WorldWideScience

Sample records for range 1-100 mev

  1. Spectroscopy of the {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction for E{sub p}=1.00{endash}1.75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrina, G.A.; Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bilpuch, E.G.; Wallace, P.M.; Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Shriner, J.F. , Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction has been studied in the range E{sub p}=1.00{endash}1.75 MeV. Three previously unknown states in {sup 30}P were identified, and one state previously assigned to {sup 30}P was identified as a state in {sup 14}N. Gamma-ray strengths were determined for the three new levels, and branching ratios were measured for 17 resonances. Revised J{sup {pi}};T assignments were made for nine of these states. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Reaction CH3 + OH studied over the 294-714 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Manuvesh; Chesnokov, Evgeni N; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2012-08-30

    Reaction of methyl radicals with hydroxyl radicals, CH(3) + OH → products (1) was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy over the 294-714 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges (bath gas He). Methyl radicals were produced by photolysis of acetone at 193.3 nm. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms O((1)D), produced in the photolysis of N(2)O at 193.3 nm, with H(2)O. Temporal profiles of CH(3) were recorded via absorption at 216.4 nm using xenon arc lamp and a spectrograph; OH radicals were monitored via transient absorption of light from a dc discharge H(2)O/Ar low pressure resonance lamp at ca. 308 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light inside the reactor was determined by an accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The results of this study indicate that the rate constant of reaction 1 is pressure independent within the studied pressure and temperature ranges and has slight negative temperature dependence, k(1) = (1.20 ± 0.20) × 10(-10)(T/300)(-0.49) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  3. Reaction OH + OH studied over the 298-834 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Manuvesh; Chesnokov, Evgeni N; Krasnoperov, Lev N

    2012-06-21

    Self-reaction of hydroxyl radicals, OH + OH → H(2)O + O (1a) and OH + OH → H(2)O(2) (1b), was studied using pulsed laser photolysis coupled to transient UV-vis absorption spectroscopy over the 298-834 K temperature and 1-100 bar pressure ranges (bath gas He). A heatable high-pressure flow reactor was employed. Hydroxyl radicals were prepared using reaction of electronically excited oxygen atoms, O((1)D), produced in photolysis of N(2)O at 193 nm, with H(2)O. The temporal behavior of OH radicals was monitored via transient absorption of light from a dc discharge in H(2)O/Ar low-pressure resonance lamp at ca. 308 nm. The absolute intensity of the photolysis light was determined by accurate in situ actinometry based on the ozone formation in the presence of molecular oxygen. The results of this study combined with the literature data indicate that the rate constant of reaction 1a, associated with the pressure independent component, decreases with temperature within the temperature range 298-414 K and increases above 555 K. The pressure dependent rate constant for (1b) was parametrized using the Troe expression as k(1b,inf) = (2.4 ± 0.6) × 10(-11)(T/300)(-0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(1b,0) = [He] (9.0 ± 2.2) × 10(-31)(T/300)(-3.5±0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), F(c) = 0.37.

  4. Investigation of the neutron-proton-interaction in the energy range from 20 to 50 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynski, J.

    1984-07-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the isospin singlet part of the nucleon-nucleon-interaction in the energy range below 100 MeV two experiments were conducted, which were selected by sensitivity calculations. At the Karlsruhe polarized neutron facility POLKA the analyzing powers Asub(y) and Asub(yy) of the elastic n vector-p- and n vector-p vector-scattering were measured in the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV. The results of this epxeriment are compared to older data. In the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV the new data were analyzed together with other selected data of the nucleon-nucleon-system in phase shift analyses. The knowledge of the isospin singlet phase shifts 1 P 1 and 3 D 3 was improved by the new data. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-07-01

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  6. Deuteron stripping on beryllium target in the 100-2300 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecolley, J.F.; Varignon, C.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Thun, J.; Borne, F.; Martinez, E.; Menard, S.; Pras, P.; Boudard, A.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Ledoux, X.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Cross sections for stripping and dissociation of deuterons interacting with Be targets in the 100-2300 MeV energy range have been measured. Comparisons with model calculations suggest a dominant contribution of the stripping process. It is also shown that the deuteron break-up cross section exhibits the same energy dependence as the nucleon-nucleon cross section. (orig.)

  7. Recoil proton polarization of neutral pion photoproduction from proton in the energy range between 400 MeV and 1142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Miyachi, T.; Sugano, K.; Toshioka, K.; Ukai, K.

    1979-08-01

    The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γp → π 0 p were measured at a C.M. angle of 100 0 for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 130 0 for energies from 400 MeV to 1142 MeV. One photon decayed from a π 0 -meson and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization scatterers were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the Comparison between the present data and the asymmetry data given by the polarized target, the contribution of the invariant amplitudes A 3 can be estimated to be small at 100 0 . (author)

  8. Measurement of pair production cross sections in Ge for the 1. 238-3. 548 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R K; Singh, K; Sahota, H S

    1985-02-28

    Pair production cross sections have been determined for the 1.238-3.548 MeV energy range in germanium (Z = 32) using a Ge(Li) gamma ray detector. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical cross sections of previous workers. The results of the present measurements agree with the Bethe-Heitler results down to 1.771 MeV. However, at 1.238 MeV the experimental results are higher than all the theories.

  9. The H(n,n) cross section in the 20 MeV to 350 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The differential H(n,n) cross section has been used as a standard relative to which other neutron emission cross sections, e.g., elastic or inelastic scattering, have been measured in several Mev region and these measured values are compared with the VL40 solution of R. Arndt, and R.L. Workman, Nuclear Data Standards for Nuclear Measurements, H. Conde (ed.). NEANDC-311, INDC (SEC)-101, 1992, p. 17. For hydrogen, the differential elastic scattering cross section can be directly related to the total cross section, since no other channels of importance are open below the pion production threshold at about 280 MeV (the capture and Bremsstrahlung cross section are very small). 16 refs, 3 figs

  10. THE ORIGIN OF THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND IN THE MeV RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/. Serrano 121, E-28006, Madrid (Spain); The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Ajello, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Canal, Ramon [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), c/. Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Röpke, Friedrich K.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg (Germany); Hillebrandt, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    There has been much debate about the origin of the diffuse γ-ray background in the MeV range. At lower energies, AGNs and Seyfert galaxies can explain the background, but not above ≃0.3 MeV. Beyond ∼10 MeV blazars appear to account for the flux observed. That leaves an unexplained gap for which different candidates have been proposed, including annihilations of WIMPS. One candidate is Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Early studies concluded that they were able to account for the γ-ray background in the gap, while later work attributed a significantly lower contribution to them. All those estimates were based on SN Ia explosion models that did not reflect the full 3D hydrodynamics of SN Ia explosions. In addition, new measurements obtained since 2010 have provided new, direct estimates of high-z SN Ia rates beyond z ∼ 2. We take into account these new advances to see the predicted contribution to the gamma-ray background. We use here a wide variety of explosion models and a plethora of new measurements of SN Ia rates. SNe Ia still fall short of the observed background. Only for a fit, which would imply ∼150% systematic error in detecting SN Ia events, do the theoretical predictions approach the observed fluxes. This fit is, however, at odds at the highest redshifts with recent SN Ia rate estimates. Other astrophysical sources such as flat-spectrum radio quasars do match the observed flux levels in the MeV regime, while SNe Ia make up to 30%–50% of the observed flux.

  11. THE ORIGIN OF THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND IN THE MeV RANGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; The, Lih-Sin; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Ajello, Marco; Canal, Ramon; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    There has been much debate about the origin of the diffuse γ-ray background in the MeV range. At lower energies, AGNs and Seyfert galaxies can explain the background, but not above ≃0.3 MeV. Beyond ∼10 MeV blazars appear to account for the flux observed. That leaves an unexplained gap for which different candidates have been proposed, including annihilations of WIMPS. One candidate is Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Early studies concluded that they were able to account for the γ-ray background in the gap, while later work attributed a significantly lower contribution to them. All those estimates were based on SN Ia explosion models that did not reflect the full 3D hydrodynamics of SN Ia explosions. In addition, new measurements obtained since 2010 have provided new, direct estimates of high-z SN Ia rates beyond z ∼ 2. We take into account these new advances to see the predicted contribution to the gamma-ray background. We use here a wide variety of explosion models and a plethora of new measurements of SN Ia rates. SNe Ia still fall short of the observed background. Only for a fit, which would imply ∼150% systematic error in detecting SN Ia events, do the theoretical predictions approach the observed fluxes. This fit is, however, at odds at the highest redshifts with recent SN Ia rate estimates. Other astrophysical sources such as flat-spectrum radio quasars do match the observed flux levels in the MeV regime, while SNe Ia make up to 30%–50% of the observed flux

  12. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniffen, D.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Palmeira, R.A.R.; Rao, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range can provide unique information with which to study many astrophysical problems. Observations in the 10-50 MeV range provide the cleanest window with which to view the isotropic diffuse component of the radiation and to study the possible cosmological implications of the spectrum. For the study of compact sources, this is the important region between the X-ray sky and the vastly different γ-ray sky seen by SAS-2 and COS-B. To understand the implications of medium energy γ-ray astronomy to the study of the galactic diffuse γ-radiation, the model developed to explain the high energy γ-ray observations of SAS-2 is extended to the medium energy range. This work illustrates the importance of medium energy γ-ray astronomy for studying the electromagnetic component of the galactic cosmic rays. To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center γ-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy γ-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. These results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of the theoretical model

  13. Study of the thermal oxidation of titanium and zirconium under argon ion irradiation in the low MeV range (E = 15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.-L.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that argon ion irradiation between 1 and 15 MeV produces damage on both titanium and zirconium surfaces, taking the form of accelerated oxidation and/or craterization effects, varying as a function of the projectile energy and the annealing atmosphere (temperature and pressure) simulating the environmental conditions of the fuel/cladding interface of PWR fuel rods. Using AFM, we have shown that the titanium and zirconium surface is attacked under light argon ion bombardment at high temperature (up to 500 C) in weakly oxidizing medium (under rarefied dry air pressure ranging from 5,7 10 -5 Pa to 5 10 -3 Pa) for a fixed fluence of about 5 10 14 ions.cm -2 . We observed the formation of nano-metric craters over the whole titanium surface irradiated between 2 and 9 MeV and the whole zirconium surface irradiated at 4 MeV, the characteristics of which vary depending on the temperature and the pressure. In the case of the Ar/Ti couple, the superficial damage efficiency increases when the projectile energy decreases from 9 to 2 MeV. Moreover, whereas the titanium surface seems to be transparent under the 15-MeV ion beam, the zirconium surface exhibits numerous micrometric craters surrounded by a wide halo. The crater characteristics (size and superficial density) differ significantly from that observed both in the low energy range (keV) where the energy losses are controlled by ballistic collisions (Sn) and in the high energy range (MeV - GeV) where the energy losses are controlled by electronic excitations (Se), which was not completely unexpected in this intermediate energy range for which combined Sn - Se stopping power effects are possibly foreseen. Using XPS associated to ionic sputtering, we have shown that there is an irradiation effect on thermal oxidation of titanium, enhanced under the argon ion beam between 2 and 9 MeV, and that there is also an energy effect on the oxide thickness and stoichiometry. The study conducted using Spectroscopic

  14. Calculation of Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer Response Functions in Energy Range up to 20 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Martinkovic, J

    2005-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, "bare" detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10$^{-8}$-20 MeV.

  15. Calibration of a large multi-element neutron counter in the energy range 85-430 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, J A; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jane, M R; Jobes, M; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Thomas, D H

    1978-01-01

    Describes the calibration of a large 60 element neutron counter with a threshold of 2.7 MeV equivalent electron energy. The performance of the counter has been measured in the neutron kinetic energy range 8.5-430 MeV using a neutron beam at the CERN Synchrocyclotron. The results obtained for the efficiency as a function of energy are in reasonable agreement with a Monte Carlo calculation. (7 refs).

  16. Neutron radiative capture by the 241Am nucleus in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Tolstikov, V.A.; Tertychnyj, G.Ya.

    1998-01-01

    Production of high actinides leads to many technological problems in the nuclear power. The 241 Am(n,γ) 242 Am reaction is one of the sources of high actinide buildup. So a knowledge of the radiative capture cross-section of 241 Am for neutron energies up to 20 MeV is of considerable important for present day fission reactors and future advanced reactors. The main goal of this paper is the evaluation of the excitation function for the reaction 241 Am(n,γ) 242 Am in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV. The evaluation was done on the basis of analysed experimental data, data from theoretical model calculations and systematic predictions for 14.5 MeV and 20 MeV. Data from the present evaluation are compared with the cross-section values given in the evaluations carried out earlier. (author)

  17. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late cenozoic deposits in the Eastern part of the Benton Range 1:100,000 quadrangle and the Goldfield, Last Chance Range, Beatty, and Death Valley Junction 1:100,000 quadrangles, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.; Noller, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Lineaments and faults in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous with respect to the typical fault patterns in most of the Great Basin. Little work has been done to identify and characterize these faults, with the exception of those in the Death Valley-Furnace Creek (DVFCFZ) fault system and those in and near the Nevada Test Site. Four maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize the existing knowledge about these lineaments and faults based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. The lineaments and faults in all four maps can be divided geographically into two groups. The first group includes west- to north-trending lineaments and faults associated with the DVFCFZ and with the Pahrump fault zone in the Death Valley Junction quadrangle. The second group consists of north- to east-northeast-trending lineaments and faults in a broad area that lies east of the DVFCFZ and north of the Pahrump fault zone. Preliminary observations of the orientations and sense of slip of the lineaments and faults suggest that the least principle stress direction is west-east in the area of the first group and northwest-southeast in the area of the second group. The DVFCFZ appears to be part of a regional right-lateral strike-slip system. The DVFCFZ steps right, accompanied by normal faulting in an extensional zone, to the northern part of the Walker Lane a the northern end of Fish Lake Valley (Goldfield quadrangle), and appears to step left, accompanied by faulting and folding in a compressional zone, to the Pahrump fault zone in the area of Ash Meadows (Death Valley Junction quadrangle). 25 refs

  18. Electrofission of 239Pu in the energy range 7 endash 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.; Yoneama, M.; Dias, J.F.; Garcia, F.; Reigota, M.A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Guzman, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Mesa, J.

    1997-01-01

    The electrofission cross section of 239 Pu(e,f) is measured between 7 and 12 MeV. The data are analyzed by means of the virtual photon formalism, assuming that E1, E2 (T=0), and M1 transitions are involved. Using known estimates for the E1 and E2 (T=0) fission strengths, it is deduced an M1 fission strength of 19±4μ N 2 concentrated near the fission barrier (between 5.4 and 5.8 MeV). The levels of the 239 Pu transition nucleus are theoretically obtained; a bunch of positive-parity levels shows up between 5.5 and 5.9 MeV, which might well be associated with the deduced M1 strength, since the E2 strength is negligible in this energy interval. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Measurement of double differential cross sections of secondary neutrons in the incident energy range 9-13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Zuying; Sa Jun; Ke Zunjian; Sui Qingchang; Xia Haihong; Shen Guanren

    1992-01-01

    The status and technique of double differential cross section measurement of secondary neutrons in the incident neutron energy range 9 to 13 MeV is reviewed with emphasis on the work done at CIAE. There are scarce measurements of secondary neutron double differential cross sections in this energy region up to now. A main difficulty for this is lack of an applicable monoenergetic neutron source. When monoenergetic neutron energy reaches 8 Me/v, the break-up neutrons from the d + D or p + T reaction starts to become significant. It is difficult to get a pure secondary neutron spectrum induced only by monoenergetic neutrons. To solve this problem an abnormal fast neutron TOF facility was designed and tested. Double differential neutron emission cross sections of 238 U and 209 Bi at 10 MeV were obtained by combining the data measured by both normal and abnormal TOF spectrometers and a good agreement between measurement and calculation was achieved

  20. Stopping power of liquid water for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, J M; Baek, W Y; Rabus, H; Hofsäss, H

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of liquid water was measured for the first time for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 and 6 MeV using the inverted Doppler shift attenuation method. The feasibility study carried out within the scope of the present work shows that this method is well suited for the quantification of the controversial condensed phased effect in the stopping power for heavy ions in the intermediate energy range. The preliminary results of this work indicate that the stopping power of water for carbon ions with energies prevailing in the Bragg-peak region is significantly lower than that of water vapor. In view of the relatively high uncertainty of the present results, a new experiment with uncertainties less than the predicted difference between the stopping powers of both water phases is planned. (paper)

  1. Facility for the measurement of proton polarization in the range 50-70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Sakaguchi, H; Sakamoto, H; Ogawa, H; Cynshi, O; Kobayashi, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kato, S [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Studies; Matsuoka, N; Hatanaka, K; Noro, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1983-07-01

    A proton polarimetry facility based on silicon analyzers combined with high-purity germanium detectors is described. The scattering efficiency is 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ at 60 MeV with an effective analyzing power of 0.71 and the energy resolution is about 300 keV fwhm. The facility has succeeded in measuring the depolarization in p-/sup 13/C elastic scattering separated clearly from inelastic events. In order to use a silicon detector as an analyzer target, measurements of cross sections and analyzing powers have been performed at proton energies of 65, 60, 55, 50 and 45 MeV.

  2. Analyses of Alpha-Alpha Elastic Scattering Data in the Energy Range 140 - 280 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehadeh, Zuhair F. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    The differential and the reaction cross-sections for 4He-4He elastic scattering data have been nicely obtained at four energies ranging from 140 MeV to 280 MeV (lab system), namely, 140, 160, 198 and 280 MeV, by using a new optical potential with a short-range repulsive core. The treatment has been handled relativistically as υ/c > 0.25 for the two lower energies and υ/c > 0.31 for the two higher ones. In addition to explaining the elastic angular distributions, the adopted potentials accounted for the structure that may exist at angles close to 90◦ , especially for the 198 and the 280-MeV incident energies. No renormalization has been used, and all our potential parameters are new. The necessity of including a short-range repulsive potential term in our real nuclear potential part has been demonstrated. Our results contribute to solving a long-standing problem concerning the nature of the alpha-alpha potential. This is very beneficial in explaining unknown alpha-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus relativistic reactions by using the cluster formalism.

  3. A measurement of auroral electrons in the 1–10 MeV range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.N. van; Beek, H.F. van; Fetter, L.D. de; Hendrickx, R.V.

    Particle fluxes have been measured by means of shielded Geiger-Müller telescopes mounted m a rocket, which was launched from ESRANGE(Kiruna) into a diffuse aurora. The analysis of the dependence of the counting rates on altitude indicates that a weak flux of energetic electrons, 1–10 MeV, has been

  4. Microscopic analysis of proton elastic scattering in the range 80-200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, F.S.; Petrovich, F.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic comparison is made of differential cross-section and analyzing-power data on 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca, 90 Zr, and 208 Pb at 80-200 MeV with calculations based on the single-step folding-model approach to the optical potential. In these calculations, proton densities have been inferred from electron scattering results, with neutron densities either the same as for protons ( 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca) or with a small neutron skin consistent with 800-MeV proton scattering results ( 80 Zr, 208 Pb). The effective two-body interactions that have been used are the Love-Franey t-matrix, a density-dependent interaction based on the Paris potential (calculated by von Geramb), and finally the Brieva-Rook density-dependent central interaction used with the spin-orbit part of the Love-Franey interaction

  5. Detection of electrons in the 10 MeV range by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, G; Champagne, A; Jeremie, H; Lessard, L

    1986-09-10

    Response functions for electrons from 1 to 12 MeV have been measured with a plastic scintillator telescope. A parametrization model for these response functions has been found to give good results at all energies. Furthermore it was established that the type of reflector used for the scintillator has a considerable influence on the response functions. A mechanism for this influence has been proposed and tested by Monte Carlo calculations.

  6. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  7. DM2 results on e+e- annihilation into multihadrons in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Nigro, M.; Pescara, L.; Sartori, P.; Stanco, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Calcaterra, A.; Schioppa, M.; Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Szklarz, G.

    1990-06-01

    We present preliminary results on the study of e + e - annihilation into π + π - π + π - , π + π - π 0 π 0 , π + π - π 0 , π + π - π + π - π 0 , K + K - π + π - and K s 0 K ± π -+ in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range. Data have been collected with the DM2 detector at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring, and refer to about 2 pb -1 integrated luminosity

  8. Long range absorption in the scattering of 6He on 208Pb and 197Au at 27 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuee, O.R.; Alvarez, M.A.G.; Andres, M.V.; Cherubini, S.; Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Galster, W.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Laird, A.M.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A.M.; Rahighi, J.; Sanchez-Benitez, A.M.; Shotter, A.C.; Smith, W.B.; Vervier, J.; Woods, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering of 6 He at E lab =27 MeV from 197 Au has been measured in the angular range of 6 o -72 o in the laboratory system employing LEDA and LAMP detection systems. These data, along previously analysed data of 6 He+ 208 Pb at the same energy, are analysed using optical model calculations. The role of Coulomb dipole polarizability has been investigated. Large imaginary diffuseness parameters are required to fit the data. This result is an evidence for long range absorption mechanisms in 6 He induced reactions

  9. e+e- annihilation into multihadrons in the 1350-2400 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.

    1990-11-01

    In the study of e + e - annihilation into multihadrons, evidence is found for a resonant state around 1650 MeV/c 2 in the π + π - π + π - π 0 and K S 0 K ± π -+ channels. The π + π - π + π - channel shows the well known ρ'(1600) signal with a significant a 1 π and ρε dynamics while the π + π - π 0 π 0 , without ωπ 0 dynamics, shows a wide bump around 1650 MeV/c 2 with a main ρ ± π -+ π 0 dynamics. Data have been collected with the DM2 detector at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring, and refer to about 2 pb -1 luminosity in the 1350 - 2400 MeV energy interval

  10. Depletion of the vibrational ground state of CH4 in absorption spectroscopy at 3.4 μm in N2 and air in the 1-100 Torr range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmaninger, Thomas; Zhao, Gang; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2018-01-01

    A model presented in an accompanying work predicts that mid-IR absorption signals from methane in trace concentrations in various buffer gases detected at pressures in the 1-100 Torr range can be reduced and distorted due to depletion of the vibrational ground state if the molecules are exposed to laser powers in the tens of mW range or above. This work provides experimental evidence of such depletion in a resonant cavity under a variety of conditions, e.g. for intracavity laser powers up to 2 W and for buffer gases of N2 or dry air, and verifies the applicability of the model. It was found that the degree of depletion is significantly larger in N2 than dry air, and that it increases with pressure for pressures up to around 10 Torr (attributed to a decreased diffusion rate) but decreases with pressure for pressures above 20 Torr (caused by an increased collisional vibrational decay rate). The maximum degree of depletion (∼80%) was obtained for methane in N2 at around 15 Torr. This implies that absorption spectrometry of methane can experience significant non-linear dependencies on laser power, pressure, as well as buffer gas composition. It is shown that depletion takes place also in 13CH4, which verifies the applicability of the model also for this isotopologue, and that NICE-OHMS signals detected in absorption phase are less affected by depletion than in dispersion. It was concluded that the absorption mode of detection can provide concentration assessments that are virtually free of influence of depletion for intracavity powers below 0.8 W.

  11. Measurement of the uranium-235 fission cross section over the neutron energy range 1 to 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.M.; Diven, B.C.; Hansen, G.E.; Jarvis, G.A.; Koontz, P.G.; Smith, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio of the fission cross section of 235 U to the scattering cross section of 1 H was measured in the 1- to 6-MeV range using monoenergetic neutrons from a pulsed 3 H(p,n) 3 He source. In this measurement, solid-state detectors determined fission fragment and recoil proton emissions from back-to-back U(99.7%) and polyethylene disks. Timing permitted discrimination against room-scattered neutron backgrounds. Absolute values for 235 U(n,f) are obtained using the Hopkins-Breit evaluation of the hydrogen-scattering cross section

  12. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe......-ray spectroscopy based on a one-dimensional model and by a consistency check among the individual measurement techniques. A systematic difference is seen between the two lines of sight and is interpreted to originate from the sensitivity of the oblique detectors to the pitch-angle structure of the distribution...

  13. Activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on niobium in the 30–50 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural niobium up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison of results with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Application of radioisotopes in medicine and industry. - Abstract: Activation cross-sections of deuterons induced reactions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of different applications and comparison with theoretical models. We present the experimental excitation functions of "9"3Nb(d,x)"9"3"m","9"0Mo, "9"2"m","9"1"m","9"0Nb, "8"9","8"8Zr and "8"8","8"7"m","8"7"gY in the energy range of 30–50 MeV. The results were compared with earlier measurements and with the cross-sections calculated by means of the theoretical model codes ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (on-line TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries). Possible applications of the radioisotopes are discussed in detail.

  14. Ion heating up to 1 MeV range with higher harmonic ICRF wave on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, M.; Kusama, Y.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujii, T.; Moriyama, S.; Saigusa, M.; Afanassiev, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of protons under accleration by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves with the second to fourth hydrogen harmonics have been investigated in the JT-60U tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Protons have been accelerated up to 1 MeV in the presence of an ICRF wave of fixed frequency, neutral beams (NB), and a fixed toroidal magnetic field which is scanned through several plasma discharges. The tail temperature of the protons, which is evaluated in the range 0.32-0.86 MeV, has been observed to increase in the second to third harmonics, however increase of the tail temperature in the third to fourth harmonics has not been observed clearly. Furthermore, the dependence of tail temperature on the harmonic number has been found to be in qualitative agreement with results from a simulation code analysis based upon the one-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation coupled with the kinetic wave equation. Experimental values for the stored energy of the accelerated ions have shown, however, that the response of stored energy to changes in absorbed ICRF power is much stronger than the response to changes in harmonic number. Also, the incremental energy confinement times for heating discharges matching the third and fourth harmonics (3 ω CH) and 4 ω CH) of hydrogen have been observed to be less than half that for those matching the second harmonic. It has been found that suppression of the absorbed ICRF power accompanied with the occurence of cavity resonance in the 3ω CH and 4ω CH heating discharges reduces the stored energy of the accelerated ions and the incremental energy confinement time. (Author)

  15. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30–80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, C; Tardocchi, M; Croci, G; Grosso, G; Rebai, M; Gorini, G; Frost, C; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Giacomelli, L; Hjalmarsson, A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV n < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum

  16. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30-80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Frost, C.; Giacomelli, L.; Grosso, G.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Rebai, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Gorini, G.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV < En < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum.

  17. (p,t) reaction on /sup 12/C, /sup 54/Fe and /sup 208/Pb at 80 MeV. [80 MeV, angular distributions, zerio-range DWBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J R; Anderson, R E; Kraushaar, J J; Ristinen, R A [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.; Comfort, J R [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Physics; King, N S.P. [Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (USA); Bacher, A; Jacobs, W W [Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-06-11

    Angular distributions have been measured for the low-lying levels of the residual nuclei for the /sup 12/C, /sup 54/Fe and /sup 208/Pb(p,t) reactions at E/sub p/ = 80 MeV. The shapes of these angular distributions are generally well reproduced by the zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). Enhancement factors extracted from the data show that the DWBA predicts relative strengths consistent with those observed at lower bombarding energies. However, the overall empirical DWBA normalization at E/sub p/ = 80 MeV is observed to be 1/12(1/4) of that required at 40 MeV for /sup 208/Pb(/sup 54/Fe).

  18. NUCLEAR CROSS-SECTION CALCULATIONS IN THE 1 MEV TO 5 GEV RANGE WITH COMBINED SEMI-CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, F.B.

    2002-03-07

    In this work we describe neutron and proton induced reaction cross-sections for iron produced by the codes TNG and CEM95 in the 5 to 300 MeV energy range. TNG calculations cover the 5-90 MeV range, while CEM95 covers the 50-300 MeV high energy range. The two codes show some disagreements in the overlap energy range, both among themselves and with the experimental data, which are presently being addressed. The experimental data used are from NNDC and/or from LA150 NSE references. We also describe some developments for combining TNG and CEM95 into a new code called CETNG (Cascade Exciton TNG).

  19. Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of neutrons in the energy range from 2 MeV to 4 MeV with the 15N(p,n) reaction as neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In future nuclear facilities, the materials lead and bismuth can play a more important role than in today's nuclear reactors. Reliable cross section data are required for the design of those facilities. In particular the neutron transport in the lead spallation target of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor strongly depends on the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 6 MeV. In the recent 20 years, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured with high precision for a variety of elements at the PTB time-of-flight spectrometer. The D(d,n) reaction was primarily used for the production of neutrons. Because of the Q value of the reaction and the available deuteron energies, neutrons in the energy range from 6 MeV to 16 MeV can be produced. For the cross section measurement at lower energies, however, another neutron producing reaction is required. The 15 N(p,n) 15 O reaction was chosen, as it allows the production of monoenergetic neutrons with up to 5.7MeV energy. In this work, the 15 N(p,n) reaction was studied with focus on the suitability as a source for monoenergetic neutrons in scattering experiments. This includes the measurement of differential cross sections for the neutron producing reaction and the choice of optimum target conditions. Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured for lead at four energies in the region from 2 MeV to 4 MeV incident neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. A lead sample with natural isotopic composition was used. NE213 liquid scintillation detectors with well-known detection efficiencies were used for the detection of the scattered neutrons. Angle-integrated cross sections were determined by a Legendre polynomial expansion using least-squares methods. Additionally, measurements were carried out for isotopically pure 209 Bi and 181 Ta samples at 4 MeV incident neutron energy. Results are compared with other

  20. Model calculation of neutron reaction data for 31P in the energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangting; Ge Zhigang; Sun Xiuquan

    2006-01-01

    The neutron data calculation of 31 P in the energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV was carried out. The neutron optical potential parameters for 31 P in energy range from O.1 to 20 MeV were obtained, based on the fitting of the available neutron experimental data with the code APOM94. The DWUCK4 code was used to investigate the cross section for neutron direct inelastic scattering. The re-evaluated neutron data is based on the available measured data by using the UNF code. The theoretical results reproduce the experimental data well, and the results were given in ENDF/B-6 format. (authors)

  1. Systematics of neutron-induced fission cross sections over the energy range 0.1 through 15 MeV, and at 0.0253 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Recent studies have shown straightforward systematic behavior as a function of constant proton and neutron number for neutron-induced fission cross sections of the actinide elements in the incident-neutron energy range 3 to 5 MeV. In this report, the second in a series, fission cross-section values are studied over the MeV incident-neutron energy range, and at 0.0253 eV. Fission-barrier heights and neutron-binding energies are correlated by constant proton and neutron number; however, these systematic behaviors alone do not explain the trends observed in the fission cross-section values

  2. Measurement of Ay(θ) for n+208Pb from 6 to 10 MeV and the neutron-nucleus interaction over the energy range from bound states at -17 MeV up to scattering at 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Felsher, P.D.; Weisel, G.J.; Chen, Z.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.; Horen, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    High-accuracy measurements of A y (θ) data for elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to the first excited state for n+ 208 Pb have been performed at 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 MeV. In addition, σ(θ) was measured at 8 MeV. These data provide an important subset for the growing database for the n+ 208 Pb system from bound-state energies to energies above 40 MeV, the limit of the range of interest here. This database has been interpreted via several approaches. First, a conventional Woods-Saxon spherical optical was used to obtain three potential representations for the energy range from 4 to 40 MeV: ''best fits'' at each energy, constant-geometry global fit with linear energy dependences for the potential strengths for the range 4.0--40 MeV, and an extension of the latter model to allow a linear energy dependence on the radii and diffuseness. A preference for a complex spin-orbit interaction was observed in all cases. Second, the dispersion relation was introduced into the spherical optical model to obtain a more ''realistic'' representation. In our approach, the strength and shape of the real potential was modified by calculating the dispersion-relation contributions that originate from the presence of the surface and volume imaginary terms. Two potentials were developed, one based only on the scattering data (from 4.0 to 40 MeV) and another based additionally on single-particle and single-hole information down to a binding energy of 17 MeV. In addition, the σ(θ) and A y (θ) measurements were compared to earlier conventional and dispersion-relation models. One of the latter of these included an l dependence in the absorptive surface term, and we applied this model in the 6- to 10-MeV region to describe all the σ(θ) and the new A y (θ)

  3. Measurement of cross-sections for the reaction 103Rh (n,n')103mRh in the energy range 5.69 - 12 MeV and its evaluation from the threshold up to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.M.M.

    1995-05-01

    The cross-sections for the reaction 103 R(n,n') 103m Rh were measured by the method of activation in the neutron energy range 5.69-12.00 MeV produced by the D(d,n) 3 He reaction. The irradiation of Rh foils was performed at zero degree to the incident beam direction and the activities of KX-rays from the decay of 103m Rh were measured by means of a calibrated Si(Li) detector. During irradiation, the neutron fluence was measured with a fission chamber in which a thin deposit of 238 U was located immediately behind the Rh foil. The measured cross-section with the corresponding uncertainty in the stated energy range is more accurate than all previous measurements in spite of rather large corrections due to break-up neutrons. The update of the evaluation for the same reaction in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV was carried out by using the weighted average of cross-sections based on both the experimental data including the present one and theoretical model calculations. The experimental data were renormalized with respect to the recent precision KX-ray emission probability (7.66 + 0.14) % where necessary. To perform the evaluation, the whole excitation function was divided into 33 energy groups of 0.2-1.0 MeV widths. The uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections especially 6-12 MeV have been improved due to the inclusion of the new measurement. Overall, the results of the updated evaluation are a considerable improvement compared to the previous evaluation of this reaction and also to the recommended cross-section data of IRDF (International Reactor Dosimetry File). (author)

  4. Elastic scattering of 7Li + 27Al at several angles in the 7-11 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, D.; Carnelli, P.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J.M.; Capurro, O.A.; Cardona, M.A.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Hojman, D.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Marti, G.V.; Negri, A.E.; Pacheco, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic cross sections for the 7 Li + 27 Al system were measured at laboratory energies between 7 and 11 MeV in steps of 0.25 MeV, and angles between 135 o and 170 o in steps of 5 o . Excitation functions for the elastic scattering were measured using an array of eight Si surface-barrier detectors whereas a solid-state telescope was used to estimate and subtract background from other reactions. Contamination from α particles arising from the 7 Li breakup process at E lab ≥ 10 MeV makes the use of these energies inadvisable for RBS applications. The present results are compared with previous data obtained at 165 o (E lab ≤ 6 MeV), 140 o and 170 o (E lab ≤ 8 MeV). The experimental data were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model. Two different energy-independent potentials were found. These optical potentials allow an interpolation with physical meaning to other energies and scattering angles. The experimental cross sections will be uploaded to the IBANDL database.

  5. Exact finite range DWBA results for the /sup 12/C(p,d)/sup 11/C reaction at 700 MeV. [Differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.

    1975-12-08

    The differential cross sections for the /sup 12/C(p,d)/sup 11/C(g.s.) reaction at 700 MeV have been calculated in a full finite range DWBA approach. The absolute cross sections agree with the data and are dominated by contributions arising from the deuteron D-state.

  6. The e-ASTROGAM mission: Exploring the extreme Universe with gamma rays in the MeV – GeV range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Angelis, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Tavani, M.

    2017-01-01

    e-ASTROGAM (‘enhanced ASTROGAM’) is a breakthrough Observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the non-thermal Universe in the photon energy range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV – the lower energy limit c...

  7. Elastic Scattering of 7Li+27Al at Backward Angles in the 7-11 MeV Energy Range for Application in RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Arazi, A.; Cardona, M. A.; Figueira, J. M.; Hojman, D.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Grinberg, P.; Marti, G. V.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured elastic excitation functions for the 7 Li+ 27 Al system, in an energy range close to its Coulomb barrier (E lab = 8.4 MeV) in steps of 0.25 MeV. For this purpose, an array of eight surface-barrier detectors was used. To get an insight on the background composition (mainly α particles), a telescope-detector was used for atomic-number identification. Identical measurements for the 6 Li+ 27 Al system are planned for the near future.

  8. Mean field for the p + 90Zr system in the energy range -60 MeV 90Zr from a dispersive optical-model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovsky, E.A.; Bespalova, O.V.; Goncharov, S.A.; Pleshkov, D.V.; Spasskaya, T.I.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the scattering of protons with energies 5 MeV 90 Zr nuclei and data on the energies of proton particle and hole levels in the A + 1 and A - 1 systems with A = 90 are analyzed within the dispersive optical model. The parameters of the mean proton field for 90 Zr are determined in the energy range -60 MeV 3 He), ( 3 He, d), (n, d), and (d, n) reactions for levels near the Fermi surface and in (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions for deep levels

  9. Range-energy relations and stopping power of water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid for α particles over the energy range 0.5 to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.J.; Akhavan-Rezayat, Ahmad

    1978-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid at energies up to 8 MeV. From these relations differential stopping powers are derived at 0.25 MeV energy intervals. Consideration is given to sources of error in the range-energy measurements and to the uncertainties that these will introduce into the stopping power values. The ratio of the differential stopping power of muscle equivalent liquid to that of water over the energy range 0.5 to 7.5 MeV is discussed in relation to the specific gravity and chemical composition of the muscle equivalent liquid. Theoretical molecular stopping power calculations based upon the Bethe formula are also presented for water. The effect of phase upon the stopping power of water is discussed. The molecular stopping power of water vapour is shown to be significantly higher than that of water for energies below 1.25 MeV and above 2.5 MeV, the ratio of the two stopping powers rising to 1.39 at 0.5 MeV and to 1.13 at 7.0 MeV. Stopping power measurements for other liquids and vapours are compared with the results for water and water vapour and some are observed to have stopping power ratios in the vapour and liquid phases which vary with energy in a similar way to water. It is suggested that there may be several factors contributing to the increased stopping power of liquids. The need for further experimental results on a wider range of liquids is stressed

  10. SCANDAL -- A facility for elastic neutron scattering studies in the 50--130 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, J.; Blomgren, J.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Olsson, N.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Rahm, J.; Oberstedt, A.; Tovesson, F.; Eudes, Ph.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Stuttge, L.; Slypen, I.; Michel, R.; Neumann, S.; Herpers, U.

    2001-01-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50--130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has recently been installed at the 20--180 MeV neutron beam facility of the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. It is primarily intended for studies of elastic neutron scattering, but can be used for the (n,p) and (n,d) reaction experiments as well. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated in measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on 1 H and 12 C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail

  11. SCANDAL--a facility for elastic neutron scattering studies in the 50-130 MeV range

    CERN Document Server

    Klug, J; Atac, A; Bergenwall, B; Dangtip, S; Elmgren, K; Johansson, C; Olsson, N; Pomp, S; Prokofiev, A V; Rahm, J; Tippawan, U; Jonsson, O; Nilsson, L; Renberg, P U; Nadel-Turonski, P; Ringbom, A; Oberstedt, A; Tovesson, F; Blideanu, V; Le Brun, C; Lecolley, J F; Lecolley, F R; Louvel, M; Marie, N; Schweitzer, C; Varignon, C; Eudes, P; Haddad, F; Kerveno, M; Kirchner, T; Lebrun, C; Stuttgé, L; Slypen, I; Smirnov, A N; Michel, R; Neumann, S; Herpers, U

    2002-01-01

    A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy (SCANDAL), has recently been installed at the 20-180 MeV neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala. It is primarily intended for studies of elastic neutron scattering, but can be used for (n,p) and (n,d) reaction experiments as well. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated in measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on sup 1 H and sup 1 sup 2 C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail.

