic and inelastic neutron scattering techniques, we have investigated the phase diagram of Fe{sub 1+y}Se{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} and the nature of magnetic correlations in three nonsuperconducting samples of Fe{sub 1.01}Se{sub 0.1}Te{sub 0.9}, Fe{sub 1.01}Se{sub 0.15}Te{sub 0.85}, and Fe{sub 1.02}Se{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7}. A cusp and hysteresis in the temperature dependence of the magnetization for the x=0.15 and 0.3 samples indicates spin-glass (SG) ordering below T{sub sg} = 23 K. Neutron scattering measurements indicate that the spin-glass behavior is associated with short-range spin density wave (SDW) ordering characterized by a static component and a low-energy dynamic component with a characteristic incommensurate wave vector of Q{sub m} = (0.46, 0, 0.50) and an anisotropy gap of -2.5 meV. Our high Q-resolution data also show that the systems undergo a glassy structural distortion that coincides with the short-range SDW order.

  3. Compact Antenna Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  4. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  5. Gibbs Free Energy of Formation of Eu 1+ yBa 2- yCu 3O 7- xand Related Phases in the Eu 2O 3-CuO-BaO System (United States)

    Przybyło, W.; Onderka, B.; Fitzner, K.


    The Gibbs energies of formation of the ternary phases in the Eu-Ba-Cu-O system have been obtained from solid state electrochemical measurements in the temperature range 973 to 1173 K. Cells employing single-crystal calcium fluoride as an electrolyte were used in studies of CuBaO2, Eu2CuBaO5, and Eu1+yBa2-yCu3O7-x(y= 0, 0.5). Based on the results of emf measurements the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of respective phases from the constituent oxides was derived.

  6. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  7. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.


    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  8. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  9. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...


    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.


    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  11. Atlantic Test Range (ATR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  12. Light Detection And Ranging (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  13. Polimorfismos del receptor adrenérgico b1 y sus implicaciones farmacodinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez


    .5pt; font-family: Arial">tienen una mayor interacción con la proteína G y producen más AMPc luego del estímulo con agonistas b(2.Nuestro estudio pretende evaluar la frecuencia de estos polimorfismos en una muestra de individuos colombianos y determinar si tales cambios desencadenan alguna variación en la respuesta al bloqueo de los receptores adrenérgicos b1.

    Determinación de los polimorfismos: Luego de la extracción del DNA genómico, se amplificarán por PCR los segmentos correspondientes del receptor b1 y posteriormente se identificarán cada una de las variantes polimórficas por RFLPs.

    Estudio clínico: Tomando como base las mutaciones que llevan a cambios en los aminoácidos de la posición 389 (Arg389Gly, se definirán tres grupos de estudio (homocigotos para cada polimorfismo y heterocigotos, de cada grupo se seleccionarán 15 individuos voluntarios sanos, los cuales serán llevados a un ambiente hospitalario donde se les administrará Esmolol intravenoso y se registrarán los cambios en la presión arterial y en la frecuencia cardíaca durante todo el experimento.

    Medición de las concentraciones de Esmolol:

  14. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre


    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of (PbySn1-y2P2(SexS1-x6 mixed crystals in the vicinity of the incommensurate phase transition have been studied. It has been found that due to the defect action, the dielectric anomalies at the phase transitions are smeared and instead of two anomalies bounding the incommensurate phase there is observed a single broad peak. The character of the dielectric dispersion as well as nonlinear dielectric behavior in the crystals studied suggest that in the chaotic state due to the action of the defect on the IC phase, the crystals possess the properties of ferroelectrics relaxors.

  16. Correlating Oxygen Evolution Catalysts Activity and Electronic Structure by a High-Throughput Investigation of Ni1-y-zFeyCrzOx (United States)

    Schwanke, Christoph; Stein, Helge Sören; Xi, Lifei; Sliozberg, Kirill; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Alfred; Lange, Kathrin M.


    High-throughput characterization by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electrochemical characterization is used to establish a correlation between electronic structure and catalytic activity of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts. As a model system a quasi-ternary materials library of Ni1-y-zFeyCrzOx was synthesized by combinatorial reactive magnetron sputtering, characterized by XAS, and an automated scanning droplet cell. The presence of Cr was found to increase the OER activity in the investigated compositional range. The electronic structure of NiII and CrIII remains unchanged over the investigated composition spread. At the Fe L-edge a linear combination of two spectra was observed. These spectra were assigned to FeIII in Oh symmetry and FeIII in Td symmetry. The ratio of FeIII Oh to FeIII Td increases with the amount of Cr and a correlation between the presence of the FeIII Oh and a high OER activity is found.

  17. Drastic difference between hole and electron injection through the gradient shell of CdxSeyZn1-xS1-y quantum dots. (United States)

    Abdellah, Mohamed; Poulsen, Felipe; Zhu, Qiushi; Zhu, Nan; Žídek, Karel; Chábera, Pavel; Corti, Annamaria; Hansen, Thorsten; Chi, Qijin; Canton, Sophie E; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu


    Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the hole injection in CdxSeyZn1-xS1-y gradient core-shell quantum dot (CSQD) sensitized p-type NiO photocathodes. A series of CSQDs with a wide range of shell thicknesses was studied. Complementary photoelectrochemical cell measurements were carried out to confirm that the hole injection from the active core through the gradient shell to NiO takes place. The hole injection from the valence band of the QDs to NiO depends much less on the shell thickness when compared to the corresponding electron injection to n-type semiconductor (ZnO). We simulate the charge carrier tunneling through the potential barrier due to the gradient shell by numerically solving the Schrödinger equation. The details of the band alignment determining the potential barrier are obtained from X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The observed drastic differences between the hole and electron injection are consistent with a model where the hole effective mass decreases, while the gradient shell thickness increases.

  18. Coexistence of 3d-ferromagnetism and superconductivity in [(Li1-x Fex )OH](Fe1-y Liy )Se. (United States)

    Pachmayr, Ursula; Nitsche, Fabian; Luetkens, Hubertus; Kamusella, Sirko; Brückner, Felix; Sarkar, Rajib; Klauss, Hans-Henning; Johrendt, Dirk


    Superconducting [(Li1-x Fex )OH](Fe1-y Liy )Se (x≈0.2, y≈0.08) was synthesized by hydrothermal methods and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The structure contains alternating layers of anti-PbO type (Fe1-y Liy )Se and (Li1-x Fex )OH. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal superconductivity at 43 K. An anomaly in the diamagnetic shielding indicates ferromagnetic ordering near 10 K while superconductivity is retained. The ferromagnetism is from the iron atoms in the (Li1-x Fex )OH layer. Isothermal magnetization measurements confirm the superposition of ferromagnetic and superconducting hysteresis. The internal ferromagnetic field is larger than the lower, but smaller than the upper critical field of the superconductor. The formation of a spontaneous vortex phase where both orders coexist is supported by (57) Fe-Mössbauer spectra, (7) Li-NMR spectra, and μSR experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green


    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  20. Electric vehicles: Driving range (United States)

    Kempton, Willett


    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  1. Surface and bulk effects of K in Cu 1-x K x In 1-y Ga y Se 2 solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzillo, Christopher P.; Anderson, Timothy J.


    Two strategies for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) performance in chalcopyrite solar cells were investigated: Cu1-xKxIn1-yGaySe2 absorbers with low K content (K/(K+Cu), or x ~ 0.07) distributed throughout the bulk, and CuIn1-yGaySe2 absorbers with KIn1-yGaySe2 grown on their surfaces. Distributing K throughout the bulk absorbers improved power conversion efficiency, open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) for Ga/(Ga+In) of 0, 0.3 and 0.5. Surface KIn1-yGaySe2 and bulk x ~ 0.07 Cu1-xKxIn1-yGaySe2 films with Ga/(Ga+In), or y of 0.3 and 0.5 also had improved efficiency, VOC, and FF, relative to CuIn1-yGaySe2 baselines. On the other hand, y ~ 1 absorbers did not benefit from K introduction. Similar to Cu1-xKxInSe2, the formation of Cu1-xKxGaSe2 alloys was favored at low temperatures and high Na supply by the substrate, relative to the formation of mixed-phase CuGaSe2 + KGaSe2. KIn1-yGaySe2 alloys were grown for the first time, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. For all Ga/(Ga+In) compositions, the surface KIn1-yGaySe2 absorbers had superior PV performance in buffered and buffer-free devices. However, the bulk x ~ 0.07 absorbers only outperformed the baselines in buffered devices. The data demonstrate that KIn1-yGaySe2 passivates the surface of CuIn1-yGaySe2 to increase efficiency, VOC, and FF, while bulk Cu1-xKxIn1-yGaySe2 absorbers with x ~ 0.07 enhance efficiency, VOC, and FF by some other mechanism.

  2. [Synthesis and photoluminescence of Zn(1-x) Mo(1-y)Si(y)O4 : Eu+ phosphor]. (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Yai; Xu, Ting-Bo; Pang, Qi; Gong, Fu-Zhong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun-Li; Yi, Ling-Hong


    The phosphors Zn(1-x) Mo(1-y)Si(y)O4 : Eu(x)3+ (0.05 photoluminescence intensity of the phosphors. The addition of Na+ ions balanced the charge in samples, enhanced the luminescence intensity of samples, and the luminescence intensity reached the maximum when the doping concentration of Na2 CO3 was 4 Wt%. The luminescent properties of Zn0.80 Mo(1-y)Si(y)O4 : Eu(0.20)3+ were studied by the excitation and emission spectra, and the influence of Eu3+ and Si4+ concentrations on the luminescent property was discussed. As the calcination temperature rises from 700 to 800 degrees C, the emission intensity increases due to the improvement of crystallinity. The excitation spectra consist of a broad band and a series of narrow lines, and the narrow lines are attributed to the intrinsic transition from 7FJ (J = 1-4) to 5DJ (J = 0, 1) of Eu3+. It was found that the PL emission intensity was enhanced with the increase in the Eu3+ doping ratio and reached a maximum value at x = 0.20. The result indicated that Zn(1-x)Mo(1-y)Si(y)O4 : Eu(x)3+ phosphors can be excited effectively at 393 and 464 nm light. The presence of the Si4+ ion strengthens the photoluminescence intensity of the phosphors and the strong red emission lines at 616 nm correspond to the forced electric dipole 5D0 --> F2 transitions on Eu3+. Compared with Y2O2S : 0.05 Eu3+, the obtained Zn0.80Mo0.97Si0.03O4 : Eu(0.20)3+ phosphor shows an enhanced red emission under 393 nm excitation and the emission intensity of Y2O2S : 0.05Eu3+ is only 50% of that of Zn0.80Mo0.97Si0.03O4 : Eu(0.20)3+. The optical properties suggest that Zn0.80Mo0.97Si0.03O4 : Eu(0.20)3+ is an efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode (LED) applications.

  3. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)


    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  4. Synthesis and investigation of La1-xBixMn1-yFeyO3-δ structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kaymieva


    Full Text Available Doped manganites La1-xBixMn1-yFeyO3-δ(x=0.0-0.3; у=0.0-0.5, Δх, у=0.1 with perovskite-like structure were sintered by solid state reaction and solution method. It was determined by X-ray diffraction that sintered samples have rhombohedral symmetry (S.G. R-3c. The parameters of unit cell were calculated. The morphology of briket was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that sintered sample is homogeneous, porous and grains are formed by different size. Elemental composition was checked by atomic emission spectroscopy. Additional studies were performed by TG/DSC and laser diffraction (analysis of size distribution of particles.

  5. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark


    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  6. Advanced characterization of Si/Si{sub 1-y}C{sub y} heterostructures for nMOS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F.; Holliger, P.; Hartmann, J.M.; Ernst, T.; Loup, V.; Rolland, G.; Lafond, D


    Si/Si{sub 1-y}C{sub y}/Si heterostructures for ultra-short gate length (50 nm) metal oxide semiconductor (nMOS) devices were grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) and characterized. Low energy secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were jointly used to build a coherent picture of the physical and electrical properties of the layers. SIMS and XRD measurements indicate that high carbon concentration samples (substitutional C=1.12 at.%) also contain many interstitial carbon atoms (interstitial C=0.45 at.%). We demonstrated by XRD that such Si/Si{sub 1-y}C{sub y}/Si stacks are stable versus standard thermal anneals. We thus integrated them into a conventional nMOS process. Cross-sectional TEM imaging shows that the resulting heterostructures arc of high crystalline quality, with well defined interfaces. Finally, an in-depth SIMS analysis using either Cs{sup +} or O{sub 2}{sup +} primary ions of the C, O and B concentration profiles inside such transistors reveals that (i) some C segregation occurs during the growth of the Si cap, generating the presence of C inside the Si cap and SiO{sub 2} gate (ii) C atoms induce a strong reduction of the B diffusion from the anti-punch-through layer underneath, generating highly retrograde doping profiles. All these measurements will help understanding the electrical properties of such ultimate devices.

  7. Tribological Behavior of Mg97Zn1Y2 Alloy at Elevated Temperatures of 50-200 °C (United States)

    An, J.; Feng, J. H.; Yan, X. H.; Li, R. G.


    The tribological behavior of Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy was investigated using a pin-on-disk wear machine at wear temperatures of 50-200 °C. Morphologies and chemical compositions of worn surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The microstructural evolution and hardness change in subsurfaces were examined by optical microscopy and hardness tester. The results showed that the wear temperature had significant influence on the coefficient of friction and wear rate. At wear temperatures of 50-200 °C, with increasing applied load, the coefficient of friction went down rapidly then turned to decrease slowly in the mild wear regime, and continuously decreased modestly until the largest applied load in the severe wear regime. Increasing wear temperature from 50 to 200 °C decreased the mild to severe wear transition load linearly from 120 to 60 N. In the mild wear regime, the main wear mechanisms were identified as abrasion + oxidation and delamination + surface oxidation at 50-150 °C, and delamination at 200 °C, while in the severe wear regime, the main wear mechanisms were identified as severe plastic deformation + spallation of oxide layer and surface melting at 50-150 °C, and severe plastic deformation and surface melting at 200 °C. The microstructural transformation from the deformed to the dynamically recrystallized (DRX), and hardness change from the strain hardening to softening were found in the subsurfaces before and after mild to severe transition. The DRX softening mechanism was determined for mild to severe wear transition at 50-200 °C. A wear transition map was constructed for Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy on applied load versus wear temperature.

  8. Characterization and carbon monoxide oxidation activity of La1-ySryCr1-xRuxO3 perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The oxidation of CO over La1-ySryCr1-xRuxO3 perovskite type oxides with y=0.3 and 0 £ x £ 0.100 have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis confirmed that content of elements in the bulk corresponds to the established nominal perovskite stoichiometry, indicating that no significant oxidation of ruthenium into volatile polyvalent oxides with their consequented escape from the sample occurred in air up to the temperature of 1000°C. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, all sampls achieved the perovskite hexagonal with the presence of some SrCrO4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ruthenium samples shows higher Ru and Sr surface concentraitions than in the bulk. The binding energy for Ru3p is virtually the same in all samples and consistent with that of Ru4+ (463.6-464.3eV. Kinetic studies were performed in a differential recycle reactor with a recycling ratio 80. The results show that substitution of Ru4+ for Cr3+ in La1-ySryCrO3 leads to a significant increase in both the activity and the activation energy. The global CO oxidation rate, referred on the BET surface area, correlates with the surface Ru4+ atomic concentraiton. Hence, the activity reflect the surface enrichment in ruthenium. Moreover, an identical apparent activation energy E = 93 kJ/mol and the same specific rate per ruthenium surface ion were obtained for samples with a Ru content x ³ 0.05 suggest that exposed Ru4+ ions mainly participate in the reaction.

  9. Lightning detection and ranging (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.


    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  10. NaCu(Ta1-yNby)4O11 solid solution: A tunable band gap spanning the visible-light wavelengths (United States)

    Palasyuk, Olena; Maggard, Paul A.


    The new solid-solution NaCu(Ta1-yNby)4O11 (0≤y≤0.7) was synthesized by solid-state methods in the form of bulk powders that ranged from light-yellow to brown colored and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction techniques (Space group R-3c (#167); Z=6; a=6.214(1)-6.218(1) Å and c=36.86(1)-36.94(1) Å). Full-profile Rietveld refinements confirmed a site-differentiated ordering of the Cu(I) and Na cations, i.e., occupying the 12c (linear environment) and 18d (seven-coordinate environment) crystallographic sites respectively. Conversely, a statistical mixture of Ta(V) and Nb(V) cations occurred over the 6b (octahedral environment) or the 18e (pentagonal-bipyramidal environment) crystallographic sites, without any preferential segregation. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed a significant red-shift of the optical bandgap size (indirect) from ˜2.70 eV to ˜1.80 eV across the solid solution with increasing Nb(V) content. Electronic-structure calculations using the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital approach showed that the reduction in bandgap size arises from the introduction of the lower-energy Nb 4d0 orbitals into the conduction band and consequently a lower energy of the conduction band edge. The lowest-energy bandgap transitions were found to be derived from electronic transitions between the filled Cu(I) and the empty Nb(V) d-orbitals, with a small amount of mixing with the O 2p orbitals. The resulting conduction and valence band energies are found to approximately bracket the redox potentials for water reduction and oxidation, and meeting the thermodynamic requirements for photocatalytic water-splitting reactions.

  11. Association between protein intake and 1-y weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 3-11 y. (United States)

    Torres, A; Orav, J; Willett, W; Chen, L


    We examined 1-y weight and height gains among 238 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3-11 y old to address the hypothesis that dietary protein composition is associated with growth velocity. Energy-adjusted total protein and energy-adjusted protein from sources other than cereal (animal, pulses, and vegetables) were associated with higher weight gains, after adjustment for age, sex, land ownership, diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, other fevers, nutritional status at the beginning of the study, and average body mass index of the mother [daily intake of energy-adjusted noncereal protein (beta +/- SE): 14.2 +/- 6.4 g.y-1.g-1, P = 0.03; total protein: 13.1 +/- 6.3 g.y-1.g-1, P = 0.04; and protein as percent of energy intake: 39.5 +/- 20.2 g.y-1.% of energy from protein-1, P = 0.05]. These findings are compatible with the hypotheses that protein intake may be a limiting factor for weight gain in this population, or that higher protein intake from animal sources (mostly fish) and legumes (lentils and peas) may be accompanied by higher intakes of limiting micronutrients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E Quijano C


    Full Text Available Los constituyentes volátiles de la pulpa de dos variedades de guayaba (Psidium guajava L (Palmira ICA-1 y Glum Salí, fueron obtenidos por extracción L-L (pentano: diclorometano 1:1; los extractos concentrados se fraccionaron por Cromatografía de Columna y se analizaron por CGAR Y CGAR-EM. De la variedad Palmira - ICA-1 se identificaron 86 compuestos, siendo mayoritarios el acetato de cinamilo, el acetato de (Z 3-hexenilo y el alcohol cinnamílico. En la variedad Glum Sali, se determinaron 77 constituyentes, de los cuales predominaron cuantitativamente el (E-2-hexenal, el hexanal y el tetradecano. La principal diferencia en la composición de volátiles entre las dos variedades es el alto contenido de esteres en la primera variedad, mientras que en la Glum Sali predominaron los hidrocarburos y los aldehidos C(,. De los compuestos volátiles identificados en este trabajo, la 4- hidroxi-4-metil-2-pentanona, la 3-heptanona, el 3-hidroxibutanoato de etilo, el acetato de 2-hidroxietilo, el 1,2-propanodiol, el 1,2-etanodiol, el acetato de 3-metilbutilo y el 3-metil-2 butanol son reportados por primera vez como constituyentes del aroma de guayaba.

  13. Puestos de altura de la Puna argentina: zooarqueología de Real Grande 1 y 6 y Alero Tomayoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Olivera 1


    Full Text Available The societies from the Late Period in the Argentinean Puna introduced considerable technical improvements and an increase in agricultural production, in relationship with a process of change towards a greater sociopolitical complexity. For this period there are large settlements associated with crop fi elds in the low basins, but the settlement systems includes sites located at higher elevations, named “Puestos de altura” like Real Grande 1 y 6 (Catamarca and Alero Tomayoc (Jujuy.The aim of this work is to study faunal remains from the above mentioned sites through a taxonomical/economical and osteometrical analysis in order to relate them with the total context of the settlements. The results seem to show that these sites played an important role for the herding of llamas and the hunting of wild camelids (vicuña and guanaco in the regional economy. Even more, the high elevation sites would have performed a vital function making possible the circulation of information, goods and energy giving strength to the process of sociopolitical complexity of the late prehispanic societies of the Argentinean Puna.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and study of magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties of La1-xDyxCo1-yFeyO3 nanoparticles prepared by wet chemical route (United States)

    Choudhry, Qurshia; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Nasar, Gulfam; Mahmood, Azhar; Shahid, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran; Farooq Warsi, Muhammad


    Dy3+ and Fe3+ co-doped LaCoO3 perovskite nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation route. Structural elucidation was carried out by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The data of all these characterization techniques confirmed the orthorhombic phase with particles size in the range of 20-60 nm. The magnetic parameters, DC-resistivity and dielectric properties were measured for La1-xDyxCo1-yFeyO3 nanoparticles. The purpose of all these application studies was to evaluate the prepared materials for practical applications. The substitution of Dy3+ and Fe3+ with La3+ and Co3+ respectively greatly influenced the magnetic, DC-resistivity and dielectric parameters.

  15. Isopiestic Investigation of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of {yMgCl2 + (1 - y)MgSO4}(aq) and the Osmotic Coefficients of Na2SO4.MgSO4(aq) at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miladinovic, J; Ninkovic, R; Todorovic, M; Rard, J A


    Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) solutions with MgCl{sub 2} ionic strength fractions of y = 0, 0.1997, 0.3989, 0.5992, 0.8008, and (1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements for the mixtures cover the ionic strength range I = 0.9794 to 9.4318 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. In addition, isopiestic measurements were made with NaCl(aq) as reference standard for mixtures of {l_brace}xNa{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + (1-x)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) with the molality fraction x = 0.50000 that correspond to solutions of the evaporite mineral bloedite (astrakanite), Na{sub 2}Mg(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O(cr). The total molalities, m{sub T} = m(Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) + m(MgSO{sub 4}), range from m{sub T} = 1.4479 to 4.4312 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} (I = 5.0677 to 15.509 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), where the uppermost concentration is the highest oversaturation molality that could be achieved by isothermal evaporation of the solvent at 298.15 K. The parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer) model for MgCl2(aq) at 298.15 K, which were required for an analysis of the {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) mixture results, were evaluated up to I = 12.025 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} from published isopiestic data together with the six new osmotic coefficients obtained in this study. Osmotic coefficients of {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) solutions from the present study, along with critically-assessed values from previous studies, were used to evaluate the mixing parameters of the extended ion-interaction model.

  16. Gradiente de riesgo genético HLA-DQ para diabetes tipo 1 y enfermedad celíaca en el noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Mejía-León


    Conclusión: Los sonorenses tienen una distribución de alelos HLA-DQ distintiva debido a su ascendencia. Las combinaciones del HLA-DQ8 con DQ2 o uno de sus alelos confirieron el máximo riesgo para ambas enfermedades. La DT1 y EC frecuentemente se presentan juntas.

  17. Structural and optical properties of MgyNi1-yHx gradient thin films in relation to the as-deposited metallic state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremaud, R.; van Mechelen, J.L.M.; Schreuders, H.; Slaman, M.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.


    Thin MgyNi1-yHx, films with a gradient in chemical composition are investigated by optical spectrophotometry, dc resistivity and X-ray diffraction measurements before and after exposure to hydrogen. In the metallic state crystalline Mg2Ni is present for 0.6 <= y <= 0.8 and coexists with amorphous Mg

  18. Effects of ECAP and Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-1Y (wt. % Binary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei


    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties development of extruded Mg-1Y (wt. % binary alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP with route Bc at 400 °C, and subsequent annealing treatment between 300–400 °C at different holding time of 5–120 min were investigated using an optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD, tensile test, and hardness test. The grain size of as-extruded material (~10.9 μm was refined significantly by 1-pass ECAP (~5.8 μm, and resulted in a remarkably enhanced elongation to failure (EL (~+62% with a slightly decreased ultimate tensile strength (UTS (~−3% comparing to the as-extruded condition (EL = 11.3%, UTS = 200 MPa. The EL was further increased to 27.3% (~+142% after four passes of ECAP comparing to the as-extruded condition, which was mainly caused by the much more homogenized microstructure. The split basal poles with about 60° rotations to the extruded direction (ED, the relatively coarsened grain size by static recrystallization (SRX and post-dynamic recrystallization (PDRX after four passes of ECAP might be responsible for the decreased strength with increasing ECAP pass. During the annealing treatment, recovery dominantly occurred at 300 °C, SRX and grain growth emerged at 350 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Meanwhile, the grain grew and hardness decreased rapidly even within 5 min for 1-pass ECAPed material at 400 °C, indicating a larger grain boundary mobility of ECAPed materials induced by higher deformation energy than the as-extruded ones.

  19. Small angle neutron scattering study of magnetic clustering in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, C., E-mail: [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Martinelli, A. [CNR-SPIN, Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Ferretti, M. [CNR-SPIN, Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Cimberle, M.R. [CNR-IMEM, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Mondelli, C. [CNR-IOM-OGG and TOF at Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Genoble Cedex 9 (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic clusters formation in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} manganites is pointed out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We indicate that magnetic clusters formation is favoured by Mn/Cr substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The importance of magnetic polarons in manganites phase behaviour is thus emphasized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tune by chemical substitution the weight of the different phase components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic clusters formation in Mn/Cr substituted manganites results to be softened. - Abstract: In the present paper we report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of magnetic clusters formation in (Pr{sub 0.55}Ca{sub 0.45})(Mn{sub 1-y}Cr{sub y})O{sub 3} (y = 0.00, 0.03, 0.06) manganites which was performed by analyzing, above and below the magnetic phase transitions, the momentum transfer q dependence of the SANS intensity on temperature and on the applied magnetic field 0 < H < 5 T. Thermal scans between 5 and 300 K in zero field, 1 and 5 T as well as isothermal field-scans at three different temperatures were collected in the suitable q range on each sample. These measurements allowed us to determine the spatial dimensions, density and distribution of the non-overlapping ferromagnetic clusters before, during and after their formation, both in the insulating high temperature and in the percolating low temperature phases. Our results indicate that the magnetic clusters formation is favoured by Mn/Cr partial substitution, thus emphasizing the importance of magnetic polarons in the natural tendency of manganites to phase separation and the possibility to tune by chemical substitution the relative weight of one phase component with respect to the other one.

  20. Multi-particle long-range rapidity correlations from fluctuation of the fireball longitudinal shape


    Bzdak, Adam; Bozek, Piotr


    We calculate the genuine long-range multi-particle rapidity correlation functions, $C_{n}(y_1,...,y_n)$ for $n=3,4,5,6$, originating from fluctuations of the fireball longitudinal shape. In these correlation functions any contribution from the short-range two-particle correlations, and in general up to $(n-1)$-particle in $C_n$, is suppressed. The information about the fluctuating fireball shape in rapidity is encoded in the cumulants of coefficients of the orthogonal polynomial expansion of ...

  1. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C


    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance.......: A total of 122 patients were included (84% women; x +/- SD age: 70 +/- 11 y); 68% completed the study. In an intention-to-treat analysis, LBMD increased in the intervention group and decreased in the placebo group, and the difference between the groups was significant after 12 mo: 0.931 +/- 0.211 compared...

  2. Structure, magnetic and magnetocloric properties of Pr0.7Ca0.3Mn1-yCryO3 (United States)

    Selmi, A.; Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A.


    Pr0,7Ca0,3Mn1-yCryO3 compounds (with 0binary oxides, at high temperatures in ambient air. The samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The structural refinement using the Rietveld method based on the FULLPROF program shows that our polycrystalline specimens are single phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Magnetic measurements versus temperature and versus magnetic field were also performed in all compounds. The Cr substitution in Pr0,7Ca0,3Mn1-yCryO3 is found to induce a ferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures. From isothermal magnetization curves, we can determine the magnetocaloric effect, which is of utmost important in the magnetic refrigeration technique. These results may open an important field in the search of new magnetic materials for magnetic refrigeration in order to replace the conventional expansion-compression technique.

