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Sample records for randy lewis nilmani

  1. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  2. American Idol's Randy Jackson He doesn't miss a beat controlling his diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section American Idol's Randy Jackson Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of ... beat controlling his diabetes. Musician, producer, and American Idol judge Randy Jackson is a well-known name ...

  3. Paneelikas trügib palee kõrvale : UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekiri uueneb / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    2009-01-01

    UNESCO maailmapärandi nimestikust, valikuprintsiipidest, nende avardumisest, 20. sajandi arhitektuurist, uutest UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse lisatud ja ootejärjekorras seisvatest objektidest. Lisa: UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse kantud 20. sajandi arhitektuuriobjektid

  4. Avinurme pürib UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse / Sirle Sommer-Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sommer-Kalda, Sirle, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Vt. ka Severnoje Poberezhje 3. sept., lk. 1. Kultuuriministeerium võib esitada avinurmelaste puutöö kui eluviisi ülemaailmse tähtsusega kultuuri- ja looduspärandi kaitseks mõeldud UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse

  5. Tallinna vanalinn - 40 aastat muinsuskaitseala, 10 aastat UNESCO maailmapärandis / Jaan Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Jaan, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti NSV Ministrite Nõukogu 1966. a. 2. augusti määrusega moodustati Tallinnas linnaehituslik kaitseala. 7. detsembrist 1997 kuulub Tallinna vanalinn UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse. Teekonnast nimistusse. ICOMOS-i ekspertide raportitest, Tallinnaga seonduvate probleemide arurtamisest maailmapärandi komitee aastakoosolekutel, kaasnenud nõudmistest-soovitustest

  6. Mis peaks Eestist olema maailmapärandis? / Urve Sinijärv, Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Urve, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirjast, selle täiendamisest uute objektidega. Eestist võiksid nimekirja kuuluda puisniidud, Balti klint, Kuressaare vanalinn, Narva linnus, Tartu Ülikooli ansambel, vesilennukite angaarid

  7. „A few lies, but not many“. Randy Newman in search of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay is close-reading selected songs by the singer-songwriter and film musician Randy Newman as social constructions of the American dream and the American reality since the 1930s.

  8. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  9. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  10. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  11. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  12. Estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multibeam sonar and terrestrial lidar, Randy Poynter Lake, Rockdale County, Georgia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rockdale County Department of Water Resources, conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey of Randy Poynter Lake in northern Georgia in 2012. The Randy Poynter Lake watershed drains surface area from Rockdale, Gwinnett, and Walton Counties. The reservoir serves as the water supply for the Conyers-Rockdale Big Haynes Impoundment Authority. The Randy Poynter reservoir was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map and determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations. Topographic and bathymetric data were collected using a marine-based mobile mapping unit to estimate storage capacity. The marine-based mobile mapping unit operates with several components: multibeam echosounder, singlebeam echosounder, light detection and ranging system, navigation and motion-sensing system, and data acquisition computer. All data were processed and combined to develop a triangulated irregular network, a reservoir capacity table, and a bathymetric contour map.

  13. Lewis Acid Organocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

    The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

  14. Looduslike pühapaikade kultuuri- ja looduspärandi kooshoidmine : jätkusuutlikkuse eeldused / Aare Kasemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasemets, Aare, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Looduslikest pühapaikadest kui kultuuri- ja looduspärandi kooshoidjatest. Riigi õigusloomest ja suhtest omakultuuriga. Looduslike pühapaikade arengukavast kui jätkusuutlikkuse eeldusest. Seadustest, juhenditest ja ettepanekutest arengukava rakendamiseks. Lühidalt autorist lk. 317

  15. Riiklike poliitiliste sihtide saavutamine kunsti ja kultuuripärandi valdkonnas / Ruth Towse ; tõlk. Johanna Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Towse, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Sisaldab lisa: Kunsti, muuseumide, galeriide ja kultuuripärandi rahastamine Suurbritannias : mõningaid hiljutisi andmeid. Originaali pealkiri: Achieving public policy objectives in the arts and heritage. (Cultural economics and cultural policies, 1994, lk. 143-165). Lühidalt autorist lk. 50

  16. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  17. Rejoinder to Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a response to our article “Political Ideology and Racial Preferences in Online Dating,” Kevin Lewis (2015 has raised concerns about various aspects of our analysis of user behavior on a national online dating site. The core of Lewis’ critique is that we do not report specifics of the sample, the website, and the analysis. Lewis also details numerous smaller points with respect to details of the analysis. The goal of this response is not to reply to every point that Lewis makes. As with any research project, our design decisions require tradeoffs, and readers should evaluate the evidence on their own. Rather, we use this space to make broader points about the general value for sociology of research using online data and how such research should be practiced.

  18. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  19. BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION FRAMEWORK, PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES by D. RANDY GARRISON AND NORMAN D. VAUGHAN - BOOK REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to write the review of the book, entitled “Blended Learning in Higher Education-Framework, Principles, and Guidelines”. It was written by D. Randy Garrison and Norman D. Vaughan. It was published in San Francisco by the Jossey-Bass Company. (A Wiley Imprint). It can be viewed from the following website: www.josseybass.com The first edition of this book was printed in the United States of America. The International Standard Book Number of this book i...

  20. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alzheimer’s pathology. Research now reveals that a genetic variant that increases the risk of developing both early- and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease has been identified to also be a risk factor for Lewy body disorders. Research Update: Cell to ...

  1. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on ...

  2. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SIGN UP FOR NEWSLETTER LinkedIn facebook twitter google youtube stay informed LBDA has his back, but we need your support. At 57, basketball-loving Mike Oliver still schools opponents half his age, and he’s not letting Lewy body dementia dictate ...

  3. Lewy body-demens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Korbo, Lise; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2010-01-01

    Newer estimations indicate a considerable increase in the number of elderly people with dementia and Lewy body dementia (DLB) in Denmark. Simultaneously, the prescription of antipsychotics to elderly patients remains very high in Denmark. This report reflects on the importance of keeping DLB...

  4. Lewy body-demens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Korbo, Lise; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2010-01-01

    Newer estimations indicate a considerable increase in the number of elderly people with dementia and Lewy body dementia (DLB) in Denmark. Simultaneously, the prescription of antipsychotics to elderly patients remains very high in Denmark. This report reflects on the importance of keeping DLB...... in mind when physicians encounter elderly demented patients with visual hallucinations, fluctuations and parkinsonism, as 50% of patients with DLB have severe sensitivity to antipsychotics. With new clinical criteria including SPECT of dopaminergic transporters, diagnosis has become sufficiently accurate...

  5. Frustrated Lewis pairs: Design and reactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The interaction of a Lewis acid with a Lewis base results in the formation of a Lewis acid–base adduct. Understanding Lewis acids and bases is central to conceptualizing chemical interactions and constitutes a major portion of metal–ligand chemistry. Sterically encumbered/constrained Lewis pairs cannot form ...

  6. Ferrocene-based Lewis acids and Lewis pairs: Synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optically active Lewis acids and Lewis pairs were synthesized and characterized by multinuclear NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Optical rotation measurements were carried out and the absolute configuration of the new chiral molecules confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  7. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... latest developments in treatment and research in Lewy body dementia. February 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Courage ... 1 2 next › last » All Rights Reserved Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. 912 Killian Hill Road S.W., ...

  8. Organometallic frustrated Lewis pair chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Gerhard

    2011-08-07

    Frustrated Lewis pairs are playing an increasingly important role in organometallic chemistry. Examples are presented and discussed where organometallic systems themselves serve as the Lewis base or Lewis acid components in frustrated Lewis pair chemistry, mostly through their attached functional groups. Activation of dihydrogen takes place easily in many of these systems. This may lead to the generation of novel catalyst systems but also in many cases to the occurrence of specific reactions at the periphery of the organometallic frameworks. Increasingly, FLP reactions are used to carry out functional group conversions in organometallic systems under mild reaction conditions. The limits of typical FLP reactivity are explored with selected organometallic examples, a discussion that points toward new developments, such as the discovery of facile new 1,1-carboboration reactions. Learning more and more about the broad spectrum of frustrated Lewis pair chemistry helps us to find novel reactions and applications.

  9. Kultuuripärandi vahendajad: käsitööharrastajate ja muuseumide koostöö / Marke Teppor, Agnes Aljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teppor, Marke

    2013-01-01

    Analüüsitakse ERMis toimunud käsitööharrastajate kogukonnale suunatud konkursi "Minu lemmik Eesti Rahva Muuseumi kogudest" osalejatega tehtud intervjuude põhjal, millised on kogukonna ootused ja seisukohad muuseumide suhtes ning kuidas tajutakse oma rolli kultuuripärandi vahendajatena.

  10. Treatment of Lewy body dementia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doña, Pedro J Regalado

    2011-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is more frequent than previously considered and is characterized by the scarcity of therapeutic resources and the difficulty of treatment since many patients are hypersensitive to neuroleptics...

  11. Neuroinflammation in Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T

    2015-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative conditions. However, it remains unclear whether it has a protective or damaging role. Studies of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease have provided much of the evidence for inflammatory pathology in neurodegeneration. Here we review the evidence for inflammation in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. Neuroinflammation has been confirmed in vivo using PET imaging, with microglial activation seen in Parkinson's disease dementia and recently in dementia with Lewy bodies. In Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia, microglial activation suggests a chronic inflammatory process, although there is also evidence of its association with cognitive ability and neuronal function. Alpha-synuclein in various conformations has also been linked to activation of microglia, with a broad range of components of the innate and adaptive immune systems associated with this interaction. Evidence of neuroinflammation in Lewy body dementia is further supported by pathological and biomarker studies. Genetic and epidemiological studies support a role for inflammation in Parkinson's disease, but have yet to provide the same for Lewy body dementia. This review highlights the need to identify whether the nature and extent of microglial activation in Lewy body dementia can be linked to structural change, progression of domain specific cognitive symptoms and peripheral inflammation as a marker of central microglial pathology. Answers to these questions will enable the evaluation of immunotherapies as potential therapeutic options for prevention or treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How Do Lipids Localize in Lewy Bodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Himanshu; Subramaniam, Vinod; Claessens, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). While fibrillar α-synuclein (αS) is the main protein component of Lewy bodies, these structures also contain lipids. To elucidate the presence of lipids in Lewy bodies, we investigated the interaction of lipids with monomeric and

  13. Quinonoid functionality redox properties Diiminic functionality Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The metal ions are essentially Lewis acids while the ligands are analogous to Lewis bases. Most often, the ligand has a lone pair of electrons that it donates to the empty d-orbitals in the metal. This forms a Lewis acid-base adduct. ... chemical process and (c) the fitting of the parameters (e.g. equilibrium constants) that are.

  14. TECHNOS Interview: Lewis J. Perelman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell Jefferson

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Lewis Perelman, author of "Global Mind" and "School's Out: Hyperlearning, the New Technology, and the End of Education," explores the future of education in the U.S. Argues that the forces changing academia in the direction of obsolescence and ultimate extinction are unrelated to education policy or…

  15. Lewis and Clark as Naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Museum of Natural History.

    Intended for use in elementary and high school education, this Web site includes a teacher's guide and three lesson plans. The site contains images of museum specimens, scientific drawings, and field photos of the plant and animal species observed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with journal excerpts, historical notes, and references…

  16. Molecular Pathology of Lewy Body Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein(AS-positive inclusions in the brain. Since their main component is conformationally modified AS, aggregation of the latter is thought to be a key pathogenic event in these diseases. The analysis of inclusion body constituents gives additional information about pathways also involved in the pathology of synucleinopathies. Widespread mitochondrial dysfunction is very closely related to disease development. The impairment of protein degradation pathways, including both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomepathway also play an important role during the development of Lewy body diseases. Finally, differential expression changes of isoforms corresponding to genes primarily involved in Lewy body formation point to alternative splicing as another important mechanism in the development of Parkinson’s disease, as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. The present paper attempts to give an overview of recent molecular findings related to the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases.