  12. Microscopic model analyses of proton elastic scattering from diverse targets in the energy range 65 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two nucleon (NN) effective interactions based upon two-nucleon g matrices have been used in fully microscopic calculations of nonlocal proton-nucleus optical potentials for protons with energies between 65 and 400 MeV. Excellent predictions of the differential cross sections, analysing powers and spin rotations for scattering angles to 60 deg result. (authors)

  13. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne; Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie; Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier; Delobbe, Anne; Della-Negra, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au 400 +4 ) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  14. Measurements of the prompt neutron spectra in 233U, 235U, 239Pu thermal neutron fission in the energy range of 0.01-5 MeV and in 252Cf spontaneous fission in the energy range of 0.01-10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostov, B.I.; Semenov, A.F.; Nefedov, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement results on the prompt neutron spectra in 233 U, 235 U, 239 Pu thermal neutron fission in the energy range of 0.01-5 MeV and in 252 Cf spontaneous fission in the energy range of 0.01-10 MeV are presented. The time-of-flight method was used. The exceeding of the spectra over the Maxwell distributions is observed at E 252 Cf neutron fission spectra. The spectra analysis was performed after normalization of the spectra and corresponding Maxwell distributions for one and the same area. In the range of 0.05-0.22 MeV the yield of 235 U + nsub(t) fission neutrons is approximately 8 and approximately 15 % greater than the yield of 252 Cf and 239 Pu + nsub(t) fission neutrons, respectively. In the range of 0.3-1.2 MeV the yield of 235 U + nsub(t) fission neutrons is 8 % greater than the fission neutron yield in case of 239 Pu + nsub(t) fission. The 235 U + nsub(t) and 233 U + nsub(t) fission neutron spectra do not differ from one another in the 0.05-0.6 MeV range

  15. The SCANDAL facility - How to measure elastic neutron scattering in the 50-130 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    The interest in neutrons of energies above 20 MeV is growing rapidly, since new applications are being developed or have been identified. Transmutation of nuclear waste and cancer therapy with neutron beams are two research fields that would benefit from new neutron scattering data at these energies. A facility for detection of scattered neutrons in the energy interval 50-130 MeV, SCANDAL (SCAttered Nucleon Detection AssembLy), has been developed and installed at the neutron beam facility of the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. It can be used to study the (n,n), (n,p) and (n,d) reactions. This thesis describes the layout of the setup, the experimental procedure, and data analysis principles. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated with measurements of the (n,p) and (n,n) reactions on 1 H and 12 C. In addition, the neutron beam facility is described in some detail

  16. Model calculation of neutron reaction data for {sup 31}P in the energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangting, Li [Physics Department, Northwest Univ., Xi' an (China); Zhigang, Ge [China Nuclear Data Center, China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Xiuquan, Sun [Engineering and Technology Department, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen (China)

    2006-07-15

    The neutron data calculation of {sup 31}P in the energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV was carried out. The neutron optical potential parameters for {sup 31}P in energy range from O.1 to 20 MeV were obtained, based on the fitting of the available neutron experimental data with the code APOM94. The DWUCK4 code was used to investigate the cross section for neutron direct inelastic scattering. The re-evaluated neutron data is based on the available measured data by using the UNF code. The theoretical results reproduce the experimental data well, and the results were given in ENDF/B-6 format. (authors)

  17. Excitation functions for 121,123Sb(α,xn), (x=1-4) reactions in approx. 10-40 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1986-04-01

    Excitation functions for 121 Sb(α,n), 121 Sb(α,2n), 123 Sb(α,n) and 123 Sb(α,3n) reactions in the energy range approx. 10 to 40 MeV have been measured using stacked-foil technique and are calculated theoretically using statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. Inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission is found to give good agreement between the experimental and measured excitation functions. (author)

  18. Neutron-Neutron effective range from a comparison of n-n and n-p quasi-free scattering at 24 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witsch, W. von; Gomez Moreno, B.; Rosenstock, W.; Franke, R.; Steinheuer, B.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron-neutron and neutron-proton quasi-free scattering have been measured at Esub(n) = 24 MeV the d + n reaction to deduce the n-n effective range from a comparison of relative cross sections, reducing considerably experimental as well as theoretical uncertainties. A Monte Carlo analysis with exact three-body calculations yields rsub(nn) = 2.65 +- 0.18 fm. (orig.)

  19. Liquid argon as an electron/photon detector in the energy range of 50 MeV to 2 GeV: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Denis, G.; Hall, M.; Karpovsky, A.; Wilson, R.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1980-12-01

    Monte Carlo techniques which have been used to study the characteristics of a proposed electron/photon detector based on the total absorption of electromagnetic showers in liquid argon have been investigated. The energy range studied was 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Results are presented on the energy and angular resolution predicted for the device, along with the detailed predictions of the transverse and longitudinal shower distributions. Comparisons are made with other photon detectors, and possible applications are discussed

  20. Response of E. coli AB2463 recA to fast neutron beams with mean energies in the range 4 to 27 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redpath, J L [Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Ill. (USA)

    1978-07-01

    The radiosensitivity of E.coli AB2463 recA, given as the reciprical of the mean lethal dose, Do/sup -1/, has been shown to be the same for four fast neutron beams with widely different energy spectra. It is proposed that this organism can be used to intercompare dosimetry on fast neutron beams with mean energies in the range 4 to 25 MeV with an accuracy of +- 5%.

  1. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Results of TGE Study in 0.03-10 MeV Energy Range in Ground Experiments near Moscow and Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, V.; Kovalenko, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Saleev, K.; Svertilov, S.; Maximov, I.; Garipov, G.; Iyudin, A.; Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Karapetyan, T.; Mntasakanyan, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based experiments with scintillator gamma-spectrometers were conducted to study the spectral, temporal and spatial characteristics of TGES as well, as to search the fast hard X-ray and gamma-ray flashes possibly appearing at the moment of lightning. The time of each gamma-quantum interaction was recorded with ∼15 us accuracy together with detailed spectral data. The measurements are similar to ones reported at TEPA-2015 but some important improvement of the instruments was done for 2016 season. First, GPS module was used to synchronize the instrument time with UTC. The accuracy of such synchronization allows one to look at the gamma-ray data at the moment of lightning fixed by radio-wave detector or any other instrument. Second, the energy range of gamma-spectrometers was shifted to higher energies where the radiation of natural isotopes is absent. In this case one can see background changes connected with particles accelerated in thundercloud together with the background increases during the rain caused by Rn-222 daughters. Long-term measurements with two instruments placed in different points of Moscow region were done in 2016 season. First one based on CsI (Tl) 80x80 mm has energy range 0.03-6 MeV. The range of the second one based on CsI (Tl) 100x100 mm is 0.05-10 MeV. A dozen of thunderstorms with increase of Rn-222 radiation were detected but no significant increase of gamma-ray flux above 3.2 MeV was observed at these periods. A lot of data was obtained from the experiment with small gamma-ray spectrometer (40x40 mm NaI (T1) at mountain altitude in Armenia at Aragats station. The analysis of readings during the TGE periods indicates on the presence of Rn-222 radiation in low-energy range (E< l MeV). The detector was improved during TEPA-2016. New 50x50 mm NaI (Tl) crystal was used and the energy range was prolonged up to 5 MeV. Exact timing with GPS-sensor was added and fast recording of the output signal at the moments of triggers from UV flash

  3. Experimental determination of the cross sections of the n-3He-system in the energy range of 1 to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesner, B.

    1982-08-01

    Cross sections have been measured in the n+ 3 He-system over a broad energy range. The experiments were conducted using the pulsed white neutron beam at the Karlsruhe Neutron Time of Flight Facility. The total cross sections were measured from 1-40 MeV using the 190 m flight path with 1.5 ns time resolution. This represents a substantial improvement over previous measurements. Angular distributions (THETAsub(c.m.) = 33 0 -179 0 ) for the elastic n- 3 He scattering were measured simultaneously in the energy range from 5 to 30 MeV. A liquid 3 He scintillation detector was used as the scatterer. The statistical errors are less than 2% for most (> 90%) of the data. Through the use of the L 3 He detector absolute cross sections for the neutron induced reactions 3 He(n,p)T and 3 He(n,d)D could be measured from 1 to 30 MeV. These measurements are in good agreement with the results of the corresponding (p,n) and (d,n) reactions using detailed balance. (orig.) [de

  4. Optical model neutron cross sections calculations for Cu63, Cu65 and natural Cu in the energy range 1-15 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, N.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of optical model and cross sections is developing. The neutron reactions considered in the high energy rate (0,1-15 MeV) were: total, elastic, elastic angular distributions, nonelastic, inelastic for resolved levels. This region was subdivided in two parts: in the first one, ranging from 0,1 to 1 MeV, the evaluation was mainly based on empirical fits of the experimental data, whereas in the second part the fits were carried out with theoretical models: optical and statistical. The potential parameters were obtained fitting the total, elastic, inelastic cross sections and elastic angular distributions. Using Hauser-Feshbach theory, angular distribution and cross sections for compound elastic scattering and inelastic scattering are calculated

  5. Long range absorption in the scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb and {sup 197}Au at 27 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, O.R. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Alvarez, M.A.G. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Andres, M.V. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Cherubini, S. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Laird, A.M.; Shotter, A.C.; Smith, W.B.; Woods, P.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh University, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Galster, W. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gomez-Camacho, J. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: gomez@us.es; Lamehi-Rachti, M. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21819 Huelva (Spain); Moro, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Rahighi, J. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh University, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21819 Huelva (Spain); Vervier, J. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2006-02-06

    Quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 6}He at E{sub lab}=27 MeV from {sup 197}Au has been measured in the angular range of 6{sup o}-72{sup o} in the laboratory system employing LEDA and LAMP detection systems. These data, along previously analysed data of {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb at the same energy, are analysed using optical model calculations. The role of Coulomb dipole polarizability has been investigated. Large imaginary diffuseness parameters are required to fit the data. This result is an evidence for long range absorption mechanisms in {sup 6}He induced reactions.

  6. Elastic scattering of 7Li projectiles in the energy range of 20 to 34 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khallaf, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    As far as it is known, the Watanabe folding model has not been used to analyse the elastic scattering of 7 Li projectiles. The main purpose of the present work is to calculate the differential cross sections for 7 Li elastic scattering von 90 Zr, 48 , 40 Ca, 16 O and 12 C at incident energies of 20 to 34 MeV using the Watanabe folding model and to study the applicability of this model for 7 Li elastic scattering. The potentials of 7 Li ions are revealed by Taylor expansions of alpha and triton cluster potentials. The resulting differential cross sections are compared with the predicted cross sections using phenomenological potentials of 7 Li ions. (orig./WL)

  7. Experimental and simulated efficiency of a HPGe detector in the energy range of 0.06∼11 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Su; Choi, H. D.; Sun, Gwang Min

    2003-01-01

    The full energy peak efficiency of a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector was calibrated in a wide energy range from 0.06 to 11 MeV. Both the experimental technique and the Monte Carlo method were used for the efficiency calibration. The measurement was performed using the standard radioisotopes in the low energy region of 60∼1408 keV, which was further extended up to 11 MeV by using the 14 N(n,γ) and 35 Cl(n,γ) reactions. The GEANT Monte Carlo code was used for efficiency calculation. The calculated efficiency had the same dependency on the γ-ray energy with the measurement, and the discrepancy between the calculation and the measurement was minimized by fine-tuning of the detector geometry. From the calculated result, the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector was reliably determined particularly in the high energy region above several MeV, where the number of measured efficiency points is relatively small despite the wide energy region. The calculated efficiency agreed with the measurement within about 7%. In addition to the efficiency calculation, the origin of the local minimum near 600 keV on the efficiency curve was analyzed as a general characteristics of a HPGe detector

  8. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233U, 241Am and 243Am in the energy range 0.5 MeV ≤ En ≤ 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P.M.; Calviani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 233 U, 241 Am and 243 Am relative to 235 U have been measured in a wide energy range at the neutron time of flight facility n-TOF in Geneva to address the present discrepancies in evaluated and experimental databases for reactions and isotopes relevant for transmutation and new generation fast reactors. A dedicated fast ionization chamber was used. Each isotope was mounted in a different cell of the modular detector. The measurements took advantage of the characteristics of the n-TOF installation. Its intrinsically low background, coupled to its high instantaneous neutron flux, results in high accuracy data. Its wide energy neutron spectrum helps to reduce systematic uncertainties due to energy-domain matching problems while the 185 m flight path and a 6 ns pulse width assure an excellent energy resolution. This paper presents results obtained between 500 keV and 20 MeV neutron energy. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of 242Pu data for the incident neutron energy range 0.1 - 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladuca, G.; Sin, M.; Tudora, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the models and the procedures used for the calculation of the quantities required by Files 3, 4 and 5 of ENDF-6 for 242 Pu. These quantities are the integrated cross sections for the total, fission, scattering and gamma-capture reactions and the angular and energy distributions of the scattered neutrons for the incident neutron energies 0.01/6 MeV. The direct mechanism was treated with the coupled-channel method using a deformed optical potential defined by a set of actinide region parameters established by the authors. For the compound nucleus calculations, a new HRTW version of the statistical model extended to describe the fission at subbarrier energies was used. To describe the continuous part of the transition states spectrum, analytical expressions have been established. The energy distributions of the scattered neutrons have been calculated with an author's version of the Los Alamos model. The agreement of the calculations with the existing experimental data is good. (author)

  10. Characterization and optimization of laser-driven electron and photon sources in keV and MeV energy ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work takes place in the framework of the characterization and the optimization of laser-driven electron and photon sources. With the goal of using these sources for nuclear physics experiments, we focused on 2 energy ranges: one around a few MeV and the other around a few tens of keV. The first part of this work is thus dedicated to the study of detectors routinely used for the characterization of laser-driven particle sources: Imaging Plates. A model has been developed and is fitted to experimental data. Response functions to electrons, photons, protons and alpha particles are established for SR, MS and TR Fuji Imaging Plates for energies ranging from a few keV to several MeV. The second part of this work present a study of ultrashort and intense electron and photon sources produced in the interaction of a laser with a solid or liquid target. An experiment was conducted at the ELFIE facility at LULI where beams of electrons and photons were accelerated up to several MeV. Energy and angular distributions of the electron and photons beams were characterized. The sources were optimized by varying the spatial extension of the plasma at both the front and the back end of the initial target position. In the optimal configuration of the laser-plasma coupling, more than 1011 electrons were accelerated. In the case of liquid target, a photon source was produced at a high repetition rate on an energy range of tens of keV by the interaction of the AURORE Laser at CELIA (10 16 W.cm -2 ) and a melted gallium target. It was shown that both the mean energy and the photon number can be increased by creating gallium jets at the surface of the liquid target with a pre-pulse. A physical interpretation supported by numerical simulations is proposed. (author)

  11. Measurement of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interactions in aluminum over the incident energy range 1 to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.L.

    1975-11-01

    The spectra of secondary neutrons and gamma rays produced by neutron interaction in a thin sample (approximately 1/6 mean free path) of aluminum have been measured as a function of the incident neutron energy over the range 1 to 20 MeV. Data were taken at an angle of 125 0 . A linac (ORELA) was used as a neutron source with a 47-m flight path. Incident energy was determined by time-of-flight, while secondary spectra were determined by pulse-height unfolding techniques. The results of the measurements are presented in forms suitable for comparison to calculations based on the evaluated data files. (6 tables, 4 figures)

  12. Measurement of activation yields for platinum group elements using Bremsstrahlung radiation with end-point energies in the range 11-14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickner, James, E-mail: james.tickner@csiro.a [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, PMB 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Bencardino, Raffaele; Roach, Greg [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, PMB 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Activation yields have been measured for (gamma,n) reactions of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt. Metallic foils of natural isotopic composition were irradiated using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an electron linear accelerator operated with electron beam energies in the range 11-14 MeV. Activation products, including both unstable ground states and metastates were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Cross-sections were estimated from the yield data by assuming a simple two-parameter model for the shape of the cross-section with energy.

  13. Measurement of activation yields for platinum group elements using Bremsstrahlung radiation with end-point energies in the range 11-14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; Bencardino, Raffaele; Roach, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Activation yields have been measured for (γ,n) reactions of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt. Metallic foils of natural isotopic composition were irradiated using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an electron linear accelerator operated with electron beam energies in the range 11-14 MeV. Activation products, including both unstable ground states and metastates were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Cross-sections were estimated from the yield data by assuming a simple two-parameter model for the shape of the cross-section with energy.

  14. Non-Rutherford cross-sections for alpha elastic scattering off Z = 28-38 elements in the energy range up to 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbich, A. F.; Bokhovko, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    The alpha elastic scattering cross-sections for Ni, Cu, and Y were measured at the energies above the onset of the non-Rutherford scattering. The obtained experimental data along with data from literature were incorporated into the theoretical analysis in the framework of the optical model. The optimization of the model parameters provided a basis for the calculations of the differential cross-sections for Z = 28-38 elements in the energy range up to 10 MeV. The obtained cross sections were made available for common use through the SigmaCalc web site at http://sigmacalc.iate.obninsk.ru/.

  15. Measurement of (n,/alpha/) cross sections of chromium, iron, and nickel in the 5- to 10-MeV neutron energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, A.; Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.; Widera, R.

    1981-01-01

    A measuring program has been carried out at the Van de Graaff accelerator facility of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements for the determination of (n,/alpha/) cross sections on the main constituents of fast reactor structural materials, namely the elements chromium, iron, and nickel. Results obtained in the energy range from 5 to 10 Mev are presented in terms of laboratory angle-differential cross sections, relative Legendre polynomial coefficients of angular distributions, angle-integrated cross sections, and average alpha energies. 13 refs

  16. Neutron radiative capture cross section of 232Th in the energy range 0.1 to 1.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, H.M.; Kailas, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently reported neutron radiative capture cross section of 232 Th measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 1.2 MeV are compared with the calculations based on the statistical model Hauser-Feshbach theory using the spherical optical model transmission coefficients and simple Fermi gas level density formula. The calculations are in good agreement with the recent experimental data, reproducing both the absolute magnitude and the shape exhibited by the excitation function. The results of this comparative study can be used for improving the evaluation of the neutron radiative capture cross section of 232 Th. 16 refs., 3 tables, 4 figures. (author)

  17. Neutron radiative capture cross section of 232Th in the energy range 0.1 to 1.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, H.M.; Kailas, S.

    1987-03-01

    Recently reported neutron radiative capture cross section of Th-232 measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 1.2 MeV are compared with the calculations based on the statistical model Hauser-Feshbach theory using the spherical optical model transmission coefficients and simple Fermi gas level density formula. The calculations are in good agreement with the recent experimental data, reproducing both the absolute magnitude and the shape exhibited by the excitation function. The results of this comparative study can be used for improving the evaluation of the neutron radiative capture cross section of Th-232. (author)

  18. Responses of conventional and extended-range neutron detectors in mixed radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Ang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the responses of two types of neutron detector in mixed gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The detectors were self-assembled, high efficiency, and designed in two configurations: (1) a conventional moderated-type neutron detector based on a large cylindrical He-3 proportional counter; and (2) an extended-range version with an embedded layer of lead in the moderator to increase the detector’s sensitivity to high-energy neutrons. Two sets of the detectors were used to measure neutrons at the downstream and lateral locations simultaneously, where the radiation fields differed considerably in intensities and spectra of gamma rays and neutrons. Analyzing the detector responses through a comparison between calculations and measurements indicated that not only neutrons but also high-energy gamma rays (>5 MeV) triggered the detectors because of photoneutrons produced in the detector materials. In the lateral direction, the contribution of photoneutrons to both detectors was negligible. Downstream of the LINAC, where high-energy photons were abundant, photoneutrons contributed approximately 6% of the response of the conventional neutron detector; however, almost 50% of the registered counts of the extended-range neutron detector were from photoneutrons because of the presence of the detector rather than the effect of the neutron field. Dose readings delivered by extended-range neutron detectors should be interpreted cautiously when used in radiation fields containing a mixture of neutrons and high-energy gamma rays

  19. Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of neutrons in the energy range from 2 MeV to 4 MeV with the {sup 15}N(p,n) reaction as neutron source; Messung von Wirkungsquerschnitten fuer die Streuung von Neutronen im Energiebereich von 2 MeV bis 4 MeV mit der {sup 15}N(p,n)-Reaktion als Neutronenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, Erik

    2010-04-26

    In future nuclear facilities, the materials lead and bismuth can play a more important role than in today's nuclear reactors. Reliable cross section data are required for the design of those facilities. In particular the neutron transport in the lead spallation target of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor strongly depends on the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 6 MeV. In the recent 20 years, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured with high precision for a variety of elements at the PTB time-of-flight spectrometer. The D(d,n) reaction was primarily used for the production of neutrons. Because of the Q value of the reaction and the available deuteron energies, neutrons in the energy range from 6 MeV to 16 MeV can be produced. For the cross section measurement at lower energies, however, another neutron producing reaction is required. The {sup 15}N(p,n){sup 15}O reaction was chosen, as it allows the production of monoenergetic neutrons with up to 5.7MeV energy. In this work, the {sup 15}N(p,n) reaction was studied with focus on the suitability as a source for monoenergetic neutrons in scattering experiments. This includes the measurement of differential cross sections for the neutron producing reaction and the choice of optimum target conditions. Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured for lead at four energies in the region from 2 MeV to 4 MeV incident neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. A lead sample with natural isotopic composition was used. NE213 liquid scintillation detectors with well-known detection efficiencies were used for the detection of the scattered neutrons. Angle-integrated cross sections were determined by a Legendre polynomial expansion using least-squares methods. Additionally, measurements were carried out for isotopically pure {sup 209}Bi and {sup 181}Ta samples at 4 MeV incident neutron energy

  20. Studying the Range of Incident Alpha Particles on Cu , Ge , Ag , Cd , Te and Au, With Energy (4-15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhim, R.O.; Jasim, W.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper theoretical calculation of the range for alpha particles with the energy range (4 – 15)MeV when passing in some metallic media (Cu , Ge , Ag , Cd , Te and Au).Semi empirical formula was used in addition to (SRIM-2012) program. The Semi empirical equation was programmed to calculate the range using Matlab Language.The results of the range in these media were compared with the results obtained from SRIM-2012 and )(2011)Andnet) results.There was good agreement among the semi empirical equation result , SRIM- 2012 results and with )(2011)Andnet) results in the low energy.The results showed exponential relation between the range of alpha particles in these media and the velocity of the particles.By recourse with SRIM- 2012 results and application them in Matlab program and by using Curve Fitting Tool we extraction equation with its constants to calculate the range of alpha particles in any element of these six elements with the energy range (4 – 15)MeV.The maximum deviation between the results from the semi empirical calculation and SRIM-2012 results was calculated the statistical test ( kstest2) in Matlab program

  1. Calculated neutron-activation cross sections for E/sub n/ /le/ 100 MeV for a range of accelerator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoian, M.; Arthur, E.D.; Perry, R.T.; Wilson, W.B.; Young, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Activation problems associated with particle accelerators are commonly dominated by reactions of secondary neutrons produced in reactions of beam particles with accelerator or beam stop materials. Measured values of neutron-activation cross sections above a few MeV are sparse. Calculations with the GNASH code have been made for neutrons incident on all stable nuclides of a range of elements common to accelerator materials. These elements include B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ar, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Nd, and Sm. Calculations were made for a grid of incident neutron energies extending to 100 MeV. Cross sections leading to the direct production of as many as 87 activation products for each of 84 target nuclide were tabulated on this grid of neutron energies, each beginning with the threshold for the product nuclide's formation. Multigrouped values of these cross sections have been calculated and are being integrated into the cross-section library of the REAC-2 neutron activation code. Illustrative cross sections are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Measurement of the stopping power of water for carbon ions in the energy range of 1 MeV-6 MeV using the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm, Johannes Martin

    2016-10-31

    Cancer therapy using carbon ions has gained increasing interest in the last decade due to its advantageous dose distributions. For the dosimetry and treatment planning, the accurate knowledge of the stopping power of water for carbon ions is of crucial importance. In the high energy region, the stopping power can be calculated rather accurately by means of the Bethe-Bloch formula. In the case of projectile velocities comparable to those of the valence electrons of the target, these calculations are subject to large uncertainties. There exist no experimental data for the stopping power of water for projectile energies prevailing in the so-called Bragg peak region. The currently available stopping power data for water are derived from measurements in water vapour or D{sub 2}O ice and, hence, neglect the dependence on the state of aggregation. The stopping power of water for charged particles is of high interest not only for practical applications but also to consider how physical and chemical state of the target influence the collisional energy transfer. For the measurement of the stopping power of water, the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method was used in this work. This method has the advantage that the projectile itself is not needed to be detected and can be slowed down entirely in the target. In this method, the stopping power is determined from the Doppler-shift of the gamma-quanta emitted by projectiles during their slow down. This experiment can be performed at atmospheric pressure and consequently, the stopping power of water can be measured in its real physiological condition. In this work, the stopping power of water for carbon ions was measured for the first time in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV covering the kinetic energies of carbon ions in the Bragg peak region. The experimental method is presented in detail along with the design of the apparatus and of the data acquisition system. A comprehensive analysis of instrumental effects

  3. Performance of Geant4 in simulating semiconductor particle detector response in the energy range below 1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, G.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Kraev, I. S.; Knecht, A.; Porobić, T.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2013-11-01

    Geant4 simulations play a crucial role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments providing low energy precision tests of the Standard Model. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the description of the electron processes in the energy range between 100 and 1000 keV. The effect of the different simulation parameters and multiple scattering models on the backscattering coefficients is investigated. Simulations of the response of HPGe and passivated implanted planar Si detectors to β particles are compared to experimental results. An overall good agreement is found between Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  4. Measurements of double differential charged particle emission cross sections and development of a wide range charged particles spectrometer for ten`s MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Kiyosumi, Takehide [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We measured (n,xp), (n,xd) cross sections of C and Al for En=64.3 MeV neutrons at the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron sources facility at TIARA (Takasaki Establishment, JAERI) by using a conventional SSD-NaI telescope placed in the air. They show characteristic energy and angular dependence in high energy regions. In order to extend the measurements to low energy protons and {alpha} particles, a new spectrometer consisting of low pressure gas counters and BaF{sub 2} scintillators is now under development. A low threshold for low energy {alpha} particles will be achieved by using the gas counters. The particle identification over a wide energy range will be achieved by combining the {Delta}E-E method for low energy particles with the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method of BaF{sub 2} for high energy particles. (author)

  5. Cross section for the 103Rh(n,n')103Rhm reaction in the energy range 5.7 endash 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.M.; Strohmaier, B.; Vonach, H.; Mannhart, W.; Schmidt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The 103 Rh(n,n ' ) 103 Rh m cross section was measured by the activation method in the neutron energy range 5.7 endash 12 MeV with an uncertainty of ≅5%. Monoenergetic neutrons produced by the D(d,n) 3 He reaction were used to irradiate metallic Rh samples at 0 degree relative to the deuteron beam. The K x rays from 103 Rh m were measured with a calibrated Si detector, and the neutron fluence was determined by means of a 238 U fission chamber. The measured cross sections resolve the discrepancies in previous data and agree with the results of recent statistical model calculations of the fast-neutron cross sections of rhodium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Neutron-proton scattering experiments and phase analyses for the n-p system in the energy range from 17 to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de

  7. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the 237Np neutron cross sections in the energy range from 10-5 eV to 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Fort, E.

    1979-01-01

    The 237 Np neutron cross-sections have been evaluated in the energy range from thermal to 5 MeV. A set of resonance parameters including a negative level, is recommanded after examination of the available experimental data. This set is used 1) to calculate the cross-sections from the thermal region to 150 ev, and 2) to provide the statistical parameters suitable to the calculations in the unresolved region. At higher energies, the transmission coefficients Te are calculated by the coupled channel optical model code ECIS. They are then used as input in the statistical model code FISINGA. The optical model parameters, including the deformation parameters, are those used by Lagrange for the Pu isotopes, slightly modified to reproduce at 40 KeV the total cross-sections obtained from the pure statistical parameters. The recommendations of Lynn concerning the level density parameters have been used. In this paper we describe the various steps of the evaluation

  9. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amgarou, K. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Domingo, C. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Russo, S. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E<20 MeV if only polyethylene spheres are used, but can be extended to hundreds of MeV by including metal-loaded spheres (extended range BSS, indicated with ERBSS). With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, an ERBSS experiment was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0{sup o} and 90{sup o} with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the 'forward' and 'sideward' proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and

  10. Design Concept of a Seal-off Type 14 MeV Neutron Generator of 10''1''1n/s Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, S. R.; Oh, B. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total neutron fluence during the life time is expected to be around 10MW·yr/m''2 which may cause a damage of -100 dpa in materials. To estimate the adaptability of candidate materials in a few years, a 14MeV neutron source with a flux level of 3 - 5 x 10''1''8 n/s·m''2, which is the goal of the IFMIF facility costing more than ¤1000M, is necessitated. The problem in making an intense neutron generator of beam target type is really not on the neutron production rate, but on the huge heat generated in the target, because the fusion power is only one of thousands of beam power exerted on the target. We have a plan to develop neutron generators step by step from a 10''8 n/s level. The final goal is establishing a 14MeV neutron irradiation facility at 10''1''4 intensity level.. Up to the 10''1''0 n/s level, there occurs basically no critical thermal problem, because beam power density is in the range of tens W/cm''2. The neutron generator designed in a sealed-off type because of tritium safety is mainly composed of an ion source, target, reaction chamber, and getter pump.. The major design concepts for the neutron generator with the neutron production rate of 10''1''1 n/s range were presented. The specifications of the ion source, target and getter have been determined for attaining the goal of the neutron generation rate.

  11. Contributions to the study of fast neutron spectrum in the 10 keV - 3 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlea, I.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the work presented in this thesis was to create a fast neutron spectrum corresponding to the conditions required for a reference neutron field. The reference system for the fast neutron dosimetry in reactors, which the author promoted, is referred to as ΣΣ-ITN in the books. The conditions for introducing the ΣΣ systems into the thermal columns have been determined. The original contribution consists in determining the Westcott parameters of reactions 151 Eu(n,γ) 152 Eu and 176 Lu(n,γ) 17 +H7Lu used as thermal spectrum factors. The neutron description of the spectrum in cavity ΣΣ revealed that it is a Maxwell thermal spectrum displaying a temperature of 305+-7 deg C and a very small epithermal component (phisub(epi)/phisub(thermal) =4,5.10 -4 ). Better methods for determining reaction absolute rates resulted in less errors in calculating the microscopic integral sections mediated on the ΣΣ spectrum; there are under 5% errors for the fission cross sections and between 3% and 8% errors for the activating ones. The section values determined by the author have been included into the EXFOR library (IAEA); they are considered as reference measuremtns for the nuclear data improvement program. Testing the proposed method for the TRIGA on the ΣΣ-INT system proved that the multiple foil method provides correct results for both describing the spectral shape and for obtaining absolute values of the flux. Taking into account that the ΣΣ-ITN spectrum is a rapid one, the proposed method could not be tested within the low energy thermal and epithermal domain. For testing the method on an operational reactor, the core of the VVR-S IFIN reactor was employed. Due to the spectral structure of this reactor, it was possible to test the procedure within the whole energy range. In this view, the 5/10 core channel was selected which is similar to the channel required for measurements in the TRIGA-ROMANIA reactor. The absolute spectrum values are given in

  12. The measurement of neutron differential scattering cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O in the energy range 20-26 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petler, J.S.; Finlay, R.W.; Meigooni, A.S.; Islam, M.S.; Rapaport, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio University Beam Swinger provides a high resolution, low back-ground time-of-flight facility for the measurement of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. It has been used to obtain a comprehensive set of differential scattering cross sections for 12 C, 14 N, 16 O and 40 Ca between 18 and 26 MeV. The elastic cross sections can be used directly to obtain partial kerma factors and, combined with the known total cross sections, provide accurate values for the reaction cross sections. Angular distributions have been measured for inelastic scattering from all the nuclear levels that cannot decay by particle emission thus providing (by subtraction) a limit on the sum of all charged-particle producing reactions. The integrated cross sections for inelastic scattering from some particle-unstable states in 12 C are in excellent agreement with the cross sections for three-body breakup obtained by Antolkovic et al. The differential data have been used, together with higher energy proton scattering data to produce energy-dependent optical model parameters for each of these nuclei in the energy range 20-60 MeV. It has been found that the elastic differential cross sections at theta > 100 0 for 12 C, 14 N and 16 O cannot be well described by a spherical optical model. Explicit consideration of coupled-channel effects, and in the case of 12 C, deformation of the ground state, improves the agreement between calculation and experiment. Heavy ion recoil kerma factors and reaction cross sections have been obtained for each element and compared with previous calculations and measurements

  13. Measurement of thick target neutron yield from the reaction (p+181 Ta) with projectiles in the range of 6-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sharma, S. C.; Joshi, D. S.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2018-02-01

    181Ta is a commonly used backing material for many targets in nuclear reaction studies. When the target thickness is less than the range of bombarded projectiles, the interaction via Ta(p,n) reactions in the backing can be a significant source of background. In this study, the neutron spectral yields from the reaction of protons of different energies (between 6 to 20 MeV) with a thick Ta target were determined using CR-39 detectors. The results from this study can be used as a correction factor in such situations. The parameters of registered tracks in CR-39 were analysed using an in-house image analysing program autoTRAK_n and then to derive the associated dose values. The spectral yields obtained experimentally were compared with those obtained from the theoretical calculations. The neutron yield was found to increase with increase in projectile energy mainly due to the opening of reaction channels from (p, n) to (p, 3n).

  14. On the Design and Test of a Neutron Collimator for Real-time Neutron Imaging in the MeV Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Colling, Bethany; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Mellor, M.

    2013-06-01

    A neutron collimator has been designed in MCNP5 and tested for feasibility of use in imaging applications. Tungsten, polyethylene, PVC and lead have been compared as collimating materials for neutrons in the MeV energy range; tungsten is predicted to be the most successful material for a restricted volume, giving the highest signal-to-noise ratio and the best resolving power. Experimental data has been used to confirm that tungsten works effectively as a neutron collimator although some discrepancies between real and MCNP5 results were observed. A suspension of tungsten powder in polyethylene has also been tested to address the machining difficulties, mass and cost issues associated with tungsten. This material performs midway between tungsten and polyethylene for a constant volume, and more successfully than tungsten for a constant mass therefore giving this material potential as a collimation material in some scenarios. Further MCNP5 modelling has been performed by varying model parameters and monitoring the collimator functions produced by these changes. These results are conclusive but dependent on the applications of the imaging system. (authors)

  15. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko; Murakami, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of "n"a"tTi(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the "n"a"tTi(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the "5"1","4"9","4"8Cr, "4"8V, "4"3K, and "4"3","4"4"m","4"4"g","4"6"g"+"m","4"7","4"8Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  16. Ion emission in solids bombarded with Aun+ (n = 1 - 9) clusters accelerated within the 0.15 - 1.25 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbe, Nimer

    2006-06-01

    This experimental work is devoted to the study of the ion emission in solids at the impact of gold clusters of energies within 0.15 to 1.25 MeV range. The physics of ion-solid collisions and the theoretical models of sputtering of solids under ion bombardment are presented in the first chapter. The chapter no. 2 deals with the description of the experimental setup. The study of a gold target allowed to evidence the role of the size and energy of the clusters in determining the emission intensity and the mass distribution of the ions. The 4. chapter gives results from the study of cesium iodide in which the intense emission of CsI clusters could be investigated quantitatively due to multiplicity measurements. Finally, the chapter no. 5 was devoted to the study of a biologic molecule, the phenylalanine, and of a pesticide molecule, chlorosulfuron. This work evidenced the importance of clusters for surface analyses by mass spectrometry

  17. Experimental study of energy dependence of proton induced fission cross sections for heavy nuclei in the energy range 200-1000 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, A.A.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Vaishnene, L.A.; Vovchenko, V.G.; Poliakov, V.V.; Fedorov, O.Ya.; Chestnov, Yu.A.; Shchetkovskiy, A.I [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad district, Orlova roscha 1, 188300 (Russian Federation); Fukahori, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The results of the total fission cross sections measurements for {sup nat}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu nuclei at the energy proton range 200-1000 MeV are presented. Experiments were carried out at 1 GeV synchrocyclotron of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina). The measurement method is based on the registration in coincidence of both complementary fission fragments by two gas parallel plate avalanche counters, located at a short distance and opposite sides of investigated target. The insensitivity of parallel plate avalanche counters to neutron and light charged particles allowed us to place the counters together with target immediately in the proton beam providing a large solid angle acceptance for fission fragment registration and reliable identification of fission events. The proton flux on the target to be studied was determined by direct counting of protons by scintillation telescope. The measured energy dependence of the total fission cross sections is presented. Obtained results are compared with other experimental data as well as with calculation in the frame of the cascade evaporation model. (authors)

  18. Identification and energy measurement of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV energy range by means of a magnet-free hardron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayukov, Yu D.; Bukiej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are the main characteristics (efficiency, time delay and amplitude singal distribution) of a magnet-free hadron spectrometer, in which a plastic scintillator block is the main part. The plastic scintillator having the form of a cylinder of the 20 cm diameter and the 20 cm height is examined with a photomultiplier through a 50 cm light guide. The dependencies of the amplitude conversion coefficient and signal time delay on the distance between the scintillation point and the light guide are resented. The analysis of the results obtained has shown that the closer the beam passes to the light guide, the greater is the signal amplitude. The counter signal delay linearly increases with the distance increase between the beam and the light guide. The dependence of the spectrometer efficiency on the proton energy is measured as well. The investigations have proved possible utilization of the scintillation detector described for identification of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV range and measurement of their energy with the 3-8% accuracy

  19. Application of PWO crystals for detection of low-activity gamma- radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Drobychev, G Yu; Fedorov, A A; Khruschinsky, A A; Korjik, M V; Lecoq, P; Missevitch, O V; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.08.059

    2005-01-01

    Lead tungstate PbWO4 (PWO) scintillator was developed during the R&D project initiated in a frame of preparation of experiments in high- energy physics to be carried out at new generation of colliders like LHC (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland). Compared to other promising fast and dense scintillators, PWO is an optimal compromise to make a very compact detector with good performance and the best price/performance ratio. Moreover, the results of PWO development carried out by the INP team together with collaborators show that scintillation parameters of PWO crystals can be further modified, which significantly extends opportunities of PWO application. One such field where an application of PWO scintillator can be very advantageous is a detection of low-activity gamma-radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV. Application of heavy scintillator allows to decrease a detector volume and therefore to reduce background. According to our preliminary estimations, PWO scintillation crystal will allow to reach significant...

  20. High-resolution integrated germanium Compton polarimeter for the γ-ray energy range 80 keV-1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, R. A.; Urban, W.; Barnett, A. R.; Varley, B. J.

    1995-06-01

    Parameters which govern the choice of a detection system to measure the linear polarization of γ rays at low energies are discussed. An integrated polarimeter is described which is constructed from a single crystal of germanium. It is a compact planar device with the sectors defined electrically, and which gives an energy resolution in the add-back mode of 1 keV at 300 keV. Its performance is demonstrated in a series of calibration measurements using both unpolarized radiation from radioactive sources and polarized γ rays from the 168Er(α,2n)170Yb reaction at Eα=25 MeV. Polarization measurements at energies as low as 84 keV have been achieved, where the sensitivity was 0.32±0.09. The sensitivity, efficiency, and energy resolution are reported. Our results indicate that energy resolution should be included in the definition of the figure of merit and we relate the new definition to earlier work. The comparisons show the advantages of the present design in the energy range below 300 keV and its competitiveness up to 1500 keV.