  3. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C


    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN......: In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  4. Magnetic phase diagram and structural separation of La0.7(Ca1?ySry)0.3MnO3 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.P.; Park, S.Y.; Park, J.S.; Prokhorov, V.G.; Komashko, V.A.; Svetschnikov, V.L.; Kang, J.H.


    The structural, magnetic, and transport properties of La0.7(Ca1?ySry)0.3MnO3 films, deposited on a LaAlO3?(001) single crystalline substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering using “soft” (or powder) targets, have been investigated. It was found that at 0.3 ? y ? 0.5 both the rhombohedral (R3c) and the

  5. The Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te/sub 1-y/Se/sub y/ system: the existence region of the wurzite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellin, N.; Raizman, A.; Shachna, A.; Shacham, H.; Tenne, R.


    The wurzite existence region in the quaternary system of Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te/sub 1-y/Se/sub y/ was defined for temperatures higher than 500 C. Below this temperature, the immiscibility region expands at the expense of the wurzite existence region. Above this temperature, the decreasing immiscibility region reveals a transition phase region of both wurzite and zinc blende structures and a single phase region of the zinc blende structure. 14 refs.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of Ca1-xYxMnO3 and Ca0.9Y0.1-yFeyMnO3 perovskite compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Minh, Dang Le; Van Nong, Ngo


    Polycrystalline Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7) and Ca0.9Y0.1-yFeyMnO3 (y = 0.00; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05) compounds were prepared by solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed all XRD peaks of all the samples as identical to the orthorhombic structure. The thermoelectric ...

  7. Strained In1-xGaxAsyP1-y/InP quantum well heterostructures grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Jr Wilson de


    Full Text Available We have investigated the optical and the structural properties of strained In1-xGaxAsyP1-y/InP and strain compensated In1-xGaxAsyP1-y/In1-zGazAsqP1-q/InP multi-quantum well heterostructures grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy at different growth conditions. Our results indicate an increase of the compositional fluctuation of quaternary materials as the alloy composition moves from the outer spinodal isotherm into the miscibility gap region. In1-xGaxAsyP1-y layers grown at high tensile strained values exhibit a three-dimensional-like growth mode. Strain compensated structures revealed the presence of a broad photoluminescence emission band below the fundamental quantum well transition, well defined elongated features along the [011] direction and interface undulations. All these effects were found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature and the number of wells.

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo


    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  9. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens. (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  10. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu


    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  12. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.


    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  13. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan


    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  14. Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 perovskites fabricated by the micro-emulsion route for high frequency response devices fabrications

    KAUST Repository

    Azhar Khan, Muhammad


    Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 (x=0.00-0.60) perovskites were fabricated by a cheap economic route (i.e. micro-emulsion method) and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TGA analysis showed ~35% weight loss. The crystallite size determined by XRD and SEM ranged from 30 to 80 nm and ~30 to 50 nm, respectively. The dielectric behavior was evaluated in the range of 1.0×106 Hz to 3.0×10 9 Hz at 298 K, the dielectric parameters resulting appreciably enhanced by co-doping with Sr and Fe. The maximum dielectric parameters (ε′=103.35, ε″=58.92 and tan δ=0.57) were observed for La0.4Sr0.6Co0.4Fe0.6O 3 at 15×106 Hz. Results suggest the potential use of these nanocrystalline perovskites in GHz-operated microwave devices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

  15. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen


    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  16. Foraging optimally for home ranges (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.


    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  17. Reference Ranges & What They Mean (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  18. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  19. Ba1-xSrxCoyFe1-yO3-delta SOFC cathode materials : bulk properties, kinetics and mechanism of oxygen reduction


    Wang, Lei


    This work is mainly concerned with the mixed conducting perovskite solid solution materials family Ba1-xSrxCoyFe1-yO3-delta (BSCF) which is discussed as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode material. The aim is to get an improved understanding of the complex oxygen reduction reaction on such oxides in general, and in particular for the application as catalytically active cathode in SOFC. As a SOFC cathode candidate, the stability of BSCFs with regard to the application was first studied o...

  20. Modulación de la expresión por GA y ABA de los genes Ss1 y Ss2 que codifican sacarosa sintasa en cebada


    Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar; Barrero Sicilia, Cristina; Oñate Sanchez, Luis; Hernando Amado, Sara; Rueda Romero, Paloma


    En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo entre distintas isoformas de SUSy de cereales y arabidopsis. Además se ha realizado un análisis de expresión de HvSs1 y HvSs2 en distintos órganos, incluyendo patrones temporales en semillas en desarrollo y germinación, así como la variación de su respuesta a ácido abscísico (ABA) y giberélico (GA3).

  1. High quality InP and In sub 1-x Ga sub x As sub y P sub 1-y grown by gas source MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M.; Goldstein, L.; Perales, A.; Gaborit, F.; Starck, C.; Lievin, J.L. (Labs. de Marcoussis, 91 (France))


    The growth of high quality InP and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} by gas source molecular beam epitaxy is reported. 77 K mobilities up to 112,000 cm{sup 2}/V.s for high purity InP have been measured. Fe-doped semi-insulating InP has been grown using an iron effusion cell, and resistivities as high as 10{sup 9} {Omega} cm have been obtained. Selective epitaxy of InP on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-patterned substrates is also presented. (orig.).

  2. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)


    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  3. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis (United States)


    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  4. Radio pill antenna range test (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.


    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  5. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.


    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  6. Anatomy of a Mountain Range. (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley


    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  7. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station (United States)

    Intellect, 1977


    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  8. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar (United States)


    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  9. Mandibular movement range in children. (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de


    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  10. Effect of pickling processes on the microstructure and properties of electroless Ni–P coating on Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Xu


    Full Text Available The electroless plating Ni–P is prepared on the surface of Mg–7.5Li–2Zn–1Y alloys with different pickling processes. The microstructure and properties of Ni–P coating are investigated. The results show that the Ni–P coatings deposited using the different pickling processes have a different high phosphorus content amorphous Ni–P solid solution structure, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit higher hardness. There is higher phosphorus content of Ni–P amorphous coating using 125 g/L CrO3 and 110 ml/L HNO3 (w=68% than using 180 g/L CrO3 and 1 g/L KF during pre-treatment, and the coating structure is more compact, and the Ni–P coatings exhibit more excellent adhesion with substrate (Fc up to 22 N. The corrosion potential of Ni–P coating is improved and exhibits good corrosion resistance. As a result, Mg-7.5Li-2Zn-1Y alloy is remarkably protected by the Ni–P coating.

  11. Engineering Dirac Materials: Metamorphic InAs1-xSbx/InAs1-ySby Superlattices with Ultralow Bandgap. (United States)

    Suchalkin, Sergey; Belenky, Gregory; Ermolaev, Maksim; Moon, Seongphill; Jiang, Yuxuan; Graf, David; Smirnov, Dmitry; Laikhtman, Boris; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela; Svensson, Stefan P; Sarney, Wendy L


    Quasiparticles with Dirac-type dispersion can be observed in nearly gapless bulk semiconductors alloys in which the bandgap is controlled through the material composition. We demonstrate that the Dirac dispersion can be realized in short-period InAs1-xSbx/InAs1-ySby metamorphic superlattices with the bandgap tuned to zero by adjusting the superlattice period and layer strain. The new material has anisotropic carrier dispersion: the carrier energy associated with the in-plane motion is proportional to the wave vector and characterized by the Fermi velocity vF, and the dispersion corresponding to the motion in the growth direction is quadratic. Experimental estimate of the Fermi velocity gives vF = 6.7 × 105 m/s. Remarkably, the Fermi velocity in this system can be controlled by varying the overlap between electron and hole states in the superlattice. Extreme design flexibility makes the short-period metamorphic InAs1-xSbx/InAs1-ySby superlattice a new prospective platform for studying the effects of charge-carrier chirality and topologically nontrivial states in structures with the inverted bandgaps.

  12. Estudio de las modificaciones conformacionales y su influencia en la actividad inmunológica de péptidos derivados de las familias de las proteínas spect-1 y -2, siap-1 y -2 de plasmodium falciparum


    Alba Sandoval, Martha Patricia


    SPECT-1 y -2 y SIAP-1 y -2 son proteínas pertenecientes al esporozoíto de Plasmodium falciparum causante de la malaria más agresiva en los humanos. Estas proteínas están involucradas en el paso del parásito a través de las células del hospedero humano y en la invasión del hepatocito, haciéndolas blancos atractivos para ser estudiadas. Péptidos conservados de alta capacidad de unión (cHABPs) a células HeLa y HepG2 derivados de estas moléculas son no inmunogénicos porque son incapaces de genera...

  13. Short-range communication system (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)


    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  14. Countering short range ballistic missiles


    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  15. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?) (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.


    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  16. Oncosuppressive suicide gene virotherapy "PVH1-yCD/5-FC" for pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis treatment: NFκB and Akt/PI3K involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukaina Réjiba

    Full Text Available Peritoneal carcinomatosis is common in advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite current standard treatment, patients with this disease until recently were considered incurable. Cancer gene therapy using oncolytic viruses have generated much interest over the past few years. Here, we investigated a new gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT approach for an oncosuppressive virotherapy strategy using parvovirus H1 (PV-H1 which preferentially replicates and kills malignant cells. Although, PV-H1 is not potent enough to destroy tumors, it represents an attractive vector for cancer gene therapy. We therefore sought to determine whether the suicide gene/prodrug system, yCD/5-FC could be rationally combined to PV-H1 augmenting its intrinsic oncolytic activity for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. We showed that the engineered recombinant parvovirus rPVH1-yCD with 5-FC treatment increased significantly the intrinsic cytotoxic effect and resulted in potent induction of apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells. Additionally, the suicide gene-expressing PV-H1 infection reduced significantly the constitutive activities of NFκB and Akt/PI3K. Combination of their pharmacological inhibitors (MG132 and LY294002 with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in substantial increase of antitumor activity. In vivo, high and sustained expression of NS1 and yCD was observed in the disseminated tumor nodules and absent in normal tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal pancreatic carcinomatosis with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in a drastic inhibition of tumor cell spreading and subsequent increase in long-term survival. Together, the presented data show the improved oncolytic activity of wPV-H1 by yCD/5-FC and thus provides valuable effective and promising virotherapy strategy for prevention of tumor recurrence and treatment. In the light of this study, the suicide gene parvovirotherapy approach represents a new weapon in the war

  17. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  18. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John


    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  19. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Síndrome frágil X, diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y síndrome de malabsorción intestinal


    Rafael Pila Pérez; Rafael Pila Peláez; Pedro Rosales Torres; Víctor Holguín Prieto


    Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 28 años de edad con el diagnóstico de síndrome frágil X, diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y síndrome de malabsorción intestinal por giardias, entidad poco común y cuyas asociaciones constituyen el primer caso reportado en el país. Se reseñan algunas características genéticas de este síndrome y al mismo tiempo se exponen las principales características clínicas y diagnósticas, además se señala la conducta terapéutica empleada. Se concluye que el síndrome frágil X ...

  1. High thermoelectric performance of n-type PbTe1-ySy due to deep lying states induced by indium doping and spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Chere, Eyob; Wang, Yumei; Kim, Hee; He, Ran; Cao, Feng; Dahal, Keshab; Broido, David; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng


    Good thermoelectric materials should have high engineering figure-of-merit (ZT)eng, not peak ZT, to achieve high conversion efficiency. In this work, we achieved a good (ZT)eng by optimizing the carrier concentration to improve the room temperature ZT using deep lying dopant, indium, in PbTe1-ySy. It was found that a room temperature ZT as high as ~0.5 and a peak ZT ~1.1 at about 673 K were obtained in Pb0.98In0.02Te0.8S0.2 due to a lower thermal conductivity by alloy scattering and Spinodal decomposition. The calculated efficiency could be as high as ~12% at cold side 323 K and hot side 773 K. The approach is expected to work in other materials systems too.

  2. Surprising loss of three-dimensionality in low-energy spin correlations on approaching superconductivity in Fe1 +yTe1 -xSex (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Schneeloch, J. A.; Wen, Jinsheng; Winn, B. L.; Granroth, G. E.; Zhao, Yang; Gu, Genda; Zaliznyak, Igor; Tranquada, J. M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Xu, Guangyong


    We report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of low-energy (ℏ ω ≲10 meV) magnetic excitations in the "11" system Fe1 +yTe1 -xSex . The spin correlations are two-dimensional (2D) in the superconducting samples at low temperature, but appear much more three-dimensional (3D) when the temperature rises well above Tc˜15 K, with a clear increase of the (dynamic) spin correlation length perpendicular to the Fe planes. This behavior is extremely unusual; typically, the suppression of thermal fluctuations at low temperature would favor the enhancement of 3D correlations, or even ordering, and the reversion to 2D cannot be naturally explained when only the spin degree of freedom is considered. Our results suggest that the low temperature physics in the 11 system, in particular the evolution of low-energy spin excitations towards superconducting pairing, intrinsically involves changes in orbital correlations.

  3. ¿Cual es la función de las nucleoporinas AtSAR1 y AtSAR3 en la meiosis de " Arabidopsis thaliana"


    Fernández Jiménez, Nadia


    El complejo del poro nuclear regula el transporte núcleo-citoplasmático. Existe una relación con la supresión de la resistencia auxinas cuando se alteran algunas nucleoporinas. Concretamente, mutaciones en AtSAR1/AtNUP160 (Suppressor of Auxin Resistance1) y AtSAR3/AtNUP96 suprimen el fenotipo característico de los mutantes Ataxr1 (Auxin Resistant1) como: pérdida de la dominancia apical y del gravitropismo de la raíz, reducción de la formación de raíces laterales, aumento de la longitud de la ...

  4. Antiferromagnetism in Ce1-xLaxAl2Ga2 and Ce1-yYyAl2Ga2 Kondo-lattice systems (United States)

    Garde, C. S.; Ray, J.; Chandra, G.


    We report here resistivity ρ and thermoelectric-power S measurements between 1.7 and 300 K on Ce1-xLaxAl2Ga2 and Ce1-yYyAl2Ga2 Kondo-lattice alloys. By variation of x and y, there is a clear evolution of the Kondo-like resistivity minimum, which is not seen in the parent alloy (x=0). With both La and Y substitutions, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN is found to be depressed. It is suggested that this depression by a variation of x can be explained solely on the basis of the weakening of the intersite Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction, whereas with a variation of y, the TN depression results from an interplay of both single-site and intersite effects.

  5. Doping effect on electronic transport properties of Sr 14(Cu 1-yM y) 24O 41 (M=Zn, Ni) (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Hu, Ni; Wang, Lili; Lin, Ying; Xiong, Rui; Yu, Zuxing; Tang, Wufeng; Wang, Ququan; Shi, Jing


    Polycrystalline samples of Sr 14(Cu 1-yM y) 24O 41 (M=Zn/Ni) were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. The series of samples up to y⩽0.05 are identified to be single phase and no regular shift of lattice parameters a, b, c is found. The measurements of electronic transport show that although the doping compounds are still semiconductive as the parent phase, Zn and Ni dopants induce a decrease of electrical resistivity. Furthermore, Zn doping depresses the resistivity more significantly than Ni doping. A crossover temperature T ρ that exhibits in the Arrhenius plot of the resistivity versus temperature is observed in all the samples and goes up with the increase of the dopants. The origin of the decrease in resistivity with doping and the conduction mechanisms both above T ρ and below T ρ are discussed.

  6. Low-field electron mobility and thermoelectric power in In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice-matched to InP (United States)

    Sutradhar, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Nag, B. R.


    Electron drift and Hall mobility, and thermoelectric power in In1-xGaxAsyP1-y, lattice-matched to InP, are calculated for different temperatures and compositions. The two-mode nature of the polar optic phonons is considered jointly with deformation-potential acoustic, piezoelectric, alloy, ionized-impurity, and electron-electron scattering. Band nonparabolicity, admixture of p functions, arbitrary degeneracy of the electron distribution, and the screening effects of free carriers on the scattering probabilities are incorporated. The Boltzmann equation is solved by an iterative method using the currently established values of the material parameters. The agreement with the available experimental data is found to be satisfactory.

  7. Cobalt segregation in the LiNi 1-yCo yO 2 solid solution: A preliminary 7Li NMR study (United States)

    Menetrier, M.; Rougier, A.; Delmas, C.


    LiNi 1-yCo yO 2 materials exhibit a layered structure built from alternate sheets of (Ni,Co)O 6 and of LiO 6 octahedra sharing edges. They are particularly interesting as positive electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries. Single-pulse 7Li NMR spectra allow to distinguish between the Li + ions with only cobalt as their first 3d neighbors and those with at least one Ni 3+ (LS t 26e 1). The small amount of excess Ni 2+ ions (t 26e 2) known to be present in the materials with small y causes an alteration of the spectra. Li + ions with only cobalt as their first cationic neighbors are detected even for small cobalt contents, which shows the existence of a cobalt segregation while X-rays show that no phase separation occurs.

  8. Large asymmetric Stark shift in GaxIn1-xAs/InP/InAsyP1-y composite quantum wells (United States)

    Aneeshkumar, B.; Silov, A. Yu.; Leys, M. R.; Wolter, J. H.


    Strong asymmetric Stark shift in excess of 115 meV of the lowest energy transition has been experimentally observed in composite GaxIn1-xAs/InP/InAsyP1-y quantum-well system. In this structure, we can independently control the confinement of electrons and holes by controlling the strain. The photoexcited electrons and holes are confined in spatially separated regions without the application of an electric field. Due to the large asymmetry in the structure, we observed large blueshifts and redshifts of the absorption edge with an applied electric field. All our measurements agree with the calculations within the framework of the Bir-Pikus strain Hamiltonian.

  9. Tuning across the BCS-BEC crossover in the multiband superconductor Fe1+ySe x Te1-x: An angle-resolved photoemission study. (United States)

    Rinott, Shahar; Chashka, K B; Ribak, Amit; Rienks, Emile D L; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Le Fevre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Randeria, Mohit; Kanigel, Amit


    The crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is difficult to realize in quantum materials because, unlike in ultracold atoms, one cannot tune the pairing interaction. We realize the BCS-BEC crossover in a nearly compensated semimetal, Fe 1+ y Se x Te 1- x , by tuning the Fermi energy ε F via chemical doping, which permits us to systematically change Δ/ε F from 0.16 to 0.50, where Δ is the superconducting (SC) gap. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the Fermi energy, the SC gap, and characteristic changes in the SC state electronic dispersion as the system evolves from a BCS to a BEC regime. Our results raise important questions about the crossover in multiband superconductors, which go beyond those addressed in the context of cold atoms.

  10. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian


    data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  11. Port Competition in the Northern Range from Le Havre to Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Thorez


    Full Text Available The main European ports of the Northern Range facingstrong competition develop various strategies. Rotterdam andLe Havre, fast transit, Antwe1p, logistic activities with storage,Hamburg, hub for central and eastem Europe. These strategieswill be described in the paper.All of them are building new container terminals and usenew tools in technology of communications to increase trafficand to enable shipping lines to achieve their own strategies. Thenew equipments will also b.: analysed.In the last years, the competition is mainly on the links withthe hinterland. Major ports t1y to enlarge their hinterlands bytransshipment, railway con"idors, waterway connections andhighways. The importance of ports and inland intermodalnodes is growing.Nowadays, port competition in the Northern Range is locatednot only in the ports.

  12. Papel de las moléculas de adhesión ICAM-1 Y LFA-1 en la patogénesis de la Paracoccidioidomicosis pulmonar experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Cano


    Full Text Available

    Introducción: La Paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM, micosis sistémica común en América Latina, es una enfermedad crónica progresiva, causada por la inhalación de las conidias del hongo dimórfico térmico Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis (Pb. La infección pulmonar inicial se caracteriza por una importante respuesta inflamatoria aguda, posteriormente se observa una respuesta inflamatoria crónica y finalmente se desencadena un proceso fibrótico, secuela que se presenta en el 60 - 80 % de los pacientes. El proceso de adhesión de los leucocitos al endotelio se considera un evento temprano y es requisito indispensable para que se produzca la respuesta inflamatoria. Este proceso de adherencia es mediado por moléculas de adhesión como la molécula de adhesión intercelular-1 (ICAM-1 presente en el endotelio que se une a una b-2 integrina presente en el leucocito (LFA-1. Dichas moléculas no solo son necesarias para la adhesión de los leucocitos sino también, para su migración y activación. Su importancia ha sido demostrada en otras micosis como la candidiasis, criptococosis, aspergilosis y pneumocistosis. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la expresión a nivel pulmonar de ICAM-1 y LFA-1 en un modelo murino de PCM experimental, establecer su relación con la respuesta inflamatoria observada y determinar el papel que jugarían estas moléculas en la patogénesis de la micosis.

    Metodología: se utilizan ratones machos isogénicos BALB/c de 6 semanas de edad, los cuales son inoculados intranasalmente (i.n. con 4 x 10

  13. Cestodiasis tisulares: participación de los linfocitos T cooperadores 1 y 2 Tisular cestodiasis: The role of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Samuel López-Moreno


    Full Text Available La cisticercosis y la hidatidosis son las parasitosis causadas por los metacéstodos de Taenia solium y de Echinococcus multilocularis (o E. granulosus, respectivamente. El estudio de las enfermedades parasitarias ofrece uno de los mejores modelos in vivo para el estudio de la división efectora de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T cooperadores CD4+, designadas Th1 y Th2 de acuerdo con el patrón de citocinas que producen. La polarización hacia alguno de estos fenotipos puede marcar la diferencia entre una respuesta inmune celular protectora o una respuesta inmune permisiva para la infección. La participación de los linfocitos Th1 y Th2 en las cestodiasis tisulares (cisticercosis e hidatidosis ha sido estudiada en modelos experimentales de ratón y en pacientes humanos; en ambos casos los resultados sugieren que en los individuos con cisticercosis o hidatidosis la respuesta inmune celular está polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th2. En tanto que en los individuos donde los parásitos son destruidos, o su desarrollo está limitado, la respuesta inmune celular se encuentra polarizada hacia un fenotipo Th1.Cysticercosis and hydatidosis are parasitic diseases caused by larvae of Taenia solium and Echinococcus sp., respectively. Parasitic diseases are useful models for in vivo studies of effector functions of T helper cell subsets 1 and 2, (called Th1 and Th2 on the basis of the pattern of cytokines they produce. The polarization to Th1 or Th2 is related to protective or permissive immune responses in these diseases. The role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in tissue cestodiasis (cysticercosis and hydatidosis has been studied in experimentally infected mice and in human patients; study results suggest that in individuals with cysticercosis or hydatidosis, the cellular immune response is polarized to Th2, while individuals in whom parasites are killed or their growth is limited, have an immune cellular response that is polarized towards Th1.

  14. Influence of In-N Clusters on Band Gap Energy of Dilute Nitride In x Ga1-x N y As1-y (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Guo, Heng-Fei; Chen, Li-Ying; Tang, Chun-Xiao; Lu, Ke-Qing


    The In-N clusters form in the dilute nitride InxGa1-xNyAs1-y alloys after annealing. It is found that the formation of the In-N clusters not only raises the N levels lying above the conduction band minimum (CBM) of InGaAs, but also raises the N levels below the CBM of InGaAs, leading to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. The blueshift of the band gap energy is relative to the variation of the impurity-host interaction. In order to describe the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the formation of the In-N clusters, a model is developed. It is found that the model can describe the blueshift of the band gap energy well. In addition, it is found the blueshift of the band gap energy due to the atom interdiffusion at the interface can be larger than that due to the formation of the In-N clusters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61504094, Tinjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology under No. 15JCYBJC16300, and Tianjin City High School Science and Technology Fund Planning Project No. 20120609

  15. Single crystal growth and structural evolution across the 1st order valence transition in (Pr1-yYy)1-xCaxCoO3-δ (United States)

    Schreiber, N. J.; Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Hong; Freeland, J. W.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Mitchell, J. F.; Phelan, D.


    Praseodymium-containing cobalt perovskites, such as (Pr1-yYy)1-xCaxCoO3-δ, have been argued to undergo a first-order charge shift between Pr and hybridized Co-O orbitals that leads to a metal-insulator transition at a temperature, TVT. Magnetization and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of (Pr0.85Y0.15)0.7Ca0.3CoO3-δ grown in an IR image furnace under 40-60 bar of oxygen confirm the presence of this valence transition. Single crystal x-ray synchrotron diffraction measurements are consistent with an isomorphic phase transition at TVT. No evidence of charge ordering was revealed by the single crystal diffraction. Dissimilar to analytical transmission electron microscopy measurements performed on a grain from a polycrystalline sample that revealed an oxygen vacancy order-disorder transition at TVT, the present single-crystal measurements did not evidence such a transition, likely reflecting a lower density of oxygen vacancies in the high-pO2 grown single crystals.

  16. Diseño y evaluación de la formulación de tabletas de pimozida 1 y 4 mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Tamargo Santos


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron diferentes formulaciones de tabletas de pimozida en dosis de 1 y 4 mg, diseñadas con el objetivo de obtener una formulación que cumpla con los parámetros establecidos en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos XXII para el control de la calidad del producto terminado, así como los requerimientos necesarios para su revestimiento. Entre las formulaciones establecidas la denominada PP cumplió con los parámetros de calidad establecidos, antes y posterior al revestimiento. Los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de vida en estante de las tabletas revestidas fabricadas a escala semiindustrial demostraron que hasta 1 año posterior a la fabricación, éstas cumplen con las especificaciones establecidas en la Farmacopea, lo cual soporta la factibilidad para su escalado al nivel industrial.Different formulations of Pimozide 1 and 4 mg tablets designed to obtain a formulation that meets the parameters established by the United States Pharmacopeia XXII for controlling the quality of the finished product, as well as the necessary requirement for its coating, were studied. Among these formulations, the so-called PP fulfilled the established quality parameters before and after coating. The results obtained in the shelf life study of the coated tablets made at semiindustrial scale showen that even one year after their making they meet the specifications established by the Pharmacopeia, which supports the feasibility for their scale-up at industrial level.

  17. High magnetic field phase diagram in electron-doped manganites La(0.4)Ca(0.6)Mn(1-y)Cr(y)O3. (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Ni; Yang, Ming; Xia, Shuangcheng; Wang, Haowen; Wang, Junfeng; Xia, Zhengcai; Liu, Jun-Ming


    We report the charge-order to ferromagnetic phase transition induced by pulsed high magnetic field and impurity doping effects in manganites La(0.4)Ca(0.6)(Mn(1-y)Cr(y))O3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2). Significant charge-order suppression and ferromagnetic tendency upon the Cr(3+)-doping are evidenced, and three different ground states are identified, namely the charge-order state, the phase separated state, and the spin-glass like state. Phase diagram in the H-y plane at 4.2 K is determined by the high magnetic field study, in which the charge-order and ferromagnetic phase boundary is clearly figured out. The critical magnetic field for melting the charge-order phase of La(0.4)Ca(0.6)MnO3 is revealed to reach up to 46 T at 4.2 K. Interestingly, distinct responses of the three states to the high magnetic field are observed, indicating the special physics regarding the charge order melting process in each state. The mechanism of the doping induced charge-order suppression and ferromagnetism promotion can be understood by the competition between the antiferromagnetic interaction of Cr-Mn and local enhancement of electron hopping by Cr(3+).

  18. Cationic compositional optimization of CuIn(S1-ySey)2 ultra-thin layers obtained by chemical bath deposition (United States)

    Lugo, S.; Sánchez, Y.; Espíndola, M.; Oliva, F.; Izquierdo-Roca, V.; Peña, Y.; Saucedo, E.


    This paper reports the synthesis of CuIn(S1-ySey)2 (CISSe) (y = 0.84-0.93) ultra-thin films prepared by a sequential process based on the chemical bath deposition of In2S3/Cu2-xS precursor layers, followed by annealing under selenium atmosphere. The layers were synthesized varying the [Cu]/[In] ratio from 0.8 to 1.26 and the impact of this variation on the surface region of the ultra-thin absorbers is analyzed for each composition. Through a first optimization of this parameter, we achieved power conversion efficiencies up to 2.7% with open circuit voltage of 334 mV, short circuit current density of 16.1 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 50.9% using a Glass/Mo/CISSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al solar cell structure, for a 600 nm thick absorber annealed at relatively low temperature (450 °C/30 min). This demonstrates that this new synthesis method has potential as a low-cost alternative for CISSe solar cells production.