  17. Lewy Body Dementias: Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Gomperts, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article provides an overview of the clinical features, neuropathologic findings, diagnostic criteria, and management of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), together known as the Lewy body dementias.

  18. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M

    2017-05-09

    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  19. Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Sato, Kiyoshi; Iseki, Eizo

    2015-07-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementing disorder after Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is limited information regarding the prodromal DLB state compared with that of AD. Parkinson's disease (PD) and DLB share common prodromal symptoms with Lewy body disease (LBD), allowing us to use a common strategy for identifying the individuals with an underlying pathophysiology of LBD. Dysautonomia, olfactory dysfunction, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and psychiatric symptoms antedate the onset of dementia by years or even decades in patients with DLB. Although RBD is the most potentially accurate prodromal predictor of DLB, disease progression before the onset of dementia could differ between the prodromal DLB state with and without RBD. Experts who specialize in idiopathic RBD and DLB might need communication in order to clarify the clinical relevance of RBD with the disease progression of DLB. The presence of prodromal LBD symptoms or findings of occipital hypoperfusion/hypometabolism helps us to predict the possible pathophysiological process of LBD in non-demented patients. This approach might provide the opportunity for additional neuroimaging, including cardiac (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and dopamine transporter imaging. Although limited radiological findings in patients with prodromal DLB states have been reported, there is now a need for larger clinical multisite studies with pathological verification. The long prodromal phase of DLB provides a critical opportunity for potential intervention with disease-modifying therapy, but only if we are able to clearly identify the diversity in the clinical courses of DLB. In the present article, we reviewed the limited literature regarding the clinical profiles of prodromal DLB. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Cation affinity numbers of Lewis bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lindner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Using selected theoretical methods the affinity of a large range of Lewis bases towards model cations has been quantified. The range of model cations includes the methyl cation as the smallest carbon-centered electrophile, the benzhydryl and trityl cations as models for electrophilic substrates encountered in Lewis base-catalyzed synthetic procedures, and the acetyl cation as a substrate model for acyl-transfer reactions. Affinities towards these cationic electrophiles are complemented by data for Lewis-base addition to Michael acceptors as prototypical neutral electrophiles.

  1. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,…

  2. Sialyl Lewis x expression in cervical scrapes of premalignant lesions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study we determined the expression profiles of the glycosidic antigens Tn, sialyl Tn (sTn), Lewis a (Lea), sialyl Lewis a (sLea), Lewis x (Lex) and sialyl Lewis x (sLex) in cervical scrapes with cytological diagnoses of normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous ...

  3. Familial Occurrence of Dementia With Lewy Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuang, Debby W.; DiGiacomo, Lillian; Bird, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The authors investigated the validity of the designation “familial dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)” by evaluating the clinical, neuropathological, and genetic characteristics of previously reported families exhibiting both familial parkinsonism and dementia.

  4. G. N. Lewis and the Chemical Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Linus

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of G. N. Lewis to chemistry, focusing on his formulation of the basic principle of the chemical bond--the idea that the chemical bond consists of a pair of electrons held jointly by two atoms. (JN)

  5. Lewis A. Conner: Cornell's Osler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J

    2000-08-29

    Lewis A. Conner, MD (1867 to 1950), was a pioneer in public health cardiology, cardiac rehabilitation, and cardiac psychology. He helped establish the Burke Rehabilitation Hospital and was the founding president of the New York and American Heart Associations (AHA). Dr Conner was the founder of the American Heart Journal, America's first medical subspecialty journal, and the official publication of the American Heart Association until 1950, when CIRCULATION: was created. Conner spent more than a half-century on the staff of the New York Hospital and Cornell University Medical College and was Chairman of Medicine from 1916 to 1932. During this time, he created the innovative Cornell Pay Clinic and united the "old" New York Hospital with the new and scientifically-oriented Cornell University Medical College on a modern and inspiring urban campus. An extraordinary clinician and a humanist with great equanimity, Conner devoted his career to the Oslerian tradition of scholarship, leadership, and organization in the quest for improved patient care. This article contains newly discovered biographic material on Dr Conner and explores his professional and personal connection to Sir William Osler.

  6. Slovene critics on Sinclair Lewis's novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Avsenak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the reception of Sinclair Lewis's novels by Slovene critics. Initially, the article focuses on the life and workof Sinclair Lewis, giving special emphasis to social influences that made the author a representative figure in the literary and social world. Thus his works are nowadays to be understood primarily as fiction, but on the other hand also as sociological documents of a social and political situation of the period between the two world wars. Generally, the effect they produce is one of a critical discussion of the nation of the United States. When speaking of the social relevance that Lewis's novels have, it is obvious that his works are the portrayals of Americans and their deficiencies. At the time of their publication Lewis's novels received unfavourable criticism on accountof his overly open pro-European attitude and Slovene critics of the period before World War II emphasise this in much detail. It was precisely this anti-American propaganda in the novels themselves and sincerity on the part of the novelist that won the European critics as well as the readers whenit came to appreciating his works. However, Lewis's view of the Americans, as presented throughout his works, only enhanced his literary credibility as a modern writer. That is why the articles by Slovene critics that appeared after the Second World War, and even more significantly after Lewis's death, almost minutely reflect a more favourable attitude to Sinclair Lewis, which was also the case with foreign literary criticism of the post-war period. Critics still discuss the qualities and flaws of Lewis's novels, but being more lenient they no longer profess that the novels lack in artistic value. They remain, however, primarily relevant as social documents of the pre- and post-war era, which fully presented the American middle-class mentality in America and elsewhere. For this reason, the Nobel Prize for Literature awarded to

  7. LEWY BODY VARIANT OF ALZHEIMER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jera Jeruc

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinicopathological studies indicate that Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia, the other frequent causes are AD combined with diffuse Lewy bodies and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB by itself. When histological features of AD and DLB are found together in one brain we speak about Lewy body variant of AD (LBVAD. Beside global cognitive impairment LBVAD patients show signs of subcortical dementia and mild extrapiramidal signs.Methods and results. We present two patients with post-mortem diagnosis of LBVAD. Clinical and pathomorphological characteristics of the disease are discussed.Conclusions. Post-mortem studies show that LBVAD is the second most common cause of dementia, following AB.

  8. [Dementia: Where are the Lewy bodies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouvier, T; Delrieu, J; Evain, S; Pallardy, A; Sauvaget, A; Letournel, F; Chevrier, R; Lepetit, M; Vercelletto, M; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, C; Derkinderen, P

    2013-11-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second cause of degenerative dementia in autopsy studies. In clinical pratice however, the prevalence of DLB is much lower with important intercenter variations. Among the reasons for this low sensitivity of DLB diagnosis are (1) the imprecision and subjectivity of the diagnostic criteria; (2) the underestimation of non-motor symptoms (REM-sleep behavior disorder, dysautonomia, anosmia); mostly (3) the nearly constant association of Lewy bodies with Alzheimer's disease pathology, which dominates the clinical phenotype. With the avenue of targeted therapies against the protein agregates, new clinical scales able to apprehend the coexistence of Lewy pathology in Alzheimer's disease are expected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Complexation of Nitrous Oxide by Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Edwin; Neu, Rebecca C.; Stephan, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Frustrated Lewis pairs comprised of a basic yet sterically encumbered phosphine with boron Lewis acids bind nitrous oxide to give intact PNNOB linkages. The synthesis, structure, and bonding of these species are described.

  10. Quinonoid functionality redox properties Diiminic functionality Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    base due to the presence of the two diiminic nitrogen atoms (Scheme 1). Calderazzo et al. [2], showed that PDON reacts with Lewis acids such as TiCl4 to give N,N-coordinated derivatives, and with a low-valent organometallic compound giving a redox reaction (Scheme 2). It has to be noted that when PDON coordinates ...

  11. Edward B Lewis (1918–2004)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cle (Nature 276, 565–570) and formulated theories about how homeotic genes interact, how the gene order corre- sponded to the segment order along the body axis, and how the individual genes are expressed. All of Ed Lewis's dis- coveries were purely based on genetic studies without much knowledge of the molecular ...

  12. Playing around in Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susina, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mathematician Charles Dodgson's love of play and his need for rules came together in his use of popular games as part of the structure of the two famous children's books, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass," he wrote under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The author of this article looks at the interplay between…

  13. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

  14. Learning To Reason from Lewis Carroll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the process and the usefulness of translating empirical logic puzzles into mathematical problems which may be more easily solved, then translating the answer back into the context of the original problem. Presents nine logic puzzles devised by Lewis Carroll, with answers. (AIM)

  15. Frustrated Lewis pairs: Design and reactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 2. Frustrated Lewis pairs: Design and reactivity. Sanjoy Mukherjee Pakkirisamy Thilagar. Volume 127 Issue 2 ... main group as well as transition metal chemistry. The design strategies adopted for FLP systems and their unique reactivity are discussed here.

  16. Teaching a Model for Writing Lewis Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan Quilez

    1989-01-01

    Presents a didactic model to improve the teaching/learning process in the representation of Lewis structures. Places special emphasis on the calculation and reduction of formal charges, and in the representation of molecules in which the central atom has expanded its valence shell. (MVL)

  17. Habitat Selection and Reproductive Success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) at Its Northern Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zhu; Diane S Srivastava; Smith, James N. M.; Kathy Martin

    2012-01-01

    Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004-2005) of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensi...

  18. A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reviewed By Harold H.

    1999-11-01

    The Edward Mellen Press: Lewiston, NY, 1998. 114 pp + index. ISBN 0-7734-8284-9. $69.95. There may not be a surname better known to students of chemistry than Lewis, from the Lewis electron-dot diagrams and the Lewis theory of acids and bases. More advanced students may know of the groundbreaking textbook Thermodynamics, by Lewis and Randall. Yet few Americans know much about this remarkable U.S.-born scholar, whose contributions equal those of the greatest scientists. He is a chemist-educator of whom we should be as proud and as well informed as we are of Linus Pauling, who was part of the westward movement of science in this country that G. N. Lewis began, or of the recently deceased Glenn Seaborg, who was one of the many students of Lewis who achieved renown. Gilbert N. Lewis was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1875, but his family moved to near Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1884. He spent two years at the University of Nebraska, but then moved to Harvard when his father became an executive at Merchants Trust Company in Boston. Young Lewis (then only 17) was also said to have been disappointed with the quality of education in Nebraska, and this may have been part of the impetus for the family's move east. After earning his baccalaureate at Harvard, he taught for a year at Phillips Andover Academy before returning to Harvard to study for his doctorate, which he completed 100 years ago, in 1899, under T. W. Richards. Lewis's doctoral work was on the thermodynamics of zinc and cadmium amalgams. At that time, physical chemistry was only beginning to achieve recognition as a branch of science, and its boundaries were ill defined. Edward Lewis quotes his father as often saying, "Physical chemistry is anything interesting." Like many chemists of his time, Lewis went to Europe to complete his preparation for a career; he was in the laboratories of Ostwald in Leipzig and Nernst in Göttingen in 1900-1901. On his return to the United States, he was an instructor at Harvard

  19. C. S. Lewis: The Romantic Rationalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliu Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “C. S. Lewis: The Romantic Rationalist” presents the way C. S. Lewis gives an account in his first fictional (allegorical book, The Pilgrim’s Regress, of how he discovered Christianity on the converging paths of romanticism and rationalism. The outstanding scholar and author whose intellectual and spiritual development has turned him into one of the most influential Christian writers of the twentieth century became an atheist in his teens and after a long journey through different philosophical convictions he converted to Christianity in his early thirties, a change that affected his entire work. His love of literature was essential in discovering both the rational and the imaginative appeal of Christianity, which led him into a vision of the reality of the world and of life that satisfied the longing of his heart and the hunger of his imagination.