  1. High-resolution integrated germanium Compton polarimeter for the γ-ray energy range 80 keV--1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, R.A.; Urban, W.; Barnett, A.R.; Varley, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Parameters which govern the choice of a detection system to measure the linear polarization of γ rays at low energies are discussed. An integrated polarimeter is described which is constructed from a single crystal of germanium. It is a compact planar device with the sectors defined electrically, and which gives an energy resolution in the add-back mode of 1 keV at 300 keV. Its performance is demonstrated in a series of calibration measurements using both unpolarized radiation from radioactive sources and polarized γ rays from the 168 Er(α,2n) 170 Yb reaction at E α =25 MeV. Polarization measurements at energies as low as 84 keV have been achieved, where the sensitivity was 0.32±0.09. The sensitivity, efficiency, and energy resolution are reported. Our results indicate that energy resolution should be included in the definition of the figure of merit and we relate the new definition to earlier work. The comparisons show the advantages of the present design in the energy range below 300 keV and its competitiveness up to 1500 keV. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar' adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of {sup nat}Ti(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the {sup nat}Ti(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the {sup 51,49,48}Cr, {sup 48}V, {sup 43}K, and {sup 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48}Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  3. Forward scattering amplitudes for π+- on Al, Ca, Cu, Sn, Ho, and Pb in the energy range 114-215 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the attenuation cross section, sigma(Ω), for both π + and π- projectiles on Al, 40 Ca, Cu, Sn, Ho, and Pb nuclei. The measurements were made over a range of energies including 114, 140, 165, and 215 MeV. A new method of analyzing transmission experiments data has been used to extract both the real and the imaginary parts of a forward scattering amplitude f/sub N/(0), where f/sub N/(0) is defined to be the limit as Ω → 0 of F(Ω)-f/sub c/(Ω). F(Ω) is the full elastic scattering amplitude and f/sub c/(Ω) is the relativistic point Coulomb amplitude. The values of f/sub N/(0) are compared with forward amplitudes from model calculation. These comparisons demonstrate that much of the observed rotation of the forward scattering amplitude, when plotted in the Argand plane, can be attributed to the Coulomb phase contained in the definition of f/sub N/(0). Results are also compared to those of other experiments. A difference is observed in attenuation measurements between this experiment and a Brookhaven experiment which measured total cross sections on Pb, Sn, and Al. There have been only a few published results in which experimental values of f/sub N/(0) are given. In those cases, general agreement is obsserved with the results of this experiment

  4. 41 CFR 115-1.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 115-1.100 Section 115-1.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.100 Scope...

  5. 41 CFR 101-1.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope of subpart. 101-1.100 Section 101-1.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.100...

  6. 41 CFR 105-1.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 105-1.100 Section 105-1.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.100...

  7. 41 CFR 128-1.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 128-1.100 Section 128-1.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.100 Scope of...

  8. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, Z.

    1997-06-01

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H 2 + and H 3 + polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  9. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to ECATANA) of INFN—LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona— Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  10. Measurements of the Fe-54 (n,p) Mn-54 Reaction Cross Section in the Neutron Energy Range 2.3-3.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, A.; Malmskog, S.

    1964-10-01

    We have measured the 54 Fe (n, p) 54 Mn reaction cross section using a surface barrier detector to record the number of protons released in the reaction. The neutron flux was determined by means of a hydrogenous radiator, detecting the scattered protons with the solid state detector, and calculating the number of impinging neutrons from the well known n-p scattering cross section. The 54 Fe (n, p) 54 Mn reaction cross section is found to increase from 25 mb at 2.3 MeV to 208 mb at 3.5 MeV

  11. Measurements of the Fe-54 (n,p) Mn-54 Reaction Cross Section in the Neutron Energy Range 2.3-3.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Malmskog, S

    1964-10-15

    We have measured the {sup 54}Fe (n, p) {sup 54}Mn reaction cross section using a surface barrier detector to record the number of protons released in the reaction. The neutron flux was determined by means of a hydrogenous radiator, detecting the scattered protons with the solid state detector, and calculating the number of impinging neutrons from the well known n-p scattering cross section. The {sup 54}Fe (n, p) {sup 54}Mn reaction cross section is found to increase from 25 mb at 2.3 MeV to 208 mb at 3.5 MeV.

  12. Fast neutron relaxation length in concretes in the range of neutron energies En=0.5 - 17.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.F.; Garcia, L.; Perez, G.; Hernandez, A.; Herrera, E.; Tellez, E.

    1998-01-01

    In the present research were determined the fast neutron relaxation length y in different type of concretes, having special interest for biological shielding as well as for ordinary construction purposes, in the energy interval of 0.5-17.5 MeV. The values of Y concrete are reported with an accuracy of 6 %

  13. Calculations and Evaluations of Cross Sections for n + 204,206,207,208,natPb Reactions in the En ≤ 250 MeV Energy Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Zhang Zhengjun; Cai Chonghai

    2005-01-01

    The quality and reliability of the computational simulation of a macroscopic nuclear device are directly related to the quality of the underlying basic nuclear data. To meet these needs, according to advanced nuclear models that account for details of nuclear structure and the quantum nature of nuclear reaction and the experimental data of total, nonelastic, and elastic scattering cross sections, and elastic scattering angular distributions of Pb and its isotopes, all cross sections of neutron-induced reaction, angular distributions, energy spectra, especially the double-differential cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helium, and alpha emissions are calculated and analyzed for n + 204,206,207,208,nat Pb at incident neutron energies below 20 MeV by using the UNF nuclear model code. At neutron incident energies 20 n ≤ 250 MeV, MEND codes are used. Theoretical calculations are compared with existing experimental data and other evaluated data from ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3

  14. Photofission cross-section ratio measurement of 235U/238U using monoenergetic photons in the energy range of 9.0-16.6 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, Megha; Finch, S. W.; Howell, C. R.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-05-01

    Photofission cross-section ratios of 235U and 238U have been measured using monoenergetic photon beams at the HIγS facility of TUNL. These measurements have been performed in small energy steps between 9.0 and 16.6 MeV using a dual-fission ionization chamber. Measured cross-section ratios are compared with the previous experimental data as well as with the recent evaluated nuclear data library ENDF.

  15. Double beta decay of Uranium-238: Proton reactions of 238U in 5--12 MeV range. Final report, April 15, 1987--March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkevich, A.; Economou, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report is in two parts. The first part reports on the experimental work determining the half-life for double beta decay of 238 U to 238 PU to be (2.0 ± 0.6) x 10 21 years. This is the first evidence for a third mode of decay of this heaviest naturally occurring nucleus. This rate is about 10 6 times slower than spontaneous fission, which itself is about 10 6 times slower than alpha decay. The implication of this double beta decay to neutrino masses depends on uncertain theoretical calculations of the rate for such a heavy nucleus. The second part reports on yields of principal fission products from 5.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 11.5 MeV proton interactions with 238 U. The yields at 11.5 MeV are similar to those from 14 MeV neutron fission of 238 U. At the same time, the production cross sections of 238 Np at the same energies are determined. This nuclide is produced as often as fission at the lowest energy but only 3.8% as often at the highest energy

  16. Spin and isospin characteristics of the excited states of 36Ar through the reaction 32S(α,γ)36Ar in the bombarding energy range E/sub α/ = 4 to 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, D.R.; Eswaran, M.A.; Ragoowansi, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The α capture reaction 32 S(α,γ) 36 Ar was studied in the bombarding energy range of E/sub α/ = 4.13 to 5.00 MeV corresponding to the excitation energy range of E/sub x/ = 10.31 to 11.08 MeV in 36 Ar. Seven resonances have been located and their resonance strengths determined. Two of the resonances decay predominantly to the ground state while the other five decay predominantly to the first excited state of 36 Ar. Angular distribution measurements of the predominant decay gamma ray have been performed and the spin and parity of all the resonances assigned. The isospin of two of the resonances have been assigned as T = 0 while T = 1 has been assigned for three others. Evidence has been obtained for the operation of the isospin selection rule for the dipole (E1 and M1) and quadrupole (E2) gamma decay

  17. Energy dependence of relative abundances and periods of delayed neutron separate groups from neutron induced fission of 239Pu in the virgin neutron energy range 0.37-4.97 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksajkin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.T.; Korolev, G.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Tertychnyj, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Relative yield and group period of delayed neutrons induced by the 239 Pu fission in the 0.37-4.97 MeV range were measured. Comparative analysis of experimental data was conducted in terms of middle period of half-life of delayed neutron nuclei-precursors. Character and scale of changing values of delayed neutron group parameters as changing excitation energy of fission compound-nucleus have been demonstrated for the first time. Considerable energy dependence of group parameters under the neutron induced 239 Pu fission that was expressed by the decreasing middle period of half-life of nuclei-precursors by 10 % in the 2.85 eV - 5 MeV range of virgin neutrons was detected [ru

  18. Calculation of proton total reaction cross sections for some target nuclei in incident energy range of 10-600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueyuekuslu, H.; Kaplan, A.; Aydin, A.; Tel, E.; Yildirim, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, proton total reaction cross sections have been investigated for some isotopes such as 12 C, 27 Al, 9 Be, 16 O, 181 Ta, 197 Au, 6 Li, and 14 N by a proton beam up to 600 MeV. Calculation of the proton total cross sections has been carried out by the analytic expression formulated by M.A. Alvi by using Coulomb-modified Glauber theory with the Helm model nuclear form factor. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found to be in agreement with each other.

  19. Measurement of recoil proton polarization in the process of. pi. /sup -/ photoproduction from neutrons in the energy range between 700 and 1200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H; Arai, I; Fujii, T; Ikeda, H; Iwasaki, H; Kajiura, N; Kamae, T; Kawabata, S; Ogawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-05-01

    The recoil proton polarization for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p was measured around the third resonance region. Both momentum vectors of the proton and the pion were determined by the magnetic spectrometers. The proton polarization was measured by means of proton-carbon scattering in the polarization analyzer located behind the proton spectrometer. Below 900 MeV incident photon energy, our data are consistent with the other existing experimental data (THETA*sub..pi.. = 90/sup 0/) and the predictions of partial-wave analyses. Above 1000 MeV, however, a large discrepancy was observed between our data and the predictions of the partial-wave analyses. This discrepancy stands out as the pion c.m. angle increases. A new partial-wave analysis was made for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p including our polarization data, and the accuracy of the experimentally determined electromagnetic coupling constants of the third resonances were greatly improved. In particular, a finite amount of the helicity 3/2 amplitude for the ..gamma..n ..-->.. F/sub 15/(1688) resonance was obtained against the predictions of the quark models, by Copley, Karl and Obryk and by Feynman, Kislinger and Ravendal but in agreement with the relativistic quark models of Sugimoto and Toya, and Kubota and Ohta.

  20. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  1. Study of the /sup 58/Ni, /sup 90/Zr and /sup 208/Pb(p,d) reactions at 121 MeV. [DWBA, angular distributions, spectroscopic factors, finite range calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Kraushaar, J J; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.; Comfort, J R [Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-01

    The (p,d) reaction has been studied on /sup 58/Ni, /sup 90/Zr and /sup 208/Pb at 121 MeV in order to test the applicability of the usual DWBA methods to higher energy data. The calculations describe the angular distribution for the strongly excited low-lying states reasonably well when adiabatic-deuteron optical potentials are used. Some discrepancies in shape persist, however, and some values of the spectroscopic factors differ from lower energy data in spite of many variations in the calculations. By use of exact finite-range calculations a value of D/sup 2//sub 0/ = 1.23 x 10/sup 4/ MeV/sup 2/.fm/sup 3/ was found for use at 121 MeV. Deuteron D-state contributions were negligible at forward angles and two-step contributions do not appear more significant than for data at lower energy.

  2. Measurement of neutron activation cross sections in the energy range between 2 and 7 MeV by using a Ti-deuteron target and a deuteron gas target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senga, T.; Sakane, H.; Shibata, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kasugai, Yoshimi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Using a Ti-deuteron target in the neutron energy range between 2 and 4.5 MeV and a deuteron gas target between 4.5 and 7 MeV, mono-energetic neutrons could be generated enough for activation cross section measurements. The KN-3750 Van de Grraff accelerator at Nagoya University and the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were used. Preliminary results of activation cross sections were obtained for reactions of {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg, {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The evaluation data of JENDL-3.2 showed reasonable agreement with our results. (author)

  3. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Measurement of the diffuse atmospheric and cosmic γ-radiation in the energy range 1-10 MeV by a balloon carried Compton-telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, G.

    1975-01-01

    The operation and design of a low-energy γ-compton telescope, developed and constructed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, are reported on. For energies of about 1 MeV, the telescope has an energy resolution of 30% (FWHM) and an angular resolution of +- 20 0 . In spite of the low efficiency of only about 0.5%, the vertical γ-flux could be measured for the first time in two balloon flights, and the extragalactic origin of the diffuse component of the cosmic γ-radiation could be demonstrated. The energy spectrum of this radiation was measured. The result is compared with measurements of other experiments, and theoretical models to describe the origin of this radiation are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  6. The cross-section of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction measured in the MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorginis, Georgios; Khryachkov, Vitali

    2006-01-01

    The excitation function of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction was measured between 1.5 and 5.6 MeV within the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements'. An ionisation chamber and signal digitisation were used for the spectrometry of the reaction products, which were forwards emitted by bombarding a thin boron target with neutrons produced at the IRMM Van de Graaff accelerator. The neutron flux was determined by measuring the backwards emitted fission fragments from a 238 U sample mounted in a back-to-back geometry relative to the boron target. The highlight of this study was the discovery of the kinematic effect of particle leaking, which is very important for the accurate determination of the number of the boron reaction events. The experiment is described and the results are discussed and compared with evaluations and experimental data of other groups

  7. Measurement of 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section within the proton energy range of 3.38 to 19.63 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Reetuparna; Badwar, Sylvia; Lawriniang, Bioletty; Jyrwa, Betylda; Naik, Haldhara; Naik, Yeshwant; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkata; Ganesan, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section within Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) region i.e. from 3.38 to 19.63 MeV was measured by stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron facility at Mumbai. The present data were compared with the existing literature data and found to be in good agreement. The 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section as a function of proton energy was also theoretically calculated by using the computer code TALYS-1.8 and found to be in good agreement, which shows the validity of the TALYS-1.8 program.

  8. Characterization of the PTW 34031 ionization chamber (PMI) at RCNP with high energy neutrons ranging from 100 - 392 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, C.; Carbonez, P.; Feldbaumer, E.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Jaegerhofer, L.; Pangallo, M.; Perrin, D.; Urscheler, C.; Roesler, S.; Vincke, H.; Widorski, M.; Iwamoto, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Satoh, D.; Iwase, H.; Yashima, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Masuda, A.; Nishiyama, J.; Harano, H.; Itoga, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sato, T.; Nakane, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Taniguchi, S.; Nakao, N.; Tamii, A.; Shima, T.; Hatanaka, K.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation monitoring at high energy proton accelerators poses a considerable challenge due to the complexity of the encountered stray radiation fields. These environments comprise a wide variety of different particle types and span from fractions of electron-volts up to several terra electron-volts. As a consequence the use of Monte Carlo simulation programs like FLUKA is indispensable to obtain appropriate field-specific calibration factors. At many locations of the LHC a large contribution to the particle fluence is expected to originate from high-energy neutrons and thus, benchmark experiments with mono-energetic neutron beams are of high importance to verify the aforementioned detector response calculations. This paper summarizes the results of a series of benchmark experiments with quasi mono-energetic neutrons of 100, 140, 200, 250 and 392 MeV that have been carried out at RCNP - Osaka University, during several campaigns between 2006 and 2014.

  9. The design and construction of a scintillation pair spectrometer for the detection of {gamma}-rays in the energy range 2-20 MeV; Realisation d'un spectrometre a scintillations et a paires pour la detection des rayonnements {gamma} d'energie comprise entre 2 et 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longequeue, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-15

    The scintillation pair spectrometer is designed to allow the measurement of the energy of {gamma} rays in the range 2 to 20 MeV. Such an instrument is chosen because of its main features: high energy resolution and ease of working. Against this, however, the efficiency is low. It was possible to tolerate this low efficiency because of the facts that the {gamma}-rays studied emanated from (p, {gamma}) reactions and that the two electrostatic acceleration available could provide beams of 500 {mu}A having energy maxima at 300 and 600 keV. We used the {gamma} rays produced by the reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O and {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be as well as the {gamma} rays emitted by sources of RTh and of {sup 24}Na. Under these conditions the spectrometer attained a resolving power of 6,5 {+-} 0,5 per cent at 6,1 MeV and it was able to separate the 14,8 and 17,6 MeV lines produced by the reaction {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be. As well as this, the efficiency which varied from 2.10{sup -4} to 1,7.10{sup -3} between 2 and 20 MeV was well above the efficiencies already obtained with this type of instrument. (author) [French] Le spectrometre a scintillations et a paires presente dans cette these a pour but de mesurer l'energie des rayonnements {gamma} dans la bande de 2 a 20 MeV. Le choix d'un tel appareil est du a ses caracteristiques essentielles: bonne resolution en energie et maniabilite. Par contre, son efficacite est faible. Nous avons pu tolerer cette faible efficacite car les rayonnements {gamma} que nous avons etudies provenaient de reactions (p, {gamma}) et les deux accelerateurs electrostatiques dont nous disposions pouvaient fournir des faisceaux de 500 {mu}A avec des energies maximum de 300 et 600 keV. Nous avons utilise les rayonnements {gamma} produits par les reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O et {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be ainsi que les

  10. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  11. Cross section measurements for gallium in the neutron energy range of 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, J. [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Liu, R.; Jiang, L. [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections for (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, n'{alpha}) reactions have been measured on gallium isotopes at the neutron energies of 13.5-14.8 MeV using the activation technique. The monoenergetic neutron beam was produced via the {sup 3}H(d, n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction {sup 27}Al(n, {alpha}){sup 24}Na. The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Data are reported for the following reactions: {sup 69}Ga(n, 2n){sup 68}Ga, {sup 71}Ga(n, 2n) {sup 70}Ga, {sup 69}Ga(n, p){sup 69m}Zn, {sup 71}Ga(n, p){sup 71m}Zn and {sup 71} Ga(n, n'{alpha}){sup 67}Cu. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the reaction products. Results are discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature, with some established systematics and with the evaluated data given in ENDF/B-VII.0, CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0. (orig.)

  12. Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption of essential amino acids in the energy range 1 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy-absorption (Z PEAeff ) of essential amino acids histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine have been calculated by a direct method in the energy region of 1 keV to 20 MeV. The Z PEAeff values have been found to change with energy and composition of the amino acids. The variations of mass energy-absorption coefficient, effective atomic number for photon interaction (Z PIeff ) and Z PEAeff with energy are shown graphically. Significant differences exist between Z PIeff and the Z PEAeff in the energy region of 8-100 keV for histidine and threonine; 6-100 keV for leucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and valine; 15-400 keV for methionine. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and the possibility of defining two set values of these parameters at the K-absorption edge of high-Z element present in the amino acids are discussed. The reasons for using Z PEAeff rather than the commonly used Z PIeff in medical radiation dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose in radiation therapy are also discussed

  13. Radiochemical study of 45Sc(n,p)45Ca and 89Y(n,p)89Sr reactions in the neutron energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, N.I.; Basunia, S.; Miah, M.R.; Hossain, S.M.; Rahman, M.M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cross sections for 45 Sc(n,p) 45 Ca and 89 Y(n,p) 89 Sr reactions were measured using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range of 13.9 to 14.7 MeV were produced using a D-T neutron generator. The purely β - emitting products 45 Ca and 89 Sr were separated radiochemically; their radioactivity was assayed via low-level β - counting. The measured data complement the available published experimental information, and agree with the results of statistical model calculations. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of excitation yields of low energy prompt γ-ray from proton bombardment of Cr-foils with energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is measurement of differential cross sections for the production of 378 keV γ-rays from the reactions 52 Cr(p,γ1) 53 Mn and 53 Cr(p,nγ1) 53 Mn for proton energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV at the laboratory angle of 90° using foils with thickness ∼1.9×10 18 at/cm 2 (∼ 0.23 μm) of nat Cr.

  15. Comparison of the BNAB-78 and ENDF/B-V evaluated 238U radiative capture data in the energy range from 0.5 to 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikov, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluations of the 238 U capture cross-section as given in the BNAB-78 and ENDF/B-V evaluated data libraries are intercompared and their values compared to recently published data which had not been included in these evaluations. It is concluded that there is a need to re-assess the earlier experimental data, particularly those based on activation measurements, taking secondary neutron reactions and scattering effects into account. It is recommended that a precision measurement of the capture cross-section and its dependence on energy be done in the 1-7 MeV energy range. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  16. Experimental study of deuteron production in α-particle collisions with C, Cu and Pb target nucleus at energies ranging from 200 to 800 A. MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarou, G.

    1988-01-01

    Deuteron production in collisions between alpha-particle and carbon, copper or lead target nuclei at 200, 400, 600 and 800 MeV (Mega-electron Volt) per nucleon have been measured by using the large solid angle detector DIOGENE. Nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies offer the possibility of studying the properties of highly excited nuclear matter at high density and temperature. Among the different observables measured for the determination of the nuclear matter equation of state, light fragment production measurements has raised considerable interest during the last years because of the close relationship between entropy and nuclear cluster formation. In chapter 1, a general presentation of the main experimental and theoretical aspects of the relativistic heavy ion collision is presented. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the detector DIOGENE used at the SATURNE (Saclay-France) accelerator. This detector can measure simultaneously the momenta, masses and emission angles of most of the particles (pions, protons, deuterons ...) emitted in each collision. The chapter 3 describes the method used in order to extract from the raw data the momentum, mass and emission angles of each particle measured in the detector. The deuteron production in central relativistic heavy ion collision is reviewed in chapter 4. Then we present the results of deuteron production measurements, using the DIOGENE detector. In chapter 5 deuteron differential cross-sections are compared with theoretical predictions obtained with intra-nuclear cascade model. In chapter 6 deuteron differential cross-sections are presented for the most central reactions. These spectra are investigated in order to extract the size of the interaction region at the end of the collision. Finally the deuteron-to-proton ratio is studied in relationship with the proton number measured in each event; this ratio is used to evaluate the entropy per nucleon in the most central collisions [fr

  17. Energy dependence of relative abundances and periods of separate groups of delayed neutrons at neutron induced fission of 239Pu in a range of neutrons energies 0.37 - 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschenko, V.A.; Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Korolev, G.G.; Tarasko, M.Z.; Tertychnyi, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental role of delayed neutrons in behavior, control and safety of reactors is well known today. Delayed neutron data are of great interest not only for reactor physics but also for nuclear fission physics and astrophysics. The purpose of the present work was the measurement of energy dependence of delayed neutrons (DN) group parameters at fission of nuclei 239 Pu in a range of energies of primary neutrons from 0.37 up to 5 MeV. The measurements were executed on installation designed on the basis of the electrostatic accelerator of KG - 2.5 SSC RF IPPE. The data are obtained in 6-group representation. It is shown, that there is a significant energy dependence of DN group parameters in a range of primary neutrons energies from thermal meanings up to 5 MeV, which is expressed in reduction of the average half-life of nuclei of the DN precursors on 10 %. The data, received in the present work, can be used at creation of a set of group constants for reactors with an intermediate spectrum of neutrons. (authors)

  18. Tables of range and rate of energy loss of charged particles of energy 0,5 to 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, C; Boujot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of ranges and rates of energy loss of charged particles is very important for physicists working with nuclear accelerators. The tabulations of Aron, Hoffmann, and Williams and later of Madey and Rich have proved extremely useful. However, recent experimental range measurements have indicated the need for a new tabulation of the range-energy relation. It was felt that a useful purpose would be served by performing the calculations for a large number of stopping materials distributed throughout the periodic table, including the materials most commonly used as targets, detectors, and entrance foils. (authors)

  19. Fusion and transfer cross sections of He-3 induced reaction on Pt and Au in energy range 10-24.5 MeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skobelev, N. K.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Voskoboynik, E. I.; Kroha, Václav; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Mrázek, Jaromír; Piskoř, Štěpán; Šimečková, Eva; Kugler, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), s. 114-120 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross section * energy range * Coulomb barrier Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  20. Excitation function of ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn reaction in the energy range 13.82-14.70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, M.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Naher, K.; Miah, R.U.; Ullah, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation function of the reaction ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn is measured by activation technique using high resolution HPGe detector gamma ray spectroscopy. Monoenergetic neutrons are produced via D-T reaction at J-25 neutron generator facility of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AERE, Bangladesh. The neutron flux measurement was done at different energy position in the range 13.82-14.70 MeV using the monitor reaction ''2''7Al(n, α)''2''4Na. The measured cross section values along with the literature data are plotted as a function of neutron energy to get the excitation function of the reaction. A theoretical calculation is also performed to produce the excitation function of the investigated reaction using statistical code SINCROS-II. The measured data are to be found to be in good agreement with the literature data and the theoretical cross section values. (author)

  1. Study of the process e+e- → K+K- in the center-of-mass energy range 1010-1060 MeV with the CMD-3 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, E. A.; Solodov, E. P.; Akhmetshin, R. R.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bondar, A. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Gribanov, S. S.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Ignatov, F. V.; Ivanov, V. L.; Karpov, S. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Korobov, A. A.; Koop, I. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Lysenko, A. P.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    The process e+e- →K+K- has been studied using 1.7 ×106 events from a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.7 pb-1 collected with the CMD-3 detector in the center-of-mass energy range 1010-1060 MeV. The cross section is measured with about 2% systematic uncertainty and is used to calculate the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon aμK+K- = (19.33 ± 0.40) ×10-10, and to obtain the ϕ (1020) meson parameters. We consider the relationship between the e+e- →K+K- and e+e- → KS0 KL0 cross sections and compare it to the theoretical prediction.

  2. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)]. E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gultekin, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk

    2006-07-31

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation.

  3. An analytical expression for electron elastic scattering cross section from atoms and molecules in 1.0 keV to 1.0 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A.; Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, an expression is presented to calculate elastic scattering cross sections for incident electrons as a function of both energy and atomic number in the energy range between 1 keV and 1 MeV for materials with effective atomic number between 3 and 18. The expression we present has a rather simple analytical form which gives accurate results that are in very good agreement with the results calculated by a relativistic partial-wave expansion method. Hence, this equation can be employed accurately and efficiently in a continuous manner, without the need to go through rather large look-up tables, thus making the whole process quick, efficient and removing possible computational errors that may arise from the efforts of interpolation

  4. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E o and 90 o with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the 'forward' and 'sideward' proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  5. Energy loss, range, and bremsstrahlung yield for 10-keV to 100-MeV electrons in various elements and chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Lucien; Bertel, Evelyne; Joffre, Henri; Sklavenitis, Laodamas

    2012-12-01

    Even though the United States lacks a national climate policy, significant action has occurred at the local and regional levels. Some of the most aggressive climate change policies have occurred at the state and local levels and in interagency cooperation on specific management issues. While there is a long history of partnerships in dealing with a wide variety of policy issues, the uncertainty and the political debate surrounding climate change has generated new challenges to establishing effective policy networks. This paper investigates the formation of climate policy networks in the State of Nevada. It presents a methodology based on social network analysis for assessing the structure and function of local policy networks across a range of substantive climate impacted resources (water, landscape management, conservation, forestry and others). It draws from an emerging literature on federalism and climate policy, public sector innovation, and institutional analysis in socio-ecological systems. Comparisons across different policy issue networks in the state are used to highlight the influence of network structure, connectivity, bridging across vertical and horizontal organizational units, organizational diversity, and flows between organizational nodes.

  6. Determination of integral cross sections of 3H in Al foils monitors irradiated by protons with energies ranging from 40 to 2600 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Chauzova, M. V.; Chauzova, M. V.; Kashirin, I. A.; Malinovskiy, S. V.; Pavlov, K. V.; Rogov, V. I.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Mashnik, S. G.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The results of 3H production in Al foil monitors (˜ 59 mg/cm2 thickness) are presented. These foils have been irradiated in 15×15 mm polyethylene bags of ˜ 14 mg/cm2 thickness together with foils of Cr (˜ 395 mg/cm2 thickness) and 56Fe (˜ 332 mg/cm2 thickness) by protons of different energies in a range of 0.04 - 2.6 GeV. The diameters of all the foils were 10.5 mm. The irradiations were carried out at the ITEP accelerator U-10 under the ISTC Project # 3266 in 2006-2009. 3H has been extracted from Al foils using an A307 Sample Oxidizer. An ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus1220 was used to measure the 3H β-spectra and the SpectraDec software package was applied for spectra processing, deconvolution and 3H activity determination. The values of the Al (p, x)3H reaction cross sections obtained in these experiments are compared with data measured at other labs and with results of simulations by the MCNP6 radiation transport code using the CEM03.03 event generator.

  7. Determination of integral cross sections of 3H in Al foils monitors irradiated by protons with energies ranging from 40 to 2600 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titarenko Yu.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of 3H production in Al foil monitors (∼ 59 mg/cm2 thickness are presented. These foils have been irradiated in 15×15 mm polyethylene bags of ∼ 14 mg/cm2 thickness together with foils of Cr (∼ 395 mg/cm2 thickness and 56Fe (∼ 332 mg/cm2 thickness by protons of different energies in a range of 0.04 – 2.6 GeV. The diameters of all the foils were 10.5 mm. The irradiations were carried out at the ITEP accelerator U–10 under the ISTC Project # 3266 in 2006–2009. 3H has been extracted from Al foils using an A307 Sample Oxidizer. An ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus1220 was used to measure the 3H β–spectra and the SpectraDec software package was applied for spectra processing, deconvolution and 3H activity determination. The values of the Al (p, x3H reaction cross sections obtained in these experiments are compared with data measured at other labs and with results of simulations by the MCNP6 radiation transport code using the CEM03.03 event generator.

  8. Cross-sections for formation of {sup 89}Zr{sup m} through {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m} reaction over neutron energy range 13.73 MeV to 14.77 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attar, F.M.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Mandal, R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Saxena, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Ashokkumar,; Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Kailas, S. [Nuclear Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)], E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-04-01

    The cross-sections for formation of metastable state of {sup 89}Zr ({sup 89}Zr{sup m}, 0.588 MeV, 4.16 m) through {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m} reaction induced by 13.73 MeV to 14.77 MeV neutrons were measured for the first time and also theoretically estimated using Empire-II and Talys programs. At 13.73 MeV neutron energy, the {sup 89}Zr nuclei can be excited to metastable state, {sup 89}Zr{sup m}, when the first and the second emitted neutrons have energies lower than the most probable energy {approx}0.64 MeV. The probability of exciting {sup 89}Zr nuclei to energy levels higher than 0.588 MeV and therefore of populating the metastable state through decay process increases with increasing neutron energy. The measured cross-sections vary from 41{+-}3mb to 221{+-}15mb over neutron energies 13.73 MeV to 14.77 MeV, and are in agreement with the cross-sections estimated using Empire-II code. The formation of {sup 89}Zr{sup m} is favoured when the first and the second reaction neutrons are emitted with the most probable energies rather than lower energy, except for 13.73 MeV neutrons.

  9. Measurements of 67Ga production cross section induced by protons on natZn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, J. A.; Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S. A.; Correa, R.

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction natZn(p,x)67Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. 67Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the natZn(p,x)67Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  10. Measurements of the total neutron cross-section of cerium and thulium in the energy range from 1.8 MeV to 1.8 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Abu-Elnour, F.; Hamouda, I.

    1979-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for cerium and thulium in the energy range from 1.8 meV to 1.8 eV. The measurements were performed using the time-of-flight spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained total neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula and the magnetic form factor. The potential scattering cross-section of Ce was found to be (3.14 +- 0.3) barns. Its coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of CeO 2 and found to be (4,8 +- 0.2) fm. The potential scattering and absorption cross-sections of Tm, at E = 0.025 eV, were found to be (7.5 +- 0.7) barns and (89.1 +- 4.1) barns respectively. (orig.) [de

  11. Within the framework of the new fuel cycle 232Th/233U, determination of the 233Pa(n.γ) radiative capture cross section for neutron energies ranging between 0 and 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, S.

    2004-10-01

    The Thorium cycle Th 232 /U 233 may face brilliant perspectives through advanced concepts like molten salt reactors or accelerator driven systems but it lacks accurate nuclear data concerning some nuclei. Pa 233 is one of these nuclei, its high activity makes the direct measurement of its radiative neutron capture cross-section almost impossible. This difficulty has been evaded by considering the transfer reaction Th 232 (He 3 ,p)Pa 234 * in which the Pa 234 nucleus is produced in various excited states according to the amount of energy available in the reaction. The first chapter deals with the thorium cycle and its assets to contribute to the quenching of the fast growing world energy demand. The second chapter gives a detailed description of the experimental setting. A scintillation detector based on deuterated benzene (C 6 D 6 ) has been used to counter gamma ray cascades. The third chapter is dedicated to data analysis. In the last chapter we compare our experimental results with ENDF and JENDL data and with computed values from 2 statistical models in the 0-1 MeV neutron energy range. Our results disagree clearly with evaluated data: our values are always above ENDF and JENDL data but tend to near computed values. We have also perform the measurement of the radiative neutron cross-section of Pa 231 for a 110 keV neutron: σ(n,γ) 2.00 ± 0.14 barn. (A.C.)

  12. Measurements of {sup 67}Ga production cross section induced by protons on {sup nat}Zn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J.A., E-mail: javier.wachter@utem.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Correa, R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. {sup 67}Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  13. Cross sections of electron loss and capture for beams of O+ in water vapor from the energy range of 0,2 to 1,2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Vitor Jesus de

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interactions between atoms and molecules is important for the knowledge of the cross sections of the processes that contribute to the deposition of energy by charged particle beams used in radiotherapy planning and transport particle simulation codes. Heavy ions, such as oxygen, induce many cellular and molecular damages in human cells.as a result of interaction between the projectile and atoms and molecules. The use of proton and carbon as the projectile interacting with water molecules is well characterized, however there are few studies with oxygen ions. In this work we are interested in the study of electron loss (projectile ionization) and electron capture with charge state 1+. The Pelletron accelerator of 1.7 MeV from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro housed in the Atomic and Molecular collisions Laboratory (LACAM) has been used, which can accelerate atomic and molecular ions up to speeds of the order of hundredths of light speed, and consists of the source of negative ions, the Wien filter, the accelerator itself and the magnet load selector. The detection device used to evaluate the processes of interaction (capture and loss) between the beam of the O + and the water molecule is a Microchannel Plate (MCP) at the position sensitive anode. The collisions of O + beans are being studied in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 MeV with water vapor (Z = 10). Were obtained the respective absolute cross sections for electron loss and electron capture and compared with the cross sections of the molecule methane (CH4 → Z = 10), the isoelectronic water molecule. The experimental results show an agreement between the measurements with water and methane. Comparisons were made with results of theoretical models for electron loss using the 'Free Collision Model' and for capture the Bohr and Lindhard model. The theoretical results for electron loss show an agreement of experimental data with the model used. The model of Bohr and Lindhard describes

  14. Spin-flip (p,n) reactions on 26Mg, 54Fe, and 56Fe at selected proton bombarding energies in the range of 17 to 25 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    New data are presented for the 26 Mg(p,n) 26 Al reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.97 MeV, for the 54 Fe(p,n) 54 Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 17.20, 18.60, and 24.60 MeV, and for the 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.59 MeV. Data were taken with the LLNL Cyclograaff at 16 angles from 3.5 0 to 159.0 0 . A large detector at 23.8 0 with a long neutron flight path collected high resolution spectra. This large detector also collected separate 0 0 high resolution data on the 26 Mg and 56 Fe(p,n) reactions at E/sub p/ = 19 MeV. Absolute differential (p,n) cross sections were extracted for 1 + states in 26 Al, 54 Co, and 56 Co, for the 0 + isobaric analong state (IAS) in 54 Co and 56 Co, for a 2 + state in each residual nucleus, and for the 0.199 MeV 7 + state of 54 Co. No new experimental states were identified. Only relative cross sections were extracted at 0 0 . Experimental angle-integrated cross sections were obtained for all but one state. DWBA79 was used, with the G-matrix effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Bertsch et al. (with the central triplet-odd component V/sub to/ = O) and the Livermore shell model wave functions to calculate differential (p,n) cross sections to 1 + states and to the 54 Co and 56 Co IAS. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the 54 Co and 56 Co IAS (at E/sub p/ = 24.6 MeV) yielded the renormalized V/sub tau/ = 21.4 +- 2.1 MeV. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the 24.6 MeV 54 Co and 56 Co 1 + states, coupled with the normalization of the wave functions to previously experimentally determined GT strength, yield the renormalized V/sub sigmatau/ = 12.3 +- 1.2 MeV. The experimental Gamow-Teller strength B(GT)/sub exp./ of the T = 1 26 Al state at 9.44 MeV was found to be 0.69; B(GT)/sub exp/ of the T = 1 26 Al state at 10.47 MeV was found to be 0.39

  15. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  16. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  17. Development of a semi-analytical method for calculation of the radial dose profile for proton beams in the 0.5-1.0 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Kristin

    2004-07-01

    There has been an increased interest in the application of protons for radiation therapy during the last decades. The main reason for this is the advantageous shape of the proton dose profile, which offers the possibility of improved treatment outcome. Proton beams and other light ions have because of this observed phenomenon a high efficiency to inflict lethal damage to tumor tissue while sparing normal tissue. Treatment with ions heavier than protons, have also been considered on the basis of radiological arguments. Recently scientists have discovered that not only high-energy electrons inflict severe damage to the DNA, but also low-energy electrons. Those electrons can be produced when protons with energy between 0.5-1 MeV interact with matter. High-accuracy calculations of dose distributions inside tumors and the surrounding tissue are essential for assessing the effectiveness of a given treatment in terms of probability of tumor control and of radiation-induced complications. The use of Monte Carlo methods to simulate radiation transport has become the most accurate means of predicting absorbed dose distributions and other quantities like numbers of track ends, track lengths and angular distributions. Today, there no accurate Monte-Carlo codes for proton transport, not even for low-energy electron transport. Much work is devoted to develop a Monte Carlo code for this purpose. However, for most practical cases in treatment planning, an advantageous solution has been found by combining the intrinsic accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the swiftness of analytical techniques. In this work, a simple semi-analytical method is developed for fast dose distribution calculations for protons with energy range 0.5-1 MeV. The major part of the energy loss when protons traverse tissue, ends up in the ionizations of the target atoms. The double differential cross sections for this secondary electron production is calculated with Continuous distorted waves-eikonal initial

  18. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Ozdemir, Yueksel

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

  19. High-resolution measurements of sup(58,60,62)Ni(p,p) scattering cross section in the proton energy range of 3.0 to 4.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eiichi; Ogawa, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at four angles for proton scattering on sup(58,60,62)Ni at energies from 3.0 to 4.0 MeV by using a high-resolution beam from the Tokyo Institute of Technology 4 MV Van de Graaff. An overall resolution of 400 eV (FWHM) was realized using thin solid targets. (author)

  20. Photofission cross-section ratio measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U using monoenergetic photons in the energy range of 9.0–16.6 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishichayan, E-mail: krishi@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bhike, Megha; Finch, S.W.; Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tonchev, A.P. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2017-05-11

    Photofission cross-section ratios of {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U have been measured using monoenergetic photon beams at the HIγS facility of TUNL. These measurements have been performed in small energy steps between 9.0 and 16.6 MeV using a dual-fission ionization chamber. Measured cross-section ratios are compared with the previous experimental data as well as with the recent evaluated nuclear data library ENDF.

  1. Investigation of transversal nuclear excitation in 208Pb at excitation energies between 6 MeV and 8 MeV using inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Using high resolution inelastic electron scattering magnitic dipole and quadrupole excitations in 208 Pb were investigated in the energy range between 6 MeV and 8 MeV. The electron energy was 50 MeV and 63.5 MeV. With a mean absolute energy resolution of 33 kev. 44 excited states were found in the above energy range. The measured angular distributions were compared with DWBA-calculations using random phase approximated wave functions. (FKS)

  2. Investigation of ionization losses of shower electrons in electron-photon shower developed in liquid xenon by gamma quanta in the energy range 1600-3400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhrymenko, L.S.; Slowinski, B.; Strugalski, Z.; Sredniawa, B.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the investigation of differential distributions of ionization losses and the corresponding fluctuations for shower electrons in the longitudinal development of electron-photon showers produced by gamma-quanta of energies Esub(γ)=1600-3400 MeV in liquid xenon are given. A simple and convenient from the methodical point of view two-parametric function, approximating the observed distribution has been obtained. The independence of the fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons on the energy of gamma-quanta in the investigated interval of Esub(γ) values has been found

  3. Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon interaction: Studies of some biological molecules in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic......, linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA, eff) and Z(PI, eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy...

  4. MeV fullerene impacts on mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M.; Scandella, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ames, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Hillock heights on mica irradiated with MeV C{sub 60} ions have been investigated systematically. Results show that the small range of secondary particles along the track plays a crucial role in defect production. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  5. Review of neutron data: 10 to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.