  19. Comparative study on Ga1-xZnxN1-yOy oxynitride synthesized by different techniques for application in photocatalytic hydrogen production (United States)

    Menon, Sumithra Sivadas; Baskar, K.; Singh, Shubra


    Hydrogen evolution by overall water splitting has emerged as a potential method for green energy generation due to the introduction of highly efficient photocatalysts active under visible region of spectra. In the present work, we focus on a comparative study of the properties of Ga1-xZnxN1-yOy oxynitride samples synthesized by two techniques and their effect on the sample properties. The samples were prepared by both traditional nitridation technique and solution combustion method. Room temperature photoluminescence studies revealed the introduction of additional energy levels above the valence band which in turns broadens the valence band and subsequently reduces the band gap. The band gap narrowing was further confirmed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB-XPS). It was also realized from VB XPS that the reduction of band gap in both the samples was due to upshift of valence band without affecting the conduction band. The presence of disorder activated modes in the samples was examined using temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy. In this work we corroborate the theoretical prediction reported by Al-Jassim et. al that the bandgap narrowing mechanism in ZnO rich solid solution and GaN rich solid solution is asymmetric and a significant bandgap reduction could be observed for ZnO rich solid solution than GaN rich.

  20. AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y alloys lattice matched to InAs(1 0 0) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Rojas-Ramirez, J. S.; Wang, S.; Contreras-Guerrero, R.; Caro, M.; Bhatnagar, K.; Holland, M.; Oxland, R.; Doornbos, G.; Passlack, M.; Diaz, C. H.; Droopad, R.


    AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y quaternary alloys lattice-matched to InAs were successfully grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for use as buffer layers for substrate isolation in InAs channel devices. The use of In-containing quaternary buffer layers with 5% In was found to dramatically improve the heterointerface between the buffer and a surface InAs channel layer. The composition of these alloys and the extent of lattice matching were accurately determined by double crystal X-ray measurements. A simple model was used to estimate the variation of critical thickness with lattice mismatch for AlInAsSb epitaxially grown on an InAs substrate. Layers with high Al content and low As mole fraction were grown by modulated MBE technique which was found to significantly improve the surface morphology and the composition control of the alloys. In contrast, quaternary alloys with low Al content were grown by conventional MBE and had an rms roughness of less than 0.2 nm.

  1. Antiferromagnetic ordering states of oxygen-deficient NdBa2Cu3O6+x and Nd1+yBa2-yCu3O6+x single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brecht, E.; Schweiss, P.; Wolf, T.


    The paper describes a study of the antiferromagnetic ordering of oxygen-deficient Nd1 + yBa2 - yCu3O6 + x single crystals. In pure, stoichiometric samples, y = 0, with different oxygen contents x in the Cu(1) plane (0.02

  2. Preparation and characterization of Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} nanocomposites for enhanced room-temperature NO{sub 2} sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Service de Science des Matériaux, Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons, Mons 7000 (Belgium); Zhang, Chao, E-mail: [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Luo, Yifan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Debliquy, Marc [Service de Science des Matériaux, Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons, Mons 7000 (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-(*)α} coatings with rich donor defects were successfully prepared. • Many p-n heterojunctions were formed in the as-sprayed Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} coatings. • Light absorption of the coatings was extended to whole visible light region. • Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} coatings showed an excellent response to NO{sub 2} at room temperature. - Abstract: In order to solve the problem that pristine ZnO show little response to NO{sub 2} gas at room temperature, some methods have been used, e.g., introducing narrow-bandgap semiconductors and donor defects into ZnO. In this work, we adopt solution precursor plasma spray to deposit Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} hybrid coatings. Rapid heating and cooling as well as the reducing atmosphere provided by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) produce highly concentrated donor defects such as zinc interstitials and oxygen vacancies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance confirmed that rich donor defects were present in the SPPS Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} coatings. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy images exhibited a highly porous nanostructure, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy showed that there were large amounts of p-n heterojunctions in the nanocomposites. The light absorption of the SPPS Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} hybrids was extended up to the whole visible light region. With assistance of visible light illumination, the nanocomposites exhibited significant response to NO{sub 2} for concentrations below 1 ppm. A sensing mechanism of the Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}@ZnO{sub 1-α} sensors was proposed.

  3. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  4. Probing neutrino and Higgs sectors in { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality (United States)

    Hue, L. T.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Ngan, N. T. K.; Long, H. N.


    The neutrino and Higgs sectors in the { SU(2) }_1 × { SU(2) }_2 × { U(1) }_Y model with lepton-flavor non-universality are discussed. We show that active neutrinos can get Majorana masses from radiative corrections, after adding only new singly charged Higgs bosons. The mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses is the same as in the Zee models. This also gives a hint to solving the dark matter problem based on similar ways discussed recently in many radiative neutrino mass models with dark matter. Except the active neutrinos, the appearance of singly charged Higgs bosons and dark matter does not affect significantly the physical spectrum of all particles in the original model. We indicate this point by investigating the Higgs sector in both cases before and after singly charged scalars are added into it. Many interesting properties of physical Higgs bosons, which were not shown previously, are explored. In particular, the mass matrices of charged and CP-odd Higgs fields are proportional to the coefficient of triple Higgs coupling μ . The mass eigenstates and eigenvalues in the CP-even Higgs sector are also presented. All couplings of the SM-like Higgs boson to normal fermions and gauge bosons are different from the SM predictions by a factor c_h, which must satisfy the recent global fit of experimental data, namely 0.995Z-Z' mixing angles is exactly the cosine of the Weinberg angle, implying that number of parameters is reduced by 1. Signals of new physics from decays of new heavy fermions and Higgs bosons at LHC and constraints of their masses are also discussed.

  5. Análisis comparado de actos de habla en manuales de ELE en los niveles A1 y A2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Martín, Patricia


    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es comprobar el grado de aparición de los actos de habla en tanto tales en los manuales de enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera. Para ello, en una primera parte se muestra un estado de la cuestión acerca del concepto de acto de habla y del análisis de manuales de ELE. En la segunda parte, se estudian diez manuales diferentes de enseñanza de español, correspondientes a los niveles A1 y A2, atendiendo en esencia a cinco actos de habla representativos de sendos grupos, tal y como se definen en las teorías pragmáticas clásicas: la descripción de objetos como acto de habla asertivo o representativo; el consejo como acto de habla directivo; la expresión de la certeza y la evidencia como acto compromisivo; la felicitación como acto de habla expresivo y la presentación como representante de los actos de habla declarativos. Las principales conclusiones apuntan a que ninguno de los manuales analizados permite un aprendizaje adecuado de todos los actos de habla, si bien hay secuencias didácticas realmente aceptables para trabajar alguno de ellos, que pueden contribuir a que el profesor de idiomas lleve con éxito al aula aspectos esenciales de la pragmática del español.

  6. Optical characterization in Pb(Zr{sub 1-x} Ti{sub x}){sub 1-y} Nb{sub y} O{sub 3} ferroelectric ceramic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durruthy-Rodriguez, M.D. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, CITMA, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, La Habana (Cuba); CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, IPN, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Costa-Marrero, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, M. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, CITMA, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, La Habana (Cuba); Calderon-Pinar, F. [Universidad de La Habana, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, La Habana (Cuba); Malfatti, Celia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Metalurgia, Escola de Engenharia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yanez-Limon, J.M. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, IPN, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    In this work, visible photoluminescence was observed at room temperature in a sintered Pb(Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}){sub 1-y}Nb{sub y}O{sub 3} perovskite-type structure system, doped with Nb using the next excitation bands 325, 373 and 457 nm. The intensity and energy of such emissions have been studied by changing the Nb concentration (0

  7. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)


    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  8. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl


    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  9. WPC's Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin. The Short Range Forecast Coded Bulletin describes the expected locations of high and low pressure centers, surface frontal...

  10. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  11. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008 (United States)


    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mauricio Meza Lasso


    Full Text Available RESUMENLa vía de señalización Notch se caracteriza por mediar la comunicación célula-célula, regulando diferentes procesos celulares como proliferación, apoptosis y definición del destino celular. Esta vía ha sido implicada en el desarrollo de estructuras craneofaciales como paladar, diente y bóveda craneal. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar los patrones de expresión de los genes componentes de la vía Notch, Serrate1 y Notch1, durante el desarrollo del tercio medio facial. Se utilizaron embriones de pollo (Gallus gallus seleccionados de acuerdo a los criterios de Hamilton y Hamburger y sobre los cuales se realizó hibridación in situ con ribosondas marcadas con Digoxigenina (DIG, para luego ser detectadas con anticuerpos Anti-Dig. Los resultados mostraron expresión de los genes evaluados, en las prominencias maxilares (pmx y frontonasal (pfn durante el desarrollo del tercio medio facial. Estos resultados sugieren una probable participación de la vía Notch a través de estos genes, en los diferentes procesos celulares que determinan la morfogénesis y el desarrollo del tercio medio facial.ABSTRACTThe Notch signaling pathway is characterized by mediate cell-cell communication, regulating different cellular processes as proliferation, apoptosis and cell fate definition. This pathway has been implicated in craniofacial structures development as palate, teeth and cranial vault. The objective of this research was to identify the genes expression patterns of some Notch signaling pathway components, Serrate1 and Notch1, during the midface development. It was used chicken embryos (Gallus gallus selected according to Hamilton and Hamburger criteria. We performed in situ hybridization with Digoxigenin (DIG-labeled riboprobes and detected with the antibody Anti-Dig. The results showed the expression of the evaluated genes in the maxillary (pmx and frontonasal (pfn prominences during the midface development. These results

  13. Optimization of Monocrystalline MgxCd1-xTe/MgyCd1-yTe Double-Heterostructure Solar Cells (United States)

    Becker, Jacob J.

    Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells show great promise with respect to addressing the problem of low Voc with the passing of the 1 V benchmark. Rapid progress has been made in driving the efficiency in these devices ever closer to the record presently held by polycrystalline thin-films. This achievement is primarily due to the utilization of a remote p-n heterojunction in which the heavily doped contact materials, which are so problematic in terms of increasing non-radiative recombination inside the absorber, are moved outside of the CdTe double heterostructure with two MgyCd1-yTe barrier layers to provide confinement and passivation at the CdTe surfaces. Using this design, the pursuit and demonstration of efficiencies beyond 20% in CdTe solar cells is reported through the study and optimization of the structure barriers, contacts layers, and optical design. Further development of a wider bandgap MgxCd1-xTe solar cell based on the same design is included with the intention of applying this knowledge to the development of a tandem solar cell constructed on a silicon subcell. The exploration of different hole-contact materials--ZnTe, CuZnS, and a-Si:H--and their optimization is presented throughout the work. Devices utilizing a-Si:H hole contacts exhibit open-circuit voltages of up to 1.11 V, a maximum total-area efficiency of 18.5% measured under AM1.5G, and an active-area efficiency of 20.3% for CdTe absorber based devices. The achievement of voltages beyond 1.1V while still maintaining relatively high fill factors with no rollover, either before or after open-circuit, is a promising indicator that this approach can result in devices surpassing the 22% record set by polycrystalline

  14. Compressed Data Structures for Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vind, Søren Juhl


    matrices and web graphs. Our contribution is twofold. First, we show how to compress geometric repetitions that may appear in standard range searching data structures (such as K-D trees, Quad trees, Range trees, R-trees, Priority R-trees, and K-D-B trees), and how to implement subsequent range queries......We study the orthogonal range searching problem on points that have a significant number of geometric repetitions, that is, subsets of points that are identical under translation. Such repetitions occur in scenarios such as image compression, GIS applications and in compactly representing sparse...... that supports range searching....

  15. Crystal structure, chemical bonding and magnetism studies for three quinary polar intermetallic compounds in the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))9In8(Ge(1-y)Sn(y))8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03) and the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))3In(Ge(3-y)Sn(1+y)) (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27) phases. (United States)

    Woo, Hyein; Jang, Eunyoung; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho; Kim, Jongsik; You, Tae-Soo


    Three quinary polar intermetallic compounds in the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))9In8(Ge(1-y)Sn(y))8 (x = 0.66, y = 0.03) and the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))3In(Ge(3-y)Sn(1+y)) (x = 0.66, 0.68; y = 0.13, 0.27) phases have been synthesized using the molten In-metal flux method, and the crystal structures are characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Two orthorhombic structural types can be viewed as an assembly of polyanionic frameworks consisting of the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedral chains, the bridging Ge2 dimers, either the annulene-like "12-membered rings" for the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))9In8(Ge(1-y)Sn(y))8 series or the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chains for the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))3In(Ge(3-y)Sn(1+y)) series, and several Eu/Ca-mixed cations. The most noticeable difference between two structural types is the amount and the location of the Sn-substitution for Ge: only a partial substitution (11%) occurs at the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedron in the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))9In8(Ge(1-y)Sn(y))8 series, whereas both a complete and a partial substitution (up to 27%) are observed, respectively, at the cis-trans Ge/Sn-chain and at the In(Ge/Sn)4 tetrahedron in the (Eu(1-x)Ca(x))3In(Ge(3-y)Sn(1+y)) series. A series of tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital calculations is conducted to understand overall electronic structures and chemical bonding among components. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates a ferromagnetic ordering of Eu atoms below 5 K for Eu1.02(1)Ca1.98InGe2.87(1)Sn1.13.

  16. Fluorine-ion conductivity of different technological forms of solid electrolytes R 1- y M y F3- y (LaF3 Type ) ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R Are Rare Earth Elements) (United States)

    Sorokin, N. I.; Sobolev, B. P.


    We have investigated the conductivity of some representatives of different technological forms of fluoride-conducting solid electrolytes R 1- y M y F3- y ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R are rare earth elements) with an LaF3 structure: single crystals, cold- and hot-pressing ceramics based on a charge prepared in different ways (mechanochemical synthesis, solid-phase synthesis, and fragmentation of single crystals), polycrystalline alloys, etc. It is shown (by impedance spectroscopy), that different technological forms of identical chemical composition ( R, M, y) exhibit different electrical characteristics. The maximum conductivity is observed for the single-crystal form of R 1- y M y F3- y tysonite phases, which provides (in contrast to other technological forms) the formation of true volume ion-conducting characteristics.

  17. Structural and vibrational studies of LiNi{sub 1-y}Co{sub y}VO{sub 4} (0{<=}y{<=}1) cathodes materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, C.; Massot, M. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes; Perez-Vicente, C. [Laboratoire des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques, CC-015, Universite de Montpellier II, place Eugene-Bataillon, 34095, Montpellier (France)


    The structure and vibrational properties of high voltage cathode materials, namely LiNi{sub 1-y}CO{sub y}VO{sub 4} solid solution with (0{<=}y{<=}1), have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and FTIR measurements. Rietveld refinements show that LiNi{sub 1-y}Co{sub y}VO{sub 4} vanadates belong to the inverse spinel structure with Fd3m(O{sup 7}{sub h}) space group. Analysis of Raman spectra has been carried out in the molecular approximation using a local environment model including VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, (Ni, Co)O{sub 6} and LiO{sub 6} octahedra as vibrational local units. (orig.)

  18. Silica-supported tungsten carbynes (≡SiO)xW(≡CH)(Me)y (x = 1, y = 2; X = 2, y = 1): New efficient catalysts for alkyne cyclotrimerization

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima


    The activity of silica-supported tungsten carbyne complexes (≡SiO)xW(≡CH)(Me)y (x = 1, y = 2; x = 2, y = 1) toward alkynes is reported. We found that they are efficient precatalysts for terminal alkyne cyclotrimerization with high TONs. We also demonstrate that this catalyst species is active for alkyne cyclotrimerization without the formation of significant alkyne metathesis products. Additional DFT calculations highlight the importance of the W coordination sphere in supporting this experimental behavior.

  19. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.


    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  20. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2010 (United States)


    Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat...range; some means of facilitating IO play but no organic capability. NTTR continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service to deploy at UOC organic capability. Continuing to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the UOC . Collective Ranges Information

  1. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015 (United States)


    no organic capability. HQ NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ...NTTR continues to work with JIOR to provide a mobile service which can be deployed at the Urban Operations Complex ( UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic... UOC ) on Range 62. Electronic Combat Support h The range lacks a complete electronic target set. EA platforms do not get real-time feedback on their

  2. Supersymmetric inversion of effective-range expansions


    Midya, Bikashkali; Evrard, Jérémie; Abramowicz, Sylvain; Ramirez Suarez, Oscar Leonardo; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    A complete and consistent inversion technique is proposed to derive an accurate interaction potential from an effective-range function for a given partial wave in the neutral case. First, the effective-range function is Taylor or Pad\\'e expanded, which allows high precision fitting of the experimental scattering phase shifts with a minimal number of parameters on a large energy range. Second, the corresponding poles of the scattering matrix are extracted in the complex wave-number plane. Thir...

  3. Range contraction in large pelagic predators. (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Tittensor, Derek P


    Large reductions in the abundance of exploited land predators have led to significant range contractions for those species. This pattern can be formalized as the range-abundance relationship, a general macroecological pattern that has important implications for the conservation of threatened species. Here we ask whether similar responses may have occurred in highly mobile pelagic predators, specifically 13 species of tuna and billfish. We analyzed two multidecadal global data sets on the spatial distribution of catches and fishing effort targeting these species and compared these with available abundance time series from stock assessments. We calculated the effort needed to reliably detect the presence of a species and then computed observed range sizes in each decade from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest significant range contractions in 9 of the 13 species considered here (between 2% and 46% loss of observed range) and significant range expansions in two species (11-29% increase). Species that have undergone the largest declines in abundance and are of particular conservation concern tended to show the largest range contractions. These include all three species of bluefin tuna and several marlin species. In contrast, skipjack tuna, which may have increased its abundance in the Pacific, has also expanded its range size. These results mirror patterns described for many land predators, despite considerable differences in habitat, mobility, and dispersal, and imply ecological extirpation of heavily exploited species across parts of their range.

  4. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Oregon Spotted Frog Range - CWHR [ds597 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Northern Leopard Frog Range - CWHR [ds593 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Great Egret Range - CWHR [ds610 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Cascades Frog Range - CWHR [ds591 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Western spadefoot Range - CWHR [ds590 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  18. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB


    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  20. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael


    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  1. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  2. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  3. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.


    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  5. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...

  6. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia (United States)


    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  7. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges (United States)


    Laysan Albatrosses , and the recovery of a shoreline/littoral zone when human traffic is limited to security vehicles and personnel. This range...Requirements Module (ARRM) and feed the Installation Status C-8 July 2007 2007 SUSTAINABLE RANGES REPORT Report-Natural Infrastructure (see

  8. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C


    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  9. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research time periods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  10. Undergraduate range management exam: 1999-2014 (United States)

    The Undergraduate Range Management Exam (URME) has been administered to undergraduate students at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management since 1983, with students demonstrating their higher order learning skills and synthesis knowledge of the art and science of rangeland management. ...

  11. Selected Bibliography On Southern Range Management (United States)

    R. S. Campbell; L. K. Halls; H. P. Morgan


    The purpose of this bibliography is to list important publications relating directly to southern ranges, the domestic livestock and wildlife produced thereon, and the management of these lands, livestock, and wildlife. Range is defined as natural grassland, savannah, or forest that supports native grasses, forbs, or shrubs suitable as forage for livestock and game....

  12. New data structures for orthogonal range searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis


    We present new general techniques for static orthogonal range searching problems in two and higher dimensions. For the general range reporting problem in R3, we achieve query time O(log n+k) using space O(n log1+ε n), where n denotes the number of stored points and k the number of points to be re...

  13. Structure and luminescence properties of Ce3+ doped KBa1-x(Mg/Zn)xY(BO3)2 and K1-yNayBaY(BO3)2 phosphors evolved from cation substitution (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Liang, Yujun; Liu, Shiqi; Zhu, Yingli; Wu, Xingya; Li, Kai; Zhou, Wei


    The tunable blue-emitting KBa1-x(Mg/Zn)xY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ and K1-yNayBaY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ phosphors have been investigated via cation substitution of Mg2+/Zn2+ for Ba2+ and Na+ for K+ in KBaY(BO3)2 host. The crystal structures, photoluminescence properties, thermal stability and the effect of Mg2+/Zn2+/Na+ concentration on the luminescence characteristics were investigated in detail. The XRD analysis implied that KBa1-x(Mg/Zn)xY(BO3)2 solid solutions were limited, while continuous solid solution was possible in K1-yNayBaY(BO3)2 system. Upon the excitation at 365 nm, the emission peaks of KBa1-x(Mg/Zn)xY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.6) blue-shifted from 435 to 424 nm, and K1-yNayBaY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ (0 ⩽ y ⩽ 1) blue-shifted from 435 to 427 nm with the Mg2+/Zn2+/Na+ doping concentration increase. The thermal stabilities of KBa1-x(Mg/Zn)xY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ phosphors were enhanced from 20 °C to 200 °C by increasing the concentration of Mg2+ and Zn2+. The substitution of Na+ for K+ led to a decrease in the proportion of 5D-2F5/2 and 5D-2F7/2 corresponding to the Gaussian fitting of Ce3+ in K1-yNayBaY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ phosphors. At the temperature increased, the full width at half maximum of photoluminescence band of K0.8Na0.2BaY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ decreased. However, the decreasing trend of FWHM became less obvious with the increasing concentration of Na+ in the temperature dependent photoluminescence spectra of K1-yNayBaY0.95(BO3)2:0.05Ce3+ phosphors.

  14. Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merkowitz


    Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation. (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup


    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15% of all range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter (p < 0.05). Identifying the causes of inter-individual variation in ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  16. Long-Range Persistence Techniques Evaluated (United States)

    Witt, A.; Malamud, B. D.


    Many time series in the Earth Sciences exhibit persistence (memory) where large values (small values) `cluster' together. Here we examine long-range persistence, where one value is correlated with all others in the time series. A time series is long-range persistent (a self-affine fractal) if the power spectral density scales with a power law. The scaling exponent beta characterizes the `strength' of persistence. We compare five common analysis techniques for quantifying long-range persistence: (a) Power-spectral analysis, (b) Wavelet variance analysis, (c) Detrended Fluctuation analysis, (d) Semivariogram analysis, and (e) Rescaled-Range (R/S) analysis. To evaluate these methods, we construct 26,000 synthetic fractional noises with lengths between 512 and 4096, different persistence strengths, different distributions (normal, log-normal, levy), and using different construction methods: Fourier filtering, discrete wavelets, random additions, and Mandelbrot `cartoon' Brownian motions. We find: (a) Power-spectral and wavelet analyses are the most robust for measuring long-range persistence across all beta, although `antipersistence' is over-estimated for non- Gaussian time series. (b) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength beta between -0.2 and 2.8 and has very large 95% confidence intervals for non-Gaussian signals. (c) Semivariograms are appropriate for signals with long-range persistence strength between 1.0 and 2.8; it has large confidence intervals and systematically underestimates log-normal noises in this range. (d) Rescaled- Range Analysis is only accurate for beta of about 0.7. We conclude some techniques are much better suited than others for quantifying long-range persistence, and the resultant beta (and associated error bars on them) are sensitive to the one point probability distribution, the length of the time series, and the techniques used.

  17. Illuminating geographical patterns in species' range shifts. (United States)

    Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise


    Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies

  18. Short range DFT combined with long-range local RPA within a range-separated hybrid DFT framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chermak, E; Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos


    Selecting excitations in localized orbitals to calculate long-range correlation contributions to range-separated density-functional theory can reduce the overall computational effort significantly. Beyond simple selection schemes of excited determinants, the dispersion-only approximation, which avoids counterpoise-corrected monomer calculations, is shown to be particularly interesting in this context, which we apply to the random-phase approximation. The approach has been tested on dimers of formamide, water, methane and benzene.

  19. Storm surge and tidal range energy (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Robins, Peter; Evans, Paul; Neill, Simon


    The need to reduce carbon-based energy sources whilst increasing renewable energy forms has led to concerns of intermittency within a national electricity supply strategy. The regular rise and fall of the tide makes prediction almost entirely deterministic compared to other stochastic renewable energy forms; therefore, tidal range energy is often stated as a predictable and firm renewable energy source. Storm surge is the term used for the non-astronomical forcing of tidal elevation, and is synonymous with coastal flooding because positive storm surges can elevate water-levels above the height of coastal flood defences. We hypothesis storm surges will affect the reliability of the tidal range energy resource; with negative surge events reducing the tidal range, and conversely, positive surge events increasing the available resource. Moreover, tide-surge interaction, which results in positive storm surges more likely to occur on a flooding tide, will reduce the annual tidal range energy resource estimate. Water-level data (2000-2012) at nine UK tide gauges, where the mean tidal amplitude is above 2.5m and thus suitable for tidal-range energy development (e.g. Bristol Channel), were used to predict tidal range power with a 0D modelling approach. Storm surge affected the annual resource estimate by between -5% to +3%, due to inter-annual variability. Instantaneous power output were significantly affected (Normalised Root Mean Squared Error: 3%-8%, Scatter Index: 15%-41%) with spatial variability and variability due to operational strategy. We therefore find a storm surge affects the theoretical reliability of tidal range power, such that a prediction system may be required for any future electricity generation scenario that includes large amounts of tidal-range energy; however, annual resource estimation from astronomical tides alone appears sufficient for resource estimation. Future work should investigate water-level uncertainties on the reliability and

  20. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.


    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  1. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ


    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  2. Remote sensing applications for range management (United States)

    Haas, R. H.


    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  3. Kenai National Moose Range : Narrative report : 1968 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai National Moose Range outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  5. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  6. Range ecosystem management for natural areas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes methods for managing range ecosystems in natural areas. Preserved natural areas on rangeland may, in a short time, be only those which received...

  7. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke


      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  8. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Botdorf, Charles


    This Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement presents the impacts associated with the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of mission diversification and changes to land use for Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona...

  9. VT E911 road address range geocoder (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road address range geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  10. Compact ranges in antenna and RCS measurements (United States)

    Audone, B.


    With the increased complexity and extended frequency range of operation model measurements and far field test ranges are no longer suitable to satisfy the demand of accurate testing. Moreover plane wave test conditions are required for Radar Cross Section (RCS) measurements which represent a key point in stealth technology. Compact ranges represent the best test facilities available presently since they allow for indoor measurements under far field conditions in real time without any calculation effort. Several types of compact ranges are described and compared discussing their relevant advantages with regard to RCS and antenna measurements. In parallel to measuring systems sophisticated computer models were developed with such a high level of accuracy that it is questionable whether experiments give better results than theory. Tests performed on simple structures show the correlation between experimental results and theoretical ones derived on the basis of GTD computer codes.

  11. Worst-Case Efficient Range Searching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan


    In this tutorial we will describe some of the recent advances in the development of worst-case efficient range search indexing structures, that is, structures for storing a set of data points such that the points in a axis-parallel (hyper-) query rectangle can be found efficiently (with as few disk...... discuss the external priority search tree [8], which solves a restricted version of the two-dimensional version of the problem where the query rectangle is unbounded on one side. This structure is then used in a range tree index structure [8, 21] that answers general two-dimensional queries in the same......, 17], as well as recent index structures for higher-dimensional range search indexing [1]. We end by mentioning various R-tree variant [7, 18, 15] that can be used to solve the extended version of range search indexing where the queries as well as the data are (hyper-) rectangles. More comprehensive...

  12. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  13. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas


    ]. •We give an O(n loglog n)-space data structure for approximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can compute a (1+δ)-factor approximation to the count in O(loglog n) time for any fixed constant δ>0. Again, our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem. •Lastly...

  14. Vehicle Based Laser Range Finding in Crops


    Hans-Juergen Horn; Rolf Adamek; Detlef Ehlert


    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinder...

  15. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage


    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  16. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft (United States)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt


    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  17. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob


    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  18. Microprocessor realizations of range and range-rate filters in radar systems (United States)

    Fleischer, D.; Aronhime, P.


    This paper describes the implementation of digital radar range-rate filters on a microprocessor-based system. A range-rate filter processes a digitized noisy range signal to recover smoothed range data and its derivative, range rate. Two filter designs are implemented. Considerations aiding their efficient operation on an 8-bit microprocessor are discussed. The filters are subjected to a noisy range input signal of known variance, and the associated output signals are statistically analysed to determine noise-rejection characteristics. These results are compared to analytical predictions.