  20. Capgras' syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Andrew G; Verghese, Joe

    2002-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Capgras' syndrome, or the delusion of doubles, in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies. The patient believed that several similar-looking impostors had replaced his wife of over 50 years. Uncharacteristically, he adopted a friendly attitude with these impostors. This unusual convivial reaction to the impostors may result from differential involvement of the dual visual pathways processing facial recognition and emotional responses to faces. The delusion resolved spontaneously, coincident with worsening of the dementia. In a retrospective chart review of 18 autopsy-confirmed cases of dementia with Lewy bodies, delusions were reported in 5 subjects (27.8%), of whom 1 had misidentification delusions much like Capgras' syndrome.

  1. Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2014-06-13

    Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.

  2. Rendezvous, un juego de Lewis Carroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Todos en mayor o menor medida asociamos el nombre de Lewis Carrolla la literatura, sobre todo a la de temática infantil, con títulos a sus espaldas como Alicia en el País de las Maravillas, Alicia a través del espejo, o La Caza del Snark. Pero además de literato, Lewis Carrol fue un hombre con bastantes inquietudes en torno a la matemática, la lógica y el pensamiento filosófico. Pero no todo el mundo es conocedor de su faceta como creativo en el campo de los juegos. Rendezvous es una de sus más sorprendentes invenciones,un juego de inteligencia para todos los públicos, cuyas directrices hacen de él un entretenimiento bastante original.

  3. Amyloid PET Imaging in Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Paul; Thomas, Alan J; O'Brien, John T

    2015-01-01

    Lewy body (LB) disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia. Although the pathological hallmarks of LB disorders are Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, cortical amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition is also often seen. The relationship between Aβ pathology and dementia in LB disorders is unclear. Recently, positron emission tomography Aβ ligands have been developed that enable in vivo imaging of Aβ. In this paper we review amyloid imaging studies in LB disorders. LB disorders are associated with lower mean cortical Aβ ligand binding compared with Alzheimer disease. In DLB and PDD many subjects have normal levels of cortical Aβ, though a subset show increased Aβ ligand binding. Those with DLB show greater ligand binding than PDD; binding does not appear to be increased in PD without dementia. Cortical Aβ deposition may be a factor in the development of cognitive impairment in some cases of dementia in LB disorders. Amyloid imaging is of limited use in the diagnosis of LB disorders but Aβ deposition may predict the future development of dementia in PD. Reports of correlation between Aβ deposition and symptom profile, severity, and progression have been inconsistent. Some results suggest a synergistic interaction between Aβ and α-synuclein. Interpretation of the current evidence is hampered by differing methodologies across studies and small sample sizes. Large, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the association of Aβ with symptom development, progression, severity, and treatment response in LB disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Critical Reception of Lewis Nordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer...... in the southern literary tradition and have highlighted themes such as magical realism, the grotesque, race relations, music, and gender....

  5. Clinicopathological Correlates of Lewy Body Disease: Fundamental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Beom Ahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body pathology (LBP is the pathological hallmark of Lewy body diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia. Recent studies have shed new light on the role of LBP, the interactions of LBP with concomitant pathologies, and the propagation of LBP from the olfactory bulb and enteric nervous system to the central nervous system. The intrinsic difficulty with identifying clinicopathological correlates could be overcome by improving our understanding of the pathological evolution of LBP.

  6. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  7. [Brain SPECT in Lewy body dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Karim; Volpe-Gillot, Lisette; Caillat-Vigneron, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    Dementia of Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second cause of degenerative dementia. There is many clinical presentation of the disease. Brain single photon computed tomography (SPECT) is a simple way to investigate routinely the cerebral blood flow. On cerebral perfusion SPECT, DLB is accompanied by diffuse cortical hypoperfusion predominantly at the posterior cortex and may affect the associative and primary visual areas in relation to neuronal loss or dysfunction. DLB patients have striatal hypofixation on cerebral neurotranmission SPECT-DaTSCAN(®), related with dopaminergic loss. Brain SPECT is useful in the differential diagnosis between DLB and other dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Carnap and Lewis on the External World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ferreira da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the claims about our knowledge of the external world presented by Rudolf Carnap, in the book known as the Aufbau, to those of Clarence Irving Lewis, in Mind and the World-Order. This comparison is made in terms of the opposition to Kantian epistemology that both books establish; the Aufbau is regarded as the peak of the logicist tradition and Mind and the World-Order is taken in continuity with pragmatism. It is found that both books present knowledge of the external world as a consequence of a structural organization of human experience. However, there is an important point of divergence: the concept of verification each author adopts is different, such a concept was even a matter of discussion between Lewis and the Vienna Circle. This paper shows this disagreement but also shows how Carnap changed his point of view in the decade after the Aufbau was published, towards a standpoint which is much closer to Lewis’s ideas. In that process, nevertheless, Carnap changed his focus and did not deal with the problem of the external world anymore. This paper also seeks to draw attention to some features of the relation between Carnap and the pragmatist tradition which have only recently started to attract interest.

  9. Neurophysiological biomarkers for Lewy body dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromarty, Ruth A.; Elder, Greg J.; Graziadio, Sara; Baker, Mark; Bonanni, Laura; Onofrj, Marco; O’Brien, John T.; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lewy body dementias (LBD) include both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and the differentiation of LBD from other neurodegenerative dementias can be difficult. Currently, there are few biomarkers which might assist early diagnosis, map onto LBD symptom severity, and provide metrics of treatment response. Traditionally, biomarkers in LBD have focussed on neuroimaging modalities; however, as biomarkers need to be simple, inexpensive and non-invasive, neurophysiological approaches might also be useful as LBD biomarkers. Methods In this review, we searched PubMED and PsycINFO databases in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers in the LBDs. Results We identified 1491 studies; of these, 37 studies specifically examined neurophysiological biomarkers in LBD patients. We found that there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to methodologies and patient cohorts. Conclusion Generally, many of the findings have yet to be replicated, although preliminary findings reinforce the potential utility of approaches such as quantitative electroencephalography and motor cortical stimulation paradigms. Significance Various neurophysiological techniques have the potential to be useful biomarkers in the LBDs. We recommend that future studies focus on maximising the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the most promising neurophysiological biomarkers. PMID:26183755

  10. Dalgarno-Lewis perturbation theory for scattering states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2007-07-23

    We apply the method of Dalgarno and Lewis to scattering states and discuss the choice of the unperturbed model in order to have a convergent perturbation series for the phase shift. We show that a recently proposed approach is a particular case of the method of Dalgarno and Lewis.

  11. Development of a metastatic fluorescent Lewis Lung carcinoma mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Lene; Fregil, Marianne; Høgdall, Estrid

    2013-01-01

    models. To examine the mechanisms involved in tumor metastasis, we first generated a stably transfected Lewis Lung carcinoma cell line expressing a far-red fluorescent protein, called Katushka. After in vivo growth in syngeneic mice, two fluorescent Lewis Lung cancer subpopulations were isolated from...

  12. Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

  13. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…

  14. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.P.; Wilbers, J.; Aerts, M.B.; Leijten, Q.H.; Dijk, J.G. van; Esselink, R.A.; Bloem, B.R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies

  15. Impairments of Speech Fluency in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured…

  16. Thoughts on Teaching: John L. Lewis, Jesus, and President Bush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2004-01-01

    Bobby Ann Starnes, the author of this article, grew up with portraits of two important people displayed prominently in her home, Jesus, and John L. Lewis. Lewis, a giant among American leaders in the first half of the twentieth century, sent hundreds of organizers to help create some of the nation's leading labor unions, including the United…

  17. Pharmacological Management of Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinton, Chris; McKeith, Ian; Taylor, John-Paul; Lafortune, Louise; Mioshi, Eneida; Mak, Elijah; Cambridge, Victoria; Mason, James; Thomas, Alan; O’Brien, John T

    2015-01-01

    ...: participants with diagnoses of Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, or Parkinson’s disease dementia (or participants’ caregivers); investigation of pharmacological management strategies...

  18. Ectopic localization of FOXO3a protein in Lewy bodies in Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry George

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites constitute the cardinal neuropathological features of both Parkinson's disease (PD and Lewy body dementia (LBD. Whereas α-synuclein has been found to be the major component of the Lewy body, the mechanisms by which neurons degenerate, as well as basic mechanisms involved in the formation of α-synuclein-related inclusions, remain obscure. We have suggested previously that potential mechanisms are likely to leave a "molecular signature" or protein adduct within the Lewy body, and have found examples of such signatures in previous studies. In this study, we demonstrate increased FOXO3 in association with Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in LBD and PD brain tissue. Since FOXO proteins are involved in several pathways responsible for the regulation of cell death, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism, the ectopic localization of FOXO3 to Lewy bodies provides evidence that aberrations in basic cellular biochemistry may contribute to inclusion formation, which is likely more complex than a simple "gain of function" toxicity as is commonly opined. In light of the known interaction of FOXO3 and 14-3-3, basic protein-protein interaction between these proteins and α-synuclein may be key.

  19. Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction for direct access to delta-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiseni, Paolo S; Peters, René

    2008-05-15

    A complex formed in situ from Er(OTf)3 and a simple commercially available norephedrine ligand promotes an unprecedented [4 + 2] cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated acid chlorides with a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes by a cooperative bifunctional Lewis acid-Lewis base catalytic mode of action providing valuable delta-lactone building blocks with excellent enantioselectivity.

  20. NASA Lewis Meshed VSAT Workshop meeting summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William

    1993-11-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division (SED) hosted a workshop to address specific topics related to future meshed very small-aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communications networks. The ideas generated by this workshop will help to identify potential markets and focus technology development within the commercial satellite communications industry and NASA. The workshop resulted in recommendations concerning these principal points of interest: the window of opportunity for a meshed VSAT system; system availability; ground terminal antenna sizes; recommended multifrequency for time division multiple access (TDMA) uplink; a packet switch design concept for narrowband; and fault tolerance design concepts. This report presents a summary of group presentations and discussion associated with the technological, economic, and operational issues of meshed VSAT architectures that utilize processing satellites.

  1. Lewis morris rutherfurd 1816-1892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, S

    1976-07-01

    Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1816-1892) was a wealthy amateur practitioner of science, making notable contributions to the optics of astronomy and spectroscopy. He graduated from Williams College at the age of 18 and soon began a career in law. Not long thereafter he was fortunate enough to acquire sufficient wealth through marriage to permit him to pursue scientific activity, for which he had gained interest. He soon became interested in photographing the heavens to obtain quantitative data regarding star motions. A few years later he developed a spectrometer with which he obtained some of the best attainable stellar spectra of the time. Rutherfurd is not widely known because he did not fully report his work; but through correspondence and instrument development he had a profound influence on his contemporaries. He was made a trustee of Columbia College in 1858, and in 1881 he helped to found a department of Geodesy and Practical Astronomy there.