    1977-04-01

    Neutron data are reviewed for incident neutron energies between 10 and 40 MeV. A census of the data shows that there are many gaps in this range and that the existing data are primarily for neutron energies around 14 MeV. Aside from total cross sections, there are few data between 10 and 13 MeV and between 15 and 40 MeV. Examples are presented to show the quality of selected data for total, elastic, inelastic, activation, and charged-particle and gamma-ray production cross sections. The spectra of emitted particles are also discussed.

  6. Review of neutron data: 10 to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1977-04-01

    Neutron data are reviewed for incident neutron energies between 10 and 40 MeV. A census of the data shows that there are many gaps in this range and that the existing data are primarily for neutron energies around 14 MeV. Aside from total cross sections, there are few data between 10 and 13 MeV and between 15 and 40 MeV. Examples are presented to show the quality of selected data for total, elastic, inelastic, activation, and charged-particle and gamma-ray production cross sections. The spectra of emitted particles are also discussed

  7. NSRL 200 MeV linac beam energy stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guirong; Pei Yuanji; Dong Sai

    2001-01-01

    By using the computer image processing technology and RF phase auto-shifting system, the ESS (Energy Stabilization System) was applied to 200 MeV Linac. the ESS adjusts beam energy automatically in a range of +-4 MeV. After adjustment beam energy stability is improved to +-6%

  8. Characterization of 2 MeV, 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 18 MeV buildup caps for use with a 0.6 cubic centimeter thimble ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyer, R.L.; VanDenburg, J.W.; Prinja, A.K.; Kirby, T.; Busch, R.; Hong-Nian Jow

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV and 6 MeV buildup caps, and to determine if a buildup cap can be made for the 0.6 cm 3 thimble ionization chamber that will accurately measure exposures in a high-energy photon radiation field. Two different radiation transport codes were used to computationally characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV, and 6 MeV buildup caps for a 0.6 cm 3 active volume thimble ionization chamber: ITS, The Integrated TIGER Series of Coupled Electron-Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes; and CEPXS/ONEDANT, A One-Dimensional Coupled Electron-Photon Discrete Ordinates Code Package. These codes were also used to determine the design characteristics of a buildup cap for use in the 18 MeV photon beam produced by the 14 TW pulsed power HERMES-III electron accelerator. The maximum range of the secondary electron, the depth at which maximum dose occurs, and the point where dose and collision kerma are equal have been determined to establish the validity of electronic equilibrium. The ionization chamber with the appropriate buildup cap was then subjected to a 4 MeV and a 6 MeV bremmstrahlung radiation spectrum to determine the detector response

  9. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Guayabos Sheet N-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancio, F.; Ford, I.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Guayabos) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils of Arapey, Guichon, Mercedes and Asencio formations in the Cretaceous period

  10. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cololo Sheet 0-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, H.; Ford, I.; Montana, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cololo) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils of Holocene, Oligocene and upper Cretaceous in Asencio and Fray Bentos formations

  11. Measurement of the {sup 234}U(n, f) cross-section with quasi-monoenergetic beams in the keV and MeV range using a Micromegas detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatopoulos, A.; Kanellakopoulos, A.; Kalamara, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Michalopoulou, V.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Diakaki, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tsinganis, A. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Axiotis, M.; Lagoyiannis, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2018-01-15

    The {sup 234}U neutron-induced fission cross-section has been measured at incident neutron energies of 452, 550, 651 keV and 7.5, 8.7, 10 MeV using the {sup 7}Li (p, n) and the {sup 2}H(d, n) reactions, respectively, relative to the {sup 235}U(n, f) and {sup 238}U(n, f) reference reactions. The measurement was performed at the neutron beam facility of the National Center for Scientific Research ''Demokritos'', using a set-up based on Micromegas detectors. The active mass of the actinide samples and the corresponding impurities were determined via α-spectroscopy using a surface barrier silicon detector. The neutron spectra intercepted by the actinide samples have been thoroughly studied by coupling the NeuSDesc and MCNP5 codes, taking into account the energy and angular straggling of the primary ion beams in the neutron source targets in addition to contributions from competing reactions (e.g. deuteron break-up) and neutron scattering in the surrounding materials. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed making combined use of the FLUKA and GEF codes, focusing particularly on the determination of the fission fragment detection efficiency. The developed methodology and the final results are presented. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the 234U(n, f ) cross-section with quasi-monoenergetic beams in the keV and MeV range using a Micromegas detector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, A.; Kanellakopoulos, A.; Kalamara, A.; Diakaki, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Michalopoulou, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyiannis, A.; Vlastou, R.

    2018-01-01

    The 234U neutron-induced fission cross-section has been measured at incident neutron energies of 452, 550, 651 keV and 7.5, 8.7, 10 MeV using the 7Li ( p, n) and the 2H( d, n) reactions, respectively, relative to the 235U( n, f ) and 238U( n, f ) reference reactions. The measurement was performed at the neutron beam facility of the National Center for Scientific Research "Demokritos", using a set-up based on Micromegas detectors. The active mass of the actinide samples and the corresponding impurities were determined via α-spectroscopy using a surface barrier silicon detector. The neutron spectra intercepted by the actinide samples have been thoroughly studied by coupling the NeuSDesc and MCNP5 codes, taking into account the energy and angular straggling of the primary ion beams in the neutron source targets in addition to contributions from competing reactions ( e.g. deuteron break-up) and neutron scattering in the surrounding materials. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed making combined use of the FLUKA and GEF codes, focusing particularly on the determination of the fission fragment detection efficiency. The developed methodology and the final results are presented.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of dose distribution in water phantom for monoenergetic photon sources in the energy range of 20 keV and 2 MeV using a customized GEANT4 distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Eduardo; Rodrigues Jr, Orlando; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Monte Carlo simulation methods are important tools in the areas of radiation transport and dosimetry, assisting in the radiation therapy treatment planning, study of energy deposition in complex systems and aid in the agreement the experimental results in the research of new materials. However, two aspects can affect the use of these tools: complexity in real world problems transposition to the simulation environment and difficulty in computational codes utilization. The objective of this work is to present a free software distribution based in the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. The distribution was customized with the addition of tools for the development, visualization and data analysis in a software package with simplified installation and attended configuration. A wizard tool was developed and incorporated to the software package aiming to assist the user in the simulation skeleton creation and the election of the compilation and link flags for new models of simulation in the area of the radiation dosimetry. This software distribution is part of a wider project for the development of an infrastructure based in the GEANT4 for the radiation transport simulation under the perspective of a non centered computational architecture in dosimetry. The absorbed dose distribution in water phantom was simulated for monoenergetic photon sources with energies between 20 keV and 2 MeV. All results and analyses were generated with the tools incorporated in the software package. (author)

  14. Neutron-induced fission cross-section measurement of 234U with quasi-monoenergetic beams in the keV and MeV range using micromegas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinganis, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Kanellakopoulos, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate data on neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides are essential for the design of advanced nuclear reactors based either on fast neutron spectra or alternative fuel cycles, as well as for the reduction of safety margins of existing and future conventional facilities. The fission cross-section of 234U was measured at incident neutron energies of 560 and 660 keV and 7.5 MeV with a setup based on `microbulk' Micromegas detectors and the same samples previously used for the measurement performed at the CERN n_TOF facility (Karadimos et al., 2014). The 235U fission cross-section was used as reference. The (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 7Li(p,n) and the 2H(d,n) reactions at the neutron beam facility of the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics at the `Demokritos' National Centre for Scientific Research. A detailed study of the neutron spectra produced in the targets and intercepted by the samples was performed coupling the NeuSDesc and MCNPX codes, taking into account the energy spread, energy loss and angular straggling of the beam ions in the target assemblies, as well as contributions from competing reactions and neutron scattering in the experimental setup. Auxiliary Monte-Carlo simulations were performed with the FLUKA code to study the behaviour of the detectors, focusing particularly on the reproduction of the pulse height spectra of α-particles and fission fragments (using distributions produced with the GEF code) for the evaluation of the detector efficiency. An overview of the developed methodology and preliminary results are presented.

  15. Atomic inner shell ionization: a new method of nuclear interaction lifetimes in the range 10-16-10-18 second. Lifetime measurement of the compound nucleus in the reaction 106Cd+p (Ep=10 and 12 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemin, J.-F.

    1978-01-01

    A new method to measure the lifetime of the compound nucleus formed in the reaction 106 Cd+p at Ep=10 and 12 MeV is described. The nuclear lifetime is compared to the known lifetime of an atomic inner shell vacancy created in the entrance channel of the nuclear reaction. If the ionization probability in he way-in of the nuclear reaction is kown the compound nucleus lifetime is deduced by a simple relation from the number of compound X-rays measured in coincidence with one of the reaction products. A large number of ionization probability values measured in very small impact parameter collisions induced by H + , He + , D + on Al, Cu, S, Ti, Si, Ag, Cd are reported. The data are interpreted in terms of the corrected SCA theory of ionization. New effects such as angular dependence and trajectory effect (hair-pin-curve effect) are shown experimentally. The influence of a nuclear delay time on the ionization probability value is considered; the effect on a nuclear reaction of the energy losses by the projectile during the ionization process is analysed in detail. The yield curve of the resonant nuclear reaction 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si is taken as an example. A detailed analysis of the compound nucleus 107 In lifetimes is given. Attention has been paid to competitive processes leading to X ray emission of same energy as the compound X rays. Extensions of the method to measure compound nucleus lifetimes in collision induced by heavy ions and to separate the shape elastic and compound elastic mechanisms are presented [fr

  16. Ion emission in solids bombarded with Au{sub n}{sup +} (n = 1 - 9) clusters accelerated within the 0.15 - 1.25 MeV energy range; Emission ionique des solides a l'impact d'agregats Au{sub n}{sup +} (n=1-9) acceleres entre 0,15 et 1,25 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehbe, Nimer [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-I, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2006-06-15

    This experimental work is devoted to the study of the ion emission in solids at the impact of gold clusters of energies within 0.15 to 1.25 MeV range. The physics of ion-solid collisions and the theoretical models of sputtering of solids under ion bombardment are presented in the first chapter. The chapter no. 2 deals with the description of the experimental setup. The study of a gold target allowed to evidence the role of the size and energy of the clusters in determining the emission intensity and the mass distribution of the ions. The 4. chapter gives results from the study of cesium iodide in which the intense emission of CsI clusters could be investigated quantitatively due to multiplicity measurements. Finally, the chapter no. 5 was devoted to the study of a biologic molecule, the phenylalanine, and of a pesticide molecule, chlorosulfuron. This work evidenced the importance of clusters for surface analyses by mass spectrometry.

  17. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 100-FR-1, 100-FR-2, 100-HR-1,100-KR-1, and 100-KR-2 Group 4 Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The 100-FR-1, 100-FR-2, 100-HR-1, 100-KR-1, and 100-KR-2 Group 4 waste sites will be the fourth set of Hanford 100 Area sites to undergo remediation. Like the sites in Groups 1, 2,and 3, the majority of Group 4 sties are considered high priority because of the contaminants present and their proximity to the Columbia River. the data quality objectives process,summarized in this document, is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approach for addressing data collecting and decision-making issues that are part of an environmental remediation project. The basic cleanup assumptions made in the Group 1, 2, and 3 designs are retained for the Group 4 design. As was the case with Group 3, the most significant difference between this DQO Summary Report and the Group 1 and 2 DQO Summary Reports is the data gaps that exist for specific Group 4 waste sites. These data gaps affect the approach to waste profiling and are the principal focus of the Group 4 DQO process

  18. Cross sections of electron loss and capture for beams of O{sup +} in water vapor from the energy range of 0,2 to 1,2 MeV; Secoes de choque de perda e captura eletronica para feixes de O{sup +} em vapor de agua em uma faixa de energia entre 0,2 e 1,2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vitor Jesus de

    2015-06-01

    The study of the interactions between atoms and molecules is important for the knowledge of the cross sections of the processes that contribute to the deposition of energy by charged particle beams used in radiotherapy planning and transport particle simulation codes. Heavy ions, such as oxygen, induce many cellular and molecular damages in human cells.as a result of interaction between the projectile and atoms and molecules. The use of proton and carbon as the projectile interacting with water molecules is well characterized, however there are few studies with oxygen ions. In this work we are interested in the study of electron loss (projectile ionization) and electron capture with charge state 1+. The Pelletron accelerator of 1.7 MeV from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro housed in the Atomic and Molecular collisions Laboratory (LACAM) has been used, which can accelerate atomic and molecular ions up to speeds of the order of hundredths of light speed, and consists of the source of negative ions, the Wien filter, the accelerator itself and the magnet load selector. The detection device used to evaluate the processes of interaction (capture and loss) between the beam of the O{sup +} and the water molecule is a Microchannel Plate (MCP) at the position sensitive anode. The collisions of O{sup +} beans are being studied in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 MeV with water vapor (Z = 10). Were obtained the respective absolute cross sections for electron loss and electron capture and compared with the cross sections of the molecule methane (CH4 → Z = 10), the isoelectronic water molecule. The experimental results show an agreement between the measurements with water and methane. Comparisons were made with results of theoretical models for electron loss using the 'Free Collision Model' and for capture the Bohr and Lindhard model. The theoretical results for electron loss show an agreement of experimental data with the model used. The model of Bohr and Lindhard

  19. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Guaycuru Sheet M-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garat, I.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Guaycuru)) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the Cenozoic and Precambrian period. The Cuaycuru area is located in the West of the Rio de la Plata socket constituted by metamorphic belts and is associated with migmatitic and intrusive granitoids

  20. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Talita Sheet J-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campal, N; Chulepin, H

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Talita) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils.The area belongs to the Rio de la Plata socket basin is associated with the orogenic cycle

  1. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Carmelo Sheet P-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L; Eugui, W; Cabrera, Z; Elias, R

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Carmelo) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils of the precambrian period in the Mercedes , Fray Bentos, Libertad and Raigon formations. The Precambrian rocks are found in large quarries in Carmelo hill

  2. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Molles Sheet K-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Molles) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary period in Arapey, Mercedes, Asencio, Palmitas, Fray Bentos and Libertad formations

  3. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Bequelo Sheet N0-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, J.; Ford, I.; Morales, H.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Bequelo) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics of the precambrian period in the Bequelo stream as well as the Mercedes , Asencio and Fray Bentos formations

  4. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Bizcocho Sheet N-0-21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I; Gancio, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Bizcocho) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics of the lower Proterozoic in the socket of the La Plata river, Upper Cretaceous in Mercedes and Asencio formations, lower Tertiary in Palmitas and Fray Bentos formations and soils characteristics of the Quaternary period

  5. Geological map of Uruguay scale 1.100.000 Canada Nieto Sheet P-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L; Eugui, W; Cabrera, Z; Elias, R

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Canada Nieto) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils of the pre devoniam period in the Mercedes , Asencio and Fray Bentos formations

  6. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. El Ombu Sheet N-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (El Ombu) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary period in Arapey, Mercedes, Asencio, Palmitas, Fray Bentos and Libertad formations

  7. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cerro Partido Sheet F-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R; Albanell, H.; Bossi, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cerro Partido) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to the Cerro Partido fotoplano is located in the orogenic belt or Don Feliciano belt

  8. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Melo Sheet D-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L.; Andreis, R.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Melo) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the pre devonian period in Melo, Buena Vista Yaguari and Tres islas formations. These metamorphic rocks would be compared with the orogenic cycle of the east and southeast groups

  9. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. La Union Sheet J-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Veroslavsky, G.; Oyantcabal, P.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (La Union) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the Holocene Pleistocene, Pliocene, Oligocene and Precambrian period. This area is located in the eastern of Montevideo and the South West of Canelones

  10. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Chafalote Sheet D-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H; Tabo, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Chafalote) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to Chafalote is located in central and eastern metamorphic formation constituted by Lavalleja-Rocha group

  11. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Piriapolis Sheet G-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F; Pena, S; Masquelin, E; Pias, J; Tabo, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Piriapolis) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. Geomorphologically Piriapolis fotoplano is dominated by Las Animas and an important Cenozoic coverage

  12. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Algorta Sheet N-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I; Gancio, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Algorta) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological soil characteristics of the upper cretaceous in Guichon, Mercedes and Asencio formaltions as well as the lower tertiary period of Palmitas and Fray Bentos formations

  13. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Palmitas Sheet 0- 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I.; Gancio, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Molles) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to the Proterozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary period in Mercedes, Asencio, Palmitas and Fray Bentos formations

  14. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Paso del Palmar Sheet N-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, I.; Montana, J.; Morales, H.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Paso del Palmar) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary period in San Gregorio, Arapey, Mercedes, Asencio and Fray Bentos formations

  15. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cuchilla del Ombu. Sheet H-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cuchilla del Ombu) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological, lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. In crystalline rocks have been recognized four basic units: porphyritic granite, Cunapiru granite, Cunapiru subvolcanic microgranite and metamorfites

  16. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Zapican Sheet F-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Zapican) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils.The fotoplano Zapican is located in the north of Lavalleja town and geologically is formed by Lavalleja group and the west socket represented by granites and volcanic reefs

  17. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Piraraja Sheet F-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Piraraja) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Precambrian period.The Pirafja fotoplano is located in Lavalleja and geomorphologically is constituted by the Lavalleja group, the Atlantic socket, Piraraja granite and the Barriga Negra group

  18. State special standard for bremsstrahlung energy flux unit in the range of maximum photon energy 0.8-8.0 pJ (5-50 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, M.F.; Skotnikov, V.V.; Bruj, V.N.; Tsvetkov, I.I.; Fominykh, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    The state special standard is described, which improves the accuracy and ensures unification and correctness of measurements of a bremsstrahlung energy flux. The size of the unit is conveyed, by means of working standards and model measuring means, to working devices measuring the energy flux over a wide range

  19. Within the framework of the new fuel cycle {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U, determination of the {sup 233}Pa(n.{gamma}) radiative capture cross section for neutron energies ranging between 0 and 1 MeV; Dans le cadre du nouveau cycle de combustible {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U, determination de la section efficace de capture radiative {sup 233}Pa(n,{gamma}) pour des energies de neutrons comprises entre 0 et 1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, S

    2004-10-15

    The Thorium cycle Th{sup 232}/U{sup 233} may face brilliant perspectives through advanced concepts like molten salt reactors or accelerator driven systems but it lacks accurate nuclear data concerning some nuclei. Pa{sup 233} is one of these nuclei, its high activity makes the direct measurement of its radiative neutron capture cross-section almost impossible. This difficulty has been evaded by considering the transfer reaction Th{sup 232}(He{sup 3},p)Pa{sup 234}* in which the Pa{sup 234} nucleus is produced in various excited states according to the amount of energy available in the reaction. The first chapter deals with the thorium cycle and its assets to contribute to the quenching of the fast growing world energy demand. The second chapter gives a detailed description of the experimental setting. A scintillation detector based on deuterated benzene (C{sub 6}D{sub 6}) has been used to counter gamma ray cascades. The third chapter is dedicated to data analysis. In the last chapter we compare our experimental results with ENDF and JENDL data and with computed values from 2 statistical models in the 0-1 MeV neutron energy range. Our results disagree clearly with evaluated data: our values are always above ENDF and JENDL data but tend to near computed values. We have also perform the measurement of the radiative neutron cross-section of Pa{sup 231} for a 110 keV neutron: {sigma}(n,{gamma}) 2.00 {+-} 0.14 barn. (A.C.)

  20. Measurement of the vector analysing power of the reaction 19F(p vector,α0)16O in the energy range Esub(p) = 0.45 MeV to 0.85 MeV and studies of the level scheme of the 20Ne nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traudt, O.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental study of the reaction 19 F(p,α 0 ) 16 0 was extended by a determination of the analysing power for the reaction in the energy range 454 keV 0 until 160 0 . By averaging of the proton spin angular distributions of the unpolarized cross section were also obtained. The angular distributions of these two observables were fitted by legendre polynomials. The results is a nonneglectable contribution of direct reactions and a new determination of a part of energylevels in 20 Ne. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  2. Spin-selected velocity dependence of the associative ionization cross section in Na(3p)+Na(3p) collisions over the collision energy range from 2.4 to 290 meV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; Keller, J.; Boulmer, J.; Weiner, J.

    1987-01-01

    We report new results on the direct measurement of the associative ionization (AI) cross section in collisions between velocity-selected and spin-oriented Na(3p) atoms. Improvements in the Doppler-shift velocity-selection technique permit measurement over an energy range spanning more than two orders of magnitude from subthermal to suprathermal regions. Spin orientations, parallel and antiparallel, enable determination of the excitation function (velocity dependence of the AI cross section) for the separate singlet and triplet manifolds of Na 2 states contributing to the AI process

  3. Implantation activation annealing of Si-implanted gallium nitride at temperatures > 1,100 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Han, J.; Biefeld, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The activation annealing of Si-implanted GaN is reported for temperatures from 1,100 to 1,400 C. Although previous work has shown that Si-implanted GaN can be activated by a rapid thermal annealing at ∼1,100 C, it was also shown that significant damage remained in the crystal. Therefore, both AlN-encapsulated and uncapped Si-implanted GaN samples were annealed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition system in a N 2 /NH 3 ambient to further assess the annealing process. Electrical Hall characterization shows increases in carrier density and mobility for annealing up to 1,300 C before degrading at 1,400 C due to decomposition of the GaN epilayer. Rutherford backscattering spectra show that the high annealing temperatures reduce the implantation induced damage profile but do not completely restore the as-grown crystallinity

  4. The reaction p12C→ηX from Tp=800 MeV to Tp=1500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, E.; Dellacasa, G.; De Marco, N.; De Oliveira Martins, O.; Gallio, M.; Guaita, P.; Musso, A.; Piccotti, A.; Scomparin, E.; Vercellin, E.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction p 12 C→nX has been studied, at several proton kinetic energies ranging from 800 MeV to 1500 MeV, at the proton synchrotron Saturne at Saclay. The measured doubly differential cross-sections are presented and discussed in the framework of a simple theoretical model. The model fails in describing the deepest subthreshold data while the above-threshold data are fairly well reproduced. (orig.)

  5. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Fuente del Puma Sheet G-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Pena, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Fuente del Puma) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to Fuente del Puma is located in the SW of Lavalleja and NW of Maldonado town and its stratigraphy belong to the Cretaceous and Cenozoic formations as well as the Cambrian and upper Precambrian

  6. Scattering of 130 MeV helions on 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, A.; Alderliesten, C.; Bojowald, J.; Oelert, W.; Turek, P.

    1982-01-01

    Angular distributions for the tau + 58 Ni scattering to the (g.s., 0 + ) (1.45 MeV, 2 + ) and giant resonance (Esub(x) approximately 63Asup(-1/3) MeV) states in 58 Ni have been measured at Esub(tau) = 130 MeV in an angular range thetasub(c.m.) = 6 0 -83 0 . Optical model and DWBA analyses have been performed. The use of helion optical potentials with either a volume (Woods-Saxon) or a surface (Woods-Saxon derivative) absorption results in good fits to the g.s. and 1.45 MeV data. However, the volume absorption gives consistently a better fit quality. The discrete ambiguity of the helion optical potential has been resolved in favour of the shallow potential family. The giant resonance is found to have a dominant quadrupole (L=2) character with about 6% (EWSR) L=4 admixture. (Auth.)

  7. Detailed geomorphological map sheet Bela Palanka at scale 1:100,000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menković Ljubomir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geomorphological Map Sheet Bela Palanka is a graphical representation of landforms in the area covered by the Topographical Map Sheet Bela Palanka at scale 1:100,000. The map is published in 2008 by the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA and the SASA Geodynamics Board. It is the first detailed geomorphological map edited in Serbia. This paper presents the methods used in preparing the geomorphological map, the contents and the mode of data presentation, geologic structure, genetic types of landforms and the subtypes, and the geomorphological history since the Neogene.

  8. HIGH ENERGY RADIOGRAPHY-1-30 Mev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, James H.

    1963-10-15

    From 1963 American Society of Metals/Materials Show, Cleveland, Oct. 1963. A survey of the field of radiographic inspection of thick sections, at one million volts energy or more, shows that this field has become a major branch of radiographic testing. More than a dozen models of x-ray generators are now commercially available in this field, over the range from 1 to 31 Mev, with outputs up to more than two orders of magnitude greater than can be obtained from radiographic isotope sources, and with smaller spot size. A study of the radiographic characteristics of x rays in this region shows that energies available cover the range of minimum absorption and scattering for most materials and approach this range for solid propellant; at higher energies severe coverage restrictions are imposed; output powers on small spots are near the limits of present target technology. It would appear that some degree of technological maturity'' has been achieved. Radiographic technique at 1 to 30 Mev is straightforward, following the same basic principles as in conventional radiography. Specialized aspects of technique are individually discussed. The wellknown 1 and 2 million volt equlpments are supplemented by a wide variety of higher-energy machines, with energy and output ratings to satisfy almost any radiographic need. Some examples are epitomized, and a brief discussion of possible future developments is presented. (auth)

  9. The JHP 200-MeV proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takao [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    A 200-MeV proton linear accelerator for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) has been designed. It consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ), a 50-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) and a 200-MeV separated-type drift tube linac (SDTL). A frequency of 324 MHz has been chosen for all of the rf structures. A peak current of 30 mA (H{sup -} ions) of 400 {mu}sec pulse duration will be accelerated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. A future upgrade plan up to 400 MeV is also presented, in which annular-coupled structures (ACS) of 972 MHz are used in an energy range of above 150 or 200 MeV. One of the design features is its high performance for a beam-loss problem during acceleration. It can be achieved by separating the transition point in the transverse motion from that of the longitudinal motion. The transverse transition at a rather low-energy range decreases the effects of space-charge, while the longitudinal transition at a rather high-energy range decreases the effects of nonlinear problems related to acceleration in the ACS. Coupled envelope equations and equipartitioning theory are used for the focusing design. The adoption of the SDTL structure improves both the effective shunt impedance and difficulties in fabricating drift tubes with focusing magnets. An accurate beam-simulation code on a parallel supercomputer was used for confirming any beam-loss problem during acceleration. (author)

  10. (n, Xn) cross sections measurements at 96 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagrado Garcia, Inmaculada C.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n, Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross sections measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL laboratory, in Uppsala (Sweden). The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 deg.-98 deg.). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100 MeV). The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparisons between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its original treatment of nucleon-nucleus reactions. (author) [fr

  11. Enhanced diffusion of dopants in vacancy supersaturation produced by MeV implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX; Haynes, T.E.; Agarwal, A.; Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ; Gossmann, H.J.; Eaglesham, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    The diffusion of Sb and B markers has been studied in vacancy supersaturations produced by MeV Si implantation in float zone (FZ) silicon and bonded etch-back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) substrates. MeV Si implantation produces a vacancy supersaturated near-surface region and an interstitial-rich region at the projected ion range. Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of Sb in the near surface layer was observed as a result of a 2 MeV Si + , 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 , implant. A 4x larger TED of Sb was observed in BESOI than in FZ silicon, demonstrating that the vacancy supersaturation persists longer in BESOI than in FZ. B markers in samples with MeV Si implant showed a factor of 10x smaller diffusion relative to markers without the MeV Si + implant. This data demonstrates that a 2 MeV Si + implant injects vacancies into the near surface region

  12. Fission cross section measurements at the LLL 100-MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The fission cross section for 235 U was measured from thermal energy to 20 MeV in several steps. First, the cross section was measured from 8 MeV to 20 MeV relative to the n,p scattering cross section and then from thermal to one MeV relative to 6 Li(n,α). In addition, a measurement of the ratio of the fission cross sections of 235 U and 238 U relative to 235 U has been completed in the range 1 keV to 30 MeV for 233 U and 100 keV to 30 MeV for 238 U. Statistical uncertainties are less than 4 percent. (U.S.)

  13. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Napa, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Janet M.; Noller, Jay S.; Lettis, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Earthquake-induced ground failures such as liquefaction have historically brought loss of life and damage to property and infrastructure. Observations of the effects of historical large-magnitude earthquakes show that the distribution of liquefaction phenomena is not random. Liquefaction is restricted to areas underlain by loose, cohesionless sands and silts that are saturated with water. These areas can be delineated on the basis of thorough geologic, geomorphic, and hydrologic mapping and map analysis (Tinsley and Holzer, 1990; Youd and Perkins, 1987). Once potential liquefaction zones are delineated, appropriate public and private agencies can prepare for and mitigate seismic hazard in these zones. In this study, we create a liquefaction susceptibility map of the Napa 1:100,000 quadrangle using Quaternary geologic mapping, analysis of historical liquefaction information, groundwater data, and data from other studies. The study is atterned after state-of-the-art studies by Youd (1973) Dupre and Tinsley (1980) and Dupre (1990) in the Monterey-Santa Cruz area, Tinsley and others (1985) in the Los Angeles area, and Youd and Perkins (1987) in San Mateo County, California. The study area comprises the northern San Francisco Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Santa Rosa, Vallejo, Napa, Novato, Martinez, and Fairfield (Figure 1). Holocene estuarine deposits, Holocene stream deposits, eolian sands, and artificial fill are widely present in the region (Helley and Lajoie, 1979) and are the geologic materials of greatest concern. Six major faults capable of producing large earthquakes cross the study area, including the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, Hayward, West Napa, Concord, and Green Valley faults (Figure 1).

  14. Dissolution of B-doped S1(100) layers in NaOH aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1988-12-01

    NaOH solution has been used to study the dissolution rates of boron doped Sl(100) wafers as a function of solution normality (0.02 N to 15 N) and temperature in the range of 30 deg. C to boiling point. For a dissolution at boiling point, two distinctive ranges of solution normalities have been observed. For N ≤ 4.5, the dissolution rate increases logarithmically and is defect dependent. For higher values of N ≥ 4.5 normal, the dissolution rate becomes a linear function of normality and reaction is defect dependent. The reaction activation energy has been measured equal to 0.65 +- 0.03 eV. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  15. Negative pion-nucleus elastic scattering at 20 and 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.; Blanpied, G.; Cottingame, W.; Daw, G.; Park, B.; Seth, K.K.; Barlow, D.; Iversen, S.; Kaletka, M.; Nann, H.; Saha, A.; Smith, D.; Redwine, R.P.; Burger, W.; Farkhondeh, M.; Saghai, B.; Anderson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of 20 and 40 MeV π - by nuclei ranging from 12 C to 208 Pb are reported. Comparisons are made with the predictions of the Michigan State University (MSU) optical potential

  16. Temperature and 8 MeV electron irradiation effects on GaAs solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, ... strate were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, they showed high radiation tolerance ... under both forward and reverse bias in the temperature range of 270–315 K ...

  17. Measurements and amplitude analysis of small angle pp polarization between 398 and 572 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, D.; Favier, B.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Hess, R.; Junod, A.; Lechanoine, C.; Nikles, J.C.; Rapin, D.; Werren, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The analyzing power of pp scattering in the cm angular range 4 to 22 0 at 398 to 572 MeV. The analyzing power was determined from the asymmetry in the azimuthal angle distributions of the scattered protons

  18. Neutron scattering differential cross sections of carbon and bismuth at 37 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zuying; Tang Hongqing; Qi Bujia; Zhou Chenwei; Du Yanfeng; Xia Haihong; Walter, R.L.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.; Braun, R.; Roper, C.; Chen Zemin; Chen Zhengpeng; Chen Yingtang

    1997-01-01

    Elastic differential cross sections of 37 MeV neutrons scattered from carbon and bismuth were measured in the angular range 11 to 160 degrees by means of the multi-detector TOF facility. The 37 MeV neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) 4 He reaction in a tritium gas target. The pulsed 20 MeV deuteron beam was provided by the HI-13 tandem accelerator. The angular distribution of scattered neutrons from carbon and bismuth were measured in the angular range 11 degree to 145 degree and 11 degree to 160 degree respectively in steps of about 3 degree

  19. Inelastic proton scattering at 800 MeV to the 12C 15.11-MeV state: A search for nuclear critical opalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, M.; Glashausser, C.; Igo, G.; Cornelius, W.; Gazzaly, M.; Irom, F.; McClelland, J.; Moss, J.M.; Pauletta, G.; Thiessen, H.A.; Whitten, C.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for the reaction 12 C(p,p') 12 C* (15.11 MeV, 1 + , T=1) has been measured at 800 MeV; the range of the angular distribution corresponds to momentum transfers of 0.7--2.4 fm -1 [(1-3.3)m/sub π/]. The cross section decreases almost exponentially at large angles; no maximum is observed in the region where nuclear critical opalescence might be expected

  20. Polarization measurements for P-12C elastic scattering between 40-75 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Okada, K.; Kondo, M.; Shimizu, A.; Hosono, K.; Saito, T.; Matsuoka, N.; Nagamachi, S.; Nisimura, K.; Tamura, N.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute values of the polarization in p- 12 C elastic scattering have been measured at 60.0 and 64.5 MeV at 47.5 0 in the laboratory system using a double scattering method and a method to measure an asymmetry with a polarized beam. The results are P(60.0 MeV, 47.5 0 ) = 0.965 +- 0.011 and P(64.5 MeV, 47.5 0 ) = 0.975 +- 0.011. Based on these values, the polarization measurements have been extended to the energy range from 40-75 MeV at several angles around 47.5 0 using the polarized proton beam and the energy degrader. Differential cross sections and polarizations from 15-115 0 are also presented at 65 MeV. These data will be valuable for the monitoring of beam polarization in this energy region. (orig.)

  1. Study of two photon production process in proton-proton collisions at 216 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrykin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectrum for high energy γ-rays (Eγ ≥ 10 MeV) from the process pp → γγX emitted at 90 deg. in the laboratory frame has been measured at 216 MeV. The resulting photon energy spectrum extracted from γ - γ coincidence events consists of a narrow peak (5.3σ) at a photon energy of about 24 MeV and a relatively broad peak (3.5σ) in the energy range of (50 - 70) MeV. This behavior of the photon energy spectrum is interpreted as a signature of the exotic dibaryon resonance d 1 * with a mass of about 1956 MeV which is assumed to be formed in the radiative process pp → γd 1 * followed by its electromagnetic decay via the d 1 * → ppγ mode. The experimental spectrum is compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations

  2. Geological map of Uruguay scale 1,100,000. Agraciada Sheet R-23, Nueva Palmira Sheet R- 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L.; Eugui, W.; Cabrera, Z.; Elias, R.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Agraciada and Nueva Palmira) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological soil characteristics of: Fray Bentos, Camacho, Raygon, Libertad and Villa Soriano formations

  3. The Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission Experiment (KANT): Spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Wiegner, E.; Klein, H.; Alevra, A.

    1996-01-01

    This is a set of viewgraphs (no additional text) of a presentation on spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium; the cross for 9 Be(n,2n)2α for the energy range between threshold (1.85 MeV) and 20 MeV neutron energy is measured and the measurement is compared with the literature. Also, neutron leakage multiplication in spherical Be shells with various thicknesses are presented. Figs, tabs

  4. Two body photodisintegration of the deuteron from 100 to 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, R.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anthony, I. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ahrens, J.; Beck, R. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)]|[Pavia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Nucleare; Audit, G.; D`Hose, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee] [and others

    1996-01-01

    The total and the differential cross sections for the D({gamma},p)n reaction have been measured over the photon energy range 100-800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz. The data are presented in the form of thirty-five angular distributions at c.m. proton angles between 30 deg-160 deg in 10 deg intervals and at photon energies in steps of 20 MeV. Previous experimental work is reassessed in the light of the present results and the results compared with some recent theoretical calculations. (author). Submitted to Nuclear Physics, B (NL); 23 refs.

  5. Two body photodisintegration of the deuteron from 100 to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anthony, I.; Altieri, S.; Pavia Univ.; Audit, G.; D'Hose, N.

    1996-01-01

    The total and the differential cross sections for the D(γ,p)n reaction have been measured over the photon energy range 100-800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz. The data are presented in the form of thirty-five angular distributions at c.m. proton angles between 30 deg-160 deg in 10 deg intervals and at photon energies in steps of 20 MeV. Previous experimental work is reassessed in the light of the present results and the results compared with some recent theoretical calculations. (author)

  6. XRD study of yttria stabilized zirconia irradiated with 7.3 MeV Fe, 10 MeV I, 16 MeV Au, 200 MeV Xe and 2.2 GeV Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, K.; Yoshizaki, H. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Saitoh, Y. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Ishikawa, N. [Tokai Research and Development Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, A., E-mail: iwase@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    To simulate energetic neutron irradiation effects, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is one of the major materials for electrical corrosion potential sensors (ECP sensors) was irradiated with heavy ions at energies ranging from 7.3 MeV to 2.2 GeV. Ion irradiation effects on the lattice structure were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The increase in lattice constant was induced by the ion irradiation. It was dominated by the elastic collision process and not by the electronic excitation process. The lattice disordering which was observed as a broadening of XRD peaks was also induced by the irradiation especially for 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation. The present result suggests that the expansion and/or the disordering of YSZ lattice induced by energetic neutrons may affect the durability of a joint interface between a metal housing and YSZ membrane for the usage of ECP sensors in nuclear power reactors.

  7. 0,01-5 MeV heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.P.; Ivanov, A.S.; Nikiforov, S.A.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tarvid, G.V.; Troshikhin, A.G.; Fedotov, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The results of development of an accelerating complex on the base of the UP-2-1 heavy ion charge exchange accelerator and IMPLANT-500 high-voltage heavy ion accelerator are given. The accelerating complex provides overlapping of the 0.01 MeV to 5 MeV energy range at accelerated beam currents of 10 -3 -10 -6 A order. The structural features of accelerators and their basic units and systems are considered. The UP-2-1 accelerator is designed for researches in the field of experimental physics and applied problem solutions. The IMPLANT-500 accelerator is designed for commercial ion-beam facilities with closed loop of silicon plate treatment

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.78083, Lat: 27.95750 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020927-20030728.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.72941, Lat: 25.75893 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030723-20040923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.40181, Lat: 28.19361 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030729-20041001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. Estudo para o Mapeamento Sistemático do RGS na Escala de 1:100.000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Moreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aborda o projeto para o mapeamento em escala 1:100.000 no RS. Dividido em: Análise da situação cartográfica atual; Metas para a política cartográfica do Estado; Características do projeto. Trabalho desenvolvido pela Unidade de Geografia e Cartografia (UGC sob a coordenação do geógrafo José Alberto Moreno.

  12. Komparasi Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak Sistem Klasifikasi Ddc: Athenaeum Light 8.5., Dfw Version 1.00, We

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya Hardiyati

    2016-01-01

    Librarian has many alternative to classify DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification) number. Not only use printed DDC, but now DDC software to help identify DDC number is available. On of them is Athenaeum Light 8.5., DFW (Dewey For Windows) Version 1.00, WebDewey 2.0, e-DDC (electronic-Dewey Decimal Classification) Edition 22. In this paper, it will roll out about how to use that software with it excess and deficiency.

  13. Kerma factors and reaction cross sections for n + 12C between 15 and 18 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Chen, Z.M.; Baird, K.; Walter, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Differential elastic and inelastic (4.44 MeV) neutron scattering cross sections from 12 C are presented at 15.6, 16.8 and 17.3 MeV. The existing 18.2 MeV differential cross-section data were combined with newly measured analysing power data to parametrise neutron scattering at this energy. The 12 C recoil kerma factors were calculated and reaction cross sections were obtained from a phase-shift analysis and coupled channel analyses in the 15.6-18.2 MeV energy range. (author)

  14. Kerma factors and reaction cross sections for n + /sup 12/C between 15 and 18 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W.; Chen, Z.M.; Baird, K.; Walter, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Differential elastic and inelastic (4.44 MeV) neutron scattering cross sections from /sup 12/C are presented at 15.6, 16.8 and 17.3 MeV. The existing 18.2 MeV differential cross-section data were combined with newly measured analysing power data to parametrise neutron scattering at this energy. The /sup 12/C recoil kerma factors were calculated and reaction cross sections were obtained from a phase-shift analysis and coupled channel analyses in the 15.6-18.2 MeV energy range.