  19. Reticle level compensation for long range effects (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannufel, Cyril; Schiavone, Patrick


    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. Electron scattering effects are commonly addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for correcting "short-range" and "long-range" backscattering effects up to 10μm to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena impacting pattern uniformity that have a wider range (fogging, chemical mechanical polishing -CMP- effects, etc.) which impacts up to a few millimeters or more. There are a number of commercial strategies for mitigating such long range effects based on data density. However, those traditional ones are usually performed within a single chip on a reticle field and ignore the presence of adjacent fields, neglecting their influence. Full field reticles can contain several different designs or arrayed chips in a multitude of layout placements. Reticle level jobdeck placing each design at specific sites, independent of each other can be used to account for the density of each pattern that has a relative impact on its neighbors, even if they are several millimeters away from offending data. Therefore, full field density analysis accounting for scribe frames and all neighboring patterns is required for reaching fidelity control requirements such as critical dimension (CD) and line end shortening (LES) on the full plate. This paper describes a technique to compensate long range effects going across chip boundaries to the full reticle exposure field. The extreme long range effects are also represented with a model that is calibrated according to the characteristics of the user's process. Data correction can be based on dose and geometry modulation. Uniform pattern dimensional control matching the user's specific process long range variability can be achieved with the

  20. Individual differences in BEV drivers' range stress during first encounter of a critical range situation. (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Krems, Josef F


    It is commonly held that range anxiety, in the form of experienced range stress, constitutes a usage barrier, particularly during the early period of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage. To better understand factors that play a role in range stress during this critical period of adaptation to limited-range mobility, we examined individual differences in experienced range stress in the context of a critical range situation. In a field experiment, 74 participants drove a BEV on a 94-km round trip, which was tailored to lead to a critical range situation (i.e., small available range safety buffer). Higher route familiarity, trust in the range estimation system, system knowledge, subjective range competence, and internal control beliefs in dealing with technology were clearly related to lower experienced range stress; emotional stability (i.e., low neuroticism) was partly related to lower range stress. These results can inform strategies aimed at reducing range stress during early BEV usage, as well as contribute to a better understanding of factors that drive user experience in low-resource systems, which is a key topic in the field of green ergonomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optics At White Sands Missile Range (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.


    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  2. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen


    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  3. Vortex melting line and dimensional crossover in Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n}(O{sub 1-y},F{sub y}){sub 2} cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivagan, D.D.; Shirage, P.M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Crisan, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Tanaka, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)], E-mail:; Iyo, A.; Kodama, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T. [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Terada, N. [Department of Nano Structures and Advanced Materials, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hamada, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)


    Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n}(O{sub 1-y},F{sub y}){sub 2}[F(2y)-02(n - 1)n], homologous series with F-substitution at apical oxygen site possess a thinner, 7.4 A, charge reservoir layer (CRL) and a strong interlayer vortex coupling was expected in these systems. We measured the vortex melting lines of high pressure synthesized Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}(O{sub 1-y}F{sub y}){sub 2} (2y = 2.0) multilayered system with 2 inner planes (IP) of CuO{sub 2} layers and Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}(O{sub 1-y}F{sub y}){sub 2} (2y 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0) bilayer system with no IP; using fundamental and third harmonic susceptibility response carried out onto preferentially oriented crystallites at very low ac field amplitude and applied dc fields up to 12 T. These experimental melting lines are described by the commonly accepted theory of two-fluid model. We observed 3D to 2D crossover in heavily underdoped F(2.0)-0212 sample, whereas such a vortex lattice crossover is not evident in F(2.0)-0234 sample; and explained on the basis of heavily underdoped and self doped states.

  4. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian


    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  5. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.


    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  6. Protección, función hepática y respuesta inmune humoral de ovinos vacunados con mimotopos de catepsina L1 y L2 infectados experimentalmente con Fasciola hepatica


    H Quiroz-Romero; Correa, D.; D Castillo-Mata; S Ortega-Vargas; A Villa-Mancera


    Protección, función hepática y respuesta immune humoral fueron evaluadas en ovinos vacunados con mimotopos de catepsina L1 y/o L2 y desafiados con metacercarias de Fasciola hepatica. Veinte ovinos fueron asignados al azar en cuatro grupos de cinco animales cada uno, para ser inmunizados con 1 x 10(14) partículas de fagos de catepsina L1 (YVYRWVEAECVA), catepsina L2 (YVYEGRSRVRRP), catepsina L1/L2 (YVYRWVEAECVA y YVYEGRSRVRRP) y amortiguador de fosfato salino (PBS, grupo control), sin adyuvant...

  7. El receptor acoplado a proteína G de galanina (GalR1) y su implicación en la depresión: expresión y caracterización


    Rivera Rodríguez, Diana Marcela


    Aunque la fisiopatología de la depresión aún no está completamente clara, se sabe que implica perturbaciones en la transmisión monoaminérgica en el cerebro. Los actuales fármacos antidepresivos limitan su eficacia terapéutica a una serie de pacientes, y están ligados a efectos secundarios serios. Con miras a ampliar los agentes terapéuticos, los estudios recientes sugieren que la existencia de dimerización entre los receptores de galanina (GalR1) y serotonina (5HT-1A), pueden ser relevantes e...

  8. Deviations from Vegard's law in semiconductor thin films measured with X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering: The Ge1-ySny and Ge1-xSix cases (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Senaratne, Charutha L.; Culbertson, Robert J.; Kouvetakis, John; Menéndez, José


    The compositional dependence of the lattice parameter in Ge1-ySny alloys has been determined from combined X-ray diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) measurements of a large set of epitaxial films with compositions in the 0 zero within experimental error, so that the system follows Vegard's law. This is in qualitative agreement with ab initio theory, but the value of the experimental bowing parameter is significantly smaller than the theoretical prediction. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed in detail.

  9. Range conditions for a spherical mean transform

    KAUST Repository

    Agranovsky, Mark


    The paper is devoted to the range description of the Radon type transform that averages a function over all spheres centered on a given sphere. Such transforms arise naturally in thermoacoustic tomography, a novel method of medical imaging. Range descriptions have recently been obtained for such transforms, and consisted of smoothness and support conditions, moment conditions, and some additional orthogonality conditions of spectral nature. It has been noticed that in odd dimensions, surprisingly, the moment conditions are superfluous and can be eliminated. It is shown in this text that in fact the same happens in any dimension.

  10. Distributed chaos and inertial ranges in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A


    It is shown that appearance of inertial range of scales, adjacent to distributed chaos range, results in adiabatic invariance of an energy correlation integral for isotropic homogeneous turbulence and for buoyancy driven turbulence (with stable or unstable stratification, including Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone). Power spectrum of velocity field for distributed chaos dominated by this adiabatic invariant has a stretched exponential form $\\propto \\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{3/5}$. Results of recent direct numerical simulations have been used in order to support these conclusions.

  11. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.


    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  12. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud


    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  13. New range of heavy electric vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A new range of electrically-powered vehicles is announced in the UK. The vehicles are a joint venture between the Electric Vehicle Division of Hydrotechniek and its Dutch associate, Creusen Elektro-Mechanische Industrie BV. The 867S and 968S are three-axle vehicles with four-wheel drive on the rear four wheels. At present the vehicles go 20 km/h and have an 80-km range. The speed is to be extended in the near future and a diesel-electric hybrid may be introduced. An 867S is to be fitted out as a mobile library.

  14. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham


    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  15. Free Space Ranging Utilizing Chaotic Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhao


    Full Text Available We report our recent works on free space ranging with chaotic light. Using a laser diode with optical feedback as chaotic source, a prototype of chaotic lidar has been developed and it can achieve a range-independent resolution of 18 cm and measurable distance of 130 m at least. And its antijamming performance is presented experimentally and numerically. Finally, we, respectively, employ the wavelet denoising method and the correlation average discrete-component elimination algorithm to detect the chaotic signal in noisy environment and suppress the side-lobe noise of the correlation trace.

  16. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging (United States)


    TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessarv and identify WIock numberl FIELD GROUP’ SUB- GIR Air to Air RangingRange Estimationt Min..a simtr uarget rnge sad direction or by observer motion in the statistical behavior of the 4.2 &Awo 0*l LA Sqvwnr. Rmng IoiamIin. Since it hu alredy bin...lengths, sad while they indicate irreularty in the estimation processt, they do nix explain its source. Figure 22, whMc as typical of whet can arise

  17. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability. (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup


    Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total of 7.9 ± 1.0 min/day). Seasonal differences were only marginally explained by weather conditions and may reflect the reduction in range exposure between seasons (number of days, hours per day, and time of day). Specific times of the day (p < 0.01) and pop-holes were favoured (p < 0.05). We provide evidence of relationships between ranging and external factors that may explain ranging preferences.

  18. Range-based covariance estimation using high-frequency data: The realized co-range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bannouh (Karim); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); M.P.E. Martens (Martin)


    textabstractWe introduce the realized co-range, utilizing intraday high-low price ranges to estimate asset return covariances. Using simulations we find that for plausible levels of bid-ask bounce and infrequent and non-synchronous trading the realized co-range improves upon the realized covariance,

  19. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges. (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W


    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  20. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.


    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  1. Medium-range fire weather forecasts (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka


    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  2. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis


    a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...



    Crom, Richard J.


    Increasing interest in range economics research calls for a more tightly defined set of issues and a menu of research projects addressing these issues. This paper identifies major issues of national importance followed by a brief description of suggested research projects.

  4. Short range radio research in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Arjan


    The research and education by the Telecommunication Engineering Group at the University of Twente is dedicated to physical layer topics in communications. Three research tracks have prominence: Short Range Radio, Microwave Photonics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Arjan is active in the Short

  5. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science (previously known as Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa and Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa) is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa, and serves as an important reference for anyone interested in the management and ...

  6. Controlling a wide range of flow rates (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.


    Servo-operated valve and two flowmeters allow accurate control over 1,900:1 flow-rate range. It was developed as part of laboratory instrument for measuring properties of confined fluids under conditions analogous to those encountered in deep drilling operations.

  7. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators (United States)

    Woods, G. T.


    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  8. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery


    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  9. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen


    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  10. Extended-range order in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Egami, T.; Hu, Rui-Zhong [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Howells, W.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)


    A new type of order is identified in complex glasses, characterized by diffraction peaks at values of the wave vector below those typical of intermediate-range order. Combined neutron and anomalous x-ray diffraction studies of one glass exhibiting this behavior, vitreous rubidium germanate, indicate it to be associated with chemical ordering of the two cations with respect to each other.

  11. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013 (United States)


    research, tsunami warning/verification, and seismic / earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique types `` Completed Phases 1 (Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress

  12. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges (United States)


    research, climate research, tsunami warning/ verification, and seismic /earthquake monitoring. The littoral nature of Navy training ranges and the unique...Mountainside Village) and 2 (Hillside Tunnels ) of four-phase urban training complex plan. Ongoing Progress continuing into 2014. 252014 Sustainable

  13. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.


    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  14. Host range evaluation and morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 29 isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis were collected from various cucurbit farms in West Malaysia. Sporangia of 13 isolates had the ability to germinate at 14°C and were used for host range (pathotype) study using leaf disc assay on a set of twelve cucurbit cultivars. Twelve different pathotypes of P. cubensis ...

  15. Engineering Biosensors with Dual Programmable Dynamic Ranges. (United States)

    Wei, Benmei; Zhang, Juntao; Ou, Xiaowen; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis


    Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer biorecognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA. Using this simple "dimeric" sensor, we show that we can easily (1) tune the dynamic range of this dual-signaling sensor through base mutations on the electrode-bound DNA, (2) extend the dynamic range of this sensor by 2 orders of magnitude by using a combination of electrode-bound strands with varying affinity for the aptamers, (3) create an ultrasensitive dual signaling sensor by employing a sequestration strategy in which a nonsignaling, high affinity "depletant" DNA aptamer is added to the sensor surface, and (4) engineer a sensor that simultaneously provides extended and ultrasensitive readouts. These strategies, applicable to a wide range of biosensors and chemical systems, should broaden the application of molecular recognition in various fields of chemistry.

  16. Absence of the impurity-induced magnetic order in the electron-doped high-T {sub c} cuprates Pr{sub 0.86}LaCe{sub 0.14}Cu{sub 1-y}(Zn, Ni) {sub y}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risdiana [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Adachi, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Koike, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Watanabe, I. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IMSS), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)


    Zero-field muon-spin-relaxation measurements have been carried out in order to investigate the Zn- and Ni-substitution effects on the Cu-spin dynamics in the electron-doped Pr{sub 0.86}LaCe{sub 0.14}Cu{sub 1-y}(Zn, Ni) {sub y}O{sub 4+{alpha}}{sub -{delta}} with y = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and different values of the reduced oxygen content {delta} ({delta} {<=} 0.09). For the samples with y = 0 and very small {delta} values of {delta} < 0.01, a muon-spin precession due to the formation of a long-range antiferromagnetic order has been observed at low temperatures below {approx}5 K. For the moderately oxygen-reduced samples of 0.01 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.09, on the contrary, no muon-spin precession has been observed and the temperature dependence of the spectra is similar to one another regardless of the y value. That is, no impurity-induced slowing down of the Cu-spin fluctuations has been detected, which is very different from the results of the hole-doped high-T{sub c} cuprates. The reason is discussed.

  17. Inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in wider size range and aspect ratio range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hong


    Full Text Available The non-spherical particle sizing is very important in the aerosol science, and it can be determined by the light extinction measurement. This paper studies the effect of relationship of the size range and aspect ratio range on the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution by the dependent mode algorithm. The T matrix method and the geometric optics approximation method are used to calculate the extinction efficiency of the spheroids with different size range and aspect ratio range, and the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in these different ranges is conducted. Numerical simulation indicates that a fairly reasonable representation of the spheroid particle size distribution can be obtained when the size range and aspect ratio range are suitably chosen.

  18. Comparison of range migration correction algorithms for range-Doppler processing (United States)

    Uysal, Faruk


    The next generation digital radars are able to provide high-range resolution by the advancement of radar hardware technologies. These systems take advantage of coherent integration and Doppler processing technique to increase the target's signal-to-noise ratio. Due to the high-range resolution (small range cells) and fast target motion, a target migrates through multiple range cells within a coherent processing interval. Range cell migration (also known as range walk) occurs and degrades the coherent integration gain. There are many approaches in the literature to correct these unavoidable effects and focus the target in the range-Doppler domain. We demonstrate some of these methods on an operational frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and point out practical issues in the application.

  19. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.


    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  20. Structural and Optical Investigations of Heterostructures Based on AlxGa1-xAsyP1-y:Si Solid Solutions Obtained by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Seredin


    Full Text Available We investigated MOCVD epitaxial heterostructures based on AlxGa1−xAs ternary solid solutions, obtained in the range of compositions x~0.20–0.50 and doped with high concentrations of phosphorus and silicon atoms. Using the methods of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy we have shown that grown epitaxial films represent five-component (AlxGa1−xAs1−yPy1−zSiz solid solutions. The implementation of silicon in solid solution with a concentration of ~ 0.01 at.% leads to the formation of the structure with deep levels, DX centers, the occurrence of which fundamentally affects the energy characteristics of received materials.

  1. Genotipificación de polimorfismos moleculares en los genes CYP2E1, GSTM1 y GSTT1 para evaluar susceptibilidad a Cáncer gastrointestinal en una población paisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño CE.


    Full Text Available Entre los años 2001 y 2002 se recogieron 40 muestras de pacientes diagnosticados con cáncergastrointestinal en los departamentos de Antioquia y Caldas, a los cuales se les determinó elgenotipo molecular para los genes CYP2E1, GSTM1 y GSTT1 en sangre y se les realizó una entre-vista para analizar su consumo de alcohol, cigarrillo y alimentos quemados y/o embutidos, ya queestudios previos en otras poblaciones han sugerido la asociación de algunos polimorfismos de estos genes (en combinación o no con factores ambientales, con una predisposición a la enfermedad. Por tanto, se comparó estadísticamente las frecuencias genotípicas con las de unapoblación de controles sanos apareada con los casos por edad y sexo, y se observó la suscep-tibilidad a cáncer gastrointestinal, mediante el análisis de asociación a polimorfismos en los genesque codifican para las enzimas CYP2E1, GSTM1 Y GSTT1 del metabolismo de xenobióticos.

  2. Spark plasma sintering of Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x} monolithic ceramics obtained by mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Amparo, E-mail: [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Salvador, Maria Dolores [Instituto de Tecnologia de Materiales (ITM), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Rocha, Victoria [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - Universidad de Oviedo - Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Asturias) (Spain); Chicardi, Ernesto; Gotor, Francisco J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Calle Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)


    Nanometer-sized titanium-niobium carbonitride powders (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with different Ti/Nb atomic ratios were obtained by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, and sintered by spark plasma sintering technique at 1500 Degree-Sign C for 1 min in a vacuum atmosphere. Mechanical properties such as hardness and Young's modulus were determined by nanoindentation technique and friction and wear coefficients assessed by ball-on-disk testing using alumina ball in dry sliding conditions. The fracture surface and wear tracks of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that it is possible to obtain dense monolithic ceramics from the solid solution (Ti{sub y}Nb{sub 1-y}C{sub x}N{sub 1-x}) with good mechanical properties and excellent wear resistance. The optimum values of nanomechanical properties were found for the Ti{sub 0.3}Nb{sub 0.7}C{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} ceramic composition, which exhibited a high hardness over 26.0 GPa and Young's modulus around 400 GPa.

  3. Study of crystallographic properties in thin films of Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} S and CdSe{sub y}S{sub 1-y}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cediel, G.; Torres, J.; Caicedo, L.M.; Leal, H.; Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Ariza, H. [Universidad de Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)


    Crystallographic properties of ZN{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} S and CdSe{sub 1-y} S{sub y} polycrystalline thin films deposited by evaporation were studied through X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. From these studies, it was determined the effect of the chemical composition on the crystalline structure, lattice parameters and crystallographic quality of the samples. It was found that the samples of Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} S and CdSe{sub 1-y} S{sub y} grow in a texturized way and that the binary CdS and Cd Se compounds present a mixture of the cubic and hexagonal phases. Under some specific evaporation conditions it was possible to grow the following ternary phases CdS{sub 0.813} Se{sub 0.187} , CdSe{sub 0.571} Se{sub 0.429} and Zn{sub 0.78}Cd{sub 0.22} S. (Author)

  4. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli


    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  5. Visual Control of Robots Using Range Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres


    Full Text Available In the last years, 3D-vision systems based on the time-of-flight (ToF principle have gained more importance in order to obtain 3D information from the workspace. In this paper, an analysis of the use of 3D ToF cameras to guide a robot arm is performed. To do so, an adaptive method to simultaneous visual servo control and camera calibration is presented. Using this method a robot arm is guided by using range information obtained from a ToF camera. Furthermore, the self-calibration method obtains the adequate integration time to be used by the range camera in order to precisely determine the depth information.

  6. Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Larsen, Kasper Green; Patrascu, Mihai


    We present a number of new results on one of the most extensively studied topics in computational geometry, orthogonal range searching. All our results are in the standard word RAM model: We present two data structures for 2-d orthogonal range emptiness. The first achieves O(n lg lg n) space and O...... the output size. This resolves two open problems (both appeared in Preparata and Shamos' seminal book): given a set of n axis-aligned rectangles in the plane, we can report all k enclosure pairs (i.e., pairs (r1,r2) where rectangle r1 completely encloses rectangle r2) in O(n lg n + k) expected time; given...

  7. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations (United States)


    War II, with heavy reliance on radar and radio as war-fighting tools, we encountered unexplained outages. You may have seen movies showing soldiers...individual meteorology offices, and the issues that each range might possibly encounter. You may have radars that can be directly affected by solar radio...may interact with atomic nuclei thus imparting a certain recoil energy and generating secondary particles. Both the recoiling nucleus and secondary

  8. Ranges of bimodule projections and conditional expectations

    CERN Document Server

    Pluta, Robert


    The algebraic theory of corner subrings introduced by Lam (as an abstraction of the properties of Peirce corners eRe of a ring R associated with an idempotent e in R) is investigated here in the context of Banach and C*-algebras. We propose a general algebraic approach which includes the notion of ranges of (completely) contractive conditional expectations on C*-algebras and on ternary rings of operators, and we investigate when topological properties are consequences of the algebraic assumpt...

  9. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range


    Nikolay GORBACHUK; Mikhail LARIONOV; Aleksey FIRSOV; Nikolay SHATIL


    Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors) make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resis...

  10. Reference Physiological Ranges for Serum Biochemical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After complete assay, the data were subjected to both parametric and non parametric statistics for analyses with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles considered as the lower and upper limits of reference ranges. Results: There were 331(66.1%) males and 170(33.9) females, with 359(71.7%) and 142(28.3) of them residing in the urban ...

  11. Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T


    An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.

  12. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  13. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2011 (United States)


    Services (IGI&S) data proponency, Common Installation Picture, and Quality Assurance Plans ( QAPs ). Based on this guidance, all Army installations are...Sustainable Ranges Report July 2011 Support Center are defined in each layer’s geospatial data QAP . QAPs provide the definition, information about the...requirements for each of the data layers. QAPs are living documents and are maintained by the HQDA proponent with input from the installation data

  14. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu


    Full Text Available Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp.

  15. On the ranges of discrete exponentials


    Florin Caragiu; Mihai Caragiu


    Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X) in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p)=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp).

  16. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain. (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W


    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of sodium cation-conducting Nax(MyL1-yO2 (M = Ni2+, Fe3+; L = Ti4+, Sb5+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques, F. M. B.


    Full Text Available The Na+-conducting ceramics of layered Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, Na0.8Fe0.8Ti0.2O2, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 (structural type O3 and Na0.68Ni0.34Ti0.66O2 (P2 type with density higher than 91% were prepared via the standard solid-state synthesis route and characterized by the impedance spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, structure refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data, measurements of Na+ concentration cell e.m.f., and dilatometry. The conductivity of antimonate Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2, synthesized first time, was found lower than that of isostructural Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2 due to larger ion jump distance between Na+ sites. At temperatures above 420 K, transport properties of sodium cationconducting materials are essentially independent of partial water vapor pressure. In the low-temperature range, the conductivity reversibly increases with water vapor pressure varied in the range from approximately 0 (dry air up to 0.46 atm. The sensitivity to air humidity is influenced by the ceramic microstructure, being favored by increasing boundary area. The average thermal expansion coefficients of layered materials at 300-1173 K are in the range (13.7-16.0×10-6 K-1.Se han preparado cerámicas conductoras conteniendo Na+ de composición Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, Na0.8Fe0.8Ti0.2O2, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 (tipo estructural O3 y Na0.68Ni0.34Ti0.66O2 (tipo P2 con densidad mayor del 91%. Las vía de preparación fu la ruta de estandard de síntesis en estado sólido. Las composiciones se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía de impedancia, análisis térmico, microscopía electrónica de barrido, refinamiento de la estructura usando datos de difracción de rayos X en polvo, medidas de concentración de Na+, f.e.m. de la célula y dilatometría. La conductividad del antimoniate, sintetizado por primera vez, Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2, era menor que la del compuesto isoestructural Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2 debido a la mayor distancia de salto iónico entre las posiciones de Na

  18. Long-range order in canary song. (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J


    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  19. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions (United States)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine


    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  20. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range. (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju


    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  1. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip


    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  2. Effect of dispersal at range edges on the structure of species ranges (United States)

    Bahn, V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Krohn, W.B.


    Range edges are of particular interest to ecology because they hold key insights into the limits of the realized niche and associated population dynamics. A recent feature of Oikos summarized the state of the art on range edge ecology. While the typical question is what causes range edges, another important question is how range edges influence the distribution of abundances across a species geographic range when dispersal is present. We used a single species population dynamics model on a coupled-lattice to determine the effects of dispersal on peripheral populations as compared to populations at the core of the range. In the absence of resource gradients, the reduced neighborhood and thus lower connectivity or higher isolation among populations at the range edge alone led to significantly lower population sizes in the periphery of the range than in the core. Lower population sizes mean higher extinction risks and lower adaptability at the range edge, which could inhibit or slow range expansions, and thus effectively stabilize range edges. The strength of this effect depended on the potential population growth rate and the maximum dispersal distance. Lower potential population growth rates led to a stronger effect of dispersal resulting in a higher difference in population sizes between the two areas. The differential effect of dispersal on population sizes at the core and periphery of the range in the absence of resource gradients implies that traditional, habitat-based distribution models could result in misleading conclusions about the habitat quality in the periphery. Lower population sizes at the periphery are also relevant to conservation, because habitat removal not only eliminates populations but also creates new edges. Populations bordering these new edges may experience declines, due to their increased isolation. ?? OIKOS.

  3. Does this range suit me? Range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle users. (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F


    User satisfaction is a vital design criterion for sustainable systems. The present research aimed to understand factors relating to individually perceived range satisfaction of battery electric vehicle (BEV) users. Data from a large-scale BEV field trial (N = 72) were analyzed. Apart from an initial drop in range satisfaction, increasing practical experience was related to increased range satisfaction. Classical indicators of users' mobility profiles (daily travel distances) were only weakly related to lower range satisfaction (not significant), after controlling for practical experience and preferred coverage of mobility needs. The regularity/predictability of users' mobility patterns, the percentage of journeys not coverable because of range issues, and users' individual comfortable range accounted for variance in range satisfaction. Finally, range satisfaction was related to key indicators of general BEV acceptance (e.g., purchase intentions). These results underline the complex dynamics involved in individual range satisfaction, as well as its central role for BEV acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tyrosine oxidation in heme oxygenase: examination of long-range proton-coupled electron transfer. (United States)

    Smirnov, Valeriy V; Roth, Justine P


    Heme oxygenase is responsible for the degradation of a histidine-ligated ferric protoporphyrin IX (Por) to biliverdin, CO, and the free ferrous ion. Described here are studies of tyrosyl radical formation reactions that occur after oxidizing Fe(III)(Por) to Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) in human heme oxygenase isoform-1 (hHO-1) and the structurally homologous protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cdHO). Site-directed mutagenesis on hHO-1 probes the reduction of Fe(IV)=O(Por(·+)) by tyrosine residues within 11 Å of the prosthetic group. In hHO-1, Y58· is implicated as the most likely site of oxidation, based on the pH and pD dependent kinetics. The absence of solvent deuterium isotope effects in basic solutions of hHO-1 and cdHO contrasts with the behavior of these proteins in the acidic solution, suggesting that long-range proton-coupled electron transfer predominates over electron transfer.

  5. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.


    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  6. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  7. Fast Range Covariance Estimation using CONRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jean, C.; Habert, B.; Noguere, G.; Archier, P.; Litaize, O.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13 - St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    One of the initial goals of the CONRAD code development was to properly take into account various uncertainties propagations. First developments were performed to treat adequately nuisance parameters (such as experimental parameters), in the resolved and unresolved resonance region by using a marginalization technique. A generalization of these methodologies to higher energy range is presented in this paper. We will first present in detail the mathematics involved in this technique. The interface of CONRAD with ECIS will be presented, especially, the way optical model were parameterized in CONRAD from the classical RIPL database. Then, some applications of CONRAD (wrapping ECIS) will be presented. (authors)

  8. Tracking capabilities of SPADs for laser ranging (United States)

    Zappa, F.; Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, A.; Cova, Sergio; Samori, C.


    The spatial sensitivity of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) can be exploited in laser ranging measurements to finely tune the laser spot in the center of the detector sensitive area. We report the performance of a SPAD with l00 micron diameter. It features a time resolution better than 80 ps rms when operated 4V above V(b) at minus 30 C, and a spatial sensitivity better than 20 microns to radial displacements of the laser spot. New SPAD structures with auxiliary delay detectors are proposed. These improved devices could allow a two dimensional sensitivity, that could be employed for the design of pointing servos.

  9. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A


    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  10. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida: models of current and predicted future ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R Langer

    Full Text Available Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1, and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  11. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (protista, foraminiferida): models of current and predicted future ranges. (United States)

    Langer, Martin R; Weinmann, Anna E; Lötters, Stefan; Bernhard, Joan M; Rödder, Dennis


    Species-range expansions are a predicted and realized consequence of global climate change. Climate warming and the poleward widening of the tropical belt have induced range shifts in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. Range expansions may have broad implications on native biota and ecosystem functioning as shifting species may perturb recipient communities. Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera constitute ubiquitous and prominent components of shallow water ecosystems, and range shifts of these important protists are likely to trigger changes in ecosystem functioning. We have used historical and newly acquired occurrence records to compute current range shifts of Amphistegina spp., a larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera, along the eastern coastline of Africa and compare them to analogous range shifts currently observed in the Mediterranean Sea. The study provides new evidence that amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S. To project future species distributions, we applied a species distribution model (SDM) based on ecological niche constraints of current distribution ranges. Our model indicates that further warming is likely to cause a continued range extension, and predicts dispersal along nearly the entire southeastern coast of Africa. The average rates of amphisteginid range shift were computed between 8 and 2.7 km year(-1), and are projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100. Our results corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change.