  2. [Clinical Neuropsychology of Dementia with Lewy Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD. Imitation of finger gestures is impaired more frequently in DLB than in other mild dementia, and provides additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Pareidolia, which lies between hallucination and visual misperception, is found frequently in DLB, but its mechanism is still under investigation.

  3. Lewis-Sumner syndrome and Tangier disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théaudin, Marie; Couvert, Philippe; Fournier, Emmanuel; Bouige, Daniel; Bruckert, Eric; Perrotte, Paul; Vaschalde, Yvan; Maisonobe, Thierry; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Carrié, Alain; Le Forestier, Nadine

    2008-07-01

    To report unusual electrophysiologic data in a patient with Tangier disease in an effort to better understand the pathophysiologic features of the peripheral nerve lesions in this disease. Case report. A 15-year-old girl had subacute onset of asymmetric neuropathy with persistent conduction block, resembling Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Electrophysiologic data in Tangier disease. After initially unsuccessful treatment with intravenously administered immunoglobulins, the finding of an abnormal lipid profile led to the diagnosis of Tangier disease due to the R587W mutation in the adenotriphosphate-binding cassette transporter-1 gene (ABCA1) (OMIM 9q22-q31). Conduction block, which is the electrophysiologic hallmark of focal demyelination, can be present in Tangier disease. It could be induced by focal nerve ischemia or by preferential lipid deposition in the paranodal regions of myelinated Schwann cells. The presence of a conduction block in Tangier disease may lead to a misdiagnosis of dysimmune neuropathy.

  4. Lewy Body Dementias: Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Stephen N

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical features, neuropathologic findings, diagnostic criteria, and management of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), together known as the Lewy body dementias. DLB and PDD are common, clinically similar syndromes that share characteristic neuropathologic changes, including deposition of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites and loss of tegmental dopamine cell populations and basal forebrain cholinergic populations, often with a variable degree of coexisting Alzheimer pathology. The clinical constellations of DLB and PDD include progressive cognitive impairment associated with parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, and fluctuations of attention and wakefulness. Current clinical diagnostic criteria emphasize these features and also weigh evidence for dopamine cell loss measured with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, a risk factor for the synucleinopathies. The timing of dementia relative to parkinsonism is the major clinical distinction between DLB and PDD, with dementia arising in the setting of well-established idiopathic Parkinson disease (after at least 1 year of motor symptoms) denoting PDD, while earlier cognitive impairment relative to parkinsonism denotes DLB. The distinction between these syndromes continues to be an active research question. Treatment for these illnesses remains symptomatic and relies on both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies. DLB and PDD are important and common dementia syndromes that overlap in their clinical features, neuropathology, and management. They are believed to exist on a spectrum of Lewy body disease, and some controversy persists in their differentiation. Given the need to optimize cognition, extrapyramidal function, and psychiatric health, management can be complex and should be systematic.

  5. Incidental Lewy Body Disease: Electrophysiological Findings Suggesting Pre-clinical Lewy Body Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles H.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Shill, Holly A.; Evidente, Virgilio G.H.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika D.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sue, Lucia; Beach, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluate electrophysiologic findings in incidental Lewy Body disease (ILBD). Methods ILBD, Control, and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects had electrophysiological evaluation within two years prior to autopsy. Data analyzed included surface electromyography (EMG) of upper extremity muscles during rest and muscle activation, and electroencephalography (EEG) recording at rest. For EMG, gross tracings and spectral peaks were analyzed. EEG measures analyzed were background frequency and power in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands. Results Three of ten ILBD subjects (30%) showed unilateral rhythmic EMG discharges at rest without a visually apparent rest tremor. The ILBD resting EMG frequency was lower than in the Control group with no overlap (P=0.03) and close to that of the PD group. The ILBD group had significantly lower background rhythm frequency than the Control group (P=0.001) but was greater than the PD group (P=0.01). Conclusions The electrophysiologic changes in ILBD cases are between those of Control and PD, suggesting that these findings may reflect changes correlating with ILBD as a possible precursor to PD. Significance Electrophysiologic changes in ILBD may assist with the identification of a preclinical stage for Lewy body disorders and help the development of a therapeutic agent for modifying Lewy body disease progression. PMID:21616709

  6. Lewis Acid-Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment to prepare a deuterium labeled adduct of a Lewis acid and Lewis base, to use computational methods allowing students to visualize the LUMO of Lewis acids, the HOMO of Lewis bases and the molecular orbitals of the adduct that is formed is developed. This allows students to see the interplay between calculated and experimental results.

  7. I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Chung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders.

  8. Creativity and Autism Spectrum Conditions: a Hypothesis on Lewis Carroll

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefano Calabrese; Maria Francesca Luziatelli

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis formulated by Simon Baron-Cohen and his collaborators on the onset of autistic syndromes and their link with an excess of the so-called S brain is reflected in the work of Lewis Carroll...

  9. Clinical Features of Alzheimer Disease With and Without Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Joo; Babulal, Ganesh M.; Monsell, Sarah E.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Roe, Catherine M.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Lewy bodies are a frequent coexisting pathology in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have examined the contribution of Lewy bodies to the clinical phenotype of late-onset AD with variable findings. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the presence of Lewy body pathology influences the clinical phenotype and progression of symptoms in longitudinally assessed participants with AD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective clinical and pathological cohort study of 531 deceased participants who met the neuropathologic criteria for intermediate or high likelihood of AD according to the National Institute on Aging–Ronald Reagan Institute guidelines for the neuropathologic diagnosis of AD. All participants had a clinical assessment within 2 years of death. The data were obtained from 34 AD centers maintained by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center and spanned from September 12, 2005, to April 30, 2013. EXPOSURES Standardized neuropathologic assessment and then brain autopsy after death. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinical and neuropsychiatric test scores. RESULTS The mean (SD) age at death was statistically significantly younger for participants who had AD with Lewy bodies (77.9 [9.5] years) than for participants who had AD without Lewy bodies (80.2 [11.1] years) (P = .01). The mean (SD) age at onset of dementia symptoms was also younger for participants who had AD with Lewy bodies (70.0 [9.9] years) than for participants who had AD without Lewy bodies (72.2 [12.3] years) (P = .03). More men than women had AD with Lewy bodies (P = .01). The frequency of having at least 1 APOE ε4 allele was higher for participants who had AD with Lewy bodies than for participants who had AD without Lewy bodies (P = .03). After adjusting for age, sex, education, frequency of plaques (neuritic and diffuse), and tangle stage, we found that participants who had AD with Lewy bodies had a statistically significantly higher mean (SD) Neuropsychiatric

  10. Lewy body dementia: the impact on patients and caregivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zweig, Yael R; Galvin, James E

    2014-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia in older adults, yet there remains a delay in diagnosis that limits healthcare providers' ability to maximize therapeutic outcomes and enhance...

  11. IMPROVING THE CLINICAL DETECTION OF LEWY BODY DEMENTIA WITH THE LEWY BODY COMPOSITE RISK SCORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E

    2015-09-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a challenge to diagnose, particularly outside of expert centers with long delays in diagnosis leading to significant burden to patients and caregivers. While consensus criteria have excellent specificity, there is no standardized way to assess symptoms reducing sensitivity. We developed the Lewy Body Composite Risk Score (LBCRS) from autopsy-verified cases to improve the ability to detect DLB in clinic and research populations. The LBCRS was tested in a consecutive series of 256 patients compared with the Clinical Dementia Rating and gold standard measures of cognition, motor symptoms, function, and behavior. Psychometric properties including floor and ceiling effects; concurrent, construct, and known-groups validity, and internal consistency of the LBCRS were determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves assessed the ability of LBCRS to differentiate: (a) DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) DLB from all dementia, and (c) Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to DLB from MCI due to AD. The LBCRS was completed independent of the clinical evaluation. Mean LBCRS scores were significantly different between DLB and AD (6.1±2.0 vs. 2.4±1.3, pdementia. Using a cut-off score of 3, areas under ROC for DLB vs. AD = 0.93 (0.89-0.98), and for MCI-DLB vs. MCI-AD = 0.96 (0.91-1.0). The LBCRS increases diagnostic probability that Lewy body pathology is contributing to the dementia syndrome and should improve clinical detection and enrollment for clinical trials.

  12. Pragmatique du nonsense, de Lewis Carroll aux Monty Python

    OpenAIRE

    Schneebeli, Célia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists in a study of verbal exchanges in nonsense literature, from the last quarter of the nineteenth century and one of the two fathers of the genre, Lewis Carroll, to the last quarter of the twentieth century and his glorious heirs, the Monty Python. The corpus is taken from the whole of English-speaking nonsense literature, be it English (Lewis Carroll, the Monty Python, N.F. Simpson), Canadian (Stephen Leacock), or American (Robert Benchley, Donald Ogden Stewart, Josep...

  13. Distinguishing Lewy body dementias from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Galvin, James E

    2007-11-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is the second most common dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). LBD is characterized clinically by visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal symptoms, cognitive fluctuations and neuroleptic sensitivity. LBD and AD share many common features in pathology, genetics and biochemical alterations; however, correct clinical distinction between these disorders has prognostic and therapeutic implications. There are currently no definitive radiological or biological markers for LBD, but studies suggest that premorbid differences in cognitive domains and personality traits, differences in clinical presentation, and alterations in autonomic function and sleep may improve diagnosis. Cholinergic dysfunction plays a major role in both AD and LBD; however, dysfunction is greater in LBD. This may account for the more prominent hallucinations, and offers the possibility of a greater response to cholinesterase inhibitors in LBD. The treatment of LBD is symptomatic and is based on a limited number of clinical trials and extension of results from trials in AD. Current research is focused on the role of synuclein aggregation with possible roles for synuclein-derived peptides as aggregation inhibitors. Other approaches target amyloid, neuroinflammation, oxidative injury, proteolysis, lipid peroxidation and immunotherapies with variable results. Improved understanding of disease mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues for LBD in the future.

  14. Prevalence of Submandibular Gland Synucleinopathy in Parkinson's Disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies and other Lewy Body Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I; Walker, D G; Dugger, Brittany N; Shill, Holly A; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Caviness, John N; Intorcia, Anthony; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Garcia, Angelica; Hoffman, Brittany; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2016-01-01

    Clinical misdiagnosis, particularly at early disease stages, is a roadblock to finding new therapies for Lewy body disorders. Biopsy of a peripheral site might provide improved diagnostic accuracy. Previously, we reported, from both autopsy and needle biopsy, a high prevalence of submandibular gland synucleinopathy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report on an extension of these studies to subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other Lewy body disorders in 228 autopsied subjects from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. To provide an estimate of the prevalence of histological synucleinopathy in the submandibular glands of subjects with PD and other Lewy body disorders. Submandibular gland sections from autopsied subjects were stained with an immunohistochemical method for α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129. Included were 146 cases with CNS Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS), composed of 46 PD, 28 DLB, 14 incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), 33 Alzheimer's disease with Lewy bodies (ADLB) and 2 with progressive supranuclear palsy and Lewy bodies (PSPLB). Control subjects included 79 normal elderly, 15 AD, 12 PSP, 2 conticobasal degeneration (CBD) and 2 multiple system atrophy (MSA). Submandibular gland LTS was found in 42/47 (89%) of the PD subjects, 20/28 (71%) DLB, 4/33 (12%) ADLB and 1/9 (11%) ILBD subjects but none of the 110 control subjects. These results provide support for further clinical trials of in vivo submandibular gland diagnostic biopsy for PD and DLB. An accurate peripheral biopsy diagnosis would assist subject selection for clinical trials and could also be used to verify other biomarkers.