  15. Calibration of a dePangher long counter from 2 keV to 19 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D R; Rueppel, D W [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1977-09-01

    The authors have measured the sensitivity of a dePangher precision long counter (PLC) relative to /sup 7/Li(p,n), T(p,n), and T(d,n) differential cross sections over the neutron energy range 10 keV-19 MeV. Absolute sensitivity at 2 keV is also measured, using a scandium filtered beam at a reactor. Results obtained with errors in the range 5-30% are consistent with the assumption of a nearly constant sensitivity over the range 2 keV-6 MeV, but exhibit a reduction above 12 MeV.

  16. Evidence for two narrow pp resonances at 2020 MeV and 2200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Benkheiri, P; Bouquet, B; Briandet, P; D'Almagne, B; Dang-Vu, C; De Rosny, G; Eisenstein, B I; Ferrer, A; Fleury, P; Grossetête, B; Irwin, G; Jacholkowski, A; Lahellec, A; Nguyen, H; Petroff, P; Richard, F; Rivet, P; Roudeau, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Six, J; Thénard, J M; Treille, D; Volte, A; Yaffe, D; Yiou, T P; Yoshida, H

    1977-01-01

    From the study of the reaction pi /sup -/p to p/sub F/pp pi /sup -/ using a fast proton (p/sub F/) trigger device in the CERN Omega spectrometer, the authors find evidence for two narrow pp states produced mainly in association with a Delta degrees (1232) and a N degrees (1520). The statistical significance of each peak is greater than 6 standard deviations. Masses and natural widths of these resonances are respectively M/sub 1/=2020+or-3 MeV, Gamma /sub 1 /=24+or-12 MeV and M/sub 2/=2204+or-5 MeV, Gamma /sub 2/=16/sub -16 //sup +20/ MeV. The data are consistent with a small production of the narrow approximately 1935 MeV resonance already reported. Production cross sections for these new pp resonances are given. (8 refs).

  17. Positron acceleration to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboutet, H.

    1983-01-01

    220 MeV is the energy that has to be obtained in routine operation. A standard 12m girder with SLED II can give 220 MeV minus a few percent due to not riding at the crest of the wave. In order to have the 200 MeV with only one girder, a klystron at full power all the time would be required - kept brand new. Then, for safety it is necessary to use two klystrons as designated in the SLC design. Having two klystrons gives freedom for the choice of the best arrangement. Since there will be excess rf power, it can be traded against higher gradient, shorter waveguides, larger apertures (lower shunt impedence)

  18. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than +/- 2 % in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA, PMMA, RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters Simultaneously. The water calorimeter was proved to be an useful tool...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  19. Elastic scattering of 90 - 120 MeV 3He particles and unique optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyakutake, M.; Matoba, M.; Kumabe, I.; Fukada, M.; Komatuzaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic scattering of 109.2 MeV 3 He particles by 40 Ca, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 116 Sn has been investigated over a wide angular range. The elastic scattering cross sections have been analyzed in terms of the optical model. The data for each nucleus studied were sufficient to eliminate the discrete ambiguity in the strength of the optical potential; the unique potential which fits the data has real well depth of about 100 MeV and a corresponding volume integral per nucleon pair of about 310 MeV fm 3 . The elastic scattering of 3 He particles by 58 Ni has been further measured at bombarding energies of 89.3 and 118.5 MeV, and the incident-energy dependence of the optical potential of 3 He particles for 58 Ni was obtained. (author)

  20. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshio; Takahashi, Toru; Saito, Toshio; Takehisa, Masaaki; Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use with 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than ± 2% in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA PMMA RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters simultaneously. The water calorimeter was proved to be an useful tool at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95% confidence level) for X-ray measurement. (Author)

  1. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick beryllium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, M., E-mail: osipenko@ge.infn.it [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ripani, M. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ricco, G. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Schillaci, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barbagallo, M. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Boccaccio, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Celentano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Esposito, J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kostyukov, A. [Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Viberti, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-09-21

    The design of a low-power prototype of neutron amplifier recently proposed within the INFN-E project indicated the need for more accurate data on the neutron yield produced by a proton beam with energy of about 70 MeV impinging on a thick beryllium target. Such measurement was performed at the LNS superconducting cyclotron, covering a wide angular range from 0° to 150° and a complete neutron energy interval from thermal to beam energy. Neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV were measured by liquid scintillators exploiting their time of flight to determine the kinetic energy. For lower energy neutrons, down to thermal energy, a {sup 3}He detector was used. The obtained data are in good agreement with previous measurements at 0° using 66 MeV proton beam, covering neutron energies >10MeV, as well as with measurements at few selected angles using protons of 46, 55 and 113 MeV energy. The present results extend the neutron yield data in the 60–70 MeV beam energy range. A comparison of measured yields to MCNP, FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations was performed.

  2. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D 10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation. - Highlights: • 10 MeV eBeam energy was attenuated to 2.9±0.22 MeV using HDPE sheets. • Attenuation of eBeam energy does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella. • Microbial inactivation is independent of eBeam energy in the range of 3–10 MeV

  3. Evidence for detection of 1--10 MeV emission from the Taurus region in 1971 August

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, D.E.; Ling, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Taurus region was scanned in mid-1971 during three balloon flights with an actively shielded NaI detector sensitive between 0.2 and 10 MeV. Below 1 MeV, these observations yielded measurements and upper limits consistent with extensions of the X-ray power laws of 0.0035 (E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 2 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 and 0.0008(E/1 MeV) -2 /sup ./ 1 photons (cm 2 s MeV) -1 for the Crab Nebula and NP 0532, respectively. Above 1 MeV an apparent unpulsed flux, enhanced well above the extrapolated Crab Nebula power law, was observed during the 1971 August 8 flight; it was the most sensitive of the three. For the NP 0532 above 1 MeV on the same date, the measured upper limit of a factor of 8 above the extrapolated power law excludes only the possibility of a large flare-up. The possibility that the observation reported here for 1971 August 8 was a purely instrumental effect, or was produced by environmental radiations, is thoroughly examined, with negative results. If of cosmic origin, the emission must have been short-term (approx.days, months), because other observations in 1973 and 1974 have shown null results. The possibility of variable MeV range emission is discussed in the context of other reported variable emissions in recent years from the Crab and the Taurus region

  4. Methodology used to produce an encoded 1:100,000-scale digital hydrographic data layer for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a River Reach File data layer for the Pacific Northwest for use in water-resource management applications. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) River Reach Files, a geo-referenced river reach data layer at 1:100,000-scale, are encoded with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency"s (EPA) reach numbers. The encoding was a primary task of the River Reach project, because EPA"s reach identifiers are also an integral hydrologic component in a regional Northwest Environmental Data Base-an ongoing effort by Federal and State agencies to compile information on reach-specific resources on rivers in Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and western Montana. A unique conflation algorithm was developed by the USGS to transfer the EPA reach codes and other meaningful attributes from the 1:250,000-scale EPA TRACE graphic files to the PNW Reach Files. The PNW Reach Files also were designed so that reach-specific information upstream or downstream from a point in the stream network could be extracted from feature attribute tables or from a Geographic Information System. This report documents the methodology used to create this 1:100,000-scale hydrologic data layer.

  5. Proposed plan for the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, AND 100-IU-5 Operable Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for the Riverland Rad Yard, the Wahluke Slope, the Sodium Dichromate Baffel Landfill, and the, White Bluffs Pickling Acid Cribs, located at the Hanford Site. These areas are known respectively as the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, and 100-IU-5 Operable Units. Between 1992 and 1994, each of the four operable units was the subject of an expedited response action that addressed removal of site contaminants in soil. Waste sites in the 100-IU-2 (White Bluffs Townsite) and 100-IU-6 (Hanford Townsite) Operable Units will be addressed in future proposed plans. A proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review that summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative. As presented in this proposed plan, no further action is the preferred alternative for the final resolution of the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, and 100-IU-5 Operable Units. The preferred alternative is recommended because all suspect hazardous substances above cleanup levels have been removed from the waste sites, and the sites are unlikely to pose any significant risk to human health or the environment

  6. Calculation of neutron cross sections for sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi in the energy range of 0.5-25 MeV by using the optical model potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, M M H; Faruque, M R I

    2003-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections and differential elastic scattering cross sections for the nuclides sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi were calculated using different global spherical optical potential (SOP) parameter sets at neutron energies from 0.5-25 MeV. Calculated cross sections for the corresponding nuclides were compared with their experimental data obtained by the EXFOR file to select the best fit parameter sets. It is found that the parameter sets of Ferer Rapaport for sup 9 sup 0 Zr and Bechetti and Greenless for sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi are the best fitted set to obtain the experimental data of total cross sections and angular distributions of these nuclides. (author)

  7. Negative pion-nucleus elastic scattering at 30 and 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.; Barlow, D.; Iversen, S.; Kaletka, M.; Nann, H.; Smith, D.; Artuso, M.; Burleson, G.; Blanpied, G.; Daw, G.; Burger, W.J.; Redwine, R.P.; Saghai, B.; Anderson, R.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of 30 and 50 MeV π - by nuclei ranging from 12 C to 208 Pb have been measured using a range spectrometer. Comparison is made with the predictions of a recent optical-model calculation and the general nature of discrepancies is discussed

  8. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  9. Measurement of (n,Xn) reaction cross sections at 96 MeV; Measure des sections efficaces (n,Xn) a 96 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado Garcia, Melle Inmaculada C. [Ecole Doctorale: SINEM, U.F.R. de Sciences, Universite de Caen/Basse-Normandie, Esplanade Paix14000 Caen (France)

    2006-10-15

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n,Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross section measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 angle - 98 angle). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100) MeV. The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparison between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its treatment of nucleon-nucleon reactions. (author)

  10. Photon mass energy absorption coefficients from 0.4 MeV to 10 MeV for silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oz, H.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2006-01-01

    The absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 MeV and 10 MeV in silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  11. Photon mass energy absorption coefficients from 0.4 MeV to 10 MeV for silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, H.; Gurler, O.; Gultekin, A. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkmenistan); Yalcin, S. [Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkmenistan); Gundogdu, O. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The absorption coefficients have been widely used for problems and applications involving dose calculations. Direct measurements of the coefficients are difficult, and theoretical computations are usually employed. In this paper, analytical equations are presented for determining the mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays with an incident energy range between 0.4 MeV and 10 MeV in silicon, carbon, copper and sodium iodide. The mass energy absorption coefficients for gamma rays were calculated, and the results obtained were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  12. Pulsioxymetry monitorization during lower third molar extraction. A comparative study of three local anesthetics with epinephrine 1:100.000

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Aspa, Regina; Carrera Grañó, Imma; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la frecuencia cardíaca y la saturación de oxígeno bajo el efecto de tres anestésicos locales diferentes, con la misma concentración de epinefrina, durante la extracción de un tercer molar inferior en pacientes sanos. Los anestésicos locales utilizados fueron articaína al 4%, lidocaína al 2% y mepivacaína al 2%, los tres con una concentración de epinefrina de 1:100.000. Se diseñó un estudio de doble ciego, paralelo y no aleatorizado. Los pacientes fuero...

  13. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen SM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Christiansen,1 Mark D Mifflin,1 Jason N Edmonds,1 Rachel G Simpson,2 Majid Moshirfar11John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.Methods: The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis.Results: For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00–0.75 preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00–1.75 postoperatively (P = 0.014, compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00–0.75 preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00–2.00 postoperatively (P = 0.041. PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.50 and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00–1.50, P = 0.955. Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00–1.70 in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.80, P = 0.482, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder.Conclusion: Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK.Keywords: surgically-induced astigmatism, ablation, photorefractive keratectomy, laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

  14. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P; McCallum, J C [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P.; McCallum, J.C. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Astigmatism induced by conventional spherical ablation after PRK and LASIK in myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Steven M; Mifflin, Mark D; Edmonds, Jason N; Simpson, Rachel G; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00-1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00-0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00-2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00-1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00-1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00-1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder. Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK.

  17. Measurements of pp→π+d between 398 MeV and 572 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, D.; Favier, B.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Hess, R.; Junod, A.; Lechanoine, C.; Nikles, J.-C.; Rapin, D.; Werren, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction pp→π + d was studied at incident proton energies of 398, 455, 497, 530 and 572 MeV. Measurements of dsigma/dΩ at 455 and 572 MeV show the presence of pion d-waves in the pion-deuteron system. Asymmetry measurements yield similar conclusions. Total cross-section measurements agree with recent fits to earlier data. (Auth.)

  18. Calorimetry for absorbed dose measurement at 1-4 MeV electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2000-01-01

    Calorimeters are used for dose measurement, calibration and intercomparisons at industrial electron accelerators, and their use at 10 MeV electron accelerators is well documented. The work under this research agreement concerns development of calorimeters for use at electron accelerators with energies in the range of 2-4 MeV. The dose range of the calorimeters is 3-40 kGy, and their temperature stability after irradiation was found to be sufficient for practical use in an industrial environment. Measurement uncertainties were determined to be 5% at k = 2. (author)

  19. Rapid chromatographic separation of dissoluble Ag(I) and silver-containing nanoparticles of 1-100 nanometer in antibacterial products and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2014-12-16

    Sensitive and rapid methods for speciation analysis of nanoparticulate Ag (NAg) and Ag(I) in complex matrices are urgently needed for understanding the environmental effects and biological toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein we report the development of a universal liquid chromatography (LC) method for rapid and high resolution separation of dissoluble Ag(I) from nanoparticles covering the entire range of 1-100 nm in 5 min. By using a 500 Å poresize amino column, and an aqueous mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) FL-70 (a surfactant) and 2 mM Na2S2O3 at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min, all the nanoparticles of various species such as Ag and Ag2S were eluted in one fraction, while dissoluble Ag(I) was eluted as a baseline separated peak. The dissoluble Ag(I) was quantified by the online coupled ICP-MS with a detection limit of 0.019 μg/L. The NAg was quantified by subtracting the dissoluble Ag(I) from the total Ag content, which was determined by ICP-MS after digestion of the sample without LC separation. While the addition of FL-70 and Na2S2O3 into the mobile phase is essential to elute NAg and Ag(I) from the column, the use of 500 Å poresize column is the key to baseline separation of Ag(I) from ∼ 1 nm AgNPs. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in speciation analysis of dissoluble Ag(I) and NAg in antibacterial products and environmental waters, with very good chromatographic repeatability (relative standard deviations) in both peak area (<2%) and retention time (<0.6%), excellent spiked recoveries in the range of 84.7-102.7% for Ag(I) and 81.3-106.3% for NAg. Our work offers a novel approach to rapid and baseline separation of dissoluble metal ions from their nanoparticulate counterparts covering the whole range of 1-100 nm.

  20. Thermoluminescence response of Ge-, Al- and Nd- doped optical fibers by 6 MeV - electron and 6 MeV - photon irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, I.; Moburak, A. A.; Saeed, M.A.; Wagiran, H.; Hida, N.; Yaakob, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the prediction of thermoluminescence responses of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre with various dose ranges from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy by 6 MeV - electron irradiations without requirement for experimental measurements. A technique has been developed to calculate prediction of 6 MeV - electron response of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre by observing the measured TL response of 6 MV - photon and the ratio of known measured photon/electron yield ratio distribution for Ge-doped, Al-doped optical fibre and standard TLD 100 dosimeter. The samples were kept in gelatin capsule an irradiated with 6 MV - photon at the dose range from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy. Siemens model Primus 3368 linear accelerator located at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru has been used to deliver the photon beam to the samples. We found the average response ratio of 6 MV - photon and 6 MeV - electron in Ge-doped, Al-doped optical fibre and standard TLD-100 dosimeter are 0.83(3). Observing the measured value of 6 MV - photon irradiation this average ratio is useful to find the prediction of thermoluminescence responses by 6 MeV - electron irradiation of Neodymium-doped SiO 2 optical fibre by the requirement for experimental measurements with various dose ranges from 0.5 Gy to 4.0 Gy by 6 MV - photon irradiations.

  1. Actinide neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fission and total level densities modelling along with double-humped fission barrier parameters allow to describe available actinide neutron-induced fission cross section data in the incident neutron energy range of ∼ 10 keV - 20 MeV. Saddle asymmetries relevant to shell correction model calculations influence fission barriers, extracted by cross section data analysis. The inner barrier was assumed axially symmetric in case of U, Np and Pu neutron-deficient nuclei. It is shown that observed irregularities in neutron-induced fission cross section data in the energy range of 0.5-3 MeV could be attributed to the interplay of few-quasiparticle excitations in the level density of fissioning and residual nuclei. Estimates of first-chance fission cross section and secondary neutron spectrum model were validated by 238 U fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) data description up to 20 MeV. (author)

  2. Actinide neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V M [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    2001-12-15

    Fission and total level densities modelling along with double-humped fission barrier parameters allow to describe available actinide neutron-induced fission cross section data in the incident neutron energy range of {approx} 10 keV - 20 MeV. Saddle asymmetries relevant to shell correction model calculations influence fission barriers, extracted by cross section data analysis. The inner barrier was assumed axially symmetric in case of U, Np and Pu neutron-deficient nuclei. It is shown that observed irregularities in neutron-induced fission cross section data in the energy range of 0.5-3 MeV could be attributed to the interplay of few-quasiparticle excitations in the level density of fissioning and residual nuclei. Estimates of first-chance fission cross section and secondary neutron spectrum model were validated by {sup 238}U fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) data description up to 20 MeV. (author)

  3. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Ivanov, E.; Plostinaru, D.; Popa-Nemoiu, A.; Pascovichi, G.

    1985-01-01

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14 N (p,n) 14 O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14 O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  4. Mitigation action plan for liquid waste sites in the 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.G.

    1996-05-01

    A Record of Decision (ROD) was issued for remediation of waste sites in the 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) explains how mitigation measures for these remedial activities will be planned and implemented. The new activities planned in the ROD are not anticipated to result in releases of hazardous substances and will minimize disturbance of currently undisturbed areas. However, certain actions required by the ROD may result in the redisturbance of areas of recovering vegetation. This MAP presents a strategy for limiting disturbances and identifies an opportunity for revegetating a previously disturbed site; the knowledge gained from this demonstration project can be applied to final revegetation of the rest of the remediated sites and sites disturbed during cleanup when remediation of an area is completed. This work will be conducted in coordination with the Natural Resource Trustees Council and Native American Tribes to help minimize impacts to natural resources and cultural resources from project activities and to restore the remediated sites to an appropriate level of habitat

  5. A through calculation of 1,100 MWe PWR large break LOCA by THYDE-P1 EM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Masayuki; Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi

    1984-07-01

    THYDE-P1 is a code to analyze both the blowdown and refill-reflood phases of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Up to now, THYDE-P1 has been applied to various experiment analyses, which show its high capability to analyze LOCAs as a best estimate (BE) calculation code. In this report, evaluation model (EM) calculation method, especialy in the blowdown and refill phases, is established equivalently to WREM/J2 which is regarded as appropriate for an EM calculation code, and the results of them are compared and discussed. The present calculation was the first executed by THYDE-P1-EM, and was performed as Sample Calculation Run 80 which was a part of a series of THYDE-P sample calculations. The calculation was carried out from the LOCA initiation till 400 seconds for a guillotine break at the cold leg of a commercial 1,100 MWe PWR plant. The calculated results agreed well to that of the WREM/J2 code. (author)

  6. Optimisation of 12 MeV electron beam simulation using variance reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayamani, J; Aziz, M Z Abdul; Termizi, N A S Mohd; Kamarulzaman, F N Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for electron beam radiotherapy consumes a long computation time. An algorithm called variance reduction technique (VRT) in MC was implemented to speed up this duration. This work focused on optimisation of VRT parameter which refers to electron range rejection and particle history. EGSnrc MC source code was used to simulate (BEAMnrc code) and validate (DOSXYZnrc code) the Siemens Primus linear accelerator model with the non-VRT parameter. The validated MC model simulation was repeated by applying VRT parameter (electron range rejection) that controlled by global electron cut-off energy 1,2 and 5 MeV using 20 × 10 7 particle history. 5 MeV range rejection generated the fastest MC simulation with 50% reduction in computation time compared to non-VRT simulation. Thus, 5 MeV electron range rejection utilized in particle history analysis ranged from 7.5 × 10 7 to 20 × 10 7 . In this study, 5 MeV electron cut-off with 10 × 10 7 particle history, the simulation was four times faster than non-VRT calculation with 1% deviation. Proper understanding and use of VRT can significantly reduce MC electron beam calculation duration at the same time preserving its accuracy. (paper)

  7. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.

    1998-11-01

    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  8. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0 degree, 22 degree, 45 degree, and 90 degree in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm 3 to 1000 cm 3 were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0 degree, 22 degree, and 45 degree, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90 degree. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations

  9. Integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with d-Li neutrons up to 55 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moellendorff, Ulrich von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wada, Masayuki [Business Automation Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with a deuteron-lithium neutron source was performed. Since the maximum energy of neutrons produced was 55 MeV, the experiment with associated analysis was one of the first attempts for extending the energy range beyond 20 MeV. The following keywords represent the present study: d-Li neutrons, 55 MeV, dosimetry, SAND-II, spectrum adjustment, LA-150, MCNP, McDeLi, IFMIF, fusion reactor materials, integral activation experiment, low-activation, F82H, vanadium-alloy, IEAF, ALARA, and sequential charged particle reaction. (author)

  10. Electromagnetic form factors for the 14.39 and 17.50 MeV levels of 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, I.C.; Wong, C.F.; Caplan, H.S.

    1974-01-01

    The form factors for the 14.39 and 17.50 MeV levels of 9 Be have been measured for momentum transfer in the range between 0.47 and 1.08 fm -1 . Radiative widths for the transitions and the transition radii were also obtained. The results are consistent with the attribution of an M1 transition to the 14.39 MeV level and an M2 to the 17.50 MeV level [pt

  11. Theoretical calculation of n + {sup 59}Co reaction in energy region up to 100 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbiao, Shen; Baosheng, Yu; Dunjiu, Cai [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    A set of neutron optical potential parameters for {sup 59}Co in energy region of 2{approx}100 MeV was obtained based on concerned experimental data. Various cross sections of n + {sup 59}Co reactions were calculated and predicted. The calculated results show that the activation products {sup 58,57}Co, {sup 59}Fe and {sup 56}Mn are main neutron monitor reaction products for n + {sup 59}Co reaction in energy range up to 100 MeV. {sup 54}Mn production reaction can be a promising neutron monitor reaction in the energy region from 30 to 100 MeV. (6 figs.).

  12. Differential production cross sections for charged particles produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of thin metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Cierjacks, S.; Hino, Y.; Raupp, F.; Rainbow, M.T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Buth, L.

    1981-01-01

    Differential production cross sections have been measured for the reactions (p,p), (p,d), (p,t) and (p,π+-) using the 590 MeV proton beam at SIN. Here we report measurements made on thin targets of aluminium, niobium, lead, and uranium at laboratory angles of 90 0 and 157 0 . The data were taken over a proton energy range of about 50 MeV to 590 MeV. Differential cross sections are reported along with predictions by the intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model as computed by HETC. (orig.)

  13. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  14. Neutron-proton elastic scattering between 200 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.S.; Gibson, D.R.; Axen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements over an extensive angular range of the Dsub(t) and P parameters in free neutron-proton elastic scattering at laboratory energies of 220, 325, 425 and 495 MeV are reported. Experimental and analytical details are given. (author)

  15. The scattering of polarized deuterons on 3He between 10 and 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsen, G.G.; Jarmie, N.; Haglund, R.H. Jr.; Brown, R.E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Using the LASL polarized beam facility, the cross section and vector and tensor analysing powers for the 3 He(d vector,d) 3 He and 3 He(d vector,p) 4 He reactions have been measured in a large angular range at energies between 10 and 17 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  16. Dislocation Climb Sources Activated by 1 MeV Electron Irradiation of Copper-Nickel Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, Torben

    1977-01-01

    Climb sources emitting dislocation loops are observed in Cu-Ni alloys during irradiation with 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. High source densities are found in alloys containing 5, 10 and 20% Ni, but sources are also observed in alloys containing 1 and 2% Ni. The range of ...

  17. Response of TAPS to monochromatic photons with energies between 45 and 790 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, A.R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Doering, W. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Fuchs, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Krusche, B. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Metag, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Novotny, R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Roebig-Landau, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Stroeher, H. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Tries, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Molenaar, C. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Loehner, H. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Van Pol, J.H

    1994-07-15

    The Two Arm Photon Spectrometer TAPS - comprising 384 plastic-BaF[sub 2] scintillator telescopes - was tested with monochromatic photons in the energy range between 45 and 790 MeV. The energy resolution for a collimated photon beam hitting the central detector module was determined to [sigma]/E=0.59%xE[sup -1/2][sub [gamma

  18. Measurement of (n,Xn) reaction cross sections at 96 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagrado Garcia, Melle Inmaculada C.

    2006-10-01

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n,Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross section measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 angle - 98 angle). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100) MeV. The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparison between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its treatment of nucleon-nucleon reactions. (author)

  19. Measurements and amplitude analysis of small angle pp polarization between 398 and 572 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, D; Greeniaus, L G; Hess, R; Junod, A; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Nikles, J C; Rapin, D; Werren, D W

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported of an experiment performed at CERN in which a 38% polarized beam of protons was scattered on a carbon target and the measurements were made at 398, 455, 530 and 572 MeV in the CM angular range 4 degrees < Theta *<22 degrees . It is shown that the data are in good agreement with phase shift analysis predictions. (7 refs).

  20. Pion production from deuterium by the bombardment with polarized protons of 277 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolos, G.J.; Auld, E.G.; Giles, G.; Jones, G.; McParland, B.; Ottewell, D.; Walden, P.L.; Zeigler, W.

    1982-11-01

    Analyzing power measurements of the (anti) pd → tπ + reaction are reported at incident proton energies of 277 and 500 MeV. The 277 MeV results span the angular range from 70 0 to 130 0 in the centre of mass while the two 500 MeV measurements at large angles were taken as a check of published results. With the angular distribution of the analyzing power at 277 MeV being now available, an examination of the energy dependence of the analyzing power shows that it exhibits characteristics closely resembling the shape and magnitude of the distribution observed for nuclei in the 9-12 mass range

  1. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references

  2. Number transmission of 0.6 and 0.8MeV electrons in elemental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harami, Taikan; Takagaki, Torao; Matsuda, Koji; Nakai, Yohta.

    1975-01-01

    The number transmissions of electrons in Be, Al, Cu and Ag were obtained experimentally for well collimated electron beams of 0.6 and 0.8 MeV. Experimental results of the present work join smoothly to the previous ones of 1.0 MeV to 2.0 MeV electrons. The ratios of extrapolated range Rsub(ex) to true range R 0 give generally minimum values near 1 MeV (approximately 2mc 2 ) as well as the stopping power. An investigation was done for empirical equation of the form eta=exp(-xP/CEsup(m)), where E is the incident electron energy, x, penetration depth, and p, C and m are the parameters determined from experimental data. (author)

  3. Scattering of antiprotons from carbon at 46.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garetta, D.; Birien, P.; Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Janouin, S.; Legrand, D.; Mallet-Lemaire, M.C.; Mayer, B.; Pain, J.; Drake, D.M.; Peng, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Antiproton-carbon elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections have been measured at 46.8 MeV over an angular range 6 0 0 with a magnetic spectrometer. Fits to the elastic and inelastic 4.44 MeV excited state cross sections put realistic limits on the strengths of the real and imaginary parts of the antiproton-carbon optical potential. The continuum cross section due to carbon break-up appears to be smaller than it is for corresponding proton data. (orig.)

  4. Design of the MYRRHA 17-600 MeV Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J-L; Bouly, F; Carneiro, J-P; Vandeplassche, D

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the MYRRHA project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation in a 100MWth Accelerator Driven System (ADS) by building a new flexible irradiation complex in Mol (Belgium). The MYRRHA facility requires a 600 MeV accelerator delivering a maximum proton flux of 4 mA in continuous operation, with an additional requirement for exceptional reliability. This paper will briefly describe the beam dynamics design of the main superconducting linac section which covers the 17 to 600 MeV energy range and requires enhanced fault-tolerance capabilities.

  5. Neutron response matrix for unfolding NE-213 measurements to 21 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Wehring, B.W.; Johnson, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron response matrix from measured neutron responses of NE-213 in the energy range of 0.2 to 22 MeV is presented. An interpolation scheme was used to construct an 81-column matrix from the data of Verbinski, Burrus, Love, Zobel, and Hill. As a test of the new response matrix, the Cf-252 neutron spectrum was measured and unfolded using the new response matrix and the FORIST unfolding code. The spectrum agrees well with previous measurements at lower energies, while providing new information above 8 MeV

  6. Intensity maps of MeV electrons and protons below the radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, T.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuchi, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    The global distributions of energetic electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.64 - 35 MeV) are shown in the form of contour maps. The data were obtained by two sets of energetic particle telescopes on board the satellite OHZORA. The observed altitude range is 350 - 850 Km. Ten degress meshes in longitude and latitude were used to obtain the intensity contours. A pitch angle distribution of J(α) = J(90). sin n α with n = 5 A is assumed to get the average intensity in each mesh. (author) [pt

  7. National Rail Network: 1:100,000 (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  8. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of 6Li in the few MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 6 Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx. 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;α)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file

  9. 29Si(d,3He)28Al reaction at 29 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernotte, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Fortier, S.; Hourani, E.; Kalifa, J.; Khendriche, A.; Maison, J.M.; Rosier, L.H.; Rotbard, G.

    1994-01-01

    The 29 Si(d, 3 He) 28 Al reaction has been investigated at 29 MeV incident energy. Observations using a split-pole magnetic spectrograph have been made of 55 levels of 28 Al in the range of excitation energy between 0 and 6.7 MeV. Most of them have been identified with 28 Al levels which have been previously observed by other techniques. The spectroscopic factors have been obtained for 23 of these levels through distorted-wave Born approximation analyses of measured angular distributions. The levels at E x =3.105 and 3.762 MeV have been definitely assigned J π =1 + and 0 + , respectively. Four levels which are populated through the pickup of a l p =1 proton have been observed at E x =4.998, 5.406, 6.021, and 6.652 MeV. The excitation energies and spectroscopic factors for positive-parity states were compared with the results of a recent, complete sd-shell space, shell-model calculation. This comparison led to the identification of 21 shell-model levels with experimental levels. This comparison seems accurate enough to make very likely the J π =3 + assignment for the levels at E x =2.988 and 4.597 MeV which were previously assigned J π =(1,3) +

  10. Elastic scattering of antiprotons from carbon, calcium, and lead at 180 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garreta, D.; Birien, P.; Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Drake, D.M.; Janouin, S.; Legrand, D.; Lemaire, M.C.; Mayer, B.; Pain, J.; Peng, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Angular distributions for elastic scattering of 180 MeV antiprotons from 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb have been measured over a wide angular range with a magnetic spectrometer. In general, microscopic calculations agree fairly well with the data. Optical-model fits with Woods-Saxon parametrization determine the magnitude and the relative strength of the real and imaginary potentials at the nuclear surface. When the shape of the potentials is derived from that of the charge distribution, the depth of the real potential is found to be shallow (30 MeV 0 12 C scattering at 46.8 MeV and with a recent analysis of anti p-atom data. (orig.)

  11. A direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchione, T.; Denes, P.; Jobe, R. K.; Johnson, I. J.; Joseph, J. M.; Li, R. K.; Perazzo, A.; Shen, X.; Wang, X. J.; Weathersby, S. P.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of direct electron detectors enabled the structural biology revolution of cryogenic electron microscopy. Direct electron detectors are now expected to have a similarly dramatic impact on time-resolved MeV electron microscopy, particularly by enabling both spatial and temporal jitter correction. Here we report on the commissioning of a direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy. The direct electron detector demonstrated MeV single electron sensitivity and is capable of recording megapixel images at 180 Hz. The detector has a 15-bit dynamic range, better than 30-μmμm spatial resolution and less than 20 analogue-to-digital converter count RMS pixel noise. The unique capabilities of the direct electron detector and the data analysis required to take advantage of these capabilities are presented. The technical challenges associated with generating and processing large amounts of data are also discussed.

  12. /sup 12/C(γ,n) cross section from 30 to 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, P.D.; Thompson, M.N.; O'Keefe, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports a measurement of the differential photoneutron cross section of /sup 12/C at 65 0 , between E/sub γ/ = 30 and 100 MeV. Tagged photons, monochromatic to within 2.6 MeV, were used, thus allowing the cross sections to a wide range of final states to be observed. The results are compared to the photoproton cross section of /sup 12/C, which was measured previously, under similar conditions. Comparisons are also made with calculations based on the quasi-deuteron model, and with calculations by Gari and Hebach, and Cavinato et al. These latter calculations incorporate two-body effects by the inclusion of meson exchange currents. The agreement between these calculations and the measured cross section is in contrast to predictions of a direct, single-nucleon knockout model of the reaction mechanism, indicating the importance of two-body effects in the photoreaction process for energies greater than 50 MeV

  13. Two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron from 100 to 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, R.; Ahrens, J.; Altieri, S.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anthony, I.; Audit, G.; Beck, R.; Braghieri, A.; D`Hose, N.; Hall, S.; Isbert, V.; Kellie, J.D.; Kerhoas, S.; MacCormick, M.; MacGeorge, J.C.; Medaglia, R.; Miller, G.J.; Murphy, L.Y.; Owens, R.O.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphys.]|[INFN, Sezione di Pavia (Italy)]|[Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica]|[CEA-DAPNIA/SPhN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-06-24

    The total and the differential cross sections for the D({gamma},p)n reaction have been measured over the photon energy range 100-800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz. Using the large acceptance detector DAPHNE in conjunction with the Glasgow tagging spectrometer, high precision results with small systematic errors were obtained. The data are presented in the form of thirty-five angular distributions at c.m. proton angles between 30 {sup circle} -160 {sup circle} in 10 {sup circle} intervals and at photon energies in steps of 20 MeV. Previous experimental work is reassessed in the light of the present results and comparison with some recent theoretical calculations. (orig.).

  14. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  15. 50 MeV Run of the IOTA / FAST Electron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstrom Jr., D.; et al.

    2017-02-02

    The low-energy section of the photoinjector-based electron linear accelerator at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility was recently commissioned to an energy of 50 MeV. This linear accelerator relies primarily upon pulsed SRF acceleration and an optional bunch compressor to produce a stable beam within a large operational regime in terms of bunch charge, total average charge, bunch length, and beam energy. Various instrumentation was used to characterize fundamental properties of the electron beam including the intensity, stability, emittance, and bunch length. While much of this instrumentation was commissioned in a 20 MeV running period prior, some (including a new Martin- Puplett interferometer) was in development or pending installation at that time. All instrumentation has since been recommissioned over the wide operational range of beam energies up to 50 MeV, intensities up to 4 nC/pulse, and bunch structures from ~1 ps to more than 50 ps in length.

  16. Phenomenological optical model for p-/sup 4/He elastic scattering. [560 to 1730 MeV: Dirac equation optical model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, R L [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, N.Y. (USA); Arnold, L G; Clark, B C [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-30

    The results of a Dirac equation optical model analysis of p-/sup 4/He elastic scattering data are reported. The optical potential obtained at 1029 MeV reproduces the systematics of p-/sup 4/He data over the energy range from 560 to 1730 MeV.

  17. Study of the gamma spectra emitted in a nuclear reaction - Measurement of the half-lives of the levels 6.13 MeV, 6.92 MeV and 7.12 MeV of 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leccia, F.

    1967-01-01

    When the energy shifts of the gamma spectrum released during a nuclear reaction are important compared with the detector resolution, the comparison of the experimental spectrum with theoretical spectra allows us to determine the half-life of the initial state of the transition. The calculation of the experimental spectrum implies to know the slowing-down of the recoil nucleus in the matter in order to take into account the Doppler effect. For recoil energies in the range of the MeV and for solid media, the Lindhard theory agrees well with experimental data. The phenomenon of deflection which appears at very low energies must be taken into account by restraining the measurement domain. By choosing an adequate media we can measure half-lives in the domain 1 and 100 fs without needing to take into account deflection effects. We have measured the half-life of the first 3 energy levels of 16 O (6.135 MeV, 6.923 MeV and 7.121 MeV), these levels are reached through the reaction 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O with proton incident energies ranging from 0.872 MeV to 2.42 MeV. We have used a coaxial germanium semi-conductor with lithium additions that was connected to an amplification line of Ortec type. 2 kinds of target have been used: calcium fluoride and copper fluoride evaporated on tantalum support. We have obtained the following values for the half-life: (16±4) fs for the 6.923 MeV level, (18±4) fs for the 7.121 MeV level, and for the 6.135 MeV we can only give a lower limit since the gamma decay occurs when the nucleus is at rest τ > 200 fs

  18. 200-MeV bremsstrahlung tagged photon beams at Sendai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Chiba, M.; Inoue, M.; Kanda, H.; Kimura, R.; Kino, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Konno, O.; Maeda, K.; Miyase, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Ohtsuki, T.; Saito, A.; Suda, T.; Takahashi, K.; Tamae, T.; Terasaki, Y.; Terasawa, T.; Tsubota, H.; Tsuruta, T.; Utoyama, M.; Yuuki, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamazaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    A new beam line for photonuclear reaction experiments using tagged photons has been constructed to take advantage of the completion of the 1.2-GeV STretcher Booster (STB) ring at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), Tohoku University. A photon tagging system was installed at the end of the new beam line. It provides bremsstrahlung tagged photon beams in an energy range from 0.2E 0 to 0.8E 0 MeV at the incident electron energy E 0 with an energy resolution of ΔE/E∼10 -2 . The tagged photon intensity I= 6 photons/s is available for typical photonuclear reaction experiments. We introduce the basic parameters of the tagged photons by showing the commissioning data

  19. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Beams of protons with several different energies have now been successfully transported between the injector cyclotron SPC1 and the SSC. Some small modifications to the placement of steering magnets and diagnostic equipment have been made in the light of our operational experience, which should improve the ease of tuning this beamline. Proton beams up to 200 MeV in energy have been transported to the experimental areas, where experiments in nuclear physics have been successful conducted. Three of the experimental beamlines are now in operation. Beams of 66 MeV protons have also been transported to targets in the isotope production vault, without difficulty. Field mapping of the remaining quadrupoles on site has been completed. Installation of and alignment of magnets up to the beam swinger is also complete, although the beam tube itself, plus vacuum and diagnostic equipment must still be tackled. The beam swinger has been designed and detailed in the drawing office, and is now being manufactured locally. The beamline elements for the sepctrometer beamline remain to be purchased. A personal computer has been purchased for controlling the field-mapping equipment for the spectrometer magnets, which are being manufactured in this country. A number of computer programs have been written for conversion of calibrated quadrupole and dipole magnet field data to absolute current values for the control system. Other programs permit diagnostic measurements of beam profiles to be used to calculated the beam emittance, or to set steering magnets so that the beam is correctly aligned

  20. Study of the /sup 12/N 2. 43 MeV level. [Differential cross sections; 44 MeV /sup 3/He; 52 MeV p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, F E; Shepard, J R; Sercely, R R; Peterson, R J [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.; King, N S.P. [California Univ., Davis (USA). Crocker Nuclear Lab.

    1976-10-11

    The differential cross sections have been measured for the reactions /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He, /sup 3/He')/sup 12/C(17.77 MeV 0/sup +/ T = 1) and /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He, t)/sup 12/N(2.43 MeV) at Esub(/sup 3/He) = 44 MeV. The similar shapes of the angular distributions and the relative magnitudes of the cross sections suggest that the /sup 12/N 2.43 MeV level is the 0/sup +/ T = 1 analog to the /sup 12/C 17.77 MeV level. The reaction /sup 14/N(p, t)/sup 12/N(2.43 MeV) at Esub(p) = 52 MeV is also studied. The strength with which this level is excited in this reaction is consistent with reasonable two-step calculations assuming the 2.43 MeV level to have Jsup(..pi..) = 0/sup +/.