  12. Enhanced dynamic range x-ray imaging. (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A; Morrison, Logan Dain-Kelley; Sharma, Ajay; Burke, Emily


    X-ray images can suffer from excess contrast. Often, image exposure is chosen to visually optimize the region of interest, but at the expense of over- and underexposed regions elsewhere in the image. When image values are interpreted quantitatively as projected absorption, both over- and underexposure leads to the loss of quantitative information. We propose to combine multiple exposures into a composite that uses only pixels from those exposures in which they are neither under- nor overexposed. The composite image is created in analogy to visible-light high dynamic range photography. We present the mathematical framework for the recovery of absorbance from such composite images and demonstrate the method with biological and non-biological samples. We also show with an aluminum step-wedge that accurate recovery of step thickness from the absorbance values is possible, thereby highlighting the quantitative nature of the presented method. Due to the higher amount of detail encoded in an enhanced dynamic range x-ray image, we expect that the number of retaken images can be reduced, and patient exposure overall reduced. We also envision that the method can improve dual energy absorptiometry and even computed tomography by reducing the number of low-exposure ("photon-starved") projections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vehicle based laser range finding in crops. (United States)

    Ehlert, Detlef; Adamek, Rolf; Horn, Hans-Juergen


    Laser rangefinders and laser scanners are widely used for industrial purposes and for remote sensing. In agriculture information about crop parameters like volume, height, and density can support the optimisation of production processes. In scientific papers the measurement of these parameters by low cost laser rangefinders with one echo has been presented for short ranges. Because the cross section area of the beam increases with the measuring range, it can be expected that laser rangefinders will have a reduced measuring accuracy in small sized crops and when measuring far distances. These problems are caused by target areas smaller than the beam and by the beam striking the edges of crop objects. Lab tests under defined conditions and a real field test were performed to assess the measuring properties under such difficult conditions of a chosen low cost sensor. Based on lab tests it was shown that the accuracy was reduced, but the successful use of the sensor under field conditions demonstrated the potential to meet the demands for agricultural applications, Insights resulting from investigations made in the paper contribute to facilitating the choice or the development of laser rangefinder sensors for vehicle based measurement of crop parameters for optimisation of production processes.

  14. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide. (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard


    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  15. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes. (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin


    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  16. Perceptual Contrast Enhancement with Dynamic Range Adjustment (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Yuecheng; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui


    Recent years, although great efforts have been made to improve its performance, few Histogram equalization (HE) methods take human visual perception (HVP) into account explicitly. The human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to edges than brightness. This paper proposes to take use of this nature intuitively and develops a perceptual contrast enhancement approach with dynamic range adjustment through histogram modification. The use of perceptual contrast connects the image enhancement problem with the HVS. To pre-condition the input image before the HE procedure is implemented, a perceptual contrast map (PCM) is constructed based on the modified Difference of Gaussian (DOG) algorithm. As a result, the contrast of the image is sharpened and high frequency noise is suppressed. A modified Clipped Histogram Equalization (CHE) is also developed which improves visual quality by automatically detecting the dynamic range of the image with improved perceptual contrast. Experimental results show that the new HE algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art algorithms in improving perceptual contrast and enhancing details. In addition, the new algorithm is simple to implement, making it suitable for real-time applications. PMID:24339452

  17. Normal values for cervical range of motion. (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M


    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  18. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds (United States)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.


    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  19. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle


    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  20. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel


    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  1. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  2. Climate driven range divergence among host species affects range-wide patterns of parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Feldman


    Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.

  3. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie


    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  4. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko


    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  5. Broader range of skills distinguishes successful CFOs. (United States)

    Doody, M F


    In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships.

  6. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José


    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  7. Principles of digital dynamic-range compression. (United States)

    Kates, James M


    This article provides an overview of dynamic-range compression in digital hearing aids. Digital technology is becoming increasingly common in hearing aids, particularly because of the processing flexibility it offers and the opportunity to create more-effective devices. The focus of the paper is on the algorithms used to build digital compression systems. Of the various approaches that can be used to design a digital hearing aid, this paper considers broadband compression, multi-channel filter banks, a frequency-domain compressor using the FFT, the side-branch design that separates the filtering operation from the frequency analysis, and the frequency-warped version of the side-branch approach that modifies the analysis frequency spacing to more closely match auditory perception. Examples of the compressor frequency resolution, group delay, and compression behavior are provided for the different design approaches.

  8. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  9. Range-preserving AE(0-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.W. Comfort


    Full Text Available All spaces here are Tychonoff spaces. The class AE(0 consists of those spaces which are absolute extensors for compact zero-dimensional spaces. We define and study here the subclass AE(0rp, consisting of those spaces for which extensions of continuous functions can be chosen to have the same range. We prove these results. If each point of T 2 AE(0 is a G-point of T , then T 2 AE(0rp. These are equivalent: (a T 2 AE(0rp; (b every compact subspace of T is metrizable; (c every compact subspace of T is dyadic; and (d every subspace of T is AE(0. Thus in particular, every metrizable space is an AE(0rp-space.

  10. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.


    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  11. Semiconductor Sensors for a Wide Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay GORBACHUK


    Full Text Available Prototype sensors are described that are applicable for pressure, position, temperature, and field measurements in the temperature range of 4.2 to 300 K. The strain gauges utilize the silicon substrate and thin film technology. The tensosensitivity of strain sensors is 40 µV/mln-1 or better depending on metrological characteristics of semiconductor films, orientation, and current. The temperature sensors (thermistors make use of the germanium powder bulk. The temperature coefficient of resistance is within 50-100 % /K at 4.2 K. The magnetic field sensors use GaAs films that offer weak temperature dependence of parameters at high sensitivity (up to 300-400 mV/T.

  12. {mu}SR study of impurity effects on the Cu-spin fluctuations in the overdoped regime of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Cu{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risdiana; Adachi, T.; Oki, N.; Yairi, S.; Tanabe, Y.; Omori, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, I. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Koda, A. [Muon Science Laboratory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IMSS), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Higemoto, W. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koike, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Zero-field muon-spin-relaxation measurements have been carried out for La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}Cu{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}O{sub 4} (LSCO) with y = 0-0.10 in the overdoped regime up to x = 0.30, in order to investigate whether the dynamical stripe correlations are pinned and stabilized even for the overdoped LSCO or not. It has been found that the Zn-induced slowing down of the Cu-spin fluctuations is weakened with increasing x but takes place in the overdoped regime and disappears at x = 0.30. This suggests that the stripe-pinning model holds good in the whole superconducting regime of LSCO and that there is no quantum critical point at x {approx} 0.19.

  13. Predisposición genética para el cáncer de mama: genes BRCA1 y BRCA2 Genetic predisposition for breast cancer: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Narod


    Full Text Available El descubrimiento de los genes BRCA1 y BRCA2 ha llevado a la introducción de pruebas genéticas cada vez más sofisticadas para medir el riesgo de cáncer de mama de origen hereditario, entre otras cosas. En el presente artículo exploramos los criterios a seguir para realizar pruebas para estos genes, así como las implicaciones en el tratamiento para los pacientes en caso de identificarlos.The discovery of genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 has led to the introduction of genetic tests more complex every time for the evaluation ofthehereditarycancerrisk,amongothers.In the present paper we explore the criteria to decide when to run the testing for the genes, as well as the implications for the treatment of patients who are identified with them.

  14. Influence of baking on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} solid solutions grown on Inp substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishurnyi, V.A.; Gorbatchev, A.Y.; Anda, F. De; Nieto N, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)


    The influence of thermal treatments on the photoluminescence spectra of In{sub 1-x} Ga{sub x} As{sub y} P{sub 1-y} epitaxial layers of various compositions grown by LPE on In P substrates has been studied. To prevent the epitaxial layers from degradation, due to phosphor evaporation during the baking, their surface was covered by spin-on SiO{sub 2} layers. The photoluminescence spectra did not change for solid solutions whose compositions were near In P and InGaAs. For compositions in the middle of the lattice-matched region, the variations were very noticeable because the appearance of additional peaks in the luminescence spectra. This could be related to the decomposition of those solid solutions whose compositions lie inside a theoretically predicted miscibility gap. (Author)

  15. Diode-pumped high-peak-power femtosecond Yb+3:(Gd0.1Y0.9)2SiO5 laser at 1058.5 nm (United States)

    Wang, Yandang; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Su, Xiancui; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Gao, Zijing


    A diode-pumped continuous-wave mode-locked (CWML) femtosecond Yb+3:(Gd0.1Y0.9)2SiO5 (Yb:GYSO) laser at 1058.5 nm with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) was successfully realized and demonstrated. Pulses with a duration of 186 fs were obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 80.1 MHz with a maximum average output power of 564 mW, corresponding to a maximum single pulse energy of 7.04 nJ and peak power of 37.9 kW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest peak power ever obtained from a mode-locked femtosecond Yb:GYSO laser.

  16. Defect structure and ionic conductivity of as-grown R 1- y Sr y F3- y ( R = Ce, Pr, or Nd) crystals with high SrF2 content (United States)

    Khrykina, O. N.; Sorokin, N. I.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.; Sobolev, B. P.


    The structure of defect nonstoichiometric phases of Ce0.88Sr0.12F2.88, Pr0.85Sr0.15F2.85, and Nd0.85Sr0.15F2.85 single crystals has been investigated by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. Crystals R 1-ySryF3-y ( R = Ce, Pr, or Nd) belong to the tysonite structural type (LaF3), which has two forms (α and β). The morphotropic transition from the trigonal β form of the crystals to the hexagonal α form is confirmed, which was previously found for the first time when analyzing the nonstoichiometric phase of La1-ySryF3-y with a SrF2 content above 10 mol % ( y ≥ 0.1). Temperature dependences of fluorine-ion conductivity are obtained. It is established that the conductivity of the α form of Ce0.88Sr0.12F2.88 and R0.85Sr0.15F2.85 crystals ( R = Pr or Nd) is lower than that for the β form of R0.95Sr0.05F2.95 ( R = La-Nd) by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The sublattice of fluorine atoms in the α-form crystals is characterized by an elevated (in comparison with the β form) content of vacancies and more uniform structural and dynamic properties, which leads to a decrease in the mean diffusion mobility of fluorine ions and an increase in the ion-transport activation enthalpy.

  17. Luminescence characterization of (Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})(S{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}):Eu{sup 2+},M{sup 3+} (M = Sc and Y) for high color rendering white LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Joon; Jeong, Yong-Kwang [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Gung-Dong Yusung-Goo, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Bok [Kumho Electric Inc., 64-1 Bongmyung-Ri, Namsa-Myun, Youngin, Gyeonggi-Do 449-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Gung-Dong Yusung-Goo, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)


    Research highlights: {yields} Highly efficient red phosphors (Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})(S{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}):Eu{sup 2+},M{sup 3+} (M = Sc and Y). {yields} Quantum yield is 11.8% for Sc{sup 3+}) and 11.7% for Y{sup 3+}. {yields} The phosphors were coated with MgO to overcome their weakness against moisture. {yields} White LEDs were fabricated by the red phosphors and YAG:Ce{sup 3+} with a blue chip. - Abstract: The highly efficient red phosphors (Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})(S{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}):Eu{sup 2+},M{sup 3+} (M = Sc and Y) were prepared, starting from CaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, S, and SeO{sub 2} with a flux, by a conventional solid-state reaction. The optimized red phosphors converted 11.8% (Sc{sup 3+}) and 11.7% (Y{sup 3+}) of the absorbed blue light into luminescence. These quantum values are much higher than Q = 3.0% of CaS:Eu{sup 2+}. For the fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the prepared phosphors were coated with MgO from non-aqueous solution to overcome their weakness against moisture. White LEDs were fabricated by pasting the prepared red phosphors and the yellow YAG:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor on an InGaN blue chip ({lambda}{sub ems} = 446.5 nm). The incorporation of the red phosphor to the YAG:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor resulted in an improved color rendering index (Ra) from 70 to 80.

  18. Occurrence of multiple sexual chromosomes (XX/XY1Y2 and Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W1W2) in catfishes of the genus Ancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renildo Ribeiro; Feldberg, Eliana; dos Anjos, Maeda Batista; Zuanon, Jansen


    Loricariid catfishes show a predominance of homomorphism in sex chromosomes, but cases of simple and multiple systems were also found. Here we describe two cases of multiple sex chromosome systems in loricariids from Brazilian Amazonia. Males of Ancistrus sp.1 "Balbina" have a modal number of 2n = 39 chromosomes, fundamental number (FN) of 78, and karyotypic formula of 27 m + 10 sm + 2 st; females have 2n = 38 chromosomes, FN = 76, and 26 m + 10 sm + 2 st. Ancistrus sp.2 "Barcelos" has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes, FN = 80 for males and FN = 79 for females. Karyotypic formula is 12 m + 12 sm + 4 st + 24a for males and 11 m + 12 sm + 4st + 25a for females. The two species show different arrangements of constitutive heterochromatin blocks, which are coincident with NORs and absent in sex chromosomes. We suggest a XX/XY(1)Y(2) mechanism for Ancistrus sp.1 "Balbina", and a Z(1)Z(1)Z(2)Z(2)/Z(1)Z(2)W(1)W(2) mechanism for Ancistrus sp.2 "Barcelos". The XX/XY(1)Y(2) mechanism here reported is the second known occurrence of this type of multiple sex chromosomes for Loricariidae and the third for Neotropical fishes; the mechanism Z(1)Z(1)Z(2)Z(2)/Z(1)Z(2)W(1)W(2) represents the first record among fishes. The presence of different sex chromosome systems in Ancistrus indicates a probable independent origin and suggests that the differentiation of sex chromosomes is evolutionarily recent among species in this genus.

  19. Study of Transition Region of p-Type SiOx:H as Window Layer in a-Si:H/a-Si1-yGey:H Multijunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Chen


    Full Text Available We have studied the p-type hydrogenated silicon oxide (SiOx:H films prepared in the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition region as a window layer in a-Si:H/a-Si1-yGey:H multijunction solar cells. By increasing the H2-to-SiH4 flow ratio (RH2 from 10 to 167, the SiOx:H(p films remained amorphous and exhibited an increased hydrogen content from 10.2% to 12.2%. Compared to the amorphous SiOx:H(p film prepared at low RH2, the SiOx:H(p film deposited at RH2 of 167 exhibited a higher bandgap of 2.04 eV and a higher conductivity of 1.15 × 10−5 S/cm. With the employment of SiOx:H(p films prepared by increasing RH2 from 10 to 167 in a-Si:H single-junction cell, the FF improved from 65% to 70% and the efficiency increased from 7.4% to 8.7%, owing to the enhanced optoelectrical properties of SiOx:H(p and the improved p/i interface. However, the cell that employed SiOx:H(p film with RH2 over 175 degraded the p/i interface and degraded the cell performance, which were arising from the onset of crystallization in the window layer. Compared to the cell using standard a-SiCx:H(p, the a-Si:H/a-Si1-yGey:H tandem cells employing SiOx:H(p deposited with RH2 of 167 showed an improved efficiency from 9.3% to 10.3%, with VOC of 1.60 V, JSC of 9.3 mA/cm2, and FF of 68.9%.

  20. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada


    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  1. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.


    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  2. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto


    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  3. Survivial Strategies in Bacterial Range Expansions (United States)

    Frey, Erwin


    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Different environmental conditions as well as bacterial interactions determine the establishment and sustainability of bacterial diversity. In this talk we discuss the competition of three Escherichia coli strains during range expansions on agar plates. In this bacterial model system, a colicin E2 producing strain C competes with a colicin resistant strain R and with a colicin sensitive strain S for new territory. Genetic engineering allows us to tune the growth rates of the strains and to study distinct ecological scenarios. These scenarios may lead to either single-strain dominance, pairwise coexistence, or to the coexistence of all three strains. In order to elucidate the survival mechanisms of the individual strains, we also developed a stochastic agent-based model to capture the ecological scenarios in silico. In a combined theoretical and experimental approach we are able to show that the level of biodiversity depends crucially on the composition of the inoculum, on the relative growth rates of the three strains, and on the effective reach of colicin toxicity.

  4. Frequency ranges and attenuation of macroseismic effects (United States)

    Tosi, Patrizia; De Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola


    Macroseismic intensity is assessed on the basis of the effects caused by an earthquake. These effects reflect the expression of both the intensity and frequency of the ground motion, thus complicating prediction equation modelling. Here we analysed data of several macroseismic transitory effects caused by recent Italian earthquakes in order to study their attenuation as a function of magnitude and hypocentral distance and to obtain a specific prediction equation, of simple functional form, that could be applied to each of the effects under analysis. We found that the different attenuation behaviours could be clearly defined by the values of the specially formulated magnitude-distance scaling ratio (S), thus allowing to group the effects on the basis of the S value. The oscillation of hanging objects and liquids, together with the feeling of dizziness, were separated from most other variables, such as the effects of the earthquake on small objects, china and windows, which were caused by a vibration of higher frequency. Besides, the greater value of S, associated with the perception of the seismic sound, explained the peculiarity of this phenomenon. As a result, we recognized the frequency range associated with each effect through comparisons with the ground motion prediction equations and, in particular, with the 5 per cent damped horizontal response spectra. Here we show the importance of appropriately selecting the diagnostic elements to be used for intensity assessment in order to improve the correlation with ground motion.

  5. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady


    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  6. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.


    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  7. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop


    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  8. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females. (United States)

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit


    Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

  9. Are fish outside their usual ranges early indicators of climate-driven range shifts? (United States)

    Fogarty, Hannah E; Burrows, Michael T; Pecl, Gretta T; Robinson, Lucy M; Poloczanska, Elvira S


    Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range

  10. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.


    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  11. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.


    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  12. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Becker, P., E-mail: [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pastore, A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD (United Kingdom); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), Apartado Postal 22085, E-46.071-Valencia (Spain)


    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  13. On the magnetic properties of pseudo-Laves phases RE{sub 1-y}Y{sub y}Ni{sub 4-x}Al{sub x}Mg with RE = La, Ce and Gd prepared by both melting and ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, S.; Chevalier, B. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Paul-Boncour, V. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UPEC, UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Bobet, J.-L., E-mail: [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LaNi{sub 4}Mg did not exhibit any magnetic ordering but a paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the compounds with Gd order ferromagnetically at a temperature ranging from 77 to 15 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dilution of Gd atom by Y leads to a decrease of the Curie temperature below a critical number of Gd atoms. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of RE{sub 1-y}Y{sub y}Ni{sub 4-x}Al{sub x}Mg (RE = La, Ce and Gd) are reported. LaNi{sub 4}Mg displays a weak magnetization indicating that Ni is non magnetic as often observed in RENi{sub 2} compounds. The magnetization of CeNi{sub 4}Mg compounds shows a Curie Weiss behaviour with an effective paramagnetic moment {mu}{sub eff} = 2.2 {mu}{sub B}. The magnetization of Gd compounds is dominated by the contribution of Gd moment with a paramagnetic effective moment close to 7.7 {mu}{sub B}/Gd for all studied compounds. The Curie temperature, which is 75 K for GdNi{sub 2}, decreases almost linearly with the number of Gd neighbours when more than half Gd is replaced by Y. The decrease of crystallinity of GdNi{sub 4}Mg, which is monitored by ball milling and heat treatment, strongly influences the magnetic properties and a relationship between the transition temperature and the crystallites size is reported.

  14. A study of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available of the sensitivity of long-range passive ranging techniques to atmospheric scintillation Jason de Villiersa,b, Fintan Wilsona and Fred Nicollsb aCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; bUniversity of Cape Town, Cape Town, South... and not scintillation and remove it from the list. 6. Interpolate between identified matches to create a complete de-warping mesh for the image. 7. Use de-warping mesh to create stabilised image. 6. RESULTS The resultant depth images in this paper are small in order...

  15. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max


    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  16. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Fenn


    Full Text Available Cash-based interventions (CBIs, offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y.We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496 with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584 at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC, a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543; double cash (DC, a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77 at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] < -2 and mean WHZ at 6 mo and at 1 y. The odds of a child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02 compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0.21; p = 0.05 compared to the CG

  17. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges (United States)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.


    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods



    Murray, Nigel P.


    La presentación de un embarazo en una mujer con anticuerpos anti-P1 positivo, los efectos fetales, el tratamiento y seguimiento del feto. Anti-P1 es asociada con insuficiencia de la placenta y la muerte del feto. Este es el primer caso en la literatura donde hubo recuperación del crecimiento durante el segundo y el tercer trimestre

  19. R-ES-ONANCE--IJU-1y

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ducks eat food, prosper and reproduce (step 1). Wolves eat ducks, prosper and reproduce (step 2) but wolves are mortal. (step 3). The overall transformation is food ~ dead wolves, given a constant supply of food. The first two steps of this scheme could be written R ~ X and X ~ Y if we are interested in only the net ...

  20. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert


    of points in the query range. As a corollary, we also obtain the first approximate 3-d halfspace range counting and 3-d dominance counting data structures with a worst-case query time of O(log(N/K)) in internal memory. An easy but important consequence of our main result is the existence of -space cache...... counting queries. This class includes three-sided range counting in the plane, 3-d dominance counting, and 3-d halfspace range counting. The constructed data structures use linear space and answer queries in the optimal query bound of O(logB(N/K)) block transfers in the worst case, where K is the number......-oblivious data structures with an optimal query bound of O(logBN+K/B) block transfers for the reporting versions of the above problems. Using standard reductions, these data structures allow us to obtain the first cache-oblivious data structures that use almost linear space and achieve the optimal query bound...

  1. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles: Short-range Lattice Distortions with Long-range Cubic Order (United States)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Shi, Chenyang; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Puma, Eric; Bang, Sun Hwi; Bean, Nathaniel J. H.; de Sugny, Jean-Claude; Gambee, Robert G.; Hightower, Adrian; Monson, Todd C.

    Small barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles (atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). Fits to PDFs at temperatures of 20° to 220°C suggest that Ti atom displacements from the center of the unit cell are comparable to or even greater than those in the bulk material and persist at temperatures well above 120°C where the tetragonal to pseudo-cubic phase transition occurs in the bulk. Raman spectra acquired over a temperature range of 20° to 220°C confirm that small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a distorted unit cell even above 120°C. On the other hand, small BTO nanoparticles exhibit a long-range order consistent with a cubic lattice as recorded by laboratory XRD Bragg reflections at temperatures of 20° to 150°C. We have reconciled these seemingly contradictory data sets by fitting the PDFs over their full range of 6 nm to reveal a long-range structure with a reduced lattice distortion that still manages to support tetragonal Raman lines but is sufficiently close to cubic to yield apparent Bragg peak singlets. US DOE NNSA contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and US DOE Office of Science contract DE-SC00112704.

  2. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations (United States)


    longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), and slash pine (Moody AFB 2007a). The Grand Bay Range impact area and Bemiss Field are managed to provide a Bahia ...Bemiss Field or immigration has occurred in this area. No confirmed sightings of indigo snakes have occurred since 1996, despite intensive monitoring

  3. Range-Image Acquisition for Discriminated Objects in a Range-gated Robot Vision System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Nak-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The imaging capability of a surveillance vision system from harsh low-visibility environments such as in fire and detonation areas is a key function to monitor the safety of the facilities. 2D and range image data acquired from low-visibility environment are important data to assess the safety and prepare appropriate countermeasures. Passive vision systems, such as conventional camera and binocular stereo vision systems usually cannot acquire image information when the reflected light is highly scattered and absorbed by airborne particles such as fog. In addition, the image resolution captured through low-density airborne particles is decreased because the image is blurred and dimmed by the scattering, emission and absorption. Active vision systems, such as structured light vision and projected stereo vision are usually more robust for harsh environment than passive vision systems. However, the performance is considerably decreased in proportion to the density of the particles. The RGI system provides 2D and range image data from several RGI images and it moreover provides clear images from low-visibility fog and smoke environment by using the sum of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays becoming more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies. Especially, this system can be adopted in robot-vision system by virtue of its compact portable configuration. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been

  4. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.


    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  5. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Fenn, Bridget; Colbourn, Tim; Dolan, Carmel; Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy


    Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] intervention groups showed similar significantly lower odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score [HAZ] intervention effect on mean haemoglobin (Hb) status (-2.6 g/l; 95% CI -4.5, -0.8; p = 0.005). Limitations of this study included the inability to mask participants or data collectors to the different interventions, the potentially restrictive nature of the FFVs, not being able to

  6. Lead exposure in indoor firing ranges: environmental impact and health risk to the range users. (United States)

    Abudhaise, B A; Alzoubi, M A; Rabi, A Z; Alwash, R M


    Health risk from airborne lead exposure were evaluated in 54 trainees and 31 firearm instructors at two indoor firing ranges in Amman, Jordan. Airborne lead concentration was measured during shooting sessions of conventional lead ammunition. Venous blood was collected from the trainees, instructors and controls. The levels of blood lead (PbB) and the activity of amino levulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) were measured. High concentrations of air lead that markedly exceeded the internationally adopted safe exposure levels were found on both ranges. Despite the absence of symptoms of lead poisoning, there was a significantly higher PbB in the instructors (19 +/- 7 micrograms/dl) and trainees (22.9 +/- 4.6 micrograms/dl) than in the controls (2.1 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl). Furthermore, the activity of ALAD was significantly lower in both groups (29.2 +/- 1.3, 18.9 +/- 1.2 U/L, respectively) than in the controls (47.5 +/- 1.1 U/L) indicating a subcritical lead effect. In the trainees, levels of PbB rose from a pre-training mean of 2.2 to 22.9 micrograms/dl and the activity of ALAD decreased from 46.9 to 18.9 U/L. It is concluded that indoor firing range users are at risk of lead absorption and intoxication and, therefore, periodic biological monitoring of the frequent users of firing ranges is highly recommended. Environmental hygienic actions to control excessive emissions of lead on the ranges are also imperative.

  7. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined...

  8. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.


    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  9. A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. | Martin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: classification; Colour aerial photography; Ecological sites; ecology; inventory; lesotho; management; management plan; mapping; National range inventories; photo interpretation; photography; plant communities; Plant community relationships; range; range management; rangeland; rangelands; remote sensing; ...

  10. On the electronic phase diagram of Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}(Fe{sub 1-y}Co{sub y}){sub 2}As{sub 2} and EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} superconductors. A local probe study using Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, Til


    In this thesis, I study the electronic and structural phase diagrams of the superconducting 122 iron pnictides systems Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}(Fe{sub 1-y}Co{sub y}){sub 2}As{sub 2} and EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} by means of the local probe techniques {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and muon spin relaxation (μSR). For both isovalent substitution strategies - Co/K for Fe/Ba and P for As, respectively - the antiferromagnetic Fe ordering and orthorhombic distortion of the parent compounds BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are subsequently suppressed with increasing chemical substitution and superconductivity arises, once long-range and coherent Fe magnetic order is sufficiently but not entirely suppressed. For Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}(Fe{sub 1-y}Co{sub y}){sub 2}As{sub 2} in the charge compensated state (x/2 ∼ y), a remarkably similar suppression of both, the orthorhombic distortion and Fe magnetic ordering, as a function of increasing substitution is observed and a linear relationship between the structural and the magnetic order parameter is found. Superconductivity is evidenced at intermediate substitution with a maximum T{sub SC} of 15 K coexisting with static magnetic order on a microscopic length scale. The appearance of superconductivity within the antiferromagnetic state can by explained by the introduction of disorder due to nonmagnetic impurities to a system with a constant charge carrier density. Within this model, the experimental findings are compatible with the predicted s{sup ±} pairing symmetry. For EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2}, the results from {sup 57}Fe MS and ZF-μSR reveal an intriguing interplay of the local Eu{sup 2+} magnetic moments and the itinerant magnetic Fe moments due to the competing structures of the iron and europium magnetic subsystems. For the investigated single crystals with x = 0.19 and 0.28, {sup 57}Fe MS evidences the interplay of Fe and Eu magnetism by the observation of a transferred

  11. Minimum Entropy Autofocus Correction of Residual Range Cell Migration (United States)


    Minimum Entropy Autofocus Correction of Residual Range Cell Migration Joshua M. Kantor Abstract—In this article we present a SAR autofocus algorithm...residual range shift, or operate by cross correlating range profiles to estimate residual range migration . These approaches are quite effective in many...range migration by cross-correlating range profiles can be difficult when the single pulse SNR is low and the scene does not have prominent point-like

  12. High thermoelectric performance of n-type PbTe 1-y S y due to deep lying states induced by indium doping and spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Chere, Eyob Kebede; Wang, Yumei; Kim, Hee Seok; He, Ran; Cao, Feng; Dahal, Keshab; Broido, David; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng


    Good thermoelectric materials should have high engineering figure-of-merit (ZT)eng, not peak ZT, to achieve high conversion efficiency. In this work, we achieved a good (ZT)eng by optimizing the carrier concentration to improve the room temperature ZT using deep lying dopant, indium, in PbTe 1-y S y. It was found that a room temperature ZT as high as ~0.5 and a peak ZT ~1.1 at about 673 K were obtained in Pb0.98In0.02Te0.8S0.2 due to a lower thermal conductivity by alloy scattering and Spinodal decomposition. The calculated efficiency could be as high as ~12% at cold side 323 K and hot side 773 K. The approach is expected to work in other materials systems too.