  15. Prevalence of Submandibular Gland Synucleinopathy in Parkinson’s Disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies and other Lewy Body Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Serrano, Geidy; Sue, Lucia I.; Walker, D.G.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Shill, Holly A.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Caviness, John N.; Intorcia, Anthony; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Garcia, Angelica; Hoffman, Brittany; Belden, Christine M.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical misdiagnosis, particularly at early disease stages, is a roadblock to finding new therapies for Lewy body disorders. Biopsy of a peripheral site might provide improved diagnostic accuracy. Previously, we reported, from both autopsy and needle biopsy, a high prevalence of submandibular gland synucleinopathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we report on an extension of these studies to subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and other Lewy body disorders in 228 autopsied subjects from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. OBJECTIVE To provide an estimate of the prevalence of histological synucleinopathy in the submandibular glands of subjects with PD and other Lewy body disorders. METHODS Submandibular gland sections from autopsied subjects were stained with an immunohistochemical method for α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129. Included were 146 cases with CNS Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS), composed of 46 PD, 28 DLB, 14 incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), 33 Alzheimer’s disease with Lewy bodies (ADLB) and 2 with progressive supranuclear palsy and Lewy bodies (PSPLB). Control subjects included 79 normal elderly, 15 AD, 12 PSP, 2 corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and 2 multiple system atrophy (MSA). RESULTS Submandibular gland LTS was found in 42/47 (89%) of the PD subjects, 20/28 (71%) DLB, 4/33 (12%) ADLB and 1/9 (11%) ILBD subjects but none of the 110 control subjects. CONCLUSIONS These results provide support for further clinical trials of in vivo submandibular gland diagnostic biopsy for PD and DLB. An accurate peripheral biopsy diagnosis would assist subject selection for clinical trials and could also be used to verify other biomarkers. PMID:26756744

  16. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2007-07-20

    The generality of Lewis base catalyzed, Lewis acid mediated, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions has been investigated. The combination of silicon tetrachloride and chiral phosphoramides is a competent catalyst for highly selective additions of a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-, 1,3-diketone-, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates to aldehydes. These reactions provided high levels of gamma-site selectivity for a variety of substitution patterns on the dienyl unit. Both ketone- and morpholine amide-derived dienol ethers afforded high enantio- and diastereoselectivity in the addition to conjugated aldehydes. Although alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-derived dienolate did not react with aliphatic aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates underwent addition at reasonable rates affording high yields of vinylogous aldol product. The enantioselectivities achieved with the morpholine derived-dienolate in the addition to aliphatic aldehydes was the highest afforded to date with the silicon tetrachloride-chiral phosphoramide system. Furthermore, the ability to cleanly convert the morpholine amide to a methyl ketone was demonstrated.

  17. Capgras syndrome in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Lobach, Iryna; Zweig, Yael; Gurnani, Ashita; Galvin, James E

    2013-05-01

    Capgras syndrome is characterized by the recurrent, transient belief that a person has been replaced by an identical imposter. We reviewed clinical characteristics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients with Capgras syndrome compared to those without Capgras. We identified 55 consecutive DLB patients (11 cases with Capgras syndrome (DLB-C) and 44 cases without evidence of Capgras (DLB). Semi-structured interviews with the patient and an informant, neurological exams, and neuropsychological testing were performed. Caregivers were assessed for caregiver burden and depression. Primary comparisons were made between DLB-C and DLB. Exploratory analyses using stepwise logistic regression and bootstrap analyses were performed to determine clinical features associated with Capgras. DLB-C patients experienced more visual hallucinations and self-reported anxiety, had higher scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and were less likely to be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors at time of initial evaluation. Extrapyramidal symptoms and depression were not associated with Capgras. Caregivers of DLB-C patients had higher caregiver burden. DLB-C was associated with self-reported anxiety (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.6-47.6). In a bootstrap analysis, clinical findings that were predictors of Capgras included visual hallucinations (log(OR) = 18.3; 95% CI = 17.9-19.3) and anxiety (log(OR) = 2.9; 95% CI = 0.31-20.2). Our study suggests that Capgras syndrome is common in DLB and usually occurs in the presence of anxiety and visual hallucinations, suggesting related etiopathogenesis. Early appreciation of Capgras syndrome may afford the opportunity to alleviate caregiver burden and improve patient and caregiver outcomes.

  18. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review summarises the findings and applications from neuroimaging studies in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), highlighting key differences between DLB and other subtypes of dementia. We also discuss the increasingly important role of imaging biomarkers in differential diagnosis and outline promising areas for future research in DLB. DLB shares common clinical, neuropsychological and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease dementia and other dementia subtypes, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the development of consensus diagnostic criteria, the sensitivity for differential diagnosis of DLB in clinical practice remains low and many DLB patients will be misdiagnosed. The importance of developing accurate imaging markers in dementia is highlighted by the potential for treatments targeting specific molecular abnormalities as well as the responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors and marked neuroleptic sensitivity of DLB. We review various brain imaging techniques that have been applied to investigate DLB, including the characteristic nigrostriatal degeneration in DLB using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. Dopamine transporter loss has proven to reliably differentiate DLB from other dementias and has been incorporated into the revised clinical diagnostic criteria for DLB. To date, this remains the 'gold standard' for diagnostic imaging of DLB. Regional cerebral blood flow, 18 F-fluorodeoxygluclose-PET and SPECT have also identified marked deficits in the occipital regions with relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe when compared to Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, structural, diffusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown alterations in structure, white matter integrity, and functional activity in DLB. We argue that the multimodal identification of DLB-specific biomarkers has the potential to improve ante-mortem diagnosis and contribute to our

  19. Pareidolias: complex visual illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Yokoi, Kayoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Imamura, Toru; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    Patients rarely experience visual hallucinations while being observed by clinicians. Therefore, instruments to detect visual hallucinations directly from patients are needed. Pareidolias, which are complex visual illusions involving ambiguous forms that are perceived as meaningful objects, are analogous to visual hallucinations and have the potential to be a surrogate indicator of visual hallucinations. In this study, we explored the clinical utility of a newly developed instrument for evoking pareidolic illusions, the Pareidolia test, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies—one of the most common causes of visual hallucinations in the elderly. Thirty-four patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 34 patients with Alzheimer’s disease and 26 healthy controls were given the Pareidolia test. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies produced a much greater number of pareidolic illusions compared with those with Alzheimer’s disease or controls. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the number of pareidolias differentiated dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%. Full-length figures and faces of people and animals accounted for >80% of the contents of pareidolias. Pareidolias were observed in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who had visual hallucinations as well as those who did not have visual hallucinations, suggesting that pareidolias do not reflect visual hallucinations themselves but may reflect susceptibility to visual hallucinations. A sub-analysis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who were or were not treated with donepzil demonstrated that the numbers of pareidolias were correlated with visuoperceptual abilities in the former and with indices of hallucinations and delusional misidentifications in the latter. Arousal and attentional deficits mediated by abnormal cholinergic mechanisms and visuoperceptual dysfunctions are likely to contribute to the

  20. RANDI: Research Ambient Noise Directionality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer model for calculating the vertical and horizontal directionality of ambient noise and some of the results which have been obtained are...experimental data, and it is shown that the model can be a useful tool in the planning of ambient noise measurement experiments and in the analysis of results.

  1. The spectrum of cognitive impairment in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Williams-Gray, Caroline; Barker, Roger A; Duda, John E; Galvin, James E

    2014-04-15

    Cognitive impairment represents an important and often defining component of the clinical syndromes of Lewy body disorders: Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The spectrum of cognitive deficits in these Lewy body diseases encompasses a broad range of clinical features, severity of impairment, and timing of presentation. It is now recognized that cognitive dysfunction occurs not only in more advanced Parkinson's disease but also in early, untreated patients and even in those patients with pre-motor syndromes, such as rapid eye movement behavior disorder and hyposmia. In recent years, the concept of mild cognitive impairment as a transitional or pre-dementia state in Parkinson's disease has emerged. This has led to much research regarding the diagnosis, prognosis, and underlying neurobiology of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, but has also raised questions regarding the usefulness of this concept and its application in clinical and research settings. In addition, the conundrum of whether Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies represent the same or different entities remains unresolved. Although these disorders overlap in many aspects of their presentations and pathophysiology, they differ in other elements, such as timing of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms; medication responses; and neuropathological contributions. This article examines the spectrum and evolution of cognitive impairment in Lewy body disorders and debates these controversial issues in the field using point-counterpoint approaches. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Habitat selection and reproductive success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) at its northern limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Srivastava, Diane S; Smith, James N M; Martin, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004-2005) of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensions, clutch initiation date or time of season) were more important. Nest tree decay class, density of suitable cavities and total basal area of large trees were the best predictors of nest-site selection, but these factors were unrelated to nesting success. Estimates of demographic parameters (mean ± SE) included daily nest survival rate (0.988±0.003, years combined), nest success (0.52±0.08), clutch size (5.00±0.14 eggs), female fledglings per successful nest (1.31±0.11), and annual productivity (0.68±0.12 female fledglings per nest per year). Although higher nest survival was associated with both early and late initiated clutches, early-initiated clutches allowed birds to gain the highest annual productivity as early clutches were larger. Nests in deep cavities with small entrances experienced lower predation risk especially during the peak period of nest predation. We concluded that nest-site selection can be predicted by a number of easily measured habitat variables, whereas nest success depended on complicated ecological interactions among nest predators, breeding behaviors, and cavity features. Thus, habitat-based conservation strategies should also consider ecological factors that may not be well predicted by habitat.

  3. Habitat selection and reproductive success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis at its northern limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004-2005 of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensions, clutch initiation date or time of season were more important. Nest tree decay class, density of suitable cavities and total basal area of large trees were the best predictors of nest-site selection, but these factors were unrelated to nesting success. Estimates of demographic parameters (mean ± SE included daily nest survival rate (0.988±0.003, years combined, nest success (0.52±0.08, clutch size (5.00±0.14 eggs, female fledglings per successful nest (1.31±0.11, and annual productivity (0.68±0.12 female fledglings per nest per year. Although higher nest survival was associated with both early and late initiated clutches, early-initiated clutches allowed birds to gain the highest annual productivity as early clutches were larger. Nests in deep cavities with small entrances experienced lower predation risk especially during the peak period of nest predation. We concluded that nest-site selection can be predicted by a number of easily measured habitat variables, whereas nest success depended on complicated ecological interactions among nest predators, breeding behaviors, and cavity features. Thus, habitat-based conservation strategies should also consider ecological factors that may not be well predicted by habitat.