  1. Calculation of neutron cross sections on iron up to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of high energy d + Li neutron sources for fusion materials radiation damage studies will require neutron cross sections up to 40 MeV. Experimental data above 15 MeV are generally sparse or nonexistent, and reliance must be placed upon nuclear-model calculations to produce the needed cross sections. To satisfy such requirements for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), neutron cross sections have been calculated for 54 56 Fe between 3 and 40 MeV. These results were joined to the existing ENDF/B-V evaluation below 3 MeV. In this energy range, most neutron reactions can be described using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model with corrections for preequilibrium and direct-reaction effects. To properly use these models to obtain realistic cross sections, emphasis must be placed upon the determination of suitable input parameters (optical model sets, gamma-ray strength functions, level densities) valid over the energy range of the calculation. To do this, several types of independent data were used to arrive at consistent parameter sets as described

  2. 14 MeV neutrons physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2015-01-01

    Despite the often difficult and time-consuming effort of performing experiments with fast (14 MeV) neutrons, these neutrons can offer special insight into nucleus and other materials because of the absence of charge. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications explores fast neutrons in basic science and applications to problems in medicine, the environment, and security.Drawing on his more than 50 years of experience working with 14 MeV neutrons, the author focuses on:Sources of 14 MeV neutrons, including laboratory size accelerators, small and sealed tube generators, well logging sealed tube ac

  3. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G., E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.i [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A. [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O.Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mehta, K. [Arbeiterstrandbad Strasse 72, Vienna, A-1210 (Austria); Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S. [Aerial, Parc d' Innovation Rue Laurent Fries F-67400 Illkirch (France)

    2010-03-11

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  4. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  5. Effect of substrate temperature on the radiation damage from MeV Si implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.K.; Shao Lin; Rusakova, Irene; Wang, X.M.; Ma, K.B.; Chen, H.; Liu, Jiarui; Chu, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage by MeV implantation of Si in Si and its evolution under thermal annealing. Si wafers were implanted with MeV Si at various substrate temperatures. Damages were characterized by Rutherford-backscattering (RBS) channeling and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Defect formation after post-implantation annealing is very sensitive to the substrate temperatures during implantation. When the substrate temperature was decreased to 200 K, TEM revealed two distinct bands of damage after annealing: one around the mean projected ion range and another at half the projected range. Our study indicates that the formation of defects at half range results from the solid phase epitaxy growth of initial buried amorphous layers

  6. Si exfoliation by MeV proton implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley, Carole; Mazen, Frédéric; Tauzin, Aurélie; Rieutord, François; Deguet, Chrystel; Ntsoenzok, Esidor

    2012-01-01

    Proton implantation in silicon and subsequent annealing are widely used in the Smart Cut™ technology to transfer thin layers from a substrate to another. The low implantation energy range involved in this process is usually from a few ten to a few hundred of keV, which enables the separation of up to 2 μm thick layers. New applications in the fields of 3D integration and photovoltaic wafer manufacturing raise the demand for extending this technology to higher energy in order to separate thicker layer from a substrate. In this work, we propose to investigate the effect of proton implantation in single crystalline silicon in the 1–3 MeV range which corresponds to a 15–100 μm range for the hydrogen maximum concentration depth. We show that despites a considerably lower hydrogen concentration at R p , the layer separation is obtained with fluence close to the minimum fluence required for low energy implantation. It appears that the fracture propagation in Si and the resulting surface morphology is affected by the substrate orientation. Defects evolution is investigated with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The two orientations reveal similar type of defects but their evolution under annealing appears to be different.

  7. Coherent pion production induced by 300 MeV and 600 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data on (d,π - ) reactions at 300 and 600 MeV incident energy are presented. Inclusive spectra on 6 Li, 9 Be and 10 B targets near the kinematical limit do not show the usual scaling behaviour. For the two-body reaction 6 Li (d,π - ) 8 B the lowest-energy discrete states of the final nucleus were clearly resolved and the cross sections for pion production leading to those states have been determined. (orig.)

  8. Calculation of the energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays between 1 and 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays at 4 g/cm 2 has been calculated for cut-off rigidities of 4.5, 10 and 16 GV. The considered processes for the production of these gamma-rays were the π 0 decay plus the bremsstrahlung from primary, secondary like splash and re-entrant albedo electrons. The calculations indicated that the spectrum could be fitted to a power law in energy, with the exponential index varying from 1.1 in the energy range 1 - 10 MeV, to 1.4 in the energy range 10 - 200 MeV and 1.8 in the energy range 200 - 1000 MeV. These results are discussed [pt

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of channeled and random profiles of heavy ions implanted in silicon at high energy (1.2 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzone, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study channeling effects and implants of heavy ions with energy of few MeV in silicon, ion distributions are calculated with a Monte Carlo method for axial [(001) axis], planar, and nominally random directions for As + and P + ions implanted into silicon with energies in the range 100 keV to 2 MeV. The calculation indicates an appreciable channeling at the higher energy only for the (001) axis and the (110) planes. For heavy ions with energy in the MeV range the subsidence of channeling into major channels and the disappearance of minor channels are shown

  10. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  11. 46 CFR 56.01-3 - Power boilers, external piping and appurtenances (Replaces 100.1.1, 100.1.2, 122.1, 132 and 133).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power boilers, external piping and appurtenances... boilers, external piping and appurtenances (Replaces 100.1.1, 100.1.2, 122.1, 132 and 133). (a) Power boiler external piping and components must meet the requirements of this part and §§ 52.01-105, 52.01-110...

  12. High energy proton simulation of 14-MeV neutron damage in Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; Bunch, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-energy protons are a potentially useful tool for simulating the radiation damage produced by 14-MeV neutrons in CTR materials. A comparison is given of calculations and measurements of the relative damage effectiveness of these two types of radiation in single-crystal Al 2 O 3 . The experiments make use of the prominent absorption band at 206 nm as an index to lattice damage, on the assumption that peak absorption is proportional to the concentration of lattice vacancies. The induced absorption is measured for incident proton energies ranging from 5 to 15 MeV and for 14-MeV neutrons. Recoil-energy spectra are calculated for elastic and inelastic scattering using published angular distributions. Recoil-energy spectra also are calculated for the secondary alpha particles and 12 C nuclei produced by (p,p'α) reactions on 16 O. The recoil spectra are converted to damage-energy spectra and then integrated to yield the damage-energy cross section at each proton energy and for 14 MeV neutrons. A comparison of the calculations with experimental results suggests that damage energy, at least at high energies, is a reasonable criterion for estimating this type of radiation damage. (auth)

  13. Physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; An Shizhong; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhiguo; Wei Sumin; Li Ming; Yang Jianjun; Ji Bin; Jia Xianlu; Zhong Junqing; Yang Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), which is aimed for multiple uses including radioactive ion-beam (RIB) production. The machine adopts a compact structure of four straight sectors, capable of accelerating two kinds of beams, i.e. H − and D − . The proton and deuteron beam will be extracted in dual opposite directions by charge exchange stripping devices. The energy of the extracted proton beam is in the range 35–70 MeV with an intensity up to 700 μA. The corresponding values for the deuteron beam are 18–33 MeV and 40 μA. This paper will present the main characteristics and parameters in the design of the 70 MeV cyclotron, the results of the basic beam dynamics study, as well as the physics in the design of the different systems, including the main magnet, RF, injection and extraction systems, etc.

  14. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Transport Calculations at Energies up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Pilnov, G.B.; Stankovskiy, A.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    A new evaluated nuclear data library has been created. The library consists of two sub-libraries for neutron and proton incident particles. The first version of neutron sub-library has been completed and described in the present paper. The library contains nuclear data for transport, heating, and shielding applications for 242 nuclides ranging in atomic number from 8 to 82 in the energy region of primary neutrons from 10-5 eV to 150 MeV. Data below 20 MeV are taken mainly from ENDF/B-VI (Revision 8) and for some nuclides, from the JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0 libraries. The evaluation of emitted particle energy and angular distributions at the energies above 20 MeV was performed with the help of the ALICE/ASH code and the analysis of available experimental data. The total cross sections, elastic cross sections, and elastic scattering angular distributions were calculated with the help of the coupled channel model. The results of the calculation were adjusted to the data from ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.3m or JEFF-3.0 at the neutron energy equal to 20 MeV. The library is written in ENDF/B-VI format using the MF=3/MT=5 and MF=6/MT=5 representations

  15. Effects of repulsive three-body force in 12C + 12C scattering at 100A MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.W. Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The angular distribution of 12C + 12C scattering at an incident energy of 100A MeV has been measured. The elastic and inelastic scatterings in 12C to the excitation energies of up to ∼45 MeV were measured simultaneously for the first time with the high-resolution Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP. The angular distributions of the elastic scattering to the ground state (01+ and inelastic scattering to the 4.44 MeV (21+ excited state were precisely obtained in the angular range of 1.0°–7.5° with a step of 0.1°. Additionally, the angular distribution was obtained for the sum of the cross sections for excitation energies above the 4.44 MeV state up to 11 MeV, which includes the 7.65 MeV (02+, 9.64 MeV (31−, and 10.30 MeV (22+ states, in addition to probably the simultaneous excitation of the 4.44 MeV state in the projectile and the target nuclei. Those combined data provide a means to study the effects of channel coupling on the elastic cross section. The observed angular distributions are compared with theoretical calculations based on three double-folding models with complex G-matrix interactions, the CEG07b, MPa, and ESC models. The importance of three-body repulsive forces included in the CEG07b and MPa models will be discussed.

  16. Cross section of the {sup 11}B(n,p) {sup 11}Be reaction for 14.7-16.9 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepancinc, B Z; Stanojevic, D M; Popic, V R; Aleksic, M R [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1966-07-15

    The cross section of the {sup 11}B(n,p){sup 11}Be reaction was determined for neutron energy range from 14.7 to 16.9 MeV using the activation method. Activity measurements were done by using a coincidence spectrometer essentially consisting of two plastic scintillators. Energy dependent cross section values are presented together with the previously measured values for the energy range 14.5 - 16.9 MeV.

  17. Sustained >100 MeV Gamma-Ray Emission: A Monitor for >300 MeV SEP Protons at the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Solar γ radiation is the product of proton and ion interactions in the solar atmosphere. The spectrum and temporal characteristics of the emission provides fundamental information on the ions at the Sun. Until the launch of the Fermi satellite, with its Large Area Telescope (LAT) sensitive to radiation above 100 MeV, most of the γ-ray observations were made in the nuclear energy range with radiation arising from interaction of one to tens of MeV ions produced in solar flares. Since 2008 the LAT has detected 30 high-energy γ-ray events with temporal and spectral characteristics that are distinct from the associated solar flare. We call this radiation Sustained Gamma-Ray Emission (SGRE) and briefly summarize its characteristics reported in a recent paper. The γ-ray spectra are consistent with pion decay radiation produced by protons above 300 MeV. The onset of the radiation most often occurs after the impulsive flare and the emission can last several hours. We find that the number of protons responsible for the SGRE is typically more than 10 times the number of flare-accelerated protons. These characteristics require that there be an additional source of energy to accelerate the protons to hundreds of MeV to produce the SGRE. As 28 of the 30 SGRE events are accompanied by fast CMEs, it is likely that these protons are accelerated by the same shock that produces gradual SEPs. We find that the number of protons >500 MeV in the accompanying SEPs is typically about 50-100 times the number of protons that return to the Sun to produce the SGRE. There also appear to be correlations between the numbers of SEP and SGRE protons and durations of >100 MeV SEP proton and SGRE events. We find that for all SGRE events where there were flare observations, the accompanying impulsive X-radiation reached energies >100 keV. In a limited study of 18 solar events with CME speeds >800 km/s we also find that the median SEP proton flux is 25 times higher when flare hard X-rays exceed 100

  18. Measurements of the 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm cross section between 9.0 and 17.5 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, J.; Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Fnu; Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm cross section have been performed in 0.5 MeV intervals for neutron energies ranging from 9.0 MeV to 17.5 MeV in order to resolve discrepancies in the current literature data. The neutron activation technique was used with 90Zr and 197Au as monitor foils. After irradiation, de-excitation gamma rays were recorded off-line with High-Purity Germanium (HPGE) detectors in TUNL's Low-Background Counting Facility. In addition, data for the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction have also been obtained from 15.5 MeV to 17.5 MeV. The results of these measurements provide the basis for investigating properties of the interial confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Finite-density transition line for QCD with 695 MeV dynamical fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Jeff; Höllwieser, Roman

    2018-06-01

    We apply the relative weights method to SU(3) gauge theory with staggered fermions of mass 695 MeV at a set of temperatures in the range 151 ≤T ≤267 MeV , to obtain an effective Polyakov line action at each temperature. We then apply a mean field method to search for phase transitions in the effective theory at finite densities. The result is a transition line in the plane of temperature and chemical potential, with an end point at high temperature, as expected, but also a second end point at a lower temperature. We cannot rule out the possibilities that a transition line reappears at temperatures lower than the range investigated, or that the second end point is absent for light quarks.

  20. Fission of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au nuclei induced by 30 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshad, Houshyar; Soheyli, Saeed [Amir-Kabir University of Technology, Physics and Nuclear Science Department, Tehran (Iran); Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Nuclear Research Center, Van de Graaff Laboratory, Tehran (Iran)

    2001-10-01

    Thin targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au were bombarded with 30 MeV protons at the Cyclotron Department of Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM). Correlated measurements of kinetic energies of fission fragment pairs, and their time-of-flights were made using pair spectrometry. The fission cross sections, fragment mass distributions, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fragments were measured in our experiment. The accurate values of cross sections for fission of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au nuclei with 30 MeV protons were obtained to be 1,100{+-}100 and 62{+-}5.6 {mu}b, respectively. The cross section of {sup 209}Bi fission with its associated error, through using this method, has not been reported previously. The interpretation in terms of liquid-drop model of fissioning nucleus {sup 210}Po at the excitation energy of 35 MeV was confirmed by the dispersion of the distribution in fragment mass for bismuth fission. (author)

  1. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of BPW-34 photodiode answer for 10 MeV electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Melo, F.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of commercial photodiodes used for dosimetry of high energy electron beams was studied. The measures were made in a linear accelerators of 10 MeV, using the BPW-34 photodiode. The average energy of electrons on phantom surface and their average range were determined with the photodiode, and the results were compared with the obtained with a ionization chamber of parallel plate. (C.G.C.)

  3. Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references

  4. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO 2 glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author)

  5. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-23

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author).

  6. The tagged photon beam facility at the Bonn 500 MeV synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Eyink, J.; Hartmann, H.; Hegerath, A.; Mecking, B.; Ros, H.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for the investigation of medium energy photonuclear reactions is described. A bremsstrahlung tagging system produces a precisely known flux of monochromatic photons in the energy range between 100 and 450 MeV. Resolution and intensity of the system are given. Photoemitted particles can be detected in various large solid angle detectors. The performance of the facility and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Reaction mechanisms in 12C(γ,pp) near 200 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, E. D.; McDonald, W. J.; Opper, A. K.; Quraan, M. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Rozon, F. M.; Feldman, G.; Kolb, N. R.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Tiller, D. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Korkmaz, E.; O'rielly, G. V.

    1996-03-01

    Inclusive 12C(γ,pp) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range Eγ=187-227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar pp emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data.

  8. rvec p + 13 rvec C elastic scattering at 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, N.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, an elastic scattering experiment was performed at LAMPF using polarized protons and a polarized target nucleus (rvec p + 13 rvec C). The analyzing powers [A ooon (Θ)] and [A oonn (Θ)] were measured using an incident beam energy of 500 MeV over the laboratory angular range of 10 degree--30 degree. Motivation for the experiment and some preliminary results and conclusions are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs

  9. Probing the Cosmic X-Ray and MeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once the future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve the sensitivity better than 10-12 erg/cm2/s-1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV - although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors - angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  10. Probing the cosmic x-ray and MeV gamma ray background radiation through the anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve a sensitivity better than 10–12 erg cm–2 s–1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV—although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors—angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  11. Non-elastic cross-sections for neutron interactions with carbon and oxygen above 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    In the light of the new generation of high energy (less than or equal to 80 MeV) neutron therapy facilities currently being tested, the need for neutron kerma factors in the range from 15 to 80 MeV on carbon and oxygen has become of urgent importance. Not enough experimental data currently exist or are likely to be measured soon, so a nuclear model is essential for interpolation or, less satisfactorily, extrapolation of available data. The use of a suitable model, applicable to light nuclei, is shown to be crucial. Such a model is described, and good agreement between its results and the experimental data in the energy range of interest is reported. Comparisons between the model predictions and the ENDF/B-V evaluation of the non-elastic cross section for carbon between 15 and 20 MeV indicate that a re-evaluation of ENDF is required. 35 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Fusion with projectiles from carbon to argon at energies between 20A MeV and 60A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion reactions are known to be the dominant reaction channel at low bombarding energies and can now be investigated with a large variety of projectiles at several tens of MeV per nucleon. The gross characteristics of the fusion process can be studied by measuring global quantities, such as the linear momentum transferred from projectile to target and the dissipated energy of the reaction. The strong correlation between these two quantities is demonstrated at moderate bombarding energies, with a Ne projectile on a U target. It is expected that light particle (charged or neutron) multiplicity measurements can be extended to this higher energy domain and be used to selectively filter these collisions, according to their degree of violence. A review of the linear momentum transfer is made, considering essentially heavy targets and two important parameters in the entrance channel: the projectile energy and its mass. Over a broad mass range, and for energies up to 30A MeV, the momentum transfer scales with the mass of the projectile. At 30A MeV, the most probable value of projectile momentum transferred to the fused system is 80%, and this represents roughly 180 MeV/c per projectile nucleon. At higher bombarding energies, the momentum distribution in the fused systems, as observed from binary fission events, seems to depend on the mass of the projectile. Further studies are still needed to understand this behavior. Finally, the decay of highly excited (E* similarly ordered 500-800 MeV) fused systems, with masses close to 270 amu, is studied from the characteristics of both fusion fragments and light charged particles. It is shown that thermal equilibrium is reached before fission, even for such high energy deposition. However, the decay sequence is sensitive to dynamical effects and does not depend only on available phase space

  13. The experiment 787 high efficiency photon veto detector in the 20 - 300 MEV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutissou, J. M.

    1992-12-01

    Experiment E787 is searching for the rare decay K → πνν at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). To suppress the background from the dominant K → ππ o branch, a fast lead scintillator sandwich veto assembly system was used. An inefficiency level of ∼ 1 x 10 -6 has been achieved for detecting π o . The limitations are in part geometrical in part due to photonuclear interactions. Our present understanding of these limitations will be presented together with our upgrading plans using pure CSI crystals. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  14. The reaction π+ + d = 2p in the 300 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Suslov, V.M.; Kallies, W.

    1977-01-01

    The inelastic pion deuteron scattering is studied for pion impulses in the centre-of-mass system at 50 to 300 MeV/c and polarization effects in the reaction p + p = π + + d for the case of polarized protons are analyzed too. A detailed comparison with experiments is given. (author)

  15. Spectra of linear energy transfer along the range of 500 MeV carbon ions beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Molokanov, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, 5 (2006), s. 594-597 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : track etch detectors * chemical etching * LET spectrometry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2006

  16. Komparasi Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak Sistem Klasifikasi DDC: Athenaeum Light 8.5, DFW Version 1.00, Webdewey 2.0, E-DDC Edition 22

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya Hardiati

    2012-01-01

    Librarian has many alternative to classify DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification) number. not only use printed DDC, but now DDC software to help identify DDC number is available. One of them is Athenaeum Light 8.5, DFW (Dewey For Windows) Version 1.00, WebDewey 2.0, e-DDC (electronic-Dewey Decimal Classification) Edition 22. In this paper, it will roll out about how to use software with it excess and deficiency.

  17. Komparasi Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak Sistem Klasifikasi DDC: Athenaeum Light 8.5, DFW Version 1.00, Webdewey 2.0, E-DDC Edition 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijaya Hardiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Librarian has many alternative to classify DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification number. not only use printed DDC, but now DDC software to help identify DDC number is available. One of them is Athenaeum Light 8.5, DFW (Dewey For Windows Version 1.00, WebDewey 2.0, e-DDC (electronic-Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 22. In this paper, it will roll out about how to use software with it excess and deficiency.

  18. Data quality objectives summary report for the 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, and 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 group 3 waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 Group 3 waste sites contain 22 past-practice liquid waste disposal sites and process effluent piping associated with four plutonium-production nuclear reactors that operated from 1944 to 1967. The 100-BC-1, 100-BC-2, 100-DR-1, and 100-DR-2 Group 3 waste sites are the third set of Hanford 100 Area sites to undergo remediation to the extent practicable. Like the sites listed in Groups 1 and 2, the Group 3 sites are considered high-priority because of the contaminants present and their proximity to the Columbia River. Remediation of the 100-BC-1, 100-HR-1 and 100-DR-1 radioactive liquid waste sites is planned to occur in two phases: The first phase, which has been completed, was a demonstration project in the 100-B/C Area to test field techniques and acquire contamination data. The second phase is full-scale remediation of all the reactor areas, starting in the 10-B/C Area, using the field experience gained in the first phase and each subsequent reactor area remediation. This document provides the DQO in support of remediation sampling and analysis at selected sites in the 100-B/C and 100-D Areas

  19. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-11-01

    Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  20. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist–patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25506137

  1. Dipole response of 76Se above 4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, P. M.; Cooper, N.; Werner, V.; Rusev, G.; Stevenson, P. D.; Rios, A.; Bernards, C.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Glorius, J.; Ilieva, R. S.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Smith, M. K.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The dipole response of 3476Se in the energy range from 4 to 9 MeV has been analyzed using a (γ⃗,γ') polarized photon scattering technique, performed at the High Intensity γ-Ray Source facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, to complement previous work performed using unpolarized photons. The results of this work offer both an enhanced sensitivity scan of the dipole response and an unambiguous determination of the parities of the observed J=1 states. The dipole response is found to be dominated by E1 excitations, and can reasonably be attributed to a pygmy dipole resonance. Evidence is presented to suggest that a significant amount of directly unobserved excitation strength is present in the region, due to unobserved branching transitions in the decays of resonantly excited states. The dipole response of the region is underestimated when considering only ground state decay branches. We investigate the electric dipole response theoretically, performing calculations in a three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian-basis time-dependent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock framework.

  2. Emittance measurements in Grumman 1 MeV beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiak, T.; Gammel, G.; Melnychuk, S.

    1992-01-01

    The emittance of a 30 keV H - beam has been measured with an Allison type electrostatic analyser at two positions separated by 85 cm along the Grumman 1 MeV beamline LEBT at low currents (about 4 mA, no Cs 2 O additive in the source) and at higher currents (10-15 mA, with Cs 2 O additive in the source). No emittance growth was observed between the two positions, but, at the higher current level, the emittance was about 60% higher than at the low current level (Σ n ,rms = .0045 π cm-mrad vs. 0070 π cm-mrad). Argon was then introduced up to a partial pressure of 4x10 -5 torr, and the emittance decreased back to a range corresponding to that found at the lower currents. However, beam noise was observed at the downstream position, and there is evidence for a small amount of emittance growth (<20%) between the two positions

  3. Study of the response of a silicon detector irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons; Etude de la reponse d`un detecteur Si irradie par des neutrons de 1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire

    1994-12-31

    The author studied the response of an n-type silicon detector irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons at fluences ranging from 0.26x10{sup 13} to 11.19x10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. The response of the irradiated detector to {sup 241}Am alpha particles was measured. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Performances of large BGO crystals below 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burq, J.P.; Chemarin, M.; El Mamouni, H.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the performances of large tapered BGO crystals to low energy photons of 6 to 20 MeV. The read-out of the crystals was made with large area photodiodes associated to shaping amplifiers

  5. The thick-target 9Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2.6 and 7.0-MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. 235 U and 238 U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of ≤ 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables

  6. Exclusive measurements of light fragment production at forward angles in Ne-Pb and Ne-NaF collisions at E/A=400 MeV and 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Alard, J.P.; Arnold, J.; Augerat, J.; Biagi, F.; Crouau, M.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Marroncle, J.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Qassoud, D.; Rahmani, A.; Schimmerling, W.

    1990-01-01

    Emission of light fragments at small angles is studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions using the Diogene plastic wall for both symmetrical and non-symmetrical target-projectile systems with 400 MeV per nucleon and 800 MeV per nucleon incident neon nuclei. Efficiency of multiplicity measurements in the small angle range for the selection of central or peripheral collisions is confirmed for asymmetric systems. Differential production cross sections of Z=1 fragments show evidence for the existence of two emitting sources. The apparent temperature of each source is obtained from comparison with a thermodynamical model. (orig.)

  7. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zongquan, E-mail: tqq1123@mail.ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ye, Bangjiao, E-mail: bjye@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e{sup +} bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1–10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >10{sup 7}/s, peak brightness of 10{sup 14}/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a “Fast Beam Chopper” is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1–10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  8. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zongquan; Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e+ bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1-10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >107/s, peak brightness of 1014/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a "Fast Beam Chopper" is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1-10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  9. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identi......Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could...... be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for Me......V Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples...

  10. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C.M.; Kostyukov, A.

    2013-06-01

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3 He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  11. Measurement of photon showers in lead produced by electrons of 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, H.; Eyss, H.J. von; Schoch, B.

    1976-01-01

    The photon energy spectra induced by 150 MeV electrons in lead were measured in the energy range from 40 MeV up to the primary electron energy. The target thickness was varied between 0.1 and 2.5 radiation lengths X 0 . The photons were analyzed by use of a technique based on deuteron photodisintegration. Differential and integral shower spectra are presented and compared with Monte Carlo calculations of Nagel and Messel et al., both interpolated to our primary energy of 150 MeV. The measured spectra show good agreement with these Monte Carlo calculations for the thickest target of 2.5X 0 and with calculated bremsstrahlung spectra for the thinnest target of 0.1X 0 . Considerable discrepancies, however, are found for medium target thicknesses in the range 0 . Around the shower maxima, the shower spectra are narrower and the maxima are shifted about 0.3-0.4X 0 to lower target thicknesses, furthermore the number of photons at the shower maxima are up to 50% higher than calculated. (Auth.)

  12. Contrast of dry and water-saturated arabidopsis seeds irradiated by MeV energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Tao; Qin Huaili; Xue Jianming; Wang Yugang

    2007-01-01

    The dry and water-saturated seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were irradiated by H + ions with 6.5 MeV in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can penetrate the whole seed. The experiment shows that the fluence-response curves for the dry seeds and water-saturated seeds had distinct shoulders and reduced rapidly. The experimental results show that the water-imbibed seeds were more sensitive than the dry seeds and the reason is from free radicals reaction. A model has been constructed, and primely simulates the experiment data. (authors)

  13. Gamma-ray emission spectra from spheres with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Kanaoka, Takeshi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito; Sumita, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma-rays emitted from spherical samples were measured using a 14 MeV neutron source. The samples in use were LiF, Teflon:(CF 2 ) n , Si, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, W and Pb. A diameter of the sphere was either 40 or 60 cm. The gamma-ray energy in the emission spectra covered the range from 500 keV to 10 MeV. Measured spectra were compared with transport calculations using the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T and ENDF/B-IV. The agreements between the measurements and the JENDL-3T calculations were good in the emission spectra for the low energy gamma-rays from inelastic scattering. (author)

  14. Evaluation of neutron cross sections to 40 MeV for 5456Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 54 56 Fe were calculated by employing several nuclear models: optical, Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium and DWBA - in the energy range between 3 and 40 MeV. As a prelude to the calculations, the necessary input parameters were determined or verified through analysis of a large body of experimental data for both neutron- and proton-induced reactions in this mass and energy region. This technique also led to cross sections in which the simultaneous influence of available data types added to their consistency and reliability. Calculated cross sections as well as neutron and gamma-ray emission spectra were incorporated into an ENDF evaluation suitable for use to 40 MeV. 12 figures, 1 table

  15. Scattering of 14.2 MeV polarized neutrons from 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casparis, R.; Leemann, B.Th.; Preiswerk, M.; Rudin, H.; Wagner, R.; Zupranski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Polarized 14.2 MeV neutrons with a polarization of approximately 50% were produced in the 3 H(d(pol),n(pol)) 4 He reaction using vector polarized deuterons from an 'atomic beam' source of polarized ions. The angular distributions of the analyzing power in the elastic and inelastic (Q = -4.43 MeV) scattering of neutrons from carbon have been measured at ten angles in the range from 22 0 to 152 0 c.m. A time-of-flight technique was used to separate elastically and inelastically scattered neutrons. The results have been compared with theoretical calculations obtained with the DWBA and the coupled channels method. (Auth.)

  16. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. Effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  17. Photonuclear and Radiation Effects Testing with a Refurbished 20 MeV Medical Electron Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Timothy; Beezhold, Wendland; De Veaux, Linda C; Harmon, Frank; Petrisko, Jill E; Spaulding, Randy

    2005-01-01

    An S-band 20 MeV electron linear accelerator formerly used for medical applications has been recommissioned to provide a wide range of photonuclear activation studies as well as various radiation effects on biological and microelectronic systems. Four radiation effect applications involving the electron/photon beams are described. Photonuclear activation of a stable isotope of oxygen provides an active means of characterizing polymer degradation. Biological irradiations of microorganisms including bacteria were used to study total dose and dose rate effects on survivability and the adaptation of these organisms to repeated exposures. Microelectronic devices including bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and diodes were irradiated to study photocurrent from these devices as a function of peak dose rate with comparisons to computer modeling results. In addition, the 20 MeV linac may easily be converted to a medium energy neutron source which has been used to study neutron damage effects on transistors.

  18. Measurement of the 0.511 MeV #betta# ray line from the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, J.O.D.; Benson, J.L.; Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.

    1981-02-01

    The detection of the 0.511 MeV electron-positron annihilation line coming from the Galactic Center can provide the means to estimate the rate of positron production and to test some theoretical sources of positrons. The result of the measurements of the 0.511 MeV line flux made in a gamma-ray experiment on board a stratospheric balloon is presented. Thedetector field of view looked at the galactic longitude range-31 0 0 . The observed flux is (6.70 + - 0.85)x10 - 3 photons cm - 2 s - 1 , which is in good agreement with the expected flux when assuming that the Galactic Center is a line source emitting uniformly. (Author) [pt

  19. Measurements of 14 MeV neutron multiplication in spherical beryllium shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Alevra, A.V.; Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Klein, H.; Klein, H.; Tayama, R.

    1995-01-01

    New results of spherical-shell transmission measurements with 14MeV neutrons on pure beryllium shells up to 17cm thick are reported. The total leakage neutron multiplications were measured using a Bonner sphere system. Independently, the leakage neutron spectra were measured over the entire energy range, 15MeV to thermal energies, by proton-recoil and time-of-flight methods. The total leakage multiplications are in excellent agreement with three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations using beryllium nuclear data based on the Young and Stewart evaluation. The leakage in the evaporation energy window confirms the Be(n,2n) cross-section of the Young and Stewart evaluation rather than that used in the ENDF/B-VI library. At energies below 1keV, a surplus of leakage neutrons over the calculation is found for smaller beryllium thicknesses. (orig.)

  20. Modification of EXIFON code and analysis of O16+n reactions in En=20-50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Toru [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co. Ltd., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To evaluate the nuclear data concerning neutron induced reactions of O-16 and N-14 in the incident energy range of 20-50 MeV, the statistical multistep reaction code EXIFON was modified to include the outgoing channels of deuteron, triton and He-3. The calculated double differential cross sections (DDXs) with the modified code are compared with experimental DDXs. (author)

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of energy and angular distributions of transmitted and backscattered neutrons of 15 MeV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, M.; Faied, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate both energy and angular distributions of transmitted and backscattered neutrons incident on infinite graphite slabs of thicknesses ranging from 1-90 cm. Point isotropic and parallel beams of 15 MeV neutrons were used. A computer program was developed to simulate collisions by fast neutrons. (author)

  2. Tests of health physics detectors and dosimeters to 6 and 9 MeV gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The CEA health physicists working group on standardization and testing of detectors for the measurements of external exposure has set up and calibrated a capture #betta# beam. 6 and 9 MeV energies were obtained by means of Ti and Ni targets. These beams made it possible to determine the response of a number of detectors and dosimeters used in health physics to these energy ranges. Most generally, these tests showed that at 6 or 9 MeV the responses of instruments calibrated with 60 Co #betta#-rays could vary as much as a factor 2 when compared to the maximun of the absorbed dose in a human body [fr

  3. Measurements of hydrogen and helium isotopes emission spectra from neutrons induced reaction at ten's of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Hirasawa, Yoshitaka

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range spectrometer for the measurements of (n, xZ) double differential cross sections (DDXs) for ten's of MeV neutrons at TIARA. The spectrometer consists of a 40-cm diameter vacuum reaction chamber and three counter telescopes. Each telescope consists of a gas proportional counter, an SSD and a BaF 2 scintillator. By using the spectrometer, we achieved simultaneous measurements from ∼MeV α particles to 75 MeV protons with an acceptable counting rate. (author)

  4. Excitation energy partition in deeply inelastic collisions between 40Ar and Ag at 27 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.; Rivet, M.F.; Cabot, C.; Fuchs, H.; Gardes, D.; Hanappe, F.; Jouan, D.; Montoya, M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of the two partners produced in dissipative collisions has been experimentally studied for the system 40 Ar+Ag at 27 MeV per nucleon. Primary masses of the fragments can then be calculated; the excitation energy partition between the two fragments is derived from the number of particles evaporated by each fragment. We found that this division evolves from equipartition to a repartition close to thermal equilibrium in the excitation energy range 300-350 MeV or interaction times 5-10x10 -22 s. (orig.)

  5. Neutron spectrum at 900 from 800 MeV (p,n) reactions on a Ta target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; King, N.S.P.; Russell, G.J.; Donnert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron time-of-flight spectrum produced by a thick tantalum target bombarded by 800-MeV protons was measured at an angle of 90 0 . The data were taken at the Weapons Neutron Research facility by use of a cylindrical Ta target with a radius of 1.27 cm and a length of 15 cm. An NE-213 liquid scintillator was used to detect the neutrons over an energy range of 0.5 to 350 MeV. The neutron yield is presented and compared to a intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model prediction. 3 figures

  6. Unified 1.9...4.0 MeV linear accelerators with interchangeable accelerating structures for customs inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtov, A.A.; Klinov, A.P.; Krestianinov, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    A series of compact linear electron accelerators for 1.9, 2.5 and 4.0 MeV equipped with a local radiation shielding has been designed and constructed in the NPK LUTS, the D.V.Efremov Institute (NIIEFA). The accelerators are intended for mobile facilities used for customs inspection of large-scale containers. Results of optimizing calculations of irradiator parameters and electron dynamics, verified under accelerators testing, are presented in the report. The main design approaches allowing the construction of unified accelerators with interchangeable accelerating structures for energies in the range of 1.9...4.0 MeV are also given

  7. Theoretical detection limit of PIXE analysis using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hitomi, Keitaro

    2018-02-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is usually performed using proton beams with energies in the range 2∼3 MeV because at these energies, the detection limit is low. The detection limit of PIXE analysis depends on the X-ray production cross-section, the continuous background of the PIXE spectrum and the experimental parameters such as the beam currents and the solid angle and detector efficiency of X-ray detector. Though the continuous background increases as the projectile energy increases, the cross-section of the X-ray increases as well. Therefore, the detection limit of high energy proton PIXE is not expected to increase significantly. We calculated the cross sections of continuous X-rays produced in several bremsstrahlung processes and estimated the detection limit of a 20 MeV proton PIXE analysis by modelling the Compton tail of the γ-rays produced in the nuclear reactions, and the escape effect on the secondary electron bremsstrahlung. We found that the Compton tail does not affect the detection limit when a thin X-ray detector is used, but the secondary electron bremsstrahlung escape effect does have an impact. We also confirmed that the detection limit of the PIXE analysis, when used with 4 μm polyethylene backing film and an integrated beam current of 1 μC, is 0.4∼2.0 ppm for proton energies in the range 10∼30 MeV and elements with Z = 16-90. This result demonstrates the usefulness of several 10 MeV cyclotrons for performing PIXE analysis. Cyclotrons with these properties are currently installed in positron emission tomography (PET) centers.

  8. Use of the SPIRAL 2 facility for material irradiations with 14 MeV energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Ridikas, D.; Ledoux, X.; Pellemoine, F.; Anne, R.; Huguet, Y.; Lipa, M.; Magaud, P.; Marbach, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of an irradiation facility for fusion applications will be to generate a material irradiation database for the design, construction, licensing and safe operation of a fusion demonstration power station (e.g., DEMO). This will be achieved through testing and qualifying material performance under neutron irradiation that simulates service up to the full lifetime anticipated in the power plant. Preliminary investigations of 14 MeV neutron effects on different kinds of fusion material could be assessed by the SPIRAL 2 Project at GANIL (Caen, France), aiming at rare isotope beams production for nuclear physics research with first beams expected by 2009. In SPIRAL 2, a deuteron beam of 5 mA and 40 MeV interacts with a rotating carbon disk producing high-energy neutrons (in the range between 1 and 40 MeV) via C (d, xn) reactions. Then, the facility could be used for 3-4 months y -1 for material irradiation purposes. This would correspond to damage rates in the order of 1-2 dpa y -1 (in Fe) in a volume of ∼10 cm 3 . Therefore, the use of miniaturized specimens will be essential in order to effectively utilize the available irradiation volume in SPIRAL 2. Sample package irradiation temperature would be in the range of 250-1000 deg. C. The irradiation level of 1-2 dpa y -1 with 14 MeV neutrons (average energy) may be interesting for micro-structural and metallurgical investigations (e.g., mini-traction, small punch tests, etc.) and possibly for the understanding of specimen size/geometric effects of critical material properties. Due to the small test cell volume, sample in situ experiments are not foreseen. However, sample packages would be, if required, available each month after transfer in a special hot cell on-site

  9. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  10. Construction of a 1 MeV Electron Accelerator for High Precision Beta Decay Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfellow, Brenden

    2014-09-01

    Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles. Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles

  11. Survival of germinal cells of the male rat after exposure to 14 and 50 MeV neutrons and R.B.E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Guy; Grillon, Gerard; Ricourt, Alain.

    1977-10-01

    No significant differences could be demonstrated between male rat germinal cell survivals to 14MeV and up to 50 MeV neutrons respectively. The survivals are well fitted by an exponential model (D 0 =289 rads) logically situated between the models concerning 60 Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. On the basis of the testes weight loss after irradiation, the experimental results gave EBR ranging from 10 to 1.3 for survival rates from 92 to 2% [fr

  12. Development of polystyrene calorimeter for application at electron energies down to 1.5 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.; Kuntz, F.

    2002-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) calorimeters developed at Riso National Laboratory for use below 4 MeV have been modified due to irradiation technology requirements concerning both design principles and dimensions. The temperature-time relationship after irradiation was measured, and two ways of dose measurement...... the average and the surface dose and to prove the applicability of the new low energy calorimeter for calibration purposes at 1.5 and 2 MeV electron energy. Alanine dosimeters of 2 mm thickness were used to calibrate the calorimeters and their use for nominal dose measurements was demonstrated in a series...... of intercomparisons. The use as routine dosimeters at electron accelerators operating in the energy range of 1.5-4 MeV was also demonstrated. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Comparison of the degree of pulpal anesthesia achieved with the intraosseous injection and infiltration injection using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusstein, John; Wood, Mark; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2005-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained from an intraosseous injection to an infiltration injection that used 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The success rate for the intraosseous injection was 98%; for the infiltration injection, the success rate was 85%. There was no significant difference between the two techniques. The mean time for the onset of pulpal anesthesia was significantly faster with the intraosseous injection and the infiltration injection resulted in a significantly longer duration of pulpal anesthesia.

  14. Development and application of a detector for absolute measurement of neutron fluence rate in MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Dias, M. da.