  13. Analysis of the perovskite structure LaxSr1-xCryMn1-yO3-δ with potential application as an anode for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado Flores, J.J.


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are complex devices that offer great advantages over conventional manner in which electrical energy is produced. Many of these advantages revolve around the environmental impact and particularly energy efficiency. However, progress in the field of these devices operating at high temperatures require the continuous search for new materials with advanced properties, optimization in manufacturing, cutting edge technologies for the processing of its main components (anode-electrolyte-cathode-seal) and low manufacturing costs. Here, the perovskite structure material LaxSr1-xCryMn1-yO3-δ (LSCM) is efficient, stable redox environments, has low manufacturing cost and is optimized for SOFC applications. Its properties compare favorably with the compound Ni/YSZ using hydrogen as a fuel; and when methane is used, it requires only 3% moisture to prevent carbon formation, which is much lower compared to when used Ni/YSZ (50% moisture). The LSCM material allows a SOFC cell operate at intermediate temperatures around 700°C. This article provides a brief review of the excellent properties and potential presented by this perovskite. (Author)

  14. The electrochemical behavior of xLiNiO 2·(1 - x)Li 2RuO 3 and Li 2Ru 1- yZr yO 3 electrodes in lithium cells (United States)

    Moore, Gregory J.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    Cathode materials derived from Li 2RuO 3, Li 2ZrO 3 and LiNiO 2 have been evaluated in lithium cells at room temperature as part of an ongoing study of composite xLiMO 2·(1- x)Li 2M'O 3 electrodes. Our results confirm previous reports that two lithium ions can be initially extracted from Li 2RuO 3, but that only one lithium ion can be cycled between 4.4 and 2.8 V with a rechargeable capacity of approximately 200 mAh/g. Extending the voltage window to 4.6-1.4 V increases the reversible capacity of the Li 2RuO 3 electrode significantly, to nearly 300 mAh/g. Similar capacities are obtained from a Zr-substituted electrode, Li 2Ru 1- yZr yO 3 for y=0.1, with excellent cycling stability. A composite electrode, 0.7LiNiO 2·0.3Li 2RuO 3, provides a steady 150 mAh/g when cycled between 4.6 and 2.7 V.

  15. Structure and Charge Density Properties of (1 - x)(Na1- y K y NbO3)- xBaTiO3 Lead-Free Ceramic Solid Solution (United States)

    Sasikumar, S.; Saravanan, R.


    (1 - x)(Na1- y K y )NbO3- xBaTiO3 (abbreviated as NKN-BT, x = 0.1, 0.2; y = 0.01, 0.05) ceramics were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis in combination with the profile refinement method was employed for quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement. The x-ray diffraction study shows that phase transition occurs from tetragonal to distorted cubic with the compositions between x = 0.1 and x = 0.2. The spatial arrangements of the electron distribution and bonding nature of the samples have been analyzed through the maximum entropy method. The optical band gap energy of the prepared solid solutions has been determined using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The optical band gap energy of the solid solutions decreases with the increase in BaTiO3 content. The elemental composition of these ceramics has been studied using energy dispersive x-ray analysis and the microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. The piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33 ) measurement of the ceramics shows the enhancement of piezoelectric properties in the tetragonal phase. The maximum value of the piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33 ) obtained for the solid solution is 120 pC/N. With increasing BaTiO3 content in the solid solutions, the ferroelectric behavior weakens.

  16. Lattice vibrations study of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} quaternary alloys with low (In, As) content grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera-Herandez, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Olvera-Cervantes, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Rojas-Lopez, M [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada (CIBA), IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. 72160 (Mexico); Navarro-Contreras, H [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Vidal, M A [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Anda, F de [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico)


    Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to measure and analyze the lattice vibrations in some quaternary Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} alloys with low (In, As) contents (0.03

  17. Influence of chemical composition on the X-ray photoemission, thermopower, specific heat, and magnetic properties of CeNi{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-y}Ge{sub y}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolinski, T.; Synoradzki, K. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Physics, Poznan (Poland); Bajorek, A.; Chelkowska, G. [Silesian University, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Koterlyn, M. [K. Wielkiego University, Institute of Physics, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Ivan Franko National University of L' viv, Faculty of Electronics, L' viv (Ukraine); Koterlyn, G. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Western Scientific Center, L' viv (Ukraine); Yasnitskii, R. [Ivan Franko National University of L' viv, Faculty of Electronics, L' viv (Ukraine)


    We report our studies of the intermediate compositions between CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, i.e., the alloys CeNi{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-y}Ge{sub y}){sub 2} by means of the thermopower, electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray photoemission measurements. CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a fluctuating valence system and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is known to show the heavy fermion behaviour. The change of the temperature dependence of the resistivity towards the typical metallic behaviour occurs below y ∝ 0.25. The transition between CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is discussed in the frames of competition between the crystal electric field and Kondo interactions. It is found that valence stabilisation occurs for Ge content y > 0.25. The hybridization energy Δ determined from the XPS Ce 3d spectrum reflects well the behaviour of the parameter E{sub ex} obtained from the analysis of the magnetic susceptibility by the interconfiguration fluctuation model. It has been also shown that thermopower data can be successfully described employing the single ion model for 0.6 < y < 1.0 and two-band model including the crystal electric field splitting for y ≤ 0.25. (orig.)

  18. Electrochemical dissolution of U{sub 1-y}Gd{sub y}O{sub 2±x}: Effect of Gd doping on various oxidation state of UO{sub 2±x} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jandee; Lee, Jeongmook; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Goo; Ha, Yeong-Keong; Bae, Sang-Eun; Shoesmith, David W.; Kim, Jong-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Nazhen [Western University, London (Canada)


    SNF (Spent nuclear fuel) is consisted with mainly UO{sub 2}, radioactive fission products and actinides species. Because the major radio nuclides are located within the oxide matrix, their release rates to the groundwater will be depended on the fuel corrosion/dissolution rate. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} doped with RE (Rare earth) element has been investigated expensively for decades, in order to determine the effect of fission product impurities present in solid solution in used fuel. RE doped UO{sub 2} shows enhanced stability of the cubic fluorite structures of U{sub 4}O{sub 9}-type with respect to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-type depending on the sintering atmosphere as compared to un-doped UO{sub 2}. Such substantial efforts have been done, integrated research of stoichiometry and Gd-doping effects have received little interest. And also, there are difficulties to handle the nuclear fuel carefully not to spoil the intrinsic properties of itself. Especially, in determining dissolution behaviors of fuel, electrochemical techniques are very powerful and reliable tool to establish the thermodynamic values presented dissolution kinetics. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Gd-doped U{sub 1-y}Gd{sub y}O{sub 2±x} pellets are prepared by mechanical blending method adjusting the oxygen potential. Stoichiometry of all pellets was confirmed by nondestructive X-ray analysis.

  19. Factors affecting the range of movement of total knee arthroplasty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, I A; Barry, K; Kirby, S P; Johnson, R; Elloy, M A


    We have investigated those factors which influence the range of movement after total knee arthroplasty, including sex, age, preoperative diagnosis and preoperative flexion deformity and flexion range...

  20. Formation of gapless Z 2 spin liquid phase manganites in the (Sm1- y Gd y )0.55Sr0.45MnO3 system in zero magnetic field: Topological phase transitions to states with low and high density of 2D-vortex pairs induced by the magnetic field (United States)

    Bukhan'ko, F. N.; Bukhan'ko, A. F.


    The evolution of the ground state of the manganese spin ensemble in the (Sm1- y Gd y )0.55Sr0.45MnO3 in the case of isovalent substitution of rare-earth samarium ions with large radii with gadolinium ions with significantly smaller radii is studied. The measured temperature dependences of the ac magnetic susceptibility and the field dependences of the dc magnetizations are analyzed using the Heisenberg-Kitaev model describing the transition from the ordered spin state with classical isotropic AFM exchange to the frustrated spin state with quantum highly anisotropic FM exchange. A continuous transition from the 3D ferromagnetic state of manganese spins in the initial sample with y = 0 to zigzag AFM ordering of CE-type spins in ab planes for y = 0.5, coexisting in samples with y = 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 at temperatures below T N ≅ 48.5 K with a disordered phase such as a quantum Griffiths phase is identified. As the gadolinium concentration further increases, the CE-type zigzag AFM structure is molten, which leads to the appearance of an unusual phase in Gd0.55Sr0.45MnO3 in the temperature range close to the absolute zero. This phase has characteristic features of a gapless Z 2 quantum spin liquid in zero external magnetic field. The step changes in the magnetization isotherms measured at 4.2 K in the field range of ±75 kOe are explained by quantum phase transitions of the Z 2 spin liquid to a phase with topological order in weak magnetic fields and a polarized phase in strong fields. The significant difference between critical fields and magnetization jumps in isotherms indicates the existence of hysteretic phenomena in quantum spin liquid magnetization-demagnetization processes caused by the difference between localization-delocalization of 2D vortex pairs induced by a magnetic field in a quantum spin liquid with disorder.

  1. Unexploded Ordnance Site Investigation of US Military Ranges in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges (United States)


    Process, UXO Detection Technologies, and Detector Reference Area. Table 1-1 UXO Site Investigation Report Components Aiko ik ogai6Componehp - Sect"on Site...200.0 C2 Suspect impact area of Range 6 09 97 482 17 645 592 929.9 D FP- 11 Firing Fan 0995639 17648673 369.0 E FP-15 Firing Fan 0997194 17645735 326.5 K ...bulldozer was brought in to grade and level the area. The transect was surveyed with a hand held EM61 locator starting off the K -6 road about 1.000

  2. Orthogonal Range Searching in Moderate Dimensions: k-d Trees and Range Trees Strike Back


    Chan, Timothy M.


    We revisit the orthogonal range searching problem and the exact l_infinity nearest neighbor searching problem for a static set of n points when the dimension d is moderately large. We give the first data structure with near linear space that achieves truly sublinear query time when the dimension is any constant multiple of log n. Specifically, the preprocessing time and space are O(n^{1+delta}) for any constant delta>0, and the expected query time is n^{1-1/O(c log c)} for d = c log n. The ...

  3. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  4. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den


    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  5. 25 CFR 700.721 - Range management plans. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Range management plans. 700.721 Section 700.721 Indians... Lands Grazing § 700.721 Range management plans. The Commissioner (or his designee) and the permittees of each range unit will meet as a group and develop a Range Management Plan for the common use of the...

  6. 25 CFR 161.203 - Are range management plans required? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are range management plans required? 161.203 Section 161... LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.203 Are range management plans required? Yes. BIA will... range restoration activities for the Navajo Partitioned Lands. (b) Develop range management plans with...

  7. Climate change, aboveground-belowground interactions, and species range shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.


    Changes in climate, land use, fire incidence, and ecological connections all may contribute to current species' range shifts. Species shift range individually, and not all species shift range at the same time and rate. This variation causes community reorganization in both the old and new ranges. In

  8. PUESTOS DE ALTURA DE LA PUNA ARGENTINA: ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA DE REAL GRANDE 1 Y 6 Y ALERO TOMAYOC / High elevation sites of the Argentine Puna: Zooarchaeology of Real Grande 1 and 6, and Alero Tomayoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivera


    Full Text Available Las sociedades del Período Tardío en la Puna Argentina introdujeron sensibles mejoras técnicas y un aumento en laproducción agrícola, relacionados con un proceso de cambio hacia una mayor complejidad socio-política. Existengrandes asentamientos poblacionales asociados a los campos de cultivo de los fondos de cuenca, pero los sistemasde asentamiento incluyen sitios ubicados en cotas más altas que aprovechan aleros y cuevas, denominados puestosde altura, como Real Grande 1 y 6 (Catamarca y Alero Tomayoc (Jujuy.Este trabajo apunta a estudiar los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de los mencionados sitios a través de un análisistaxonómico/económico y osteométrico, para relacionarlo con la totalidad del contexto de los asentamientos.Los resultados parecen indicar que estos sitios cumplieron un rol importante para el pastoreo de llamas y la cazade camélidos silvestres (vicuña y guanaco en las economías regionales. Más aún, los puestos de altura habríandesempeñado una función signifi cativa al asegurar la circulación de información, bienes y energía apuntalando elproceso de complejización socio-política de las sociedades prehispánicas tardías de la Puna Argentina.Palabras Clave: zooarqueología, osteometría, economía, puna, puestos de altura.AbstractThe societies from the Late Period in the Argentinean Puna introduced considerable technical improvements and anincrease in agricultural production, in relationship with a process of change towards a greater sociopolitical complexity.For this period there are large settlements associated with crop fi elds in the low basins, but the settlementsystems includes sites located at higher elevations, named “Puestos de altura” like Real Grande 1 y 6 (Catamarcaand Alero Tomayoc (Jujuy.The aim of this work is to study faunal remains from the above mentioned sites through a taxonomical/economicaland osteometrical analysis in order to relate them with the total context of the settlements

  9. Global S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y linear sigma model: Axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identities and decoupling of certain heavy BSM particles due to the Goldstone theorem (United States)

    Lynn, Bryan W.; Starkman, Glenn D.


    In the S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R linear sigma model with partially conserved axial-vector currents, a tower of Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI) have long been known to give relations among 1-scalar-particle-irreducible (1 -ϕ -I ) Green's functions, and among I-scalar-particle-reducible (1 -ϕ -R ) transition-matrix (T-matrix) elements for external scalars [i.e. the Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) scalar H , and three pseudoscalars π →]. In this paper, we extend these WTI and the resulting relations to the S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y linear sigma model including the heaviest generation of Standard Model (SM) fermions—the ungauged (i.e. global) Standard Model SMtb τ ντ G —supplemented with the minimum necessary neutrino content—right-handed neutrinos and Yukawa-coupling-induced Dirac neutrino mass—to obtain the charge-parity (C P )-conserving νDSMtb τ ντ G , and extract powerful constraints on the effective Lagrangian: e.g. showing that they make separate tadpole renormalization unnecessary, and guarantee infrared finiteness. The crucial observation is that ultraviolet quadratic divergences (UVQD), and all other relevant operators, contribute only to mπ2, a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB) mass-squared, which appears in intermediate steps of calculations. A WTI between T-matrix elements (or, in this global theory equivalently the Goldstone theorem) then enforces mπ2=0 exactly for the true NGB in the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) mode of the theory. The Goldstone theorem thus causes all relevant operator contributions, originating to all-loop-orders from virtual scalars H ,π → , quarks qLc;tRc;bRc and leptons lL;ντR;τR with (c =r , w , b ), to vanish identically. We show that our regularization-scheme-independent, WTI-driven results are unchanged by the addition of certain S U (3 )C×S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y heavy (MHeavy2≫|q2|,mWeak2 ) C P -conserving matter, such as originate in certain beyond the SM (BSM) models. The global axial-vector WTI

  10. Meta-1 y Mat-1, proteínas metacíclicas en leishmania: clonación, expresión y caracterización inmunológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Berberich


    Full Text Available

    Los parásitos del género Leishmania causan un amplio espectro clínico de enfermedades en el hombre, referidos colectivamente como leismaniasis. Estos parásitos en la naturaleza se encuentran como dos estadíos. Uno de promastigote, el cual es flagelado, móvil y es la forma encontrada en el intestino del insecto vector y otro de amastigote, el cual es inmóvil, no presenta flagelo y es la forma encontrada dentro de los macrófagos del hospedero mamífero. El promastigote dentro del insecto, sufre una serie de modificaciones que lo transforman desde una forma poco o nada infectivo conocido como promastigote procíclico hasta una forma altamente infectiva o promastigote metacíclico. Este proceso es de vital importancia ya que asegura la producción de parásitos infectivos y con una capacidad aumentada de resistir el ataque del sistema inmune del hospedero vertebrado. Sin embargo, los mecanismos bioquímicos y moleculares de este proceso de diferenciación apenas están siendo dilucidados. Durante la metaciclogénesis se sabe que el parásito modula la expresión de algunas moléculas involucradas en la virulencia. Con el empleo de técnicas que permiten aislar genes expresados diferencialmente se han logrado identificar los genes Meta-1 y Mat-1, que tienen la particularidad de que sus marcos de lectura en el promastigote metacíclico tienen una tasa de transcripción mayor que en promastigotes procíclicos, al menos en Leishmania major. En el presente trabajo se muestra la expresión como proteínas recombinantes de estos dos genes metacíclicos. Además , se presentará una evaluación preliminar de la respuesta inmune humoral y celular frente a las proteínas Meta- 1 y Mat-1 de L. infantum. Para la evaluación humoral se emplearon sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea, mucocutánea y visceral, mediante Elisa y Western blot. Títulos bajos de anticuerpos

  11. FTIR and Raman Study of the LixTiyMn1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.11) Cathodes in Methylpropyl Pyrrolidinium Bis(fluoro-sulfonyl)imide, LiTFSI Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, L.J.; Lucas, I.T.; Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Saint, J.A.


    This work demonstrates the protective effect of partial titanium substitution in Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} against surface decomposition in room-temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) cells. Raman microscopy and reflectance Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to analyze electrodes recovered from cycled Li/Li{sub x}Ti{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} (y=0, 0.11) cells containing the 0.5 mol/kg LiTFSI in P{sub 13}FSI RTIL electrolyte. [TFSI=bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.] Raman and FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathodes showed many distinct bands that can be attributed to both the electrolyte and electrode decomposition products. The thickness of the amorphous porous layer on the Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} cathode increased during cycling. The surface degradation of Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and precipitation of electrolyte decomposition products contributed to the film growth. Improved cycling behavior was observed in cells containing Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2}, yet Raman spectroscopy also showed possible surface degradation. The FTIR spectra of cycled Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} and Li{sub x}Ti{sub 0.11}Mn{sub 0.89}O{sub 2} cathodes displayed bands characteristic for LiSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}, which originate from the reaction of the TFSI anion with traces of water present in the cell.

  12. Vortex melting line and anisotropy of a Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}(O{sub 1-y}F{sub y}){sub 2} multilayered superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivagan, D D; Shirage, P M; Tanaka, Y; Iyo, A; Kodama, Y [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Crisan, A [National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tokiwa, K; Watanabe, T [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Terada, N [Department of Nano Structures and Advanced Materials, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hamada, N [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We have measured the vortex melting lines of high-pressure-synthesized Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}(O{sub 1-y}F{sub y}){sub 2} (nominal composition, 2y = 1.3, 1.6 and 2.0) F(2y)-0234 multilayered high-T{sub c} superconductor using fundamental and third harmonic susceptibility responses carried out on preferentially oriented crystallites with very low ac field amplitude (5 {mu}T) and in applied dc fields up to 6 T. The vortex melting lines of all three F-substituted samples show interesting doping dependence and are very well described by the commonly accepted theory of melting lines. Interestingly, we discovered that the models describing the temperature dependence of the in-plane London penetration depth also depend on the doping level: the 3D XY model for the nearly-optimum-doped sample [F(1.3)], the mean-field theory for the under-doped sample [F(1.6)] and the two-fluid model for the heavily-under-doped sample [F(2.0)]. We found that the vortex melting lines in F-0234 are determined by the interplay in the coupling of pancake vortices through the charge reservoir layer (CRL), and through the block of inner CuO{sub 2} planes (IPs), respectively. The anisotropy values (47 for the near-optimally-doped sample) derived from experimental vortex melting lines are consistent with the values obtained by first-principles electronic-band-structure calculations.

  13. The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein. (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Gibbs, Alison L; Mehling, Christine; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Connelly, Philip W; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Maheux, Pierre; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Rodger, N Wilson; Ryan, Edmond A


    The optimal source and amount of dietary carbohydrate for managing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of altering the glycemic index or the amount of carbohydrate on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in T2DM patients. Subjects with T2DM managed by diet alone (n=162) were randomly assigned to receive high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic-index (high-GI), high-carbohydrate, low-glycemic-index (low-GI), or low-carbohydrate, high-monounsaturated-fat (low-CHO) diets for 1 y. The high-GI, low-GI, and low-CHO diets contained, respectively, 47%, 52%, and 39% of energy as carbohydrate and 31%, 27%, and 40% of energy as fat; they had GIs of 63, 55, and 59, respectively. Body weight and HbA1c did not differ significantly between diets. Fasting glucose was higher (P=0.041), but 2-h postload glucose was lower (P=0.010) after 12 mo of the low-GI diet. With the low-GI diet, overall mean triacylglycerol was 12% higher and HDL cholesterol 4% lower than with the low-CHO diet (Pglycemic control, long-term HbA1c was not affected by altering the GI or the amount of dietary carbohydrate. Differences in total:HDL cholesterol among diets had disappeared by 6 mo. However, because of sustained reductions in postprandial glucose and CRP, a low-GI diet may be preferred for the dietary management of T2DM.

  14. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae). (United States)

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana


    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  15. A systematic study of glass stability, crystal structure and electrical properties of lithium ion-conducting glass-ceramics of the Li1+xCrx(GeyTi1-y)2-x(PO4)3 system (United States)

    Nuernberg, Rafael B.; Pradel, Annie; Rodrigues, Ana C. M.


    This study examines the effect of substituting Ti by Cr and Ge on the glass stability of the precursor glass and on the electrical properties of the lithium ion-conducting glass-ceramics of the Li1+xCrx(GeyTi1-y)2-x(PO4)3 (LCGTP) system. A set of compositions of this system is synthesized by the melt-quenching method followed by crystallization. The main results indicate that the glass stability of the precursor glasses increases when Ti is replaced by Ge and Cr. After crystallization, all the glass-ceramics present NASICON-type phase, and their lattice parameters decrease with Ge and increase with Cr content, making it possible to adjust the unit cell volume of the NASICON-like structure. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity and activation energy for lithium conduction in the glass-ceramics are notably dependent on the unit cell volume of the NASICON-like structure. The Li1.6Cr0.6(Ge0.2Ti0.8)1.4(PO4)3 glass-ceramic composition shows the highest overall ionic conductivity (2.9 × 10-4 Ω-1 cm-1) at room temperature and reveals remarkably high ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10-3 Ω-1 cm-1) and low activation energy (0.259 eV) regarding grain contribution. The main findings suggest that the proposed system is promising to develop fast Li ion-conducting glass-ceramics, offering a compromise between the glass stability of the precursor glass and the electrical properties of the resulting glass-ceramic.

  16. Determination of structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5 and (NbyCu 1-y)Ox thin films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates for dental implant applications. (United States)

    Mazur, M; Kalisz, M; Wojcieszak, D; Grobelny, M; Mazur, P; Kaczmarek, D; Domaradzki, J


    In this paper comparative studies on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5/Ti and (NbyCu1-y)Ox/Ti alloy systems have been investigated. Pure layers of niobia and niobia with a copper addition were deposited on a Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface using the magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the prepared thin films were examined with the aid of XRD, XPS SEM and AFM measurements. The mechanical properties (i.e., nanohardness, Young's modulus and abrasion resistance) were performed using nanoindentation and a steel wool test. The corrosion properties of the coatings were determined by analysis of the voltammetric curves. The deposited coatings were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate, no discontinuity of the thin film was observed and the surface morphology was homogeneous. The hardness of pure niobium pentoxide was ca. 8.64GPa. The obtained results showed that the addition of copper into pure niobia resulted in the preparation of a layer with a lower hardness of ca. 7.79 GPa (for niobia with 17 at.% Cu) and 7.75 GPa (for niobia with 25 at.% Cu). The corrosion properties of the tested thin films deposited on the surface of titanium alloy depended on the composition of the thin layer. The addition of copper (i.e. a noble metal) to Nb2O5 film increased the corrosion resistance followed by a significant decrease in the value of corrosion currents and, in case of the highest Cu content, the shift of corrosion potential towards the noble direction. The best corrosion properties were obtained from a sample of Ti6Al4V coated with (Nb0.75Cu0.25)Ox thin film. It seems that the tested materials could be used in the future as protection coatings for Ti alloys in biomedical applications such as implants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. High performance fuel electrodes fabricated by electroless plating of copper on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ proton-conducting ceramic (United States)

    Patki, Neil S.; Way, J. Douglas; Ricote, Sandrine


    The stability of copper at high temperatures in reducing and hydrocarbon-containing atmospheres makes it a good candidate for fabricating fuel electrodes on proton-conducting ceramics, such as BaZr0.9-xCexY0.1O3-δ (BZCY). In this work, the electrochemical performance of Cu-based electrodes fabricated by electroless plating (ELP) on BaZr0.8Ce0.1Y0.1O3-δ is studied with impedance spectroscopy. Three activation catalysts (Pd, Ru, and Cu) are investigated and ELP is compared to a commercial Cu paste (ESL 2312-G) for electrode fabrication. The area specific resistances (ASR) for Pd, Ru, and Cu activations at 700 °C in moist 5% H2 in Ar are 2.1, 3.2, and 13.4 Ω cm2, respectively. That is a 1-2 orders of magnitude improvement over the commercial Cu paste (192 Ω cm2). Furthermore, the ASR has contributions from electrode processes and charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the morphology of the as-fabricated electrode is unaffected by the activation catalyst. However, heat treatment at 750 °C in H2 for 24 h leads to sintering and large reorganization of the electrode fabricated with Cu activation (micron sized pores seen in the tested sample), while Pd and Ru activations are immune to such reorganization. Thus, Pd and Ru are identified as candidates for future work with improvements to charge transfer required for the former, and better electrode processes required for the latter.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of TiFe(0.7-x)Mn(0.3)V(x) (x = 0.05, and 0.1) and Ti(1-y)Ta(y)Fe(0.7)Mn(0.3) (y = 0.2, and 0.4) nanostructured metal hydrides for low temperature applications. (United States)

    Anagnostou, N G; Makridis, S S; Kikkinides, E S; Christodoulou, C N; Stubos, A K


    Metal hydrides (MH) are often preferred to absorb and desorb hydrogen at ambient temperature and pressure with a high volumetric density. These hydrogen storage alloys create promising prospects for hydrogen storage and can solve the energetic and environmental issues. In the present research work, the goal of our studies is to find the influence of partial substitution of small amounts of vanadium and tantalum on the hydrogenation properties of TiFe(0.7-x)Mn(0.3)V(x) (x = 0.05, and 0.1) and Ti(1-y)Ta(y)Fe(0.7)Mn(0.3) (y = 0.2, and 0.4) alloys, respectively. The nominal compositions of these materials are TiFe(0.6)Mn(0.3)V(0.05), TiFe(0.6)Mn(0.3)V(0.1), Ti(0.8)Ta(0.2)Fe(0.7)Mn(0.3), and Ti(0.6)Ta(0.4)Fe(0.7)Mn(0.3). All samples were synthesized by arc-melting high purity elements under argon atmosphere. The structural and microstructural properties of the samples were studied by using XRD and SEM, respectively, while the corresponding microchemistry was determined by obtaining EDS measurements at specific regions of the samples. Mapping was obtained in order to investigate atomic distribution in microstructure. Moreover, to ensure the associations between the properties and structure, all samples were examined by an optical microscope for accessional characterization. From all these microscopic examinations a variety of photomicrographs were taken with different magnifications. The hydrogenation properties were obtained by using a Magnetic Suspension Balance (Rubotherm). In this equipment, the hydrogen desorption and re-absorption, can be investigated at constant hydrogen pressures in the range of 1 to 20 MPa (flow-through mode). At least 3.43 wt.% of absorbed hydrogen amount was measured while the effect of substitutions was investigated at the same temperature.