  4. [Clinical and neuropathological characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, János; Simon, Viktória; Bereczki, Erika; Majer, Réka; Varkoly, Gréta; Murnyák, Balázs; Kálmán, János; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia. The accurate diagnosis is often possible only by neuropathological examination. The morphologic hallmarks are the presence of α-synuclein-rich Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, identical to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Neurotransmitter deficits, synaptic and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction play major role in the pathomechanism. Characteristic symptoms are cognitive fluctuation, parkinsonism and visual hallucinations. Due to the often atypical clinical presentation novel imaging techniques and biomarkers could help the early diagnosis. Although curative treatment is not available, therapies can improve quality of life. Clinicopathological studies are important in exploring pathomechanisms, ensuring accurate diagnosis and identifying therapeutic targets. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(17): 643-652.

  5. Lewy and his inclusion bodies: Discovery and rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fritz Jacob Heinrich Lewy described the pathology of Paralysis agitans [Parkinson disease] and was the first to identify eosinophilic inclusion bodies in neurons of certain brain nuclei, later known as Lewy bodies, the pathological signature of the Lewy body diseases. In 1912, he published his seminal study, followed soon after by an update paper, and 10 years later, in 1923, by his voluminous book, where he exhaustively described the subject. The publication provided extensive information on the pathology of Paralysis agitans, and the entirely novel finding of eosinophilic inclusion bodies, which would become widely recognized and debated in the future. His discovery was acknowledged by important researchers who even named the structure after him. However, after his last publication on the issue, inexplicably, he never mentioned his histopathological discovery again. Despite several hypotheses, the reasons that led him to neglect (reject the structure which he so preeminently described have remained elusive.

  6. Space Chemical Propulsion Test Facilities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasek, Donald C.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, has a number of space chemical propulsion test facilities which constitute a significant national space testing resource. The purpose of this paper is to make more users aware of these test facilities and to encourage their use through cooperative agreements between the government, industry, and universities. Research which is of interest to the government is especially encouraged and often can be done in a cooperative manner that best uses the resources of all parties. An overview of the Lewis test facilities is presented.

  7. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers; Broman, Søren Lindbæk

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.......Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion....

  8. GOD IS LOVE BUT LOVE IS NOT GOD : Studies on C. S. Lewis's Theology of Love

    OpenAIRE

    Lepojärvi, Jason

    2015-01-01

    C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) was one of the most influential Christian thinkers of the twentieth century with continuing relevance into the twenty-first. Despite growing academic interest in Lewis, many fields of inquiry remain largely unmapped in Lewis scholarship today. This compilation dissertation, consisting of an introductory overview together with four stand-alone but connected essays, extends critical understanding of Lewis's contribution to the theology of love. In three of the four ...

  9. Lewis base mediated β-elimination and Lewis acid mediated insertion reactions of disilazido zirconium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, KaKing; Duchimaza Heredia, Juan J; Ellern, Arkady; Gordon, Mark S; Sadow, Aaron D

    2013-10-09

    The reactivity of a series of disilazido zirconocene complexes is dominated by the migration of anionic groups (hydrogen, alkyl, halide, OTf) between the zirconium and silicon centers. The direction of these migrations is controlled by the addition of two-electron donors (Lewis bases) or two-electron acceptors (Lewis acids). The cationic nonclassical [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)2](+) ([2](+)) is prepared from Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}H (1) and B(C6F5)3 or [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], while reactions of B(C6F5)3 and Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}R (R = Me (3), Et (5), n-C3H7 (7), CH═CHSiMe3 (9)) provide a mixture of [2](+) and [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiRMe2)](+). The latter products are formed through B(C6F5)3 abstraction of a β-H and R group migration from Zr to the β-Si center. Related β-hydrogen abstraction and X group migration reactions are observed for Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}X (X = OTf (11), Cl (13), OMe (15), O-i-C3H7 (16)). Alternatively, addition of DMAP (DMAP = 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) to [2](+) results in coordination to a Si center and hydrogen migration to zirconium, giving the cationic complex [Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)(SiMe2DMAP)}H](+) ([19](+)). Related hydrogen migration occurs from [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiMe2OCHMe2)](+) ([18](+)) to give [Cp2Zr{N(SiMe2DMAP)(SiMe2OCHMe2)}H](+) ([22](+)), whereas X group migration is observed upon addition of DMAP to [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiMe2X)](+) (X = OTf ([12](+)), Cl ([14](+))) to give [Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)(SiMe2DMAP)}X](+) (X = OTf ([26](+)), Cl ([20](+))). The species involved in these transformations are described by resonance structures that suggest β-elimination. Notably, such pathways are previously unknown in early metal amide chemistry. Finally, these migrations facilitate direct Si-H addition to carbonyls, which is proposed to occur through a pathway that previously had been reserved for later transition metal compounds.

  10. File list: Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  9. Lewis Y Antigen as a Target for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    is noteworthy that patients thus far who developed high titers of anti-sLe antigen ILM showed no evidence of hematologic toxicity (hemolysis, anuria ...siaylated Lewis (sLe) antigen IgM showed no evidence of hematologic toxicity (hemolysis, anuria or granulocytopenia) (6). In summary, these studies

  10. Sialyl Lewis x expression in cervical scrapes of premalignant lesions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-09-30

    Sep 30, 2012 ... sample. Altered expression of other antigens such as the. Lewis-type has been reported for many cancers, including lung, cholangiocarcinoma, breast, colon and cervix (Moro-. Rodríguez and Álvarez-Fernández 2008; Satoh et al. 1997;. Juntavee et al. 2005; Kurebayashi et al. 2006; Doekhie et al. 2008).

  11. Lewis Latimer: African American Inventor, Poet and Activist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Details a lesson plan that examines the life and career of Lewis Latimer. Latimer, the self-taught son of fugitive slaves, rose to a prominent position in Thomas Edison's Electric Company and pioneered many innovations in the early electric industry. Includes a biographical sketch of Latimer, photographs, and illustrations. (MJP)

  12. Probability without certainty : foundationalism and the Lewis-Reichenbach debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne

    Like many discussions on the pros and cons of epistemic foundationalism, the debate between C. I. Lewis and H. Reichenbach dealt with three concerns: the existence of basic beliefs, their nature, and the way in which beliefs are related. In this paper we concentrate on the third matter, especially

  13. Extending unsupported metal-only Lewis pairs to palladium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jürgen; Braunschweig, Holger; Damme, Alexander; Gruss, Katrin; Radacki, Krzysztof

    2011-12-28

    Synthesis of the first unsupported palladium-to-main group metal Lewis pair is reported, including a new synthesis for heteroleptic mono(NHC)-monophosphine palladium(0) complexes. All compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformations by designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Further, few important Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformation reactions have been dis- ... rior of the material has limitations. Such chemical modifications are important for expanding and enhancing the catalytic performance of the resultant material. Third ..... envisage that this particular class of materials would.

  15. Synthesis of Lewis X epitopes on plant N-glycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, G.J.A.; Florack, D.E.A.; Hesselink, T.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Glycoproteins from tobacco line xFxG1, in which expression of a hybrid ß-(1¿4)-galactosyltransferase (GalT) and a hybrid a-(1¿3)-fucosyltransferase IXa (FUT9a) is combined, contained an abundance of hybrid N-glycans with Lewis X (LeX) epitopes. A comparison with N-glycan profiles from plants

  16. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... complex. (b) Area Access is located in Range Control, Building T-6127, 19th and Tacoma Streets, Main Post Fort Lewis. Telephone numbers are (206) 967-4686/6277. Fax extension is 967-4520. E-mail is “rangeflw.” Business hours vary dependent on personnel fill, and are available by calling the above numbers. (c...

  17. From Jabberwocky to genome: Lewis Carroll and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, D B

    2001-01-01

    In addition to his literary output, Lewis Carroll created a vast range of games and puzzles that depend upon wordplay of various kinds, especially the manipulation of alphabetic symbols in diverse contexts. Such wordplay reveals a turn of mind well suited to methodologies used in modern computational biology.

  18. A Legacy of Dandelions: Carolyn Lewis Attneave (1990-1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman-Stone, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the legacy of Carolyn Lewis Attneave who was, according to T. D. LaFromboise and J. E. Trimble (1966), "undoubtedly the most well-known psychologist of American Indian background." Reviews Attneave's work in organizations across the United States promoting the causes of American Indian families and community mental health and…

  19. Regional Overlap of Pathologies in Lewy Body Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom-Cadena, Martí; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; Planellas, Lluís; Cerquera, Catalina; Morenas, Estrella; Helgueta, Sergio; Muñoz, Laia; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Martí, Maria Jose; Tolosa, Eduard; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Gelpi, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Lewy body disorders (LBD) are common neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of aggregated α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The brains of patients with LBD often display other comorbid pathologies, i.e. insoluble tau, β-amyloid aggregates, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) deposits, and argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). The incidence and physiological relevance of these concurrent pathological findings remain controversial. We performed a semiquantitative detailed mapping of α-synuclein, tau, β-amyloid (Aβ), TDP-43, and AGD pathologies in 17 areas in 63 LBD cases (44 with Parkinson disease [PD], 28 with dementia, and 19 with dementia with Lewy bodies). APOE and MAPT genetic variants were also investigated. A majority of LBD cases had 2 or 3 concomitant findings, particularly Alzheimer disease-related pathology. Pathological stages of tau, β-amyloid and α-synuclein pathologies were increased in cases with dementia. Aβ score was the best correlate of the time to dementia in PD. In addition, β-amyloid deposition correlated with α-synuclein load in all groups. MAPT H1 haplotype did not influence any assessed pathology in PD. These results highlight the common concurrence of pathologies in patients with LBD that may have an impact on the clinical expression of the diseases. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced CSF CART in dementia with Lewy bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Kristofer; Wiehager, Sara; Nilsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanism of DLB is not fully understood and no generally accepted biomarkers are yet available for the diagnosis of DLB. In a recent MRI study...

  1. False Recognition in Lewy-Body Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, C.; Belleville, S.; Phillips, N. A.; Johns, E. K.; Goupil, D.; Souchay, C.; Bouchard, R.; Chertkow, H.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients were…

  2. A 100-year history of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YUE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes more than one hundred years to understand dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Frederick Henry Lewy, a Germany doctor who studied the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD at Munich University, described eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in the dorsal vagal nuclei and substantia innominata of PD brains in 1912 for the first time. These inclusions were later named as "Lewy body (LB" by a Russian neuropathologist Konstantin Tretiakoff in 1919. A Japanese researcher, Okazaki, correlated dementia to cortical LB in 1961. Kosaka proposed the term "Lewy body disease (LBD" for the first time in 1980. Subsequently, more and more researchers delivered case reports and detailed classification of LBD. In 1995, the first Consortium on DLB International Workshop made the unitary denomination of this disease entity and established consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathological diagnosis of DLB. The diagnostic criteria were revised in 2003. Though the history of DLB study is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD, DLB is still less recognized and needs further research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.003

  3. Correspondence: Linking the Private to the Public in Lewis Nkosi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 5 September 2010, Lewis Nkosi died in a hospice in Johannesburg as a result of a slow decline occasioned by a debilitating fall he had sustained the previous year. At the time of his accident, Nkosi was working on a novel after which, he assured us, he would start on his memoirs provisionally titled Memoirs of a ...

  4. preparation of bicyclic lactones using lewis acids catalyzed ene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    INTRODUCTION. The synthesis of the cis-fused bicyclic lactones relies extensively on the Lewis acid catalysed carbonyl-ene reaction which has been widely used to access carbocycles. In 1943 Alder discovered the ene-reaction and classified it in his Nobel Lecture as an “indirect substitution addition” or “ene synthesis" in ...