    1988-01-01

    The development and performance of the DTS (Dual Thin Scintillator) for the absolute measurement of the neutron fluence rate between 1 and 15 MeV is decribed. The DTS detector consists of a pair of organic scintillators in a dual configuration, where the incident produces a proton-recoil which is detected in a 2Π geometry therefore avoiding the effect of the escape of protons. Thin scintillators are used resulting in small multiple scattering corrections. The theoretical caluclations of detector efficiency and proton-recoil spectrum were performed by means of a Monte Carlos code - CARLO DTS. The calculated efficiency was compared to the experimental one at two neutron energies namely 2.446 MeV and 14.04 MeV applying the Time Correlated Associated Particle technique. The theoretical and experimental efficiencies agreed within the experimental uncertainties of 1.44% and 0.77%, respectively. The performance of the DTS has been verified in an absolute 235 U(n,f) cross section measurement between 1 and 6 MeV neutron energy. The cross section results were compared to those obtained replacing the DTS detector by the NBS (National Bureau of Standards, USA) Black Neutron Detector. The agreement was excellent in the overlapping energy interval of the two experiments (between 1 and 3 MeV), within the estimated uncertainly in the range of 1,0 to 1,7%. The agreement with the most recent evaluation from the ENDF/B-VI was excellent in almost all the energy range between 1 and 6 MeV. The 235 U(n,f) cross section, average over the 252 Cf fission neutron spectrum has been evaluated. The result including the cross section values of the present work was 1220 mb, in excellent agreement with the average value among the most recent measurements, 1227 +- 12 mb, and with the value 1213 mb, using the ENDF/B-VI data. (author) [pt

  15. Spin decomposition of the responses of 44Ca and 48Ca to 300 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Bimbot, L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Haeusser, O.; Hicks, K.; Jones, K.; Miller, C.A.; Vetterli, M.; Abegg, R.; Beatty, D.; Bonin, B.; Castel, B.; Chen, X.Y.; Cupps, V.; Djalali, C.; Henderson, R.; Jackson, K.P.; Jeppesen, R.; Nakayama, K.; Nanda, S.K.; Sawafta, R.; Yen, S.; Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay, France; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854; Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada V5A1S6; TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T2A3; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544; Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, CEDEX, France; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada K7L3N6; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309; University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, Virginia 23606; University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G2J1)

    1991-01-01

    Angular distributions of the double-differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩ dE(σ) and the spin-flip probability S nn have been measured for inclusive proton inelastic scattering from 44 Ca at 290 MeV and from 48 Ca at 318 MeV. Excitation energies up to about 50 MeV for 44 Ca and 40 MeV for 48 Ca have been investigated over the laboratory angular ranges of 3 degree to 12 degree for 44 Ca and 3 degree to 9 degree for 48 Ca. Multipole decompositions of angular distributions of both the spin-flip cross section σS nn and the estimated cross section for ΔS=0 transitions have been performed. Distributions of strengths were deduced for ΔL=1, ΔS=0 (the giant dipole), ΔL=2, ΔS=0 (the giant quadrupole), ΔL=0, ΔS=1 (the magnetic dipole), ΔL=1, ΔS=1 (the spin dipole), and ΔL=2, ΔS=1 (the spin quadrupole). The ΔS=0 summed strengths for 44 Ca are lower than for 40 Ca and 48 Ca. The spin-dipole summed strengths are found to be approximately independent of A. For 48 Ca, essentially all M1 strength observed was in the 10.23 MeV 1 + state; for 44 Ca, M1 strength was observed to be fragmented over a range of 7 to 18 Mev

  16. Development of quasi-monochromatic p-7Li neutron generating system for 80-210 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Noriaki; Shibata, Tokushi; Nakamura, Takashi; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Nakanishi, Noriyoshi; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Kim, Unju.

    1996-01-01

    Recently the requirements for the experimental data on the response characteristics of neutron detector and the cross section for neutron generation by charged particles have been increasing for shield designing. Here, a system for quasi-monochromatic neutron generation was developed in the facility of ring-cyclotron in Institute of Physical and Chemical Sciences. In this study, H 2 + accelerated to an energy range of 80-135 MeV/n and P + to 150-210 MeV was irradiated to E4 beam course and NE102A plastic scintillator was used for monitoring the neutron flux. The amount of neutrons generated was estimated from the radioactivity of 7 Be produced in 7 Li-target. The neutron spectres thus estimated as an energy range of 80-210 MeV were presented and the lower limit of these spectres was about 20 MeV. The peaks in the range of 150 and 210 MeV were comparatively wide because of the inferiority of energy resolving power at a higher energy level. (M.N.)

  17. Forecasting E > 50-MeV Proton Events with the Proton Prediction System (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; White, S. M.; Ling, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (> 50 MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E > 50-MeV proton events > 1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986 to 2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all > M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all > 200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated > M5 flares; (3) all > 500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all > 5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. For X-ray flare inputs the forecasted event peak intensities and fluences are compared with observed values. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude.

  18. Simulations of Beam Quality in a 13 MeV PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of the trajectories of negative hydrogen ion (H− beam in a 13 MeV PET cyclotron (DECY-13 were carried out by using the Runge-Kutta (RK4 approximation method and Scilab 5.4.1. The magnetic and electric fields were calculated using Opera-3d/TOSCA softwares at 1 mm resolution. The cyclotron is of a fourth-harmonics type, meaning that the acceleration occurs four times per cycle, with a radiofrequency (RF field of 77.66 MHz frequency and 40 kV amplitude. The calculations and simulations show that the maximum distance between the ion source and the puller is about 6 mm, while the maximum width of the beam at 13 MeV is about 10 mm, and the initial phase between the RF field and the beam ranges from -10° to 10°, with a yield of about 10% of the beam from the ion source getting accelerated to 13 MeV.

  19. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randazzo, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: nunzio.randazzo@ct.infn.it; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2008-02-21

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ (http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA)] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application.

  20. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ (http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA)] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application

  1. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.

    2008-02-01

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application.

  2. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Honey; S, Naseem; A, Ishaq; M, Maaza; M T, Bhatti; D, Wan

    2016-01-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H + ) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H +  ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H + ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H +  ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H +  ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H +  ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H +  ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. (paper)

  3. Forecasting E > 50-MeV proton events with the proton prediction system (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; White, Stephen M.; Ling, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10-MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (≥50-MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E ≥ 50-MeV proton events >1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986-2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all ≥M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all ≥200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated ≥M5 flares; (3) all ≥500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all ≥5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude, and argue that the longitude-dependence employed by PPS does not match modern observations. Use of the radio fluxes as the PPS driver tends to result in too many false alarms at the 500 sfu threshold, and misses more events than the soft X-ray predictor at the 5000 sfu threshold.

  4. A 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron source for materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H.; Coensgen, F.H.; Damm, C.C.; Molvik, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The design and performance of 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron sources for accelerated testing of fusion reactor materials are described. Continuous production of 14-MeV neutron fluxes in the range of 5 to 10 MW/m 2 at the plasma surface are produced by D-T reactions in a two-component plasma. In the present designs, 14-MeV neutrons result from collisions of energetic deuterium ions created by transverse injection of 150-keV deuterium atoms on a fully ionized tritium target plasma. The beam energy, which deposited at the center of the tritium column, is transferred to the warm plasma by electron drag, which flows axially to the end regions. Neutral gas at high pressure absorbs the energy in the tritium plasma and transfers the heat to the walls of the vacuum vessel. The plasma parameters of the neutron source, in dimensionless units, have been achieved in the 2XIIB high-β plasma. The larger magnetic field of the present design permits scaling to the higher energy and density of the neutron source design. In the extrapolation, care has been taken to preserve the scaling and plasma attributes that contributed to equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and microstability in 2XIIB. The performance and scaling characteristics are described for several designs chosen to enhance the thermal isolation of the two-component plasmas. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  6. Study of elastic pion scattering from 9Be, 28Si, 58Ni, and 208Pb at 162 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, M.J.

    1979-05-01

    Elastic pion scattering from 9 Be, 28 Si, 58 Ni, and 208 Pb at 162 MeV is analyzed and compared with an optical model theory which incorporates a pion--nucleon range. Excellent fits to the data are obtained in all but one case. The fitted values of the pion--nucleon range, as well as other fitted values are listed. 108 references

  7. Range energy for heavy ions in CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Marques, A.

    1987-01-01

    Range-energy relations in CR-39, for ions from He to Ar, are obtained after their effective nuclear charge. Comparison with earlier calculations and numerical results in the energy range 0,1 to 200 Mev/ Nucleon are also given. (M.W.O.)

  8. Recoil measurement of the 12C(π(,πN))11C reaction between 90 and 350 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porile, N.T.; Caretto, A.A.; Dropesky, B.J.; Orth, C.J.; Liu, L.C.; Giesler, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effective forward, perpendicular, and backward ranges of 11 C produced in the interaction of 90--350 MeV π +- with carbon have been measured using conventional thick-target thick-catcher activation techniques. With increasing pion energy, the forward ranges decrease, the backward ranges increase, and the perpendicular ranges remain essentially unchanged. However, these trends are much more pronounced for π - than for π + . The results have been compared with an intranuclear cascade code. The ratios of calculated effective ranges for π - and π + bombardment show the same energy dependence as observed experimentally

  9. Correlations of light particles in the reaction 40Ar on 197Au at E/A=200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunde, G.J.

    1990-08-01

    For the study of small-angle correlations of light particles an experiment at the SATURNE synchrotron with 40 Ar on 197 Au at an incident energy of E/A=200 MeV was performed. A hodoscope consisting of an 8x8 matrix of silicon-cesium iodide detectors was applied under a mean angle of 40 degrees. The evaluation of the coincident particle information was performed via correlation functions, which were determined for systems with Z ≤ = 3. For three different fragments emission temperatures were measured via the determination of population ratios for particle-unstable states. Furthermore by means of p-p correlations the reaction volume was studied. The results are: For 5 Li a mean emission temperature of 6.4 -1.0 1.1 MeV resulted, for 4 He a mean emission temperature of 5.4 -1.2 +1.8 MeV was found. The temperature of 2.3 -0.2 0.6 MeV determined for 8 Be is strongly influenced by feeding. For the states at 21.1 and 22.1 MeV in 4 He a dependence of the temperature on the kinetic sum energy of the coincident particles was found, a temperature growth with increasing sum energy of about 3 MeV over the measured range of the sum energies resulted. Via p-p correlations a source radius of 5.8 ± 0.3 fm was determined. The correction for protons from sequential decays leads to radii, which are about 1 fm smaller. The radii and radius ratios for different ranges of the sum energy of the protons were analyzed. The measured emission temperatures are about 1 MeV higher than the values for the same system at E/A = 60 MeV. The temperatures correspond in the model of the statistical multifragmentation to an excitation energy of about 2 GeV, while they follow in the model of the sequential fragment emission for an excitation energy of about 1 GeV. (orig.) [de

  10. MeV Mott polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigerwald, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent past, Mott polarimetry has been employed only at low electron beam energies (≅100 keV). Shortly after J. Sromicki demonstrated the first Mott scattering experiment on lead foils at 14 MeV (MAMI, 1994), a high energy Mott scattering polarimeter was developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (5 MeV, 1995). An instrumental precision of 0.5% was achieved due to dramatic improvement in eliminating the background signal by means of collimation, shielding, time of flight and coincidence methods. Measurements for gold targets between 0.05 μm and 5 μm for electron energies between 2 and 8 MeV are presented. A model was developed to explain the depolarization effects in the target foils due to double scattering. The instrumental helicity correlated asymmetries were measured to smaller than 0.1%

  11. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.; Kleevan, W.J.; Laxdal, R.E.; Milton, B.F.; Otter, A.J.; Pearson, J.B.; Poirier, R.L.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Erdman, K.L.; Walker, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. We describe such a cyclotron currently under construction. It is a 30 MeV H - design that exploits a newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source which is capable of H - currents of up to 5 mA. This together with careful beam matching then makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of 500 μA. The cyclotron being built is a four sector radial ridge design with two 45 degree dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Two extraction probes will allow simultaneous extraction of two beams, each with an intensity of up to 200 μA. Energy variation from 15 MeV to 30 MeV is achieved by varying the radial position of the extraction foil. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180o for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tamii, Atsushi; Iwase, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Niita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180 o were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150 o reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  13. Measurement of omega, the energy required to create an ion pair, for 150-MeV protons in nitrogen and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a 1% measurement of omega, the energy required to produce an ion pair, for 150 MeV protons in various gases. Such a measurement should improve the accuracy of proton ionization chamber dosimetry at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. Currently, no measurements of omega exist in the energy range of 30 to 150 MeV, and present ionization chamber dosimetry at the Cyclotron relies on average values of measurements at lower and higher energies (i.e. for E < 3 MeV and E = 340 MeV). Contrary to theoretical expectations, these low and high energy data differ by as much as 9% in some gases. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the existing high energy data is probably in error, and current proton ionization chamber dosimetry underestimates omega, and hence the proton dose, by 5%

  14. Conversion efficiency of lead for 30-200 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.; Gygi, E.; Holder, M.; McDonald, K.T.; Pugh, H.G.; Schneider, F.; Tittel, K.

    1975-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of lead has been measured as a function of thickness for 44 MeV, 94 MeV and 177 MeV photons, and as a function of energy between 29 MeV and 177 Mev for thickness of one and two radiation lengths. Some additional information on multiplicity of secondary tracks and on their angular distribution was obtained using a small streamer chamber. The results obtained confirm the shower calculations of Messel and Crawford. (Auth.)

  15. Production of radionuclides by 14 MeV neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the short half-lives of these nuclides they have to be produced in situ or at least not far from the place of use. The cost of 14 MeV neutron generators have been compared with the typical middle-sized cyclotrons and it was found that the capital costs are much lower in the case of neutron generators. This is the main reason for the availability of 14 MeV neutron generators in many scientific institutes compared to the scarcity of cyclotrons. Lately, the use of 14 MeV neutrons for cancer therapy was studied in several medical centers. A number of hospitals and cancer research centers have high intensity 14 MeV neutron generators for this purpose. The advantages of using short-lived in-house produced radionuclides suggest the use of the available 14 MeV neutron generators for biological studies and in medical diagnosis. 14 MeV neutron generators can be used to produce some of the medically useful radionuclides, such as /sup 18/F, /sup 80/Br, /sup 199m/Hg, and others. However, the amount required for medicine can only be prepared by the new high intensity neutron generators, used for neutron therapy and not by the smaller ones, commonly used in university laboratories (--10/sup 11/ n/sec). On the other hand, these relatively small neutron generators can be used for the preparation of radionuclides for biological studies. They facilitate the study of metabolism of elements for which radionuclides cannot be usually purchased due to short half-lives or the high price of the long-lived ones, such as /sup 34m/Cl, /sup 18/F, /sup 28,29/Al, /sup 27/Mg, and others. An example is the work done on the fate of Al and Mg in rats using /sup 28/Al and /sup 27/Mg./sup 13/

  16. Crosslinking of commercial polyethylenes by 10 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Sze, Yu-keung

    1995-08-01

    Commercial polyethylenes were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons to induce crosslinking. The gel fraction data measured as a function of total dose suggests that crosslinking proceeds on irradiation, as expected. A number of the properties of the irradiated polyethylenes, such as the degree of oxidation, crystallinity and thermal degradation, were studied by Fourier transform infrared/photo acoustic spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a pyrolysis technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results of this study suggest that commercial polyethylenes can be crosslinked to a gel fraction of ∼70%, required for wire and cable applications, by 10 MeV electrons. (author). 35 refs., 6 figs

  17. A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.

    2002-06-02

    There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.

  18. 207,208Pb(n,xnγ) reactions for neutron energies from 3 to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonach, H.; Pavlik, A.; Chadwick, M.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectra from the interaction of neutrons in the energy range from 3 to 200 MeV with 207,208 Pb were measured with the white neutron source at the weapons neutron research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. From these data, excitation functions for prominent γ transitions in 200,202,204,206,207,208 Pb were derived from threshold to 200 MeV incident neutron energy. These γ-production cross sections reflect the excitation cross sections for the respective residual nuclei. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear reaction calculations based on the exciton model for precompound emission, the Hauser-Feshbach theory for compound nucleus decay, and coupled channels calculations to account for direct excitation of collective levels. Good agreement was obtained over the entire energy range covered in the experiment with reasonable model parameters. The results of this work clearly demonstrate that multiple preequilibrium emission has to be taken into account above about 40 MeV, and that the level density model of Ignatyuk, which accounts for the gradual disappearance of shell effects with increasing excitation energy, should be used instead of the Gilbert-Cameron and backshifted Fermi-gas models if excitation energies exceed about 30 MeV. No indication for a reduction of the nuclear moment of inertia below the rigid body value was found

  19. The CSSIAR v.1.00 Software: A new tool based on SIAR to assess soil redistribution using Compound Specific Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de los Santos-Villalobos Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the biggest challenges for food production around the world. Many techniques have been used to evaluate and mitigate soil degradation. Nowadays isotopic techniques are becoming a powerful tool to assess soil apportionment. One of the innovative techniques used is the Compound Specific Stable Isotopes (CSSI analysis, which has been used to track down sediments and specify their sources by the isotopic signature of δ13C in specific fatty acids. The application of this technique on soil apportionment has been recently developed, however there is a lack of user-friendly Software for data processing and interpretation. The aim of this article is to introduce a new open source tool for working with data sets generated by the use of the CSSI technique to assess soil apportionment, called the CSSIARv1.00 Software

  20. Viscous behavior of (Sn61.9Pb38.1)100-xREx (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuqin; Bian Xiufang; Zhao Yan; Li Xuelian; Zhang Yanning; Tian Yongsheng; Lv Xiaoqian

    2008-01-01

    The viscous behavior of (Sn 61.9 Pb 38.1 ) 100-x RE x (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys has been investigated by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The structural transition temperature T ' increases with increasing addition of RE elements. Above T ' , the viscosities of melts increase with increasing addition of RE, and are fitted well with the Arrhenius equation. The time dependence of viscosity at the measured temperature below T ' follows the exponential relaxation function and reflects the process of the structural transition in the melt, which can be considered as the thermodynamic equilibrium process. The thermodynamic equilibrium relaxation time τ eq increases with both the equilibrium viscosity η eq and the discrepancy in viscosity (Δη), between the initial state and the equilibrium state. However, it decreases with the measured temperature T. The size of clusters in the melts increases with increasing of viscosity and is restricted by the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions

  1. The CSSIAR v.1.00 Software: A new tool based on SIAR to assess soil redistribution using Compound Specific Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio, de los Santos-Villalobos; Claudio, Bravo-Linares; dos Anjos Roberto, Meigikos; Renan, Cardoso; Max, Gibbs; Andrew, Swales; Lionel, Mabit; Gerd, Dercon

    Soil erosion is one of the biggest challenges for food production around the world. Many techniques have been used to evaluate and mitigate soil degradation. Nowadays isotopic techniques are becoming a powerful tool to assess soil apportionment. One of the innovative techniques used is the Compound Specific Stable Isotopes (CSSI) analysis, which has been used to track down sediments and specify their sources by the isotopic signature of δ13 C in specific fatty acids. The application of this technique on soil apportionment has been recently developed, however there is a lack of user-friendly Software for data processing and interpretation. The aim of this article is to introduce a new open source tool for working with data sets generated by the use of the CSSI technique to assess soil apportionment, called the CSSIARv1.00 Software

  2. The effect of intraosseous local anesthesia of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine on pulpal blood flow and pulpal anesthesia of mandibular molars and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Samdrup, Tshering; Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Noppakun

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraosseous (IO) anesthesia with 4% articaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine on pulpal blood flow (PBF) and pulpal anesthesia of mandibular first molars and canines in human subjects. Ten healthy volunteers with intact mandibular first molar and canine were given an osteocentral technique of IO injection using the Quick Sleeper 5 system and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine at distal site of mandibular first molar. The PBF was monitored by a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). Pulpal anesthesia was assessed with an electric pulp tester (EPT). IO injection caused a decrease in PBF in molars from 6.31 ± 3.85 perfusion units (P.U.) before injection to 2.51 ± 2.53 P.U. 1 min after injection (P anesthesia in the molars, the mean onset was 2.40 ± 0.84 min and the mean duration was 38 ± 16.19 min. In the canines, there was a decrease in the sensitivity to EPT but complete pulpal anesthesia was not achieved. IO injection distal to mandibular first molar caused a decrease in PBF and successful pulpal anesthesia in first molar, but not in canine. Both PBF and EPT readings returned to normal, suggesting that pulpal ischemia may not occur. IO anesthesia is safe to use as a primary technique in teeth with normal pulp.

  3. Lithium Blanket Module dosimetry measurements at the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, F.Y.; Leo, W.R.; Sahraoui, C.; Wuthrich, S.; Harker, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements and results of the dosimeter material reaction rates inside the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) after irradiation by the LOTUS 14-MeV neutron source at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. The measurement program has been designed to utilize sets of passive dosimeter materials in the form of foils and wires. The dosimetry materials reaction thresholds and interaction response ranges chosen for this series of measurements encompass the entire neutron spectra along the full length of the LBM fuel rods

  4. Elastic neutron-proton differential cross section at 647 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1979-04-01

    The differential cross section for n-p elastic scattering in the angular range 51 0 was measured with high statistical accuracy using the 647 MeV monoenergetic neutron beam of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A proton recoil magnetic spectrometer was used for momentum analysis of the charge exchange protons from the reaction n+p→p+n. Absolute normalization of the cross section was established to within 7% using existing cross section data for the reaction p+p→π + +d. The results differ significantly from previous Dubna and PPA cross sections but agree well with recent Saclay data except at extreme backward angles. 41 references

  5. The investigation of deuteron production double differential cross section induced by 392 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Imamura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the deuteron productions from 392 MeV proton induced reaction for target nuclei of 12 C, 27 Al, 93 Nb. Deuteron production double differential cross sections were determined over a broad energy range and scattered angles from 20 to 105 degrees in laboratory system. Those spectra were compared with two theoretical models; Quantum Molecular Dynamics model and Intranuclear Cascade model. We developed the code of Intra Nuclear Cascade model and we've got good results to reproduce the experimental data. (author)

  6. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, R; Cosentino, G; Zoppo, A Del; Pietro, A Di; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M; Barbagallo, M; Colonna, N; Boccaccio, P; Esposito, J; Celentano, A; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Kostyukov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  7. The construction of a facility for 14 Mev neutron activation analysis of oxygen in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Alstad, J.

    1984-02-01

    The article describes the construction and performance of a facility for 14 MeV neutron activation analysis, mainly for oxygen in aluminium, at the University of Oslo. It consists of a sealed tube neutron generator, a biaxial rotation system for samples in irradiation position, a mechanism for automatic separation of sample and container, and appropriate detectors and counting electronics. Especially considered are the procedures for sample preparation and packing, standardization, optimization of the energy range for integration and optimization of the irradiation, decay and counting times. The applicability of the facility is exemplified by analytical results from comparative investigations in different laboratories using different methods. (Auth.)

  8. Proton induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abyad, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sections of proton induced reactions on nat Cd targets was studied in the energy range from threshold up to 17 MeV, using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and classical gamma-spectroscopy. We measured the formation cross-sections of the radioisotopes 109g,110m,110,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m In The obtained excitation functions were compared with the earlier published data and the theoretical model calculations by the codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS .

  9. Fissility of actinide nuclei induced by 60-130 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelle, Viviane; Tavares, Odilon A.P.

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear fissilities obtained from recent photofission reaction cross section measurements carried out at Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (Saskatoon, Canada) in the energy range 60-130 MeV for 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, and 237 Np nuclei have been analysed in a systematic way. To this aim, a semiempirical approach has been developed based on the quasi-deuteron nuclear photoabsorption model followed by the process of competition between neutron evaporation and fission for the excited nucleus. The study reproduces satisfactorily well the increasing trend of nuclear fissility with parameter Z 2 =A. (author)

  10. Reaction mechanisms in 12C(γ,pp) near 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, E.D.; McDonald, W.J.; Opper, A.K.; Quraan, M.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Rozon, F.M.; Feldman, G.; Kolb, N.R.; Pywell, R.E.; Skopik, D.M.; Tiller, D.E.; Vogt, J.M.; Korkmaz, E.; ORielly, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Inclusive 12 C(γ,pp) cross sections have been measured with tagged photons in the range E γ =187 endash 227 MeV using the Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD). The large angular acceptance allowed the measurement of noncoplanar pp emission. The cross sections were compared to a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade calculation. Agreement was reasonable for the shapes of the cross sections but the calculated total cross section was 3.9 times larger than the data. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. The polarization of MeV neutrons elastically scattered from 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.E.; Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The analyzing power of 4 He for neutron elastic scattering has been measured at four angles between 20 0 and 80 0 (lab) throughout the energy range 1.5-6.0 MeV using a double-scattering method. The intense flux of polarized neutrons was generated via the reactions Pb(γ, n)→ 12 C(n, n(pol.) 12 C, and the magnitude of the polarization of the neutron beam measured absolutely in a separate double-scattering experiment. Neutron energies were determined with a nanosecond time-of-flight spectrometer, and the generalized neutron spin-precession method was used to minimize systematic uncertainties. (Auth.)

  12. Proton-proton elastic scattering from 150 to 515 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, D.V.; Edginton, J.A.; Amsler, C.

    1977-12-01

    The parameters D, R, R' and P for pp elastic scattering have been measured in the centre of mass angular range 13 to 58 0 with an accuracy of about +- 0.02 at 209, 324, 379, 425 and 515 MeV. These results are incorporated with earlier data into a phase shift analysis. Phase shifts are generally in agreement with theoretical predictions of the Paris group, although the F wave spin-orbit combination is rather stronger than predicted. The fitted value for the π 0 p anti p coupling constant is g 0 2 = 14.06 +- 0.65. (author)

  13. Evaluation of n-{sup 12}C scattering between 7 and 26 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z P; Tornow, W [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The existing n-{sup 12}C elastic differential cross-section, analysing power and total cross-section data in the energy range from 7 to 26 MeV were analysed via a phase-shift analysis. A very good description of the uniquely large database has been achieved. The level parameters of 40 states or resonances in {sup 13}C were deduced. The values obtained for the n-{sup 12}C reaction cross section are larger than those given in the ENDF/B-VI evaluation.

  14. (γ,n) reaction in nuclei of the 12<=A<=238 interval in the intermediate energy region (300 MeV-1000MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    The absolute cross section of the 12 C(γ,n) 11 C, 19 F(γ,n) 18 F, 23 Na(γ,n) 22 Na, 31 P(γ,n) 30 P, 52 Cr(γ,n) 51 Cr, 55 Mn(γ,n) 54 Mn, 59 Co(γ,n) 58 Co, 75 As(γ,n) 74 As, 103 Rh(γn) 102 Rh, 127 I(γ,n) 126 I, 197 Au(γ,n) 196 Au and 238 U(γ,n) 237 U reactions were determined, experimentally, in the energy range from 300 MeV to 1000 MeV, using Bremsstrahlung photons. The measured cross sections were compared with results estimated by Monte Carlo Method applied to intranuclear cascades initiated by phothons. A functional dependence between the average value of (γ,n) absolute cross section and the mass number, were established. The (γ,n) absolute cross sections from simple relations, which transparencies of complexe nuclei for mesons and nucleons photo produced were also determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Kerma factors for neutrons of 14 MeV to 60 MeV in elemental H, C, N and O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrooz, M.A.; Watt, D.E. (Dundee Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Biophysics)

    1981-01-01

    Total kerma factors, and partial kerma factors for production of specified charged H and He particles and heavier recoils, have been computed using basic theoretical and experimental nuclear data for neutrons at energies between 14 MeV and 60 MeV in the main tissue elements and in ICRU muscle tissue. All the more recent computations of total kerma factors, along with those determined from direct experimental measurements of partial kerma factors, now form a reasonably consistent set of data enabling average total kerma factors with coefficients of better than 3% for hydrogen, 16% for carbon, 23% for nitrogen and 9% for oxygen to be recommended for application to medical dosimetry and radiation protection. Total kerma factors for ICRU muscle tissue have a precision of better than 2.5% over the neutron energy range considered. Although there is adequate precision for total kerma factors for soft tissue, nevertheless analysis of the partial kerma factors indicates that caution must be exercised in use of the information for quality specification, e.g. in microdose spectra, and that more detailed basic reaction data is required for fast neutrons.

  16. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011017-20020120.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  17. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040622-20040808.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  18. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050411-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  19. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20050413-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  20. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20090515.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  1. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20011022-20020325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  2. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040919-20050411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  3. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20080401.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  4. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34402, Lat: 28.21788 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020724-20020920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  5. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020423-20020910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  6. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10280, Lat: 05.88468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20060326-20071017.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  7. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27183, Lat: 23.85678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020911-20030305.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  8. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10289, Lat: 05.88463 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20080401-20100410.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  9. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  10. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Enhanced Buoy, Supplemental Sea Surface Temperature Recorder (SBE39); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.10282, Lat: 05.88467 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20040330-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Enhanced (CREWS-ENH) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  11. CRED Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Standard Buoy, Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Recorder (SBE37); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20021001-20030321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CREWS Standard (CREWS-STD) buoys are equipped to measure sea surface water temperature and conductivity (Sea-Bird Model SBE37-SM, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,...

  12. Charge measurement system at 100 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongmei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yin Chongxian; Ye Kairong

    2005-01-01

    A charge measurement system of 100 Mev linac is introduced in this paper. After describing the characteristics and functions of the system's components, the authors analyze the methods of data processing and systematic error in detail. Basing on these, the authors get system resolution in the lab. The actual measurement results are presented at last. (authors)

  13. 3 MeV DC accelerator, EBC Kharghar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Acharya, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Accelerator and Pulse Power Division (APPD) has designed and developed a 3 MeV, 10 mA DC electron beam accelerator at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. This machine has been utilized for reduction of SO_x and NO_x in simulated flue gases and treatment of waste water to reduce COD and BOD

  14. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  15. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  16. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  17. Alpha-deuteron elastic scattering around 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.; Karmakar, S.; Roychaudhury, T.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ismail, M.; Banerjee, S.R.; Divatia, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross section for alpha-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured at several energies around 40 MeV incident alpha. General behaviour of angular distributions remaining close to that predicted by Faddeev type calculations, a sharp energy dependence is observed. (author). 8 refs

  18. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  19. 200 MeV RF linac for synchrotron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Lyons, S.; Manca, J.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.; Miller, R.

    1992-01-01

    Construction has been completed on an electron linear accelerator for the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This accelerator will be used for the injection of a 200 MeV electron beam into a synchrotron for lithography experiments. This paper describes the conceptual design of the linac, its e-gun pulser, and its control and timing systems. 3 figs., ref

  20. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  1. Escaping 1 MeV tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Strachan, J.D.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    1 MeV tritons created by D-D reactions can simulate the 'single-particle' behavior expected with 3.5 MeV D-T alphas, since the gyroradii and slowing-down of these two particles are similar. This paper describes measurements of the flux of escaping 1 MeV tritons from the TFTR plasma during high power D 0 →D neutral beam injection, and shows that in most cases the observed triton loss is consistent with the classical (single-particle) first-orbit loss model. In this model tritons are lost if their first orbit intersects the wall due to their large banana width, while almost all tritons confined on their first orbit should stay confined until thermalized. The triton detectors are ZnS(Ag) scintillator screens housed in light-tight boxes located just outside the plasma boundary at the bottom of the TFTR vessel. They are particle 'pinhole' cameras which can resolve the triton flux vs. pitch angle (to ±5 o ), energy (to ±50 %), and time (to <20 μsec). The 2-D images of triton flux onto these scintillators are optically coupled to either an intensified TV camera or to photomultiplyer tubes for fast time resolution. The soft x-ray background in an earlier prototype has been eliminated. Although there are presently 8 such detectors in TFTR, this paper discusses results from only the detector located just below the vessel center (R=259 cm, r=102 cm). Note that the '1 MeV triton' signal discussed below also has about a 30 % contribution from 3 MeV protons; however, since these two particles have identical gyroradii they should behave alike. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. The Fermilab 400-MeV Linac Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac Upgrade will increase the linac energy from 201 MeV to 401.5 MeV. Seven accelerating modules, composed of 805-MHz side-coupled cells, will accelerate H - beams from 116.5 to 401.5 MeV. The side-coupled structure (SCS) has been built, tuned, tested to full power, and placed in the linac enclosure along side the operating Linac. All seven accelerating modules, each containing four sections of sixteen cells, have been connected to 12-MW power klystrons and tested to full power for a significant period. The transition section to match the beam from the 201.25-MHz drift-tube linac to the SCS, consisting of a sixteen-cell cavity and a vernier four-cell cavity, has also been tested at full power. A new import line from the Linac to the Booster synchrotron with a new Booster injection girder is to be installed. Removal of the last four Alvarez linac tanks (116.5 to 201 MeV) and beam-line installation of the Upgrade components is to begin in early June 1993 and should take about 12 weeks. Beam commissioning of the project will follow and normal operation is expected in a short period. In preparation for beam commissioning, studies are being done with done operating linac to characterize the beam at transition and prepare for phase, amplitude and energy measurements to commission the new linac. The past, present and future activities of the 400-MeV Upgrade will be reviewed

  3. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  4. Coupled-channel analysis of nucleon scattering from sup40Ca up to 80 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, G.M.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Pedroni, R.S.; Byrd, R.C.; Walter, R.L.; Delaroche, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Differential cross sections sigma(theta) and analyzing powers A/sub y/(theta) for neutron scattering to the ground and first 3 - excited state of 40 Ca have been measured in the energy range from 11 to 17 MeV. Elastic and inelastic scattering measurements have been obtained for A/sub y/(theta) at energies of 11.0, 13.9, and 16.9 MeV, the inelastic scattering data representing the first (n,n') measurements of A/sub y/(theta) for this nucleus. Differential cross sections for (n,n) and (n,n') have been obtained at 13.9 and 16.9 MeV. Both the sigma(theta) and A/sub y/(theta) data at 13.9 MeV have been compared with previous measurements at this energy and the agreement is good, typically within less than 3%. These results have been combined with other sigma(theta) and A/sub y/(theta) data and total cross section sigma/sub T/ measurements to form a large set of scattering and reaction data for incident energies up to 80 MeV. This data set, along with sigma(theta) and A/sub y/(theta) measurements available for proton scattering in this energy range, has been described in the framework of the coupled-channel formalism. This highly constrained analysis has led to a precise determination of geometries, energy dependencies, and deformation parameters

  5. The prediction of Neutron Elastic Scattering from Tritium for E(n) = 6-14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Dietrich, F.S.; Luu, T.; McNabb, D.P.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent report Navratil et al. evaluated the angle-integrated cross section and the angular distribution for 14-MeV n+T elastic scattering by inferring these cross sections from accurately measured p+3He angular distributions. This evaluation used a combination of two theoretical treatments, based on the no-core shell model and resonating-group method (NCSM/RGM) and on the R-matrix formalism, to connect the two charge-symmetric reactions n+T and p+ 3 He. In this report we extend this treatment to cover the neutron incident energy range 6-14 MeV. To do this, we evaluate angle-dependent correction factors for the NCSM/RGM calculations so that they agree with the p+ 3 He data near 6 MeV, and using the results found earlier near 14 MeV we interpolate these correction factors to obtain correction factors throughout the 6-14 MeV energy range. The agreement between the corrected NCSM/RGM and R-Matrix values for the integral elastic cross sections is excellent (±1%), and these are in very good agreement with total cross section experiments. This result can be attributed to the nearly constant correction factors at forward angles, and to the evidently satisfactory physics content of the two calculations. The difference in angular shape, obtained by comparing values of the scattering probability distribution P(μ) vs. μ(the cosine of the c.m. scattering angle), is about ±4% and appears to be related to differences in the two theoretical calculations. Averaging the calculations yields P(μ) values with errors of ±2 1/2 % or less. These averaged values, along with the corresponding quantities for the differential cross sections, will form the basis of a new evaluation of n+T elastic scattering. Computer files of the results discussed in this report will be supplied upon request.

  6. The prediction of Neutron Elastic Scattering from Tritium for E(n) = 6-14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J D; Dietrich, F S; Luu, T; McNabb, D P; Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S

    2010-06-14

    In a recent report Navratil et al. evaluated the angle-integrated cross section and the angular distribution for 14-MeV n+T elastic scattering by inferring these cross sections from accurately measured p+3He angular distributions. This evaluation used a combination of two theoretical treatments, based on the no-core shell model and resonating-group method (NCSM/RGM) and on the R-matrix formalism, to connect the two charge-symmetric reactions n+T and p+{sup 3}He. In this report we extend this treatment to cover the neutron incident energy range 6-14 MeV. To do this, we evaluate angle-dependent correction factors for the NCSM/RGM calculations so that they agree with the p+{sup 3}He data near 6 MeV, and using the results found earlier near 14 MeV we interpolate these correction factors to obtain correction factors throughout the 6-14 MeV energy range. The agreement between the corrected NCSM/RGM and R-Matrix values for the integral elastic cross sections is excellent ({+-}1%), and these are in very good agreement with total cross section experiments. This result can be attributed to the nearly constant correction factors at forward angles, and to the evidently satisfactory physics content of the two calculations. The difference in angular shape, obtained by comparing values of the scattering probability distribution P({mu}) vs. {mu}(the cosine of the c.m. scattering angle), is about {+-}4% and appears to be related to differences in the two theoretical calculations. Averaging the calculations yields P({mu}) values with errors of {+-}2 1/2 % or less. These averaged values, along with the corresponding quantities for the differential cross sections, will form the basis of a new evaluation of n+T elastic scattering. Computer files of the results discussed in this report will be supplied upon request.

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of two different techniques of local anaesthesia in the posterior mandible using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Uroš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Local infiltration anaesthesia (LIA is significantly simpler compared to the inferior alveolar nerve block (IAB and less unpleasant for patients. However, it is not efficient if used in posterior region of the mandible, at least with traditional local anaesthetics. The aim of this study was to compare anaesthetic efficacy of two techniques the LIA in the posterior segment of the mandible, and the IAB, using 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 adrenaline and to note possible changes in haemodynamic parameters caused by these two techniques. Methods. Sixty pre-informed patients were divided into two study groups. Both groups received 1.8 mL of the same anaesthetic solution, 4% articaine with adrenaline 1 : 100,000, with two different techniques of local anaesthesia. The first group received the LIA in projection of root apex of the first lower molar; the second group received the IAB. The examined parameters were: changes in tooth sensitivity after 5 and 30 minutes in relation to the value recorded before administering the anaes-thetics, onset of anaesthesia, width of anaesthetic field, and duration of anaesthesia. Also, the impact of the applied techniques on cardiovascular parameters was noticed. Results. The LIA group had a statistically significant decrease in sensitivity 5 minutes after application of the local anaesthetic. The decreasing trend continued between 5 and 30 minutes, although without statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity changes between two groups for the first molar and the first and second premolars. However, there was a statistically significant difference in duration of local anaesthesia in favour of the IAB, while the width of anaesthetic fields was significantly higher after the LIA. Significant changes in hemodynamic parameters were not recorded within the two groups. Conclusion. The effect of the LIA on tooth sensitivity of premolars and first molar is quite

  8. Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14.1 MeV to 18 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, P.M.; Barschall, H.H.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183+-0.015 10 -8 cGy cm 2 and 0.210+-0.016 10 -8 cGy cm 2 at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297+-0.03 10 -8 cGy cm 2 has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3α) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184+-0.019 10 -8 cGy cm 2 in agreement with the present result

  9. Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14.1 MeV to 18 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, P.M. Jr.; Barschall, H.H.; Haight, R.C.; McDonald, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183 +- 0.015 10 -8 cGy cm 2 and 0.210 +- 0.16 10 -8 cGy cm 2 at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297 +- 0.03 10 -8 cGy cm 2 has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3α) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184 +- 0.019 10 8 cGy cm 2 in agreement with the present result. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Neutron scattering on natural iron at incident energies between 9.4 and 15.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Mannhart, W.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.