  19. ISAR imaging using the instantaneous range instantaneous Doppler method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wazna, TM


    Full Text Available In Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging, the Range Instantaneous Doppler (RID) method is used to compensate for the nonuniform rotational motion of the target that degrades the Doppler resolution of the ISAR image. The Instantaneous Range...

  20. High-Range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a High-range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) for the field range +/-16 Gauss. The HSHM...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    . GSM-08057884935 ... Range condition is used as a guide to ensure sustainable land use; to determine ... Range trend assessments depend upon evaluation of the general health of individual.

  2. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.


    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  3. The History of the Naval Torpedo Tracking Ranges at Keyport (United States)


    1961, negotiations were begun with Canada for the installation and joint operation of an acoustic range near Ballenas Island, in the Strait of Georgia...After several exploratory trips were made to Ballenas and Winchelsea Islands, construction of the range, based on the low frequency 75 kHz tracking...The array cables were temporarily terminated at a trailer on South Ballenas Island that contained the range tracking computer and served as a range

  4. Common Risk Criteria Standards for National Test Ranges (United States)


    process among the ranges; b. Promote valid, repeatable risk assessments; c. Facilitate innovation to support challenging missions; d. Nurture...with operational requirements. Range flight operations typically involve some level of risk. Therefore, an important aspect of the range safety...accurate, repeatable risk assessments by minimizing errors in estimating and ensuring their scientific validity; c. Facilitate innovation to support

  5. Home range location of white-tailed deer. (United States)

    Michael E. Nelson


    Deer migrations and home range traditions indicated that home range location is determined more by early social experience, learning, and tradition than by an innate ability to select the best habitat. Different deer preferred the same or similar habitat but such selection was a secondary influence on home range location.

  6. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...

  8. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 5. Mountain range specific ... Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past ...

  9. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range. (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin


    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  10. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan


    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite

  11. 76 FR 63656 - Front Range Resource Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation (United States)


    ...] Front Range Resource Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Front Range Resource Advisory Council meeting scheduled for October 19, 2011 at the BLM Royal Gorge....m. to 4:30 p.m. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tina Brown, Front Range RAC Coordinator, BLM...

  12. 36 CFR 222.10 - Range betterment fund. (United States)


    ... allocated for range rehabilitation, protection and improvements on National Forest lands within the Forest... also be accomplished through use of the range betterment fund as follows: (a) On National Forest land... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range betterment fund. 222.10...

  13. The Role of Data Range in Linear Regression (United States)

    da Silva, M. A. Salgueiro; Seixas, T. M.


    Measuring one physical quantity as a function of another often requires making some choices prior to the measurement process. Two of these choices are: the data range where measurements should focus and the number (n) of data points to acquire in the chosen data range. Here, we consider data range as the interval of variation of the independent…

  14. 50 CFR 70.8 - Range and feral animal management. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Range and feral animal management. 70.8... (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.8 Range and feral animal management. The range and feral animal management provisions set forth in part 30 of this chapter are equally...

  15. Rank range test for equality of dispersion | Odiase | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper exploits the computational simplicity of the range of a set of data to formulate a twosample scale test called the Rank Range test. The performance of the test statistic is compared with other tests of scale. The exact distribution of the Rank Range test statistic is generated empirically through the unconditional ...

  16. Cultural resources of the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    John H. Madsen


    The Santa Rita Experimental Range is a vast open space with few signs of houses or human habitation, but at one time it was quite the opposite scene. Archaeological surface inspections reveal heavy use of the Range dating back hundreds of years. This paper will review the history of cultural resource management on the Range and provide a timeline of local cultural...

  17. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. B. Jackson


    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  18. Start-Stop Moment Optimization of Range Extender and Control Strategy Design for Extended -Range Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Han, Bing-yuan; Bei, Shao-yi


    Range extender is the core component of E-REV, its start-stop control determines the operation modes of vehicle. This paper based on a certain type of E-REV, researched constant power control strategy of range extender in extended-range model, to target range as constraint condition, combined with different driving cycle conditions, by correcting battery SOC for range extender start-stop moment, optimized the control strategy of range extender, and established the vehicle and range extender start-stop control simulation model. Selected NEDC and UDDS conditions simulation results show that: under certain target mileage, the range extender running time reduced by 37.2% and 28.2% in the NEDC condition, and running time UDDS conditions were reduced by 40.6% and 33.5% in the UDDS condition, reached the purpose of meeting the vehicle mileage and reducing consumption and emission.

  19. The Effect of Barium Non-Stoichiometry on the Phase Structure, Sintering and Electrical Conductivity of BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed Shibly, Kaamil


    This thesis attempts to test the effects of barium non stoichiometry and varying calcination temperatures on the microstructure and electrical conductivity of BaxZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3- δ (x = 0.9, 1.0, 1.1). BZPY powders were fabricated using a combustion method, with the quantity of barium carefully controlled to create powders with a 10% molar excess or deficiency of barium. Then, portions of the precursor were calcined at 900 ºC, 1000 ºC, 1100 ºC, 1200 ºC and 1300 ºC for 5 h. The resulting calcined powders were pressed into pellets and sintered at 1600 ºC for 10 h, in a powder bath of the same chemical composition. In all, three chemically different powders were synthesized, and each composition was subjected to five different calcination temperatures, resulting in fifteen different samples to characterise. The precursor from the combustion method was characterised by using an STA to perform both TG and DSC simultaneously. The chemical composition of the precursor and calcined samples was analysed using ICP-OES. XRD was used to characterise the phases of both the powders and the sintered pellets. Lattice parameter indexing using Topaz and Scherrer\\'s equation were used to extract the lattice parameters and crystallite sizes respectively. The microstructure of the pellets was examined using an SEM, the grain size measured using a linear intercept method and pore size using ImageJ. Finally, EIS was used to measure the conductivity of the pellets in dry and wet Argon atmospheres, with silver electrodes. Unfortunately, neither changes to barium stoichiometry nor partial calcination could improve the performance of BZPY. Partially calcined samples did not give rise to dense pellets, barium deficient samples showed inferior conductivity and barium excess samples, while showing higher conductivity than the barium deficient pellets at high temperature, were fragile and had to be handled carefully. Ultimately, the attempt to improve the performance of BZPY did not

  20. Detección del estado de metilación de los genes dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1 en ADN de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizábal Fabio


    Full Text Available El estudio de las características epigenéticas en ADN proveniente de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU tiene un futuro promisorio;  se han encontrado previamente genes supresores de tumor (GST metilados, correlacionados con estadios avanzados del CCU, siendo
    posibles indicadores de peor pronóstico y marcadores moleculares de respuesta a tratamiento. Sin embargo, no existe ningún estudio para Colombia, en el que se haya buscado detectar estados de metilación para ADN de plasma en ningún tipo de cáncer. En este trabajo se reporta el estudio
    de 23 pacientes colombianas con estadios avanzados (III y IV de CCU (Banco de Muestras del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, a los cuales les fue detectado el estado de mutilación (conversión por bisulfito de sodio posterior MSP de los GST dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1, en ADN de plasma,
    y se comparó contra el estado de metilación en ADN de plasma, arrojando los siguientes porcentajes de pacientes que presentaron el mismo estado de metilación (presente/ausente rassf1, 44%; cdh13, 33%; cdh1, 44%; dapk, 78%; para un total de los cuatro genes en conjunto de 47%. Adicionalmente, se detectó la presencia en el 100% de las muestras de tumor de HPV tipo 16. Se demostró igualdad entre las poblaciones de tumor y plasma para el panel de los cuatro genes (p=0,635, Test de McNemar a=0,05, en particular para el estadio III (p=0,85. El gen dapk presentó un estado de metilación positivo para plasma del 68,4% y para tumor del 94% en estadios avanzados. De esta manera, se consiguió la detección de los estados de metilación en ADN de plasma y se encontró correlación estadística con los encontrados en ADN tumoral, en particular para el estadio III. Este trabajo constituye un aporte importante para el uso de características epigenéticas de ADN de plasma, como marcadores moleculares de progresión, respuesta a tratamiento, y suprevivencia, en pacientes colombianas con CCU.

  1. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong


    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  2. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li


    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  3. On Dynamic Range Limitations of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik


    This paper is concerned with the dynamic range of continuous time CMOS current mode circuits. As a representative current mode device a class AB current conveyor is examined. First, the voltage input range of the high impedance Y input is investigated. Next, the current input range of the low...... impedance X input is investigated. It is compared to the thermal noise in the X to Z signal path in order to evaluate the dynamic range, and the dependencies of the dynamic range on the supply voltage and the transistor lay-out is derived, both for the situation where the conveyor is used over a narrow...... frequency band and for the situation where the conveyor is used over the full bandwidth achievable. Finally, the optimisation of the current input range is related to the distortion characteristics and it is pointed out that to a first order approximation the distortion is independent of the current range....

  4. Endocarditis infecciosa por S. aureus en la Argentina: EIRA-2. Análisis comparativo luego de 10 años de los estudios EIRA 1 y 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto R. Ferreirós


    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar el perfil y la evolución de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI en nuestro país a lo largo de 10 años, a través de los registros EIRA-1 y EIRA-2. Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas y la evolución hospitalaria de la EI por Staphylococcus aureus (EISA en la Argentina. Métodos El estudio EIRA-2 fue un registro prospectivo multicéntrico conducido en 82 hospitales de 16 provincias de la Argentina. En el presente análisis se incluyeron pacientes con EI definidas (clasificación de Duke relevados en un período de 18 meses. Resultados Se registraron 390 episodios de EI definidas (108 EISA y 282 no EISA; edad media 58,5 ± 17,3 años, sexo masculino 70%. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 108 EISA y las 282 no EISA con respecto a edad, sexo, endocarditis de válvula protésica, enfermedad valvular degenerativa, presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y frecuencia de tratamiento quirúrgico. La comparación de los registros EIRA-2 y EIRA-1 demostró cambios importantes en el perfil de la enfermedad en la última década, actualmente caracterizada por pacientes de mayor edad (58 versus 51 años, mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente 67% versus 55% (en particular prótesis valvulares 19,2% versus 8,5%, enfermedades valvulares degenerativas 12,4% versus 4,8% y cardiopatías congénitas 9,5% versus 4,2%, mayor frecuencia de infección causada por S. aureus (30% versus 26% y menor por Streptococcus viridans (30,8% versus 26,8%, con una reducción del tiempo hasta el diagnóstico definitivo (21,5 versus 33 días. No se encontraron modificaciones en la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,01 de las EISA con respecto a las no EISA en la prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente [58,3% versus 67,4% (OR 0,7 IC 95% 0,4-0,99]; la EISA presentó una prevalencia menor de enfermedad valvular reumática [0,9% versus 7,1% (OR

  5. Distribución celular de Presenilina 1 y procesamiento de la Proteína Precursora de Amiloide en portadores de la mutación E280a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vélez



    - Western Blotting para las proteínas: Presenilina 1 y la Proteína

    Precursora de Amiloide

    - Estudio citogenético de células HeLa

    - Detección de la Proteína Precursora de Amiloide por

    Citometría de flujo

    - Análisis estadístico e interpretación de los resultados

    Resultados: Por primera vez, se logra la detección de la Proteína Precursora de Amiloide, por medio de Citometría de flujo, lográndose tanto la detección de la proteína en membrana celular como intracelular. Los niveles detectados de la Proteína Precursora de Amiloide en membrana celular, fueron extremadamente bajos, comparados con los encontrados a nivel intracelular. No se encontraron diferencias significativas, en los niveles de expresión de la Proteína Precursora de Amiloide, en ninguno de los tres grupos estudiados (enfermos de Alzheimer portadores de E280A, sanos portadores de E280A y sanos no portadores de la mutación. La expresión de las proteínas: Presenilina 1 y b Amiloide; no fueron detectadas por la técnica de Citometría de flujo.

  6. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  7. Effects of sample size on KERNEL home range estimates (United States)

    Seaman, D.E.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Kernohan, Brian J.; Brundige, Gary C.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Gitzen, Robert A.


    Kernel methods for estimating home range are being used increasingly in wildlife research, but the effect of sample size on their accuracy is not known. We used computer simulations of 10-200 points/home range and compared accuracy of home range estimates produced by fixed and adaptive kernels with the reference (REF) and least-squares cross-validation (LSCV) methods for determining the amount of smoothing. Simulated home ranges varied from simple to complex shapes created by mixing bivariate normal distributions. We used the size of the 95% home range area and the relative mean squared error of the surface fit to assess the accuracy of the kernel home range estimates. For both measures, the bias and variance approached an asymptote at about 50 observations/home range. The fixed kernel with smoothing selected by LSCV provided the least-biased estimates of the 95% home range area. All kernel methods produced similar surface fit for most simulations, but the fixed kernel with LSCV had the lowest frequency and magnitude of very poor estimates. We reviewed 101 papers published in The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) between 1980 and 1997 that estimated animal home ranges. A minority of these papers used nonparametric utilization distribution (UD) estimators, and most did not adequately report sample sizes. We recommend that home range studies using kernel estimates use LSCV to determine the amount of smoothing, obtain a minimum of 30 observations per animal (but preferably a?Y50), and report sample sizes in published results.

  8. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions. (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F


    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Firing Range Contaminants and Climate Change Tool: Spreadsheet User Instructions (United States)


    ER D C S R- 17 -4 Firing Range Contaminants and Climate Change Tool Spreadsheet User Instructions En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d...SR-17-4 September 2017 Firing Range Contaminants and Climate Change Tool Spreadsheet User Instructions Catherine Fox-Lent, Dayton C. Marchese...can now use the tool and this instructional guide as an aid to long-term range planning in the face of climate changes . DISCLAIMER: The contents

  10. Building accurate geometric models from abundant range imaging information (United States)

    Diegert, Carl F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.


    We define two simple metrics for accuracy of models built from range imaging information. We apply the metric to a model built from a recent range image taken at the laser radar Development and Evaluation Facility, Eglin AFB, using a scannerless range imager (SRI) from Sandia National Laboratories. We also present graphical displays of the residual information produced as a byproduct of this measurement, and discuss mechanisms that these data suggest for further improvement in the performance of this already impressive SRI.

  11. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensors with Enhanced Sensitivity and Range Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA application...

  12. Modulation of neuronal dynamic range using two different adaptation mechanisms (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Ye; Fu, Wen-long; Cao, Li-hong


    The capability of neurons to discriminate between intensity of external stimulus is measured by its dynamic range. A larger dynamic range indicates a greater probability of neuronal survival. In this study, the potential roles of adaptation mechanisms (ion currents) in modulating neuronal dynamic range were numerically investigated. Based on the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model, which includes two different adaptation mechanisms, i.e. subthreshold and suprathreshold (spike-triggered) adaptation, our results reveal that the two adaptation mechanisms exhibit rather different roles in regulating neuronal dynamic range. Specifically, subthreshold adaptation acts as a negative factor that observably decreases the neuronal dynamic range, while suprathreshold adaptation has little influence on the neuronal dynamic range. Moreover, when stochastic noise was introduced into the adaptation mechanisms, the dynamic range was apparently enhanced, regardless of what state the neuron was in, e.g. adaptive or non-adaptive. Our model results suggested that the neuronal dynamic range can be differentially modulated by different adaptation mechanisms. Additionally, noise was a non-ignorable factor, which could effectively modulate the neuronal dynamic range. PMID:28469660

  13. Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds592 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Double-crested Cormorant Range - CWHR [ds602 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Foothill Yellow-legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds589 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use. (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  17. Monitoring vegetation conditions from LANDSAT for use in range management (United States)

    Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.


    A summary of the LANDSAT Great Plains Corridor projects and the principal results are presented. Emphasis is given to the use of satellite acquired phenological data for range management and agri-business activities. A convenient method of reducing LANDSAT MSS data to provide quantitative estimates of green biomass on rangelands in the Great Plains is explained. Suggestions for the use of this approach for evaluating range feed conditions are presented. A LANDSAT Follow-on project has been initiated which will employ the green biomass estimation method in a quasi-operational monitoring of range readiness and range feed conditions on a regional scale.

  18. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming


    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  19. Prevalencia de la infección con el virus linfotrópico de células T humanas de tipo 1 y 2 en donantes de sangre en Colombia, 2001-2014: implicaciones sobre la seguridad de la transfusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Bermúdez-Forero


    Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la infección por HTLV 1 y 2 se distribuye en varias zonas del país que no eran catalogadas como endémicas. Se ratificó la importancia de la tamización universal de las unidades de sangre captadas, para minimizar el riesgo de infección con este agente por la vía de la transfusión.

  20. Defect chemistry, thermomechanical and transport properties of (RE2 - xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1 - yMgyO4 - δ (RE = La, Pr)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Schönbeck, C.; Hagen, Anke


    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of Ruddlesden-Popper compounds with chemical composition (RE2 - xSrx)0.98(Fe 0.8Co0.2)1 - yMgyO 4 - δ (RE = La, Pr, x = 0.9-1.2 and y = 0, 0.2) was measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity (aO2) by coulometric titration and thermogravimetry. All...

  1. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation. (United States)

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W


    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3316533-11$15.00/0.

  2. Estimación de las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas de los genes CAPN1 Y CAST asociados a la calidad de la carne en bovinos de la Cuenca del Papaloapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Desgarennes-Alcalá


    Full Text Available El ganado de doble propósito es aquel utiliz ado para producir carne y leche. G eneralmente es el producto del cruce de razas de origen Cebú x europeas y/o Criollo. Este grupo genético se ha adaptado a las condiciones climáticas de temperatura, humedad, baja calidad de pastos y clases de parásitos que prevalecen en las regiones tropicales. En este trabajo, se realizó un escrutinio molecular para observar la frecuencia de dos polimorfismos d el gen de la μ - calpaína (CAPN1 - 316, CAPN1 - 530 y uno del gen de la calpastatina ( CAST, asociados a la suavidad de la carne en ganado bovino de doble propósito de la Cuenca del Papaloapan. Las pruebas se basaron en Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR y Polimorfismos de la Longitud de Fragmentos de Restricción (RFLPs con las enzimas de restricción Btg I, Ava II y Rsa I para los alelos C - G, A - G y C - G, respectivamente (n=331. Para CAPN1 - 316 las frecuencias genotípicas obtenidas fueron de 0.03 (AA, 0.8 6 (GG y 0.11 (GA y las frecuencias alélicas fueron 0.86 (G y 0.14 (A. Para el marcador CAPN1 - 530 las frecuencias genotípicas fueron de 0.02 (CC, 0.85 (GG y 0.13 (GC, con una frecuencia alélica de 0.85 para G y 0.15 para C. Las frecuencias genotípica s para el marcador CAST fueron de 0.32 (CC, 0.28 (GG y 0.4 (GC, con una frecuencia alélica de 0.68 para el alelo G y 0.32 para el alelo C. La pobl a ción en estudio no se encontró en equilibrio Hardy Weinberg y los valores de χ 2 P con dos grados de liberta d fueron de 0.964, 0.985 y 0.9803 para CAPN1 - 316, CAPN1 - 530 y CAST, respectivamente. De acuerdo con el porcentaje de la genotipificación de los marcadores en los genes CAPN1 y CAST se concluye que la población analizada tiene bajos índices de marc a dores pa ra la suavidad o terneza de la carne, probablemente por las cruzas no dirigidas que se realizan habitualmente, de esta forma se propone, mejorar la calidad de la carne en base a programas de mejoramiento gen

  3. Reference Ranges for Some Biochemical Parameters in Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To establish the reference ranges of some biochemical parameters for adult Kenyan population. METHODS: In a prospective involving 1100 healthy blood donors (age: 18-55 yr) in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya reference ranges of some biochemical analytes were constructed by using the parametric ...

  4. Nanoimprinted Long-range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Dan Mario; Boltasseva, A.; Nielsen, Theodor


    We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation.......We report on the fabrication by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and performance of metal stripe waveguides embedded in a polymer, capable of supporting long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagation....

  5. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas


    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm...... of achieving a full bandgap (in the surface plane) for LR-SPPs are also discussed....

  6. The Geologic Story of Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Range (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.


    There is no record of the beginning of time in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Almost 3 billion years of Earth history are missing, but the rest is on spectacular display in this rugged mountain landscape. This is the geologic story of the Sangre de Cristo Range.

  7. Evolutionary responses to climate change in a range expanding plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, Mirka; Dostálek, Tomás; Esch, Sonja; Bucharová, Anna; van Dam, Nicole M.; Tielbörger, Katja; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Münzbergová, Zuzana


    To understand the biological effects of climate change, it is essential to take into account species' evolutionary responses to their changing environments. Ongoing climate change is resulting in species shifting their geographical distribution ranges poleward. We tested whether a successful range

  8. Modelling the effect of climate change on species ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, C.J.; Alkemade, J.R.M.


    Three main types of models can be used to understand and predict climate-related range shifts. Equilibrium models predict potential future distributions from the current climate envelope of a species, but do not take migration constraints into account. They show that future range changes can be

  9. Effects of GPS sampling intensity on home range analyses (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Kolodzinski; Lawrence V. Tannenbaum; David A. Osborn; Mark C. Conner; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller


    The two most common methods for determining home ranges, minimum convex polygon (MCP) and kernel analyses, can be affected by sampling intensity. Despite prior research, it remains unclear how high-intensity sampling regimes affect home range estimations. We used datasets from 14 GPS-collared, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to describe...

  10. Quantum correlations in a long range interaction spin chain (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Yan-Shen


    We propose a new type of long range interaction spin chain. The quantum correlations such as quantum discord, entanglement, and structure factor are investigated in the thermal state with considering them both in zero temperature and finite temperature. Based on our results, we compare the differences and show the relations between the three types of quantum correlations in this long range interaction model.

  11. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K


    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  12. Common Plants of Longleaf Pine-Bluestem Range (United States)

    Harold E. Grelen; Vinson L. Duvall


    This publication describes many grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, and shrubs that inhabit longleaf pine-bluestem range. The species vary widely in importance; most produce forage palatable to cattle, some are noxious weeds, and others are valuable indicators of trends in range condition. All are abundant enough on certain sites, however, to require identification for...

  13. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component taxa are well documented, studies considering range sizes are absent. This study considers range size frequencies and distribution patterns of seven major marine invertebrate taxa. The most commonly observed pattern of size frequency ...

  14. Infinite range correlations of intensity in random media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Infinite range correlations of intensity in random media. A RETZKER and B SHAPIRO. Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel. Abstract. We study a new type of long-range correlations for waves propagating in a random medium. These correlations originate from scattering events ...

  15. Infinite range correlations of intensity in random media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a new type of long-range correlations for waves propagating in a random medium. These correlations originate from scattering events which take place close to a point source. The scattered waves propagate by diffusion to distant regions. In this way long range correlations, between any pair of distant points, are ...

  16. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The device...

  17. Managing interior Northwest rangelands: the Oregon Range Evaluation Project. (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; H. Reed Sanderson; Arthur R. Tiedemann


    This report is a synthesis of results from an 11-year study of the effects of increasing intensities of range management strategies on herbage production, water resources, economics, and associated resources-such as wood fiber and recreation-in Grant County, Oregon. Four intensities of management were studied on Federal land (19 grazing allotments) ranging from no...

  18. In-Vivo High Dynamic Range Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Current vector flow systems are limited in their detectable range of blood flow velocities. Previous work on phantoms has shown that the velocity range can be extended using synthetic aperture directional beamforming combined with an adaptive multi-lag approach. This paper presents a first invivo...

  19. On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Rosca, B.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den


    Hybrid and electric vehicles require accurate knowledge of the battery to make an educated guess about the expected electric driving range. Range prediction is complicated by the fact that batteries are subject to external influences and aging. Also the future driving behavior is often unknown. This

  20. Effect of visible range electromagnetic radiations on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of ...

  1. Correlation between passive and dynamic range of rotation in lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between the passive hip range of movement and dynamic hip range during the golf swing of the trail hip. Clinicians and coaches should thus note that improving passive hip ROM might not be associated with an increased hip rotation utilised during the golf swing. Key words: Lower limb rotation; Golf swing biomechanics; ...

  2. Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    We present an experimental study of guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along the nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded in a polymer via excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very broad wavelength range from 1000 to 1650 mn. For straight...

  3. 42 CFR 1008.59 - Range of the advisory opinion. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Range of the advisory opinion. 1008.59 Section 1008... AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG Scope and Effect of OIG Advisory Opinions § 1008.59 Range of the advisory opinion. (a) An advisory opinion will state only the OIG's opinion regarding the subject matter of...

  4. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Laura Hudnell; Mark W. Williams; Richard A. Sommerfeld


    A study of the water chemistry of Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range alpine/subalpine lakes and streams in wilderness ecosystems was conducted during the summer of 1995 by the USDA Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, and the University of Colorado Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research. Data...

  5. Detection Range of Airborne Magnetometers in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Li


    Full Text Available Airborne magnetometers are utilized for the small-range search, precise positioning, and identification of the ferromagnetic properties of underwater targets. As an important performance parameter of sensors, the detection range of airborne magnetometers is commonly set as a fixed value in references regardless of the influences of environment noise, target magnetic properties, and platform features in a classical model to detect airborne magnetic anomalies. As a consequence, deviation in detection ability analysis is observed. In this study, a novel detection range model is proposed on the basis of classic detection range models of airborne magnetometers. In this model, probability distribution is applied, and the magnetic properties of targets and the environment noise properties of a moving submarine are considered. The detection range model is also constructed by considering the distribution of the moving submarine during detection. A cell-averaging greatest-of-constant false alarm rate test method is also used to calculate the detection range of the model at a desired false alarm rate. The detection range model is then used to establish typical submarine search probabilistic models. Results show that the model can be used to evaluate not only the effects of ambient magnetic noise but also the moving and geomagnetic features of the target and airborne detection platform. The model can also be utilized to display the actual operating range of sensor systems.

  6. Estimating range of influence in case of missing spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær


    the estimated range of influence is affected when 1) the outcome is only observed at some of a given set of locations, and 2) multiple imputation is used to impute the outcome at the non-observed locations. METHODS: The study was based on the simulation of missing outcomes in a complete data set. The range...

  7. Desirable forest structures for a restored Front Range (United States)

    Yvette L. Dickinson; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Babler; Mike Battaglia; Peter Brown; Tony Cheng; Casey Cooley; Dick Edwards; Jonas Feinstein; Paula Fornwalt; Hal Gibbs; Megan Matonis; Kristen Pelz; Claudia Regan


    As part of the federal Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program administered by the US Forest Service, the Colorado Front Range Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Project (FR-CFLRP, a collaborative effort of the Front Range Roundtable1 and the US Forest Service) is required to define desired conditions for lower montane ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  8. The Ranges Of Subauroral Geomagnetic Field Elements | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... On quiet condition, the range in j season dominates over d- and e- seasons in all elements. ... Generally, the seasonal range in the D component for all the years as well as in H and Z components - apart from the anomaly - maintain the order e>j>d of seasonal variation which is ...

  9. Efficient external memory structures for range-aggregate queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Yang, J.; Arge, L.


    We present external memory data structures for efficiently answering range-aggregate queries. The range-aggregate problem is defined as follows: Given a set of weighted points in Rd, compute the aggregate of the weights of the points that lie inside a d-dimensional orthogonal query rectangle. The...

  10. Editorial Greater international exposure for African range and forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Editorial Greater international exposure for African range and forage science. Susi Vetter. Abstract. Click on the link to view the editorial. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2009, ...

  11. Epidemiological reference ranges for low-density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is widespread acceptance that total cholesterol (TC) value reference ranges should be based on epidemiological rather than statistical considerations, the epidemiological action limits for Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are still incomplete and only statistical reference ranges for apolipoprotein B ...

  12. Local participation, equity, and popular support in Lesotho's Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Range Management Area (RMA) programme was implemented in 1982 to improve range condition and livestock management productivity on Lesotho's rangelands by mobilizing collective management of communal grazing areas. Active local participation in management initiatives, equitable distribution of costs and ...

  13. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tims (Ben); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)


    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are

  14. Range management research, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53) (United States)

    Henry A. Pearson; Warren P. Clary; Margaret M. Moore; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Range management research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest during the past 100 years has provided scientific knowledge for managing ponderosa pine forests and forest-range grazing lands in the Southwest. Three research timeperiods are identified: 1908 to 1950, 1950 to 1978, and 1978 to 2008. Early research (1908-1950) addressed ecological effects of livestock...