  5. Daniel Day-Lewis - veri peab voolama / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Iiri-juudi näitleja Daniel Day-Lewis, kes võitis oma rolliga P.T. Andersoni filmis "Veri hakkab voolama" parima meespeaosatäitja Oscari. Tema põhjalikust tööst rollidega läbi tema filmiloomingu

  6. Californian Genius: Lewis Terman's Gifted Child in Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clémentine

    2016-01-01

    This article pays attention to the regional embeddedness of early research on giftedness, looking principally at the works of Lewis Terman and his peers, between the 1910s and 1930s. The rhetoric, ideology, and aesthetics of giftedness in those early works were, I argue, stamped by the context and imaginary of Progressive-Era California and shaped…

  7. Metabolic connectomics targeting brain pathology in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Silvia P; Tettamanti, Marco; Sala, Arianna; Presotto, Luca; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cappa, Stefano F; Magnani, Giuseppe; Perani, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterized by α-synuclein accumulation and degeneration of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways. To gain an overview of brain systems affected by neurodegeneration, we characterized the [18F]FDG-PET metabolic connectivity in 42 dementia with Lewy bodies patients, as compared to 42 healthy controls, using sparse inverse covariance estimation method and graph theory. We performed whole-brain and anatomically driven analyses, targeting cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways, and the α-synuclein spreading. The first revealed substantial alterations in connectivity indexes, brain modularity, and hubs configuration. Namely, decreases in local metabolic connectivity within occipital cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, and increases within frontal, temporal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. There were also long-range disconnections among these brain regions, all supporting a disruption of the functional hierarchy characterizing the normal brain. The anatomically driven analysis revealed alterations within brain structures early affected by α-synuclein pathology, supporting Braak's early pathological staging in dementia with Lewy bodies. The dopaminergic striato-cortical pathway was severely affected, as well as the cholinergic networks, with an extensive decrease in connectivity in Ch1-Ch2, Ch5-Ch6 networks, and the lateral Ch4 capsular network significantly towards the occipital cortex. These altered patterns of metabolic connectivity unveil a new in vivo scenario for dementia with Lewy bodies underlying pathology in terms of changes in whole-brain metabolic connectivity, spreading of α-synuclein, and neurotransmission impairment.

  8. Tribute to Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut; Hommage a Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Erwin Lewy (alias Felix Bertaut) was born in 1913 in Germany, he emigrated to France where he undertook graduate studies in chemistry. Then, he joined the powder central laboratory where he learnt how to use international tables for structure determination. His thesis work was the X-ray study of the statistical distribution of the size of iron grains. The method Bertaut developed is still a reference in powder granulometry. Bertaut was also interested in the nascent neutron diffraction method and he flew to the United-States to improve his knowledge on this topic. Felix Bertaut created the neutron diffraction laboratory in the atomic research center in Grenoble and later he headed the CNRS' crystallography laboratory till 1982. Felix Bertaut and his laboratories became internationally renowned in crystallography, neutron diffraction and magnetism. He favored the scientific cooperation between France and Germany that led to the creation of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The ILL became European and was a key partner for building the European Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. Bertaut was elected as a full member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1979, he died in 2003. (A.C.)

  9. Impairment of script comprehension in Lewy body spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel G.; Camp, Emily; McMillan, Corey T.; Dreyfuss, Michael; Gunawardena, Delani; Cook, Philip A.; Morgan, Brianna; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard I.; Stern, Matthew B.; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    A disabling impairment of higher-order language function can be seen in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We focus on script comprehension in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders. While scripts unfold sequentially, constituent events are thought to contain an internal organization. Executive dysfunction in patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders may interfere with comprehension of this internal structure. We examined 42 patients (30 non-demented PD and 12 mildly demented PDD/DLB patients) and 12 healthy seniors. We presented 22 scripts (e.g., “going fishing”), each consisting of six events. Pilot data from young controls provided the basis for organizing associated events into clusters and arranging them hierarchically into scripts. We measured accuracy and latency to judge the order of adjacent events in the same cluster versus adjacent events in different clusters. PDD/DLB patients were less accurate in their ordering judgments than PD patients and controls. Healthy seniors and PD patients were significantly faster to judge correctly the order of highly associated within-cluster event pairs relative to less closely associated different-cluster event pairs, while PDD/DLB patients did not consistently distinguish between these event-pair types. This relative insensitivity to the clustered-hierarchical organization of events was related to executive impairment and to frontal atrophy as measured by volumetric MRI. These findings extend prior work on script processing to patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders and highlight the potential impact of frontal/executive dysfunction on the daily lives of affected patients. PMID:23566691

  10. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiongwei

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in LRRK2 encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 are thus far the most frequent genetic cause associated with autosomal dominant and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD. To examine whether LRRK2 is directly associated with neuropathology of PD and other related disorders, we analyzed LRRK2 in brains of patients affected by PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB using highly specific antibodies to LRRK2. Results We demonstrated that anti-LRRK2 antibodies strongly labelled brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmarks of PD and DLB, respectively. In addition, anti-LRRK2 also labelled brain vasculature, axons, and neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, the immunocytochemical profile of LRRK2 varied with different antibodies depending upon specific antigenic sites along the LRRK2 protein. All anti-LRRK2 antibodies tested that were raised against various regions of LRRK2, were found to be immunoreactive to recombinant LRRK2 on Western blots. However, only the antibodies raised against the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of LRRK2, but not the regions containing folded protein domains, were positive in immunolabeling of Lewy bodies, suggesting a differential exposure of specific antigenic sites of LRRK2 on tissue sections. Conclusion We conclude that LRRK2 is a component of Lewy bodies in both PD and DLB, and therefore plays an important role in the Lewy body formation and disease pathogenesis. Information on the cellular localization of LRRK2 under normal and pathological conditions will deepen our understanding of its functions and molecular pathways relevant to the progression of PD and related disorders.

  11. Incorporating spectroscopic on-line monitoring as a method of detection for a Lewis cell setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Forrest D.; Casella, Amanda J.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    A Lewis cell was designed and constructed for investigating solvent extraction systems by spectrophotometrically monitoring both the organic and aqueous phases in real time. This new Lewis cell was tested and shown to perform well compared to other previously reported Lewis cell designs. The advantage of the new design is that the spectroscopic measurement allows determination of not only metal ion concentrations, but also information regarding chemical speciation—information not available with previous Lewis cell designs. For convenience, the new Lewis cell design was dubbed COSMOFLEX (COntinuous Spectroscopic MOnitoring of Forrest’s Liquid-liquid EXtraction cell).

  12. Specific patterns of neuronal loss in the pulvinar nucleus in dementia with lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Daniel; Thomas, Alan J; Attems, Johannes; Taylor, John-Paul; McKeith, Ian G; Morris, Christopher M; Khundakar, Ahmad A

    2017-03-01

    Complex visual hallucinations occur in 70%-80% of dementia with Lewy bodies patients and significantly affect well-being. Despite the prevalence of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies, the neuropathological basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. The pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus has not previously been neuropathologically examined, but has been linked to visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuropathological or morphometric changes occur in the pulvinar nucleus in dementia with Lewy bodies cases that may contribute to visual hallucinations. Postmortem pulvinar tissue was acquired from 8 individuals with dementia with Lewy bodies, 8 with Alzheimer's disease, and 8 control cases and was analyzed using stereological and quantitative neuropathological techniques. Lewy body pathology was present throughout the pulvinar in dementia with Lewy bodies but was most severe in the medial pulvinar. Neuronal loss was found in the lateral pulvinar in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease but was more severe in dementia with Lewy bodies. The pulvinar has an important role in visual attention, visual target selection and affective visual perception. These functions are thought to be deficient in dementia with Lewy bodies and may contribute a vulnerability to visual hallucinations. Therefore, this study has demonstrated neuropathological changes that may promote the manifestation of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852

  14. Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

    1997-01-01

    The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

  15. Lewis Structures Technology, 1988. Volume 1: Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The specific purpose of the symposium was to familiarize the engineering structures community with the depth and range of research performed by the Structures Division of the Lewis Research Center and its academic and industrial partners. Sessions covered vibration control, fracture mechanics, ceramic component reliability, parallel computing, nondestructive testing, dynamical systems, fatigue and damage, wind turbines, hot section technology, structural mechanics codes, computational methods for dynamics, structural optimization, and applications of structural dynamics.

  16. Neuropsychological Differences Related to Age in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Nagahama; Tomoko Okina; Norio Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: To examine the influence of age on neuropsychological performances in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Methods: We examined memory, executive, and visuo-constructional performances in 202 DLB patients and 236 AD patients. We divided the subjects into three age groups (65–74, 75–84, and 85–95 years old), and evaluated the differences in neuropsychological performances. Results: Recent memory in the DLB group was significantly better than tha...

  17. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sereda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group.

  18. Development of Fluorous Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Nishikido

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic synthetic methodology in the 21st century aims to conform to the principles of green sustainable chemistry (GSC and we may expect that in the future, the realization of GSC will be an important objective for chemical industries. An important aim of synthetic organic chemistry is to implement waste-free and environmentally-benign industrial processes using Lewis acids as versatile as aluminum choride. A key technological objective of our work in this area has been to achieve a “catalyst recycling system that utilizes the high activity and structural features of fluorous Lewis acid catalysts”. Thus, we have developed a series of novel fluorous Lewis acid catalysts, namely the ytterbium(III, scandium(III, tin(IV or hafnium(IV bis(perfluoroalkanesulfonylamides or tris(perfluoro- alkanesulfonylmethides. Our catalysts are recyclable and effective for acylations of alcohols and aromatics, Baeyer-Villiger reactions, direct esterifications and transesterifications in a fluorous biphasic system (FBS, in supercritical carbon dioxide and on fluorous silica gel supports.

  19. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. LEWY BODY DEMENTIA: CAREGIVER BURDEN AND UNMET NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E.; Duda, John E.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Lippa, Carol F.; Taylor, Angela; Zarit, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common cause of dementia but to date, little is known about caregiver burden. The Lewy Body Dementia Association (www.LBDA.org) conducted a web-based survey of 962 caregivers (mean age 56y; 88% women). The most common initial symptoms were cognitive (48%), motor (39%), or both (13%). Caregivers expressed concerns about fear of future (77%), feeling stressed (54%), loss of social life (52%) and uncertainty about what to do next (50%). Caregivers reported moderate to severe burden; 80% felt the people around them did not understand their burden and 54% reported feelings of isolation with spousal caregivers reporting more burden than non-spousal caregivers. Only 29% hired in-home assistance while less than 40% used respite or adult day care, geriatric case managers or attended a support group meeting. Lack of service utilization occurred despite two-thirds of caregivers reporting medical crises requiring emergency services, psychiatric care or law enforcement. Caregivers reported preferences for web-based information, directories of LBD expert providers, information on LBD research and location of local support groups. These findings highlight significant unmet needs for LBD caregivers and provide targets for intervention to reduce caregiver burden. Community resources such as the Lewy Body Dementia Association may serve this end, while also providing practical information and support for caregivers. PMID:20505434

  1. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve, Bradley F.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Halliday, Glenda; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel; Aarsland, Dag; Galvin, James; Attems, Johannes; Ballard, Clive G.; Bayston, Ashley; Beach, Thomas G.; Blanc, Frédéric; Bohnen, Nicolaas; Bonanni, Laura; Bras, Jose; Brundin, Patrik; Burn, David; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E.; El-Agnaf, Omar; Feldman, Howard; Ferman, Tanis J.; ffytche, Dominic; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Galasko, Douglas; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Honig, Lawrence S.; Iranzo, Alex; Kantarci, Kejal; Kaufer, Daniel; Kukull, Walter; Lee, Virginia M.Y.; Leverenz, James B.; Lewis, Simon; Lippa, Carol; Lunde, Angela; Masellis, Mario; Masliah, Eliezer; McLean, Pamela; Mollenhauer, Brit; Montine, Thomas J.; Moreno, Emilio; Mori, Etsuro; Murray, Melissa; O'Brien, John T.; Orimo, Sotoshi; Postuma, Ronald B.; Ramaswamy, Shankar; Ross, Owen A.; Salmon, David P.; Singleton, Andrew; Taylor, Angela; Thomas, Alan; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Toledo, Jon B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Tsuang, Debby; Walker, Zuzana; Yamada, Masahito; Kosaka, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these. Substantial new information has been incorporated about previously reported aspects of DLB, with increased diagnostic weighting given to REM sleep behavior disorder and 123iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. The diagnostic role of other neuroimaging, electrophysiologic, and laboratory investigations is also described. Minor modifications to pathologic methods and criteria are recommended to take account of Alzheimer disease neuropathologic change, to add previously omitted Lewy-related pathology categories, and to include assessments for substantia nigra neuronal loss. Recommendations about clinical management are largely based upon expert opinion since randomized controlled trials in DLB are few. Substantial progress has been made since the previous report in the detection and recognition of DLB as a common and important clinical disorder. During that period it has been incorporated into DSM-5, as major neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies. There remains a pressing need to understand the underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology of DLB, to develop and deliver clinical trials with both symptomatic and disease-modifying agents, and to help patients and carers worldwide to inform themselves about the disease, its prognosis, best available treatments, ongoing research, and how to get adequate support. PMID:28592453

  2. Influence of monoclonal anti-Lewis b, anti-H type 1, and anti-sialyl Lewis x antibodies on binding of Helicobacter pylori to MUC1 mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziejewska, I; Leszczyńska, K; Borzym-Kluczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of monoclonal anti-Lewis b, anti-H type 1, and anti-sialyl Lewis x addition on interactions of sugar structures of MUC1 mucin with Helicobacter pylori. The investigations were carried out on gastric juices of 11 patients and 12 H. pylori strains. The levels of Lewis b and sialyl Lewis x antigens on MUC1 were assessed by sandwich ELISA tests. Anti-Lewis b, anti-H type 1 or anti-sialyl Lewis x monoclonal antibodies were added to MUC1 to determine whether the adhesion activities of H. pylori isolates to examined mucin would be affected. Binding of bacteria to MUC1 was assessed by ELISA test. Clear inhibitory effect of examined antibodies was revealed in 6 of 12 examined H. pylori isolates independently on babA2 status. In the rest of strains this effect was negligible. We confirmed participation of Lewis b, H type 1 and also sialyl Lewis x of MUC1 mucin in interactions with H. pylori independently on babA genopositivity. Not full inhibition and a lack of this effect in some strains suggest an existence of other mechanisms of H. pylori adherence to mucin.

  3. Genus Microsternus Lewis (1887) from China, with description of a new genus Neosternus from Asia (Coleoptera, Erotylidae, Dacnini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong-Chao; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This work treats species of the genus Microsternus Lewis, 1887 from Asia and North America. A new genus is described: Neosternus (type species Microsternus higonius Lewis, 1887). A new species is described: Microsternus pengzhongi. A new synonym is provided: Microsternus tricolor taiwanicus Nakane (=Microsternus tricolor Lewis). Three species previously placed in Microsternus Lewis, 1887 are transferred to Neosternus resulting in the following three new combinations: Neosternus higonius (Lewis, 1887), Neosternus taiwanus (Chûjô, 1976), and Neosternus hisamatsui (Nakane, 1981).

  4. Heterologous corneal endothelial cell transplantation--human corneal endothelial cell transplantation in Lewis rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchah, H.

    1992-01-01

    A heterologous corneal endothelial transplantation was attempted using human endothelial cells and a Lewis rat penetrating keratoplasty model. Cultured human endothelial cells were seeded to a Lewis rat cornea, which was denuded of its endothelium. When grafted into the syngeneic Lewis rat, the graft remained clear for at least five days, and then became opaque and edematous because of immune rejection reaction. In contrast, corneas denuded of their endothelium became opaque and edematous imm...

  5. Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs...January 8, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43546 Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program...Congressional Research Service Summary The John Lewis (TAO-205) class oiler shipbuilding program, previously known as the TAO(X) program, is a program to

  6. Motor and cognitive function in Lewy body dementia: comparison with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanalingham, K K; Byrne, E. J.; Thornton, A.; Sambrook, M A; Bannister, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Motor and cognitive function were compared in patients with Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease, to identify features that may be clinically useful in differentiating Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A range of neuropsychological function and extrapyrimidal signs (EPS) was assessed in 16 patients with Lewy body dementia, 15 with Parkinson's disease, 25 with Alzheimer's disease, and 22 control subjects. RESULTS...

  7. Qualitative performance characteristics differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Doubleday, E; Snowden, J.; A.; Varma; Neary, D

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be differentiated on the basis of qualitative performance characteristics during neuropsychological evaluation.

  8. LEWY BODY DEMENTIA: THE CAREGIVER EXPERIENCE OF CLINICAL CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E.; Duda, John E.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Lippa, Carol F.; Taylor, Angela; Zarit, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lewy body dementia (LBD) is the second most common cause of dementia, however, little is known about how the clinical diagnosis of LBD is obtained in the community or the caregiver experience while seeking the diagnosis. METHODS The Lewy Body Dementia Association (www.LBDA.org) conducted a web-based survey of 962 caregivers over a 6-month period. RESULTS The mean age of respondents was 55.9y; 88% were female and 64% had daily contact with patients. The mean age of LBD patients was 75.4y; 62% were male and 46% lived with a caregiver. The most common presentation of symptoms as reported by LBD caregivers was cognitive (48%), motor (39%) or both (13%). The first diagnoses given to the patients were Parkinson disease or other movement disorder (39%), Alzheimer disease or other cognitive disorder (36%), or mental illness (24%). Fifty percent of patients saw >3 doctors for more than 10 visits over the course of 1 year before an LBD diagnosis was established. Neurologists diagnosed most cases (62%), while primary care-providers diagnosed only 6% of cases. No differences were found between the presentation of disease and the number of physicians, number of office visits, length of time to establish diagnosis, or type of doctor who finally made an LBD diagnosis. Caregivers viewed physicians as knowledgeable about disease manifestations and treatment options, but not about disease course/prognosis and available community resources and referrals. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight a need for increasing physician awareness and knowledge of LBD, which will facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment. Community resources such as the Lewy Body Dementia Association may serve this end, while also providing practical information and support for caregivers. PMID:20434939

  9. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2015-01-01

    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent tool...... for H-1, H-2 as well as H-3 chemistry. It is a new strategy for the one-pot synthesis of aromatic alcohols selectively labeled with heavy isotopes of hydrogen. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Creativity and Autism Spectrum Conditions: a Hypothesis on Lewis Carroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Calabrese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis formulated by Simon Baron-Cohen and his collaborators on the onset of autistic syndromes and their link with an excess of the so-called S brain is reflected in the work of Lewis Carroll, a formal logic and mathematics professor deeply inclined to visual and spatial descriptions, interested in affordances and systemic circuits, and devoid of empathic tendencies in creating his characters. In the future, this finding may serve as a test for predicting autism spectrum disorders and support the elaboration of narrative artefact for therapeutic purposes in relation to people with autism.

  11. Hypersonic engine seal development at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced seal concepts and sealing technology for advanced combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Technologies are being developed for both the dynamic seals that seal the sliding interfaces between articulating engine panels and sidewalls, and for the static seals that seal the heat exchanger to back-up structure interfaces. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the candidate engine seal concepts, seal material assessments, and unique test facilities used to assess the leakage and thermal performance of the seal concepts.

  12. Julian Lewis (1946-2014): A 'serious hero'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Heather Burton

    2016-02-01

    Julian Lewis was a gifted medical researcher and writer. His early background was the Classics; then Physics and Math; finally, Molecular Cell Biology. He worked on important questions in early embryonic patterning and the cell communication system, and so cancer research, at King's College London, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Oxford, and finally, Cancer Research UK London. He was a lifelong coauthor of the international textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell. His final personal battle with cancer was brave and not hidden. Awards included the Waddington Medal, a European Molecular Biology Organization membership, and a Fellowship of the Royal Society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. NASA Lewis H2-O2 MHD program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Nichols, L. D.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems are estimated. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city. Status and plans are outlined for an experimental evaluation of H2-O2 combustion-driven MHD power generators at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  14. Lewy body dementia: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeyevna Preobrazhenskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body dementia (LBD is a disease that was separated from a group of senile dementia in the 1990s. The paper details the pathogenesis, pathomorphology, and clinical manifestations of the disease, as well as a possible association of its symptoms with the specific features of the extent of the neurodegenerative process. It also fully describes mental disorders in LBD, their possible causes, an association of hallucinosis with lesion of nonspecific cerebral systems and mediator failure. The results of LBD treatment with basic symptomatic therapy are given. The results of the clinical trial of the activity of akatinol memantine in the patients with LBD are described in detail.

  15. Feminine Hypostases in Epic Fantasy: Tolkien, Lewis, Rowling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măcineanu Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the types of female figures present in the works of three well-known fantasy writers, J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and J.K. Rowling, discussing the ways in which these characters are presented, their relationship with other characters, and their role in the economy of the novel, which is more important than may appear from a first reading. It also tries to explain the reasons that prompted the above-mentioned authors to choose these female hypostases.

  16. Cortical Lewy bodies and Aβ burden are associated with prevalence and timing of dementia in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffmann, C; Calboli, F C F; Bravi, I; Gveric, D; Curry, L K; de Smith, A; Pavlou, S; Buxton, J L; Blakemore, A I F; Takousis, P; Molloy, S; Piccini, P; Dexter, D T; Roncaroli, F; Gentleman, S M; Middleton, L T

    2016-08-01

    Our main objective was to determine the neuropathological correlates of dementia in patients with Lewy body disease (LBD). Furthermore, we used data derived from clinical, neuropathological and genetic studies to investigate boundary issues between Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with (PDD) and without (PDND) dementia. One hundred and twenty-one cases with a neuropathological diagnosis of LBD and clinical information on dementia status were included in the analysis (55 PDD, 17 DLB and 49 PDND). We carried out topographical and semi-quantitative assessment of Lewy bodies (LB), Aβ plaques and tau-positive neuropil threads (NT). The APOE genotype and MAPT haplotype status were also determined. The cortical LB (CLB) burden was the only independent predictor of dementia (OR: 4.12, P independent predictor of a shorter latency to dementia from onset of motor signs (P = 0.001). DLB cases had a higher LB burden in the parietal and temporal cortex, compared to PDD. Carrying at least one APOE ϵ4 allele was associated with a higher cortical LB burden (P = 0.02), particularly in the neocortical frontal, parietal and temporal regions. High CLB burden is a key neuropathological substrate of dementia in LBD. Elevated cortical LB pathology and Aβ plaque deposition are both correlated with a faster progression to dementia. The higher CLB load in the temporal