    1994-11-01

    Neutrons were scattered on a sample of natural iron at 12 incident energies in the range between 9.4 MeV and 15.2 MeV. Differential cross sections of the elastic scattering (natural iron) and of the inelastic scattering to the first excited level of 56 Fe (Q=-0.847 MeV) were determined for angles between 12.5 deg and 160 deg with total uncertainties between of 3% and 10%. Legendre polynomial least-squares fits resulted in integrated cross sections with uncertainties of 2% (elastic data) and 7% (inelastic data). The cross sections obtained in this work were compared with data from the literature. Inelastic scattering cross sections were determined within the scope of a pseudolevel analysis up to excitation energies of nearly 5.5 MeV. At higher excitation energies the scattering spectrum is contaminated by scattered breakup neutrons from the D+d source used hampering an analysis of the data. (orig.) [de

  11. Fusion with projectiles form carbon to argon at energies between 20A and 60A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the linear momentum transfer is made, considering essentially heavy targets and two important parameters in the entrance channel: the projectile energy and its mass. Over a broad mass range, and for energies up to 30A MeV, the momentum transfer scales with the mass of the projectile. At 30A MeV, the most probable value of projectile momentum transferred to the fused system is 80%, and this represents roughly 180 MEV/c per projectile nucleon. At higher bombarding energies, the momentum distribution in the fused systems, as observed from binary fission events, seems to depend on the mass of the projectile. Further studies are still needed to understand this behaviour. Finally, the decay of highly excited (E* approximately 500-800 MeV) fused systems, with masses close to 270 amu, is studied from the characteristics of both fusion fragments and light charged particles. It is shown that thermal equilibrium is reached before fission, even for such high energy deposition. However, the decay sequence is sensitive to dynamical effects and does not depend only on available phase space

  12. Hyperthermal (1-100 eV) nitrogen ion scattering damage to D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongwu; Bald, Ilko; Illenberger, Eugen; Huels, Michael A

    2007-10-14

    Highly charged heavy ion traversal of a biological medium can produce energetic secondary fragment ions. These fragment ions can in turn cause collisional and reactive scattering damage to DNA. Here we report hyperthermal (1-100 eV) scattering of one such fragment ion (N(+)) from biologically relevant sugar molecules D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose condensed on polycrystalline Pt substrate. The results indicate that N(+) ion scattering at kinetic energies down to 10 eV induces effective decomposition of both sugar molecules and leads to the desorption of abundant cation and anion fragments. Use of isotope-labeled molecules (5-(13)C D-ribose and 1-D D-ribose) partly reveals some site specificity of the fragment origin. Several scattering reactions are also observed. Both ionic and neutral nitrogen atoms abstract carbon from the molecules to form CN(-) anion at energies down to approximately 5 eV. N(+) ions also abstract hydrogen from hydroxyl groups of the molecules to form NH(-) and NH(2) (-) anions. A fraction of OO(-) fragments abstract hydrogen to form OH(-). The formation of H(3)O(+) ions also involves hydrogen abstraction as well as intramolecular proton transfer. These findings suggest a variety of severe damaging pathways to DNA molecules which occur on the picosecond time scale following heavy ion irradiation of a cell, and prior to the late diffusion-limited homogeneous chemical processes.

  13. Articaine (4%) with epinephrine (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) in intraosseous injections in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars: anesthetic efficacy and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leandro Augusto Pinto; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; Meechan, John Gerard; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Ranali, José

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular effects and the anesthetic efficacy of intraosseous injections of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (EPI100) or 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (EPI200). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 0.9 mL EPI100 and EPI200 solutions were administered for endodontic treatment of mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 60 patients. The anesthetic success and pain during anesthesia were evaluated by visual analog scale. The cardiovascular parameters evaluated were heart rate, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiogram changes. Both solutions provided high anesthetic efficacy (96.8% and 93.1% for EPI100 and EPI200, respectively; P > .05), and the cardiovascular parameters showed minimal incidences of significant differences throughout the clinical procedure. The epinephrine concentration did not affect the efficacy of 4% articaine, and both solutions produced a high success level of pulpal anesthesia. Intraosseous delivery by slow speed of injection did not induce significant clinical changes in cardiovascular parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal degradation of ohmic contacts on semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane (1-100) sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doo Soo; Kim, Deuk Young; Seo, Yong Gon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Semipolar (11-22) GaN films were grown on m-plane (1-100) sapphire substrates by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The line widths of the omega rocking curves of the semipolar GaN films were 498 arcsec along the [11-23] GaN direction and 908 arcsec along the [10-10] GaN direction. The properties of the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metal contact were investigated using transmission-line-method patterns oriented in both the [11-23] GaN and the [10-10] GaN directions of semipolar (11-22) GaN. The minimum specific contact resistance of ∼3.6 x 10 -4 Ω·cm -2 was obtained on as-deposited metal contacts. The Ohmic contact properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN became degraded with increasing annealing temperature above 400 .deg. C. The thermal degradation of the metal contacts may be attributed to the surface property of N-polarity on the semipolar (11-22) GaN films. Also, the semipolar (11-22) GaN films did not show clear anisotropic behavior of the electrical properties for different azimuthal angles.

  15. Phase-shift-analysis approach to elastic neutron scattering from /sup 12/C between 9 and 12 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Walter, R.L.; Byrd, R.C. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Physics; Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (USA))

    1985-03-01

    The excitation energy, spin and parity of levels in /sup 13/C have been determined for excitation energies between 13 and 16 MeV via a phase-shift analysis of the measured total cross section, elastic differential cross section and analysing power for n + /sup 12/C in the neutron energy range from 8.9 to 12.0 MeV. New analysing power measurements are reported for this energy range. The present and previous experimental data are well described by the phase shifts obtained. The non-elastic cross section for n + /sup 12/C predicted from the phase shifts is in good agreement with the ENDF/B-V evaluation. The need for further experimental data is pointed out.

  16. Phase-shift-analysis approach to elastic neutron scattering from 12C between 9 and 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.

    1985-01-01

    The excitation energy, spin and parity of levels in 13 C have been determined for excitation energies between 13 and 16 MeV via a phase-shift analysis of the measured total cross section, elastic differential cross section and analysing power for n + 12 C in the neutron energy range from 8.9 to 12.0 MeV. New analysing power measurements are reported for this energy range. The present and previous experimental data are well described by the phase shifts obtained. The non-elastic cross section for n + 12 C predicted from the phase shifts is in good agreement with the ENDF/B-V evaluation. The need for further experimental data is pointed out. (author)

  17. European Collaboration for High-Resolution Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections between 1 MeV and 250 MeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Yuasa nakagawa, K; Koehler, P E; Quaranta, A

    2002-01-01

    The experimental determination of neutron cross section data has always been of primary importance in Nuclear Physics. Many of the salient features of nuclear levels and densities can be determined from the resonant structure of such cross sections and of their decay scheme. An associated importance of precise neutron induced reaction cross sections has resulted from the worldwide interest in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) that has emerged at CERN and elsewhere. Many applications, such as accelerator-based transmutation of nuclear waste, energy amplification medical research, astrophysical applications and also fusion research require nuclear data that quantitatively and qualitatively go beyond the presently available traditional evaluation.\\\\ \\\\We consider a spallation driven TOF facility at the CERN-PS with an unprecedented neutron flux (1000 times the existing ones) in the broad energy range between 1 eV and 250 MeV and with very high energy resolution. The present concept for an intense neutron source m...

  18. GXRD study of 100 MeV Fe9+ ion irradiated indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.L.; Dubey, S.K.; Kachhap, N.K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Swift heavy ions with MeV to GeV kinetic energy offer unique possibilities of modifying material properties. Each projectile passing through the target material causes loss of its energy by ion-electrons and ion-atoms interaction with the target material. The consequence of formal one is to change in surface properties and latter to produces damage deep in the target material near the projected range of projectile. In the present work, indium phosphide samples were irradiated at 100 MeV 56 Fe 9+ ions with different fluences varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 14 ions cm -2 using the 15UD Pelletron facilities at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction technique was used to investigate the structural properties of irradiated indium phosphide at different depths. The GXRD spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were recorded at different grazing angle i.e 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and 5° to get the structural information over the projected range. The detailed result will be presented and discussed in the conference. (author)

  19. Comparison of biological and genomic characteristics between a newly isolated mink enteritis parvovirus MEV-LHV and an attenuated strain MEV-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Wang, Jigui; Hou, Qiang; Xi, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomei; Bian, Dawei; Yu, Yongle; Wang, Xi; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-06-01

    A virus isolated from mink showing clinical signs of enteritis was identified as a high virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) based on its biological characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Mink, challenged with this strain named MEV-LHV, exhibited severe pathological lesions as compared to those challenged with attenuated strain MEV-L. MEV-LHV also showed higher infection and replication efficiencies in vitro than MEV-L. Sequence of the complete genome of MEV-LHV was determined and analyzed in comparison with those in GenBank, which revealed that MEV-LHV shared high homology with virulent strain MEV SD12/01, whereas MEV-L was closely related to Abashiri and vaccine strain MEVB, and belonged to a different branch of the phylogenetic tree. The genomes of the two strains differed by insertions and deletions in their palindromic termini and specific unique mutations (especially VP2 300) in coding sequences which may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the biological and genomic characteristics of MEV and identify certain regions and sites that may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  20. Calculation of neutron monitor reaction cross sections of {sup 90}Zr in energy region up to 100 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbiao, Shen; Baosheng, Yu; Dunjiu, Cai [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    Many nuclear data for n + {sup 90}Zr reaction were calculated by using optical model evaporation model and exciton model. The program SPEC, including the first to the sixth particle emission processes, was used in our calculations. The calculated results show that the activation products {sup 89,88}Zr and {sup 88,87}Y are important neutron monitor reaction products for n + {sup 90}Zr reaction in energy range up to 100 MeV. (4 figs.).

  1. Energy dependence of V/sub tau/ in the (p,n) reaction 10 to 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, C.H.

    1979-03-01

    Because of the relative insensitivity of the (p,n) analog reaction to details of the nuclear wave functions, a simple description is given for the studied reaction 92 Mo(p,n) at 26 MeV in which a proton is created and a neutron destroyed in the 1/sub g9/2/ orbit. The differential and angle-integrated analog cross sections and the effective potential for IF range are plotted. 27 references

  2. A high-energy (35-500 MeV) proton monitor for the Gravity Probe-B Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. E-mail: stil@may.ie; Rusznyak, Peter; Buchman, Sasha; Shestople, Paul; Thatcher, John

    2003-02-11

    An innovative fault tolerant, high-energy particle monitor designed to record protons in the range 35-500 MeV when in polar orbit aboard NASA's Gravity Probe B spacecraft, is described. This device, which is configured to provide continuous, reliable operation in the hostile particle environment traversed by the spacecraft, can potentially be used either as an onboard monitor or as a scientific experiment.

  3. Light charged particle production induced by fast neutrons (En=25-65 MeV) on 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeymackers, Erwin; Slypen, Isabelle; Benck, Sylvie; Meulders, Jean-Pierre; Nica, Ninel; Corcalciuc, Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental set-up and data reduction procedures regarding the measurement of double-differential cross sections for light charged particle production in fast neutron induced reactions (n, px), (n, dx), (n, tx) and (n, αx) on bismuth in the incident neutron energy range 25-65 MeV and at laboratory angles from 20deg to 160deg. preliminary double-differential and energy-differential cross sections for hydrogen isotopes are presented. (author)

  4. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. Th...

  5. Direct determination of k Q factors for cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A.; Kapsch, R.-P.

    2018-02-01

    For the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D w, in high-energy electron beams from a clinical accelerator, beam quality dependent correction factors, k Q, are required. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and potentially with lower standard uncertainties than those of the calculated k Q factors, which are tabulated in various dosimetry protocols. However, one of the challenges of water calorimetry in electron beams is the small measurement depths in water, together with the steep dose gradients present especially at lower energies. In this investigation, water calorimetry was implemented in electron beams to determine k Q factors for different types of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NE2561, NE2571, FC65-G, TM34001) in 10 cm  ×  10 cm electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV (corresponding beam quality index R 50 ranging from 1.9 cm to 7.5 cm). The measurements were carried out using the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Relative standard uncertainties for the k Q factors between 0.50% for the 20 MeV beam and 0.75% for the 6 MeV beam were achieved. For electron energies above 8 MeV, general agreement was found between the relative electron energy dependencies of the k Q factors measured and those derived from the AAPM TG-51 protocol and recent Monte Carlo-based studies, as well as those from other experimental investigations. However, towards lower energies, discrepancies of up to 2.0% occurred for the k Q factors of the TM34001 and the NE2571 chamber.

  6. Direct determination of k Q factors for cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A; Kapsch, R-P

    2018-02-06

    For the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D w , in high-energy electron beams from a clinical accelerator, beam quality dependent correction factors, k Q , are required. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and potentially with lower standard uncertainties than those of the calculated k Q factors, which are tabulated in various dosimetry protocols. However, one of the challenges of water calorimetry in electron beams is the small measurement depths in water, together with the steep dose gradients present especially at lower energies. In this investigation, water calorimetry was implemented in electron beams to determine k Q factors for different types of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NE2561, NE2571, FC65-G, TM34001) in 10 cm  ×  10 cm electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV (corresponding beam quality index R 50 ranging from 1.9 cm to 7.5 cm). The measurements were carried out using the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Relative standard uncertainties for the k Q factors between 0.50% for the 20 MeV beam and 0.75% for the 6 MeV beam were achieved. For electron energies above 8 MeV, general agreement was found between the relative electron energy dependencies of the k Q factors measured and those derived from the AAPM TG-51 protocol and recent Monte Carlo-based studies, as well as those from other experimental investigations. However, towards lower energies, discrepancies of up to 2.0% occurred for the k Q factors of the TM34001 and the NE2571 chamber.

  7. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  8. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 230 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, J.; Bowman, J.D.; Davis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Below /similar to/300 MeV six meson-nucleon coupling strengths are required to describe the weak interaction of nucleons. Many experiments have found parity-violating effects in nuclear systems, but only four significant, independent constraints exist. A new measurement is proposed where measurable effects are predicted with minimal dependence on nuclear interaction models, yielding information complementary to previous results. This is a measurement of the parity-violating analyzing power. A/sub z/ in p-p scattering at 230 MeV, which is shown to be sensitive to the weak rho-nucleon coupling. This measurement, at a precision of +- 2 x 10/sup -8/, together with a proposed measurement by the University of Washington group at I.L.L. of the parity-violating neutron spin rotation, will provide the fifth and sixth independent constraints needed to determine the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants

  9. Tritium production in thorium by 135 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Simonoff, G.; Tarrago, X.; Bibron, R.

    1960-01-01

    We have measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardment of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay synchro-cyclotron. The tritium was separated from the targets by heating in a graphite crucible with a high-frequency generator, under hydrogen gas pressure. Tritiated water was synthesised and the tritium was measured with liquid scintillator. A value of 19.5 ± 0.05 mbarns was obtained for the tritium-cross section and ten percent of tritons have energies higher than 35 MeV. This large cross-section is attributed to a double pick-up process. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 959, dec 1959 [fr

  10. Operation of the Brookhaven 200 MeV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, N.M.; LoDestro, V.

    1979-01-01

    During the past three years the 200 MeV linear accelerator has continued to operate at a high level of performance and reliability. The linac output beam current has been limited to 60 mA in order to obtain the maximum rf power tube life without compromising the output performance of the AGS. Despite a reduction in pulse repetition rate, total beam current to the BLIP facility has increased to an average of 300 mA hours/year

  11. Construction of 35 MeV DSM at Nihon University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, K.; Sato, K.; Tanaka, T.; Takeda, O.

    1988-01-01

    High quality electron beam is needed for the excitation of the free electron laser(FEL). Construction of the 35 MeV double-sided microtron for the FEL has been started at 1984. This accelerator will feed a electron beam which has narrow energy width and low emittance. A first one turn beam line has been completed. Beam accelerating experiments and high power microwave tests are performed. (author)

  12. Thermal Dark Matter Below an MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Asher; Blinov, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of models in which thermal dark matter is lighter than an MeV. If dark matter thermalizes with the Standard Model below the temperature of neutrino-photon decoupling, equilibration and freeze-out cools and heats the Standard Model bath comparably, alleviating constraints from measurements of the effective number of neutrino species. We demonstrate this mechanism in a model consisting of fermionic dark matter coupled to a light scalar mediator. Thermal dark matter can be as...

  13. High resolution 14 MeV neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer, based both on the track position identification and the energy measurement of recoiling protons from a hydrogenous radiator is proposed. The expected performance limits of this spectrometer with regard to energy resolution (deltaE/E), efficiency (epsilon) and counting rate are evaluated in five different configurations. The results show the possibility of deriving an optimized spectrometer design for applications on large fusion devices such as JET and NET with an energy resolution up 1% at 14 MeV

  14. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also

  15. 70 MeV injector auto tuning system handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.E.; Munn, R.W.; Sandels, E.G.

    1976-06-01

    The handbook is in three sections: (1) description and location; (2) operating instructions; and (3) design notes on the tank and debuncher auto tuning systems for the 70 MeV injector. The purpose of the auto tuning system is to maintain the 'tune' of the four tanks and debuncher to within a few Hz, stabilizing against changes of temperature and other physical factors affecting the resonant frequency of the tanks. (U.K.)

  16. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  17. Construction of a pulsed MeV positron beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuno, Shin-ichi; Okada, Sohei; Kawasuso, Atsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    To develop a fast (1 MeV) and short pulsed (100 ps) positron beam which enables defect behavior analysis of bulk states of materials even at high temperatures where a usual positron source would melt, we have been performing design study and construction of the beam line in a three-year program since 1994. This report describes the components, design study results and experimental results of the completed parts until now. (author)

  18. Photospallation reactions of 133Cs and 139La by 100 MeV- and 200 MeV bremsstrahlungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.; Toramoto, H.; Hamajima, Y.; Okada, K.; Dohniwa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Spallation yields relative to the 196 Au yield from 197 Au(γ,n) of 26 to 46 nuclides of Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs and/or Ba and La from 133 Cs and 139 La targets irradiated with bremsstrahlungs of end energies of 100 MeV and 200 MeV were radiochemically determined. The isomeric yield ratios for 132 La and 131 Ba from the ( 139 La + 100 MeV-γ), 132 La, 131 Ba, 121 Te and 119 Te from the ( 139 La + 200 MeV-γ, and 120 I, 121 Te and 119 Te from the ( 133 Cs +- 200 MeV-γ) were also determined. The isotopic yields from the (γ,yn) reactions decrease exponentially with increase of y up to 5, and show no dependence on energy and targets studied, indicating that the reactions of a few neutron emissions occur at energies lower than 100 MeV. When the product yields from the (γ,xpyn) reactions were plotted against (x + y) for each x (isotopic distribution), a regular variation of the Gaussian distributions, typical of nuclear spallation, was observed. Isobaric mass distributions and charge dispersions were deduced to extract characteristic features of these reactions. The isobaric distributions due only to photons of 100 MeV to 200 MeV, which were obtained by subtracting the 100 MeV-yields from the 200 MeV-yields, are very close to a symmetric one peaking at about 8 amu from the target masses. Nuclear charges are also dispersed symmetrically, with most probable N/Zsub(p) of about 1.3 replaced by about 1 amu to the neutron-deficient side from the beta stability valley in all the cases studied. Parameters included in Rudstam's semi-empirical formula were examined by comparing with the observed yield curves. The P values of 0.45 and 0.65, chosen for a better fit to the 200 MeV data on 133 Cs and 139 La, respectively, were larger than the predictions reported in the literature. The magic number effects of 139 La may explain the target-differences in mass distributions. (orig.)

  19. Neutron-neutron quasifree scattering in nd breakup at 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R. C.; Crowe, B.; Crowell, A. S.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B. A.; Friesen, F. Q. L.; Han, Z.; Howell, C. R.; Markoff, D.; Ticehurst, D.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction provides a rich environment for testing theoretical models of the neutron-neutron (nn) interaction. Current theoretical predictions based on rigorous ab-initio calculations agree well with most experimental data for this system, but there remain a few notable discrepancies. The cross section for nn quasifree (QFS) scattering is one such anomaly. Two recent experiments reported cross sections for this particular nd breakup configuration that exceed theoretical calculations by almost 20% at incident neutron energies of 26 and 25 MeV [1, 2]. The theoretical values can be brought into agreement with these results by increasing the strength of the 1S0 nn potential matrix element by roughly 10%. However, this modification of the nn effective range parameter and/or the 1S0 scattering length causes substantial charge-symmetry breaking in the nucleon-nucleon force and suggests the possibility of a weakly bound di-neutron state [3]. We are conducting new measurements of the cross section for nn QFS in nd breakup. The measurements are performed at incident neutron beam energies below 20 MeV. The neutron beam is produced via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction. The target is a deuterated plastic cylinder. Our measurements utilize time-of-flight techniques with a pulsed neutron beam and detection of the two emitted neutrons in coincidence. A description of our initial measurements at 10 MeV for a single scattering angle will be presented along with preliminary results. Also, plans for measurements at other energies with broad angular coverage will be discussed.

  20. Measurements on the extended range of the wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbartzki, G.J.; Kroesing, G; Neuburger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Coulomb explosion of H 2 + -ions at 28 MeV is used to probe the wake over a range of about 400 A in Al. Preliminary results give food agreement with the wavelength prediction of the simple plasma oscillation wake model. (author)

  1. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  2. Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering at photon laboratory energies between 700 and 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Kattein, J.; Kueck, H.; Leu, P.; Marne, K.D. de; Wedemeyer, R.; Wermes, N.

    1981-05-01

    Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering have been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. 78 data points are presented as angular distributions at photon lab energies of 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, and 950 MeV. The c.m. scattering angle ranges from 40 0 to 130 0 , corresponding to a variation of the four momentum transfer squared between t = -0.10 to t = -0.96 GeV 2 at 700 and 950 MeV, respectively. Two additional differential cross sections have been measured at 1000 MeV, 35.6 0 and 47.4 0 . The angular distributions show forward peaks whose extrapolations to 0 0 are consistent with calculated forward cross sections taken from literature. The small angle data ( vertical stroke t vertical stroke approx. 2 ) together with the calculated cross sections at 0 0 are also consistent with the assumption of a slope parameter B of 5 GeV -2 . For the first time a re-rise of the angular distributions towards backward angles has been observed. It becomes less steep with increasing energy. The most interesting feature of the angular distributions is a sharp structure which appears between t = -0.55 GeV 2 at 700 MeV and t = -0.72 GeV 2 at 950 MeV. Such a rapid variation of the differential cross section with t has never been observed in elastic hadron-hadron scattering or photoproduction processes. It indicates the existence of a dynamical mechanism which could be a peculiarity of Compton scattering. (orig.)

  3. Environmental Values (2-MEV and Appreciation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz X. Bogner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring the long history of empirical instruments for environmental attitude measurement, the Two Major Environmental Value model (2-MEV with its two higher order factors: Preservation (PRE and Utilization (UTL has repeatedly and independently been confirmed. PRE assesses preferences towards conservation of nature and the environment, whilst UTL measures preferences towards utilization/exploitation of nature. The latter, however, does not yet include the positive aspects of benefitting from the (enjoyable use of nature. Consequently, besides the established 2-MEV-battery, additional items from an “Appreciation of Nature” (APR scale were applied to an Irish sample of 289 secondary school students (age: M = 14.3 years. Responses to the altogether 30-item battery were applied on an oblique rotation by using the Promax procedure: UTL and PRE appeared as orthogonally related factors, APR correlated to PRE with 0.283. Based on loading scores, the item number for each subscale was further reduced to make the analysis more manageable in educational outreach sites; on those sites, where completing questionnaires may well be quite unpopular, they are very much needed for planning and fine-tuning educational programs. Therefore, extending the 2-MEV scale with an added scale for Appreciation may help: (i to judge participants’ feedback for adjusting/balancing program contents better; and (ii to promote appreciation as a successful strategy for shifting individuals away from their individual exploitative preferences.

  4. Cross sections and analyzing powers of 15N(p,n)15O at 200 MeV and 494 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciskowski, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the 15 N(p,n) 15 O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of-Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than .2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm -1 . In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A=-.7 near q=0.7 fm -1 . 53 refs., 44 figs

  5. The effect of Ni-doping on the magnetic order in the cubic GdIn(Cu{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x})4 (0.00 < x < 1.00) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Edielma Costa; Silva, Leonardo Souza; Mercena, Samuel Gomes; Peixoto, Erilaine Barreto; Meneses, Cristiano Teles de, E-mail: edielmacm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Duque, Jose Gerivaldo; Jesus, Camilo Bruno Ramos; Pagliuso, Pascoal G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work, we report on X-ray, magnetization, heat capacity and electron spin resonance measurements in GdIn(Ni{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x}){sub 4} (0.00 < x < 1.00) samples synthesized via flux method. The analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data carried out at room temperature reveal that all samples belong to cubic space group (Cl5b-type structure) with lattice parameters ranging 7.087 < a < 7.233 Å. Interestingly, the T-dependence of magnetic susceptibility and the MvsH loops indicate an gradual transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as function the Ni-doping. Specific heat for samples with concentrations x = 0 (Cu-rich) and x = 0.70 and 0.90 (Ni-rich) confirm the order temperatures observed in MvsT data. Finally, electron spin resonance taken in 10 < T < 60 K for two intermediate concentrations x = 0.5 and 0.65 shows a single resonance of Dysonian with a nearly temperature g-independent and a linear thermal broadening of the linewidth following a Korringa-like behavior. In both cases, we observe an increasing of the residual linewidth as compared with GdInCu{sub 4}. We suggest that this can be linked with the chemical disorder produced by the Ni-doping. (author)

  6. Measurement and calculation of neutron leakage spectra from slab samples of beryllium, gallium and tungsten irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y. B.; Ruan, X. C.; Ren, J.; Zhang, S.; Han, R.; Bao, J.; Huang, H. X.; Ding, Y. Y.; Wu, H. C.; Liu, P.; Zhou, Z. Y.

    2017-09-01

    In order to make benchmark validation of the nuclear data for gallium (Ga), tungsten (W) and beryllium (Be) in existing modern evaluated nuclear data files, neutron leakage spectra in the range from 0.8 to 15 MeV from slab samples were measured by time-of-flight technique with a BC501 scintillation detector. The measurements were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) using a D-T neutron source. The thicknesses of the slabs were 0.5 to 2.5 mean free path for 14.8 MeV neutrons, and the measured angles were chosen to be 60∘ and 120∘. The measured spectra were compared with those calculated by the continuous energy Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP, using the data from the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0 nuclear data files, the comparison between the experimental and calculated results show that: The results from all three libraries significantly underestimate the cross section in energy range of 10-13 MeV for Ga; For W, the calculated spectra using data from CENDL-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries show larger discrepancies with the measured ones, especially around 8.5-13.5 MeV; and for Be, all the libraries led to underestimation below 3 MeV at 120∘.

  7. Cluster ion-surface interactions: from meV to MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Kai; Meinander, Kristoffer; Jaervi, Tommi T.; Peltola, Jarkko; Samela, Juha [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    The nature of cluster ion-surface interactions changes dramatically with the kinetic energy of the incoming cluster species. In this talk I review some of our recent work on the nature of cluster-surface interactions spanning an energy range from a few MeV/cluster to about 1 MeV/cluster and cluster sizes in the range of 10 - 1000 atoms/cluster. In the energy range of a few MeV/cluster ion, the kinetic energy of the incoming ion is insignificant compared to the energy gained when the surface potential energy at the cluster-surface interface is released and partly translated into kinetic energy. Even in this energy regime I show that surprisingly drastic effects can occur. When the energy of the incoming cluster is raised to a few eV/atom, the kinetic energy of the incoming cluster starts to affect the deposition. It will cause the cluster to entirely reform on impact. When the energy is raised to the range of keV's/cluster, the clusters start to penetrate the sample, fairly similar to conventional ion implantation. However, in dense targets the cluster ions may stick close to each other long enough to cause a significant enhancement of the heat spike in the material. Finally, I show that at kinetic energies around 1 MeV/cluster the cluster enhancement of the heat spike may lead to dramatic surface effects.

  8. Study of imaging plate detector sensitivity to 5-18 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutoux, G., E-mail: boutoux@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr; Rabhi, N.; Batani, D.; Ducret, J.-E. [Univ. de Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Binet, A.; Nègre, J.-P.; Reverdin, C.; Thfoin, I. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Jakubowska, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery Street 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. We calibrated at the ELSA electron beam facility (CEA DIF) the five different available types of IPs (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) to electrons from 5 to 18 MeV. In the context of diagnostic development for the PETawatt Aquitaine Laser (PETAL), we investigated the use of stacks of IP in order to increase the detection efficiency and get detection response independent from the neighboring materials such as X-ray shielding and detector supports. We also measured fading functions in the time range from a few minutes up to a few days. Finally, our results are systematically compared to GEANT4 simulations in order to provide a complete study of the IP response to electrons over the energy range relevant for PETAL experiments.

  9. The MeV spectra of gamma-ray bursts measured with COMPTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, A.S.; Kippen, R.M.; McConnell, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The past decade has produced a wealth of observational data on the energy spectra of prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts. Most of the data cover the energy range from a few to several hundred KeV. One set of higher energy observations comes from the Imaging Compton Telescope COMPTEL on the Compton Observatory, which measured in the energy range from 0.75 to 30 MeV. We analyzed the full 9.2 years COMPTEL data to reveal the significant detection of 44 gamma-ray bursts. We present preliminary results obtained in the process of preparing a final catalog of the spectral analysis of these events. In addiction, we compare the COMPTEL spectra to simultaneous BATSE measurements for purposes of cross-calibration

  10. Neutron induced reaction cross-sections on 115In at around 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.; Lantos, Z.; Buczko, C.M.; Sudar, S.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out on 115 In isotope to determine the contribution of different reactions to the total non-elastic cross-section in the 13.43 and 14.84 MeV range. All the major component cross-sections of σ NE were measured with exception of the σ g (n,n'). In the knowledge of σ NE , the energy dependence of σ g (n,n') could be deduced. The isomeric cross section ratios both for (n,2n) and (n,n') processes were also determined in the given energy range. The present experiment proves the dependence of σ m /(σ g +σ m ) ratio on the spin value (I m ) of the isomeric state in (n,2n) reaction. Excitation functions of (n,2n), (n,n') and (n,ch) reactions were compared with results calculated by STAPRE code. (author). 37 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  11. np scattering measurements at 162 MeV and the πNN coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, J.; Blomgren, J.; Conde, H.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Roennqvist, T.; Zorro, R.; Ringbom, A.; Tibell, G.; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.U.; Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.

    1999-01-01

    The differential np scattering cross sections has been measured at 162 MeV in the angular range θ c.m. = 72 angle - 180 angle, using the neutron beam facility at the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Special attention was paid to the absolute normalization of the data. In the angular range 150 angle - 180 angle, the data are steeper then those of most previous measurements and predictions from energy-dependent partial-wave analyses, or nucleon-nucleon potentials. Moreover, a value of the charged πNN coupling constant, g π± 2 = 14.52 ± 0.26 (f π± 2 = 0.0803 ± 0.0014), is deduced from the data, using a novel extrapolation method. This is in good agreement with the classical text book value, but higher than those determined in recent partial-wave analyses of the nucleon-nucleon data base. (authors)

  12. Calculational methods used to obtain evaluated data above 3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Calculational methods used to provide evaluated neutron data for nuclei between A = 19 and 220 at incident energies above several MeV range from empirical techniques based on cross-section systematics to sophisticated nuclear-model codes that describe the major mechanisms governing neutron reactions in this mass and energy range. Examples of empirical approaches are given along with discussion concerning regions of applicability and accuracies that can be expected. The application of more sophisticated nuclear models (Hauser-Feshbach statistical, preequilibrium, and direct-reaction theories) is discussed, particularly with regard to improved parameter determinations that can be used in such calculations. Efforts to improve the consistency and to unify these theoretical approaches are addressed along with benefits to evaluated data that can be realized through careful application of such nuclear-model techniques. 76 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  13. Calibration and experiment of an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitaroff, A.; Mayer, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Atominstitut der TU-Wien, Vienna (Austria); Dimovasili, E.; Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Birattari, C. [Univ. of Milan, LASA, Segrate (Italy); Wiegel, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Aiginger, H. [Atominstitut der TU-Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    High-energy neutrons dominate the dose equivalent outside the shielding of hadron accelerators (protons, heavy ions). Nowadays these accelerators are not only used or foreseen in high- and intermediate energy physics but in other fields like medicine or waste transmutation, too. In addition it was shown that at commercial flight altitudes a large fraction of the exposure of aircraft personnel is due to neutrons with a comparable energy spectrum to that along hadron accelerators. For this reason in radiation protection the exact knowledge of the neutron spectrum and the relevant dose quantities is very important. The neutrons of these radiation fields extend over more than 14 orders of magnitude up to 1 GeV, thus making the measurement of the spectrum difficult. A newly developed Bonner sphere spectrometer with extended range shall evaluate spectra with a high-energy neutron component. This contribution shows the FLUKA simulated response functions of the two new spheres - Stanlio and Ollio - dedicated for high energies. These simulations should be verified by calibration with quasi monoenergetic neutrons. These took place at PTB with neutron beams of 144 keV, 1.2 MeV, 5 MeV and 14.8 MeV. Additionally experiments at the CERF (CERN-EU Reference Field) facility, which provides a broad neutron spectrum with two pronounced maxima at around 1 MeV and 70 MeV, are shown and compared to the Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  14. Calibration and experiment of an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitaroff, A.; Mayer, S.; Dimovasili, E.; Silari, M.; Birattari, C.; Wiegel, B.; Aiginger, H.

    2001-01-01

    High-energy neutrons dominate the dose equivalent outside the shielding of hadron accelerators (protons, heavy ions). Nowadays these accelerators are not only used or foreseen in high- and intermediate energy physics but in other fields like medicine or waste transmutation, too. In addition it was shown that at commercial flight altitudes a large fraction of the exposure of aircraft personnel is due to neutrons with a comparable energy spectrum to that along hadron accelerators. For this reason in radiation protection the exact knowledge of the neutron spectrum and the relevant dose quantities is very important. The neutrons of these radiation fields extend over more than 14 orders of magnitude up to 1 GeV, thus making the measurement of the spectrum difficult. A newly developed Bonner sphere spectrometer with extended range shall evaluate spectra with a high-energy neutron component. This contribution shows the FLUKA simulated response functions of the two new spheres - Stanlio and Ollio - dedicated for high energies. These simulations should be verified by calibration with quasi monoenergetic neutrons. These took place at PTB with neutron beams of 144 keV, 1.2 MeV, 5 MeV and 14.8 MeV. Additionally experiments at the CERF (CERN-EU Reference Field) facility, which provides a broad neutron spectrum with two pronounced maxima at around 1 MeV and 70 MeV, are shown and compared to the Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  15. First H- beam accelerated at Linac4: 3MeV done, 157 MeV to go!

    CERN Multimedia

    Linac4 Project Team

    2013-01-01

    On 14 November, the first H- (one proton surrounded by two electrons) beam was accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV in the Linac4 - the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as low-energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain.      A view of the Linac4 taken during the recent tests (top image) and the current measured by the instruments at the end of the acceleration line on 14 November (bottom image). Images: Linac4 collaboration. Using the recently installed Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, 13 mA of current were accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV. After the successful commissioning of the Linac4 RFQ at the 3 MeV test stand completed during the first months of 2013, the whole equipment (composed of the RFQ itself, the following Medium Energy Beam Transport line and its diagnostic line) were moved to the Linac4 tunnel during summer and installed in their final position. In the meantime, a new ion source was assembled, installed and successfu...

  16. 17O(n,α)14C cross section from 25 meV to approximately 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; Graff, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the 17 O(n,α) 14 C cross section from thermal energy to approximately 1 MeV. A bump in the data near 3 keV could be fitted by a state whose properties are consistent with a known subthreshold J π =1 - level at E x =8.039 MeV. The cause of the 1/v cross section near thermal energy could not be determined although the known 2 + state at 8.213 MeV was found to be too narrow to contribute much to the thermal cross section. Our data are compared to measurements made via the inverse reaction. There are many differences between the two sets of data. The astrophysical reaction rate was calculated from the measured cross section. This reaction plays a role in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in nonstandard big-bang models. At big-bang temperatures, the experimental rate was found to be in fair agreement with the rate estimated from the previously known properties of states of 18 O in this region. Furthermore, using the available information from experiments, it was estimated that the 17 O(n,α) 14 C rate is approximately a factor of 10 3 --10 4 times larger than the 17 O(n,γ) 18 O rate at big-bang temperatures. As a result, there may be significant cycling between 14 C and 17 O resulting in a reduction of heavy-element nucleosynthesis

  17. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  18. Non-Rutherford backscattering microscopy using 25 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeper, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peeper@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Moser, Marcus; Reichart, Patrick; Dollinger, Guenther [Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Protons at energies between 10 and 25 MeV are a very sensitive probe for hydrogen using coincident proton-proton scattering with the possibility for depth profiling samples up to several 100 {mu}m thickness. At the Munich microprobe SNAKE we have developed this method for sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy . In parallel to sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering we introduce a non-Rutherford backscattering analysis utilizing 25 MeV protons in order to obtain 3D depth profiles of all major elements. We present energy spectra of backscattered protons at various thin and thick film samples of pure elements which we use as fingerprints to analyse more complex materials like minerals or metals. It is due to the low stopping power of the high energy protons that the depth profiles of several elements do not or do only partially overlap when analysing freestanding samples with thicknesses in the 100 {mu}m range. The merit of our method is that signals of the light elements may not be affected by heavier matrix elements. Analysing thin films smaller than 5 {mu}m we have achieved a mass resolution of {Delta}A/A{<=}1/28 for non-overlapping mass signals utilizing a 5 mm thick Si(Li)-detector.

  19. Neutron-deuteron analyzing power data at 19.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisel, G. J.; Tornow, W.; Crowe, B. J. III; Crowell, A. S.; Esterline, J. H.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Macri, R. A.; Pedroni, R. S.; Walter, R. L.; Witala, H.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of neutron-deuteron (n-d) analyzing power A y (θ) at E n =19.0 MeV are reported at 16 angles from θ c.m. =46.7 to 152.0 deg. The objective of the experiment is to better characterize the discrepancies between n-d data and the predictions of three-nucleon calculations for neutron energies above 16.0 MeV. The experiment used a shielded neutron source, which produced polarized neutrons via the 2 H(d-vector,n-vector) 3 He reaction, a deuterated liquid scintillator center detector (CD) and liquid-scintillator neutron side detectors. A coincidence between the CD and the side detectors isolated the elastic-scattering events. The CD pulse height spectrum associated with each side detector was sorted by using pulse-shape discrimination, time-of-flight techniques, and by removing accidental coincidences. A Monte Carlo computer simulation of the experiment accounted for effects due to finite geometry, multiple scattering, and CD edge effects. The resulting high-precision data (with absolute uncertainties ranging from 0.0022 to 0.0132) have a somewhat lower discrepancy with the predictions of three-body calculations, as compared to those found at lower energies.

  20. Evaluation of the n + 3H Cross Section at En=14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Anderson, J D; Dietrich, F S; McNabb, D P; Hale, G M

    2010-02-10

    The n + {sup 3}H cross section is important for NIF diagnostics. As the d-{sup 3}H fusion at NIF generates neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV, the precise knowledge of the n + {sup 3}H cross section and in particular the elastic cross section at that energy is crucial. Experimental data at E{sub n} = 14 MeV are not accurate with large disagreements among different sets of measurements. On the other hand, the mirror reaction p-{sup 3}He is well studied and accurate data are available in a wide range of proton energies. We use several theoretical approaches to evaluate the n-{sup 3}H cross section by fine-tuning the theory to reproduce the p-{sup 3}He elastic differential cross sections. The good agreement between the R-matrix analysis and scaled ab initio calculations gives us confidence that our evaluated n + {sup 3}H cross section is accurate with an uncertainty on the order of 5%.