  15. The Standley allotment: a history of range recovery. (United States)

    Gerald S. Strickler; Wade B. Hall


    One of the first range research programs on National Forest lands was conducted by Dr. Arthur W. Sampson in the Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, between 1907 and 1911. This paper reviews the historical perspective of and the basic range management principles and practices developed from Sampson's studies as well as the land and grazing management of the study area to...

  16. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Bilinguals' Fundamental Frequency Ranges (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail; Mennen, Ineke


    Purpose: We investigated cross-linguistic differences in fundamental frequency range (FFR) in Welsh-English bilingual speech. This is the first study that reports gender-specific behavior in switching FFRs across languages in bilingual speech. Method: FFR was conceptualized as a behavioral pattern using measures of span (range of fundamental…

  17. Full Range Advising: Transforming the Advisor-Advisee Experience (United States)

    Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Story, Joana S.; Fritz, Susan M.; Schinstock, Jack L.


    Drawing from the leadership literature, a new model for advising is proposed. Full range advising encompasses laissez-faire, management by exception, contingent rewards, and transformational behaviors. The relationships between full range advising and advisees' extra effort, satisfaction with the advisor, and advising effectiveness were examined.…

  18. Range Information Systems Management (RISM) Phase 1 Report (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Nelson, Richard A.


    RISM investigated alternative approaches, technologies, and communication network architectures to facilitate building the Spaceports and Ranges of the future. RISM started by document most existing US ranges and their capabilities. In parallel, RISM obtained inputs from the following: 1) NASA and NASA-contractor engineers and managers, and; 2) Aerospace leaders from Government, Academia, and Industry, participating through the Space Based Range Distributed System Working Group (SBRDSWG), many of whom are also; 3) Members of the Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) subgroups, and; 4) Members of the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These diverse inputs helped to envision advanced technologies for implementing future Ranges and Range systems that builds on today s cabled and wireless legacy infrastructures while seamlessly integrating both today s emerging and tomorrow s building-block communication techniques. The fundamental key is to envision a transition to a Space Based Range Distributed Subsystem. The enabling concept is to identify the specific needs of Range users that can be solved through applying emerging communication tech

  19. Normal range MMPI-A profiles among psychiatric inpatients. (United States)

    Hilts, Darolyn; Moore, James M


    The present study examined the base rates of normal range Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) profiles in an inpatient sample and examined the differences between adolescents with apparently valid normal range profiles (all clinical scale T-scores MMPI-A validity scale scores and other indexes of underreporting. Normal range profiles cannot be adequately explained by a less pathological history prior to hospitalization or by defensiveness. Thirty percent of male and 25% of female adolescents produced valid MMPI-A profiles in which none of the clinical scales were elevated. Both male and female adolescents with normal range profiles were generally less likely to report internalizing symptoms than those with elevated profiles, but both groups report externalizing symptoms. Neither the standard MMPI-A validity scales nor additional validity scales discriminated between profile groups. Clinicians should not assume that normal range profiles indicate an absence of problems.

  20. Discrete filtering techniques applied to sequential GPS range measurements (United States)

    Vangraas, Frank


    The basic navigation solution is described for position and velocity based on range and delta range (Doppler) measurements from NAVSTAR Global Positioning System satellites. The application of discrete filtering techniques is examined to reduce the white noise distortions on the sequential range measurements. A second order (position and velocity states) Kalman filter is implemented to obtain smoothed estimates of range by filtering the dynamics of the signal from each satellite separately. Test results using a simulated GPS receiver show a steady-state noise reduction, the input noise variance divided by the output noise variance, of a factor of four. Recommendations for further noise reduction based on higher order Kalman filters or additional delta range measurements are included.

  1. Geographical ranges in macroecology: Processes, patterns and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe

    , are distributed over the entire Earth. Species’ ranges are one of the basic units of the science of macroecology, which deals with patterns in the distribution of life on Earth. An example of such patterns is the large geographic variation in species richness between areas. These patterns are closely linked......, I draw upon a wide range of approaches, including statistical comparative analysis, computer simulations and null models. The core of the thesis is constituted by five independent scientific articles. These chapters fall naturally within two thematic groups: The first group consists of articles...... that investigate how ecology and evolution determine species’ ranges. The central paper in this group is a large review article about one of the best described patterns in ecology: That species with large ranges tend to also be very locally abundant within their range. In the article I review the potential causes...

  2. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander


    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  3. Degeneracy and long-range correlation: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmelat Vivien


    Full Text Available We present in this paper a simulation study that aimed at evidencing a causal relationship between degeneracy and long-range correlations. Long-range correlations represent a very specific form of fluctuations that have been evidenced in the outcomes time series produced by a number of natural systems. Long-range correlations are supposed to sign the complexity, adaptability and flexibility of the system. Degeneracy is defined as the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, and is presented as a key feature for explaining the robustness of complex systems. We propose a model able to generate long-range correlated series, and including a parameter that account for degeneracy. Results show that a decrease in degeneracy tends to reduce the strength of long-range correlation in the series produced by the model.

  4. Adaptive long-range migration promotes cooperation under tempting conditions. (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Saito, Masaya; Sayama, Hiroki; Wilson, David Sloan


    Migration is a fundamental trait in humans and animals. Recent studies investigated the effect of migration on the evolution of cooperation, showing that contingent migration favors cooperation in spatial structures. In those studies, only local migration to immediate neighbors was considered, while long-range migration has not been considered yet, partly because the long-range migration has been generally regarded as harmful for cooperation as it would bring the population to a well-mixed state that favors defection. Here, we studied the effects of adaptive long-range migration on the evolution of cooperation through agent-based simulations of a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma game where individuals can jump to a farther site if they are surrounded by more defectors. Our results show that adaptive long-range migration strongly promotes cooperation, especially under conditions where the temptation to defect is considerably high. These findings demonstrate the significance of adaptive long-range migration for the evolution of cooperation.

  5. Chiral Topological Superconductors Enhanced by Long-Range Interactions (United States)

    Viyuela, Oscar; Fu, Liang; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel


    We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p -wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasiparticles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair nonlocally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, these nonlocal edge states are still robust, remain separated from the bulk, and are localized at both edges at the same time. The inclusion of long-range effects is potentially applicable to recent experiments with magnetic impurities and islands in 2D superconductors.

  6. Analysis of FDML lasers with meter range coherence (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Tom; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Petermann, Markus; Huber, Robert


    FDML lasers provide sweep rates in the MHz range at wide optical bandwidths, making them ideal sources for high speed OCT. Recently, at lower speed, ultralong-range swept-source OCT has been demonstrated using a tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and also using a Vernier-tunable laser. These sources provide relatively high sweep rates and meter range coherence lengths. In order to achieve similar coherence, we developed an extremely well dispersion compensated Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser, running at 3.2 MHz sweep rate and 120 nm spectral bandwidth. We demonstrate that this laser offers meter range coherence and enables volumetric long range OCT of moving objects.

  7. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species. (United States)

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A


    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation

  8. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: radio-frequency identification of impacts on range use. (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Dyall, T R; Warin, L; Little, B A; Lee, C


    The number and size of free-range laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) production systems are increasing within Australia in response to consumer demand for perceived improvement in hen welfare. However, variation in outdoor stocking density has generated consumer dissatisfaction leading to the development of a national information standard on free-range egg labelling by the Australian Consumer Affairs Ministers. The current Australian Model Code of Practice for Domestic Poultry states a guideline of 1500 hens/ha, but no maximum density is set. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking technology was used to measure daily range usage by individual ISA Brown hens housed in six small flocks (150 hens/flock - 50% of hens tagged), each with access to one of three outdoor stocking density treatments (two replicates per treatment: 2000, 10 000, 20 000 hens/ha), from 22 to 26, 27 to 31 and 32 to 36 weeks of age. There was some variation in range usage across the sampling periods and by weeks 32 to 36 individual hens from the lowest stocking density on average used the range for longer each day (Paccessed the range with 2% of tagged hens in each treatment never venturing outdoors and a large proportion that accessed the range daily (2000 hens/ha: 80.5%; 10 000 hens/ha: 66.5%; 20 000 hens/ha: 71.4%). On average, 38% to 48% of hens were seen on the range simultaneously and used all available areas of all ranges. These results of experimental-sized flocks have implications for determining optimal outdoor stocking densities for commercial free-range laying hens but further research would be needed to determine the effects of increased range usage on hen welfare.

  9. Global patterns of geographic range size in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C David L Orme


    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of spatial variation in species geographic range size are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. However, the global nature of these patterns has remained contentious, since previous studies have been geographically restricted and/or based on small taxonomic groups. Here, using a database on the breeding distributions of birds, we report the first (to our knowledge global maps of variation in species range sizes for an entire taxonomic class. We show that range area does not follow a simple latitudinal pattern. Instead, the smallest range areas are attained on islands, in mountainous areas, and largely in the southern hemisphere. In contrast, bird species richness peaks around the equator, and towards higher latitudes. Despite these profoundly different latitudinal patterns, spatially explicit models reveal a weak tendency for areas with high species richness to house species with significantly smaller median range area. Taken together, these results show that for birds many spatial patterns in range size described in geographically restricted analyses do not reflect global rules. It remains to be discovered whether global patterns in geographic range size are best interpreted in terms of geographical variation in species assemblage packing, or in the rates of speciation, extinction, and dispersal that ultimately underlie biodiversity.

  10. Quaternary climate change and the geographic ranges of mammals. (United States)

    Davies, T Jonathan; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L


    A species' range can be a proxy for its ecological well-being. Species with small and shrinking range distributions are particularly vulnerable to extinction. Future climate change scenarios are predicted to affect species' geographical extents, but data on how species' distributions respond to changing climate are largely anecdotal, and our understanding of the determinants and limits to species geographic ranges is surprisingly poor. Here we show that mammal species in more historically variable environments have larger geographical ranges. However, the relationship between range size and long-term climate trends cannot be explained by variation in our estimates of habitat specificity. We suggest that large oscillations in Quaternary temperatures may have shaped the contemporary distribution of range sizes via the selective extirpation of small-ranged species during glacial expansion and/or recolonization by good dispersers after glacial retreats. The effect of current climate change on species' distributions and extinctions may therefore be determined by the geographical coincidence between historical and future climate scenarios, the "mesh size" of the extinction/dispersal filter imposed by past climate change, and whether similar ecological and evolutionary responses to historical climatic change are appropriate in an increasingly transformed and fragmented landscape.

  11. The Role of Data Range in Linear Regression (United States)

    da Silva, M. A. Salgueiro; Seixas, T. M.


    Measuring one physical quantity as a function of another often requires making some choices prior to the measurement process. Two of these choices are: the data range where measurements should focus and the number (n) of data points to acquire in the chosen data range. Here, we consider data range as the interval of variation of the independent variable (x) that is associated with a given interval of variation of the dependent variable (y). We analyzed the role of the width and lower endpoint of measurement data range on parameter estimation by linear regression. We show that, when feasible, increasing data range width is more effective than increasing the number of data points on the same data range in reducing the uncertainty in the slope of a regression line. Moreover, the uncertainty in the intercept of a regression line depends not only on the number of data points but also on the ratio between the lower endpoint and the width of the measurement data range, reaching its minimum when the dataset is centered at the ordinate axis. Since successful measurement methodologies require a good understanding of factors ruling data analysis, it is pedagogically justified and highly recommended to teach these two subjects alongside each other.

  12. Fixed time versus fixed range reverberation calculation: analytical solution. (United States)

    Harrison, Chris H; Ainslie, Michael A


    Reverberation is commonly calculated by estimating the propagation loss to and from an elementary area, defined by transmitted pulse length and beam width, and treating the resulting backscatter from the area as a function of its range. In reality reverberation is strictly a function of time and contributions for a given time come from many ranges. Closed-form solutions are given for reverberation calculated both at fixed range and at fixed time isovelocity water and some variants of Lambert's law and linear reflection loss with an abrupt critical angle. These are derived by considering the shape of the two-way scattered multipath pulse envelope from a point scatterer. The ratio of these two solutions is shown to depend on the dominant propagation angle spread for the particular range or time. The ratio is largest at intermediate ranges (though typically less than 1 dB) and depends explicitly on the critical angle. At longer ranges mode-stripping reduces the propagation angle spread and the ratio reduces ultimately to unity. At short range the ratio is also close to unity although interpreting it requires care.

  13. Range and Battery Depletion Concerns with Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomio Miwa


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the range of a battery electric vehicle (EV by using questionnaire data. The concern about battery depletion changes according to charging station deployment. Firstly, the methodology for deriving the probabilistic distribution of the daily travel distance is developed, which enables us to analyze people’s tolerance of the risk of battery depletion. Secondly, the desired range of an EV is modeled. This model considers the effect of changing charging station deployment and can analyze the variation in the desired range. Then, the intention of a household to purchase an EV is analyzed by incorporating range-related variables. The results show that people can live with a risk of battery depletion of around 2% to 5%. The deployment of charging stations at large retail facilities and/or workplace parking spaces reduces the desired range of an EV. Finally, the answers to the questionnaire show that the probability of battery depletion on a driving day has little effect on the intention to purchase an EV. Instead, people tend to evaluate the range by itself or directly compare it with their desired range.

  14. Fusing range measurements from ultrasonic beacons and a laser range finder for localization of a mobile robot. (United States)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Kuc, Tae-Yong


    This paper proposes a method for mobile robot localization in a partially unknown indoor environment. The method fuses two types of range measurements: the range from the robot to the beacons measured by ultrasonic sensors and the range from the robot to the walls surrounding the robot measured by a laser range finder (LRF). For the fusion, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized. Because finding the Jacobian matrix is not feasible for range measurement using an LRF, UKF has an advantage in this situation over the extended KF. The locations of the beacons and range data from the beacons are available, whereas the correspondence of the range data to the beacon is not given. Therefore, the proposed method also deals with the problem of data association to determine which beacon corresponds to the given range data. The proposed approach is evaluated using different sets of design parameter values and is compared with the method that uses only an LRF or ultrasonic beacons. Comparative analysis shows that even though ultrasonic beacons are sparsely populated, have a large error and have a slow update rate, they improve the localization performance when fused with the LRF measurement. In addition, proper adjustment of the UKF design parameters is crucial for full utilization of the UKF approach for sensor fusion. This study contributes to the derivation of a UKF-based design methodology to fuse two exteroceptive measurements that are complementary to each other in localization.

  15. Long-range alpha/beta and short-range gamma EEG synchronization distinguishes phasic and tonic REM periods. (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Blaskovich, Borbála; Bódizs, Róbert


    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is characterized by the alternation of two markedly different microstates, phasic and tonic REM. These periods differ in awakening and arousal thresholds, sensory processing, and spontaneous cortical oscillations. Previous studies indicate that whereas in phasic REM, cortical activity is independent of the external environment, attentional functions and sensory processing are partially maintained during tonic periods. Large-scale synchronization of oscillatory activity, especially in the alpha and beta frequency ranges can accurately distinguish different states of vigilance and cognitive processes of enhanced alertness and attention. Therefore, we examined long-range inter-and intrahemispheric, as well as short-range EEG synchronization during phasic and tonic REM periods quantified by the weighted phase lag index. Based on the nocturnal polysomnographic data of 19 healthy, adult participants we showed that long-range inter-and intrahemispheric alpha and beta synchrony were enhanced in tonic REM states in contrast to phasic ones, and resembled alpha and beta synchronization of resting wakefulness. On the other hand, short-range synchronization within the gamma frequency range was higher in phasic as compared to tonic periods. Increased short-range synchrony might reflect local, and inwardly driven sensorimotor activity during phasic REM periods, whereas enhanced long-range synchrony might index frontoparietal activity that reinstates environmental alertness after phasic REM periods. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail

  16. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre


    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  17. Optical bistability of graphene in the terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Bludov, Yu V.; Santos, Jaime E.


    We use an exact solution of the relaxation-time Boltzmann equation in a uniform ac electric field to describe the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the terahertz (THz) range. The cases of monolayer, bilayer, and ABA-stacked trilayer graphene are considered, and the monolayer species...... is shown to be the most appropriate one to exploit the nonlinear free electron response. We find that a single layer of graphene shows optical bistability in the THz range, within the electromagnetic power range attainable in practice. The current associated with the third harmonic generation is also...

  18. Development (design and systematization) of HMS Group pump ranges (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Yamburenko, V.


    The article reveals the need for pump range charts development for different applications and describes main principles used by HMS Group. Some modern approaches to pump selection are reviewed and highlighted the need for pump compliance with international standards and modern customer requirements. Even though pump design types are similar for different applications they need adjustment to specific requirements, which gets manufacturers develop their particular design for each pump range. Having wide pump ranges for different applications enables to create pump selection software, facilitating manufacturers to prepare high quality quotations in shortest time.

  19. Perceptual effects of dynamic range compression in popular music recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Walther-Hansen, Mads


    The belief that the use of dynamic range compression in music mastering deteriorates sound quality needs to be formally tested. In this study normal hearing listeners were asked to evaluate popular music recordings in original versions and in remastered versions with higher levels of dynamic range...... compression. Surprisingly, the results failed to reveal any evidence of the effects of dynamic range compression on subjective preference or perceived depth cues. Perceptual data suggest that listeners are less sensitive than commonly believed to even high levels of compression. As measured in terms...

  20. Short range order in elemental liquids of column IV. (United States)

    Mayo, M; Shor, S; Yahel, E; Makov, G


    The short range order (SRO) in liquid elements of column IV is analysed within the quasi-crystalline model across a wide range of temperatures. It is found that l-Si, Ge, and Sn are well described with a beta-tin like SRO. In contrast, Pb retains a bcc-like SRO similar to other simple elemental liquids. However, a distinction is found between the SRO in Si and Ge and that in Sn, where the latter has a more rigid structure. This difference persists across the entire temperature range examined but is overcome in Si at pressures above 8 GPa, where the liquid structure evolves towards that of Sn.

  1. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten


    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines...... species richness. Using both conventional and spatial regression models, we show that for sub-Saharan African birds, the apparent role of productivity diminishes with decreasing range size, whereas the significance of topographic heterogeneity increases. The relative importance of geometric constraints...... from the continental edge is moderate. Our findings highlight the failure of traditional species richness models to account for narrow-ranging species that frequently are also threatened....

  2. Lead exposure at firing ranges-a review. (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel; Mielke, Howard; Gulson, Brian; Ball, Andrew S


    Lead (Pb) is a toxic substance with well-known, multiple, long-term, adverse health outcomes. Shooting guns at firing ranges is an occupational necessity for security personnel, police officers, members of the military, and increasingly a recreational activity by the public. In the United States alone, an estimated 16,000-18,000 firing ranges exist. Discharge of Pb dust and gases is a consequence of shooting guns. The objectives of this study are to review the literature on blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential adverse health effects associated with the shooting population. The search terms "blood lead", "lead poisoning", "lead exposure", "marksmen", "firearms", "shooting", "guns", "rifles" and "firing ranges" were used in the search engines Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct to identify studies that described BLLs in association with firearm use and health effects associated with shooting activities. Thirty-six articles were reviewed that included BLLs from shooters at firing ranges. In 31 studies BLLs > 10 μg/dL were reported in some shooters, 18 studies reported BLLs > 20 μg/dL, 17 studies > 30 μg/d, and 15 studies BLLs > 40 μg/dL. The literature indicates that BLLs in shooters are associated with Pb aerosol discharge from guns and air Pb at firing ranges, number of bullets discharged, and the caliber of weapon fired. Shooting at firing ranges results in the discharge of Pb dust, elevated BLLs, and exposures that are associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. Women and children are among recreational shooters at special risk and they do not receive the same health protections as occupational users of firing ranges. Nearly all BLL measurements compiled in the reviewed studies exceed the current reference level of 5 μg/dL recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (CDC/NIOSH). Thus firing ranges, regardless of type and user classification

  3. Characteristics of different frequency ranges in scanning electron microscope images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S., E-mail:; Nia, M. E.; Tan, T. L.; Tso, C. P.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)


    We demonstrate a new approach to characterize the frequency range in general scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. First, pure frequency images are generated from low frequency to high frequency, and then, the magnification of each type of frequency image is implemented. By comparing the edge percentage of the SEM image to the self-generated frequency images, we can define the frequency ranges of the SEM images. Characterization of frequency ranges of SEM images benefits further processing and analysis of those SEM images, such as in noise filtering and contrast enhancement.

  4. Laser system range calculations and the Lambert W function. (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove


    The knowledge of range performance versus atmospheric transmission, often given by the visibility, is critical for the design, use, and prediction of laser and passive electro-optic systems. I present a solution of the ladar-lidar equation based on Lambert's W function. This solution will reveal the dependence of the maximum range on the system and target parameters for different atmospheric attenuations and will also allow us to take the signal statistics into account by studying the influence on the threshold signal-to-noise ratio. The method is also applicable to many range calculations for passive systems where the atmospheric loss can be approximated by an exponential term.

  5. Ultra-low-power short-range radios

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrakasan, Anantha


    This book explores the design of ultra-low-power radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs), with communication distances ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters. Such radios have unique challenges compared to longer-range, higher-powered systems. As a result, many different applications are covered, ranging from body-area networks to transcutaneous implant communications and Internet-of-Things devices. A mix of introductory and cutting-edge design techniques and architectures which facilitate each of these applications are discussed in detail. Specifically, this book covers:.

  6. Clutter in the GMTI range-velocity map.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar maps echo data to range and range-rate, which is a function of a moving target's velocity and its position within the antenna beam footprint. Even stationary clutter will exhibit an apparent motion spectrum and can interfere with moving vehicle detections. Consequently it is very important for a radar to understand how stationary clutter maps into radar measurements of range and velocity. This mapping depends on a wide variety of factors, including details of the radar motion, orientation, and the 3-D topography of the clutter.

  7. Computation of the Different Errors in the Ballistic Missiles Range


    Abd El-Salam, F. A.; Abd El-Bar, S. E.


    The ranges of the ballistic missile trajectories are very sensitive to any kind of errors. Most of the missile trajectory is a part of an elliptical orbit. In this work, the missile problem is stated. The variations in the orbital elements are derived using Lagrange planetary equations. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the in-orbit plane changes are derived. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the out-of-orbit plane changes are derive...

  8. Ranging Consistency Based on Ranging-Compensated Temperature-Sensing Sensor for Inter-Satellite Link of Navigation Constellation. (United States)

    Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Zhou, Yongbin


    Global Navigation Satellite System performance can be significantly enhanced by introducing inter-satellite links (ISLs) in navigation constellation. The improvement in position, velocity, and time accuracy as well as the realization of autonomous functions requires ISL distance measurement data as the original input. To build a high-performance ISL, the ranging consistency among navigation satellites is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we focus on the variation in the ranging delay caused by the sensitivity of the ISL payload equipment to the ambient temperature in space and propose a simple and low-power temperature-sensing ranging compensation sensor suitable for onboard equipment. The experimental results show that, after the temperature-sensing ranging compensation of the ISL payload equipment, the ranging consistency becomes less than 0.2 ns when the temperature change is 90 °C.

  9. Tree range expansion in eastern North America fails to keep pace with climate warming at northern range limits. (United States)

    Sittaro, Fabian; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Nock, Charles A


    Rising global temperatures are suggested to be drivers of shifts in tree species ranges. The resulting changes in community composition may negatively impact forest ecosystem function. However, long-term shifts in tree species ranges remain poorly documented. We test for shifts in the northern range limits of 16 temperate tree species in Quebec, Canada, using forest inventory data spanning three decades, 15° of longitude and 7° of latitude. Range shifts were correlated with climate warming and dispersal traits to understand potential mechanisms underlying changes. Shifts were calculated as the change in the 95th percentile of latitudinal occurrence between two inventory periods (1970-1978, 2000-2012) and for two life stages: saplings and adults. We also examined sapling and adult range offsets within each inventory, and changes in the offset through time. Tree species ranges shifted predominantly northward, although species responses varied. As expected shifts were greater for tree saplings, 0.34 km yr -1 , than for adults, 0.13 km yr -1 . Range limits were generally further north for adults compared to saplings, but the difference diminished through time, consistent with patterns observed for range shifts within each life stage. This suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting geographic range offsets between life stages as evidence of range shifts in the absence of temporal data. Species latitudinal velocities were on average <50% of the velocity required to equal the spatial velocity of climate change and were mostly unrelated to dispersal traits. Finally, our results add to the body of evidence suggesting tree species are mostly limited in their capacity to track climate warming, supporting concerns that warming will negatively impact the functioning of forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. What determines a species' geographical range? Thermal biology and latitudinal range size relationships in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). (United States)

    Calosi, Piero; Bilton, David T; Spicer, John I; Votier, Stephen C; Atfield, Andrew


    1. The geographical range sizes of individual species vary considerably in extent, although the factors underlying this variation remain poorly understood, and could include a number of ecological and evolutionary processes. A favoured explanation for range size variation is that this result from differences in fundamental niche breadths, suggesting a key role for physiology in determining range size, although to date empirical tests of these ideas remain limited. 2. Here we explore relationships between thermal physiology and biogeography, whilst controlling for possible differences in dispersal ability and phylogenetic relatedness, across 14 ecologically similar congeners which differ in geographical range extent; European diving beetles of the genus Deronectes Sharp (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Absolute upper and lower temperature tolerance and acclimatory abilities are determined for populations of each species, following acclimation in the laboratory. 3. Absolute thermal tolerance range is the best predictor of both species' latitudinal range extent and position, differences in dispersal ability (based on wing size) apparently being less important in this group. In addition, species' northern and southern range limits are related to their tolerance of low and high temperatures respectively. In all cases, absolute temperature tolerances, rather than acclimatory abilities are the best predictors of range parameters, whilst the use of independent contrasts suggested that species' thermal acclimation abilities may also relate to biogeography, although increased acclimatory ability does not appear to be associated with increased range size. 4. Our study is the first to provide empirical support for a relationship between thermal physiology and range size variation in widespread and restricted species, conducted using the same experimental design, within a phylogenetically and ecologically controlled framework.

  11. Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour of wildlife: a case study in the degazetted parts of Akagera National Park. Jean D. Bariyanga, Torsten Wronski, Martin Plath, Ann Apio ...

  12. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Guidelines for Evaluation of Canadian Forces Indoor Firing Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y


    Indoor Firing Ranges (IFR) within DND are typically used by Canadian Forces (CF) personnel, Cadets, RCMP, and civilian organizations for firing small bore weapons in support of both operational/ occupational and recreational requirements...

  14. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  15. Range-expanding pests and pathogens in a warming world. (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel Patrick


    Crop pests and pathogens (CPPs) present a growing threat to food security and ecosystem management. The interactions between plants and their natural enemies are influenced by environmental conditions and thus global warming and climate change could affect CPP ranges and impact. Observations of changing CPP distributions over the twentieth century suggest that growing agricultural production and trade have been most important in disseminating CPPs, but there is some evidence for a latitudinal bias in range shifts that indicates a global warming signal. Species distribution models using climatic variables as drivers suggest that ranges will shift latitudinally in the future. The rapid spread of the Colorado potato beetle across Eurasia illustrates the importance of evolutionary adaptation, host distribution, and migration patterns in affecting the predictions of climate-based species distribution models. Understanding species range shifts in the framework of ecological niche theory may help to direct future research needs.

  16. Botanical studies in the Arctic National Wildlife Range: Field report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a botanical study in the Arctic National Wildlife Range during 1970. Cooperative studies on flora and fauna were done on selected sites. Sites include...

  17. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  18. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde, Cameroon. PC Ngassa, L Feuzeu, AP Kegne, MT Obama, MT Wamba, L Kouam, E Nkwabong, W Takang, VK Mve, MR Ekono, EJ Kongnuy, J Itoua-Isséna ...

  19. Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program. (United States)

    Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F


    On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here.

  20. The middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L


    This paper is a report of the development of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. Rising healthcare costs and advances in technology have contributed to the need for better understanding of the influence of nurses' knowledge, skills and experience on patient and organizational outcomes. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory was developed using the strategies of concept and theory derivation. The principles of research synthesis were used to provide empirical support for the propositions of the theory. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory was derived from intellectual capital theory to make it relevant and applicable to a specific aspect of nursing, continuing professional development. It proposes that the nursing knowledge available in healthcare organizations is influenced by variables within the work environment, and influences patient and organizational outcomes. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory should be tested in different healthcare systems and in different settings and countries to determine its effectiveness in guiding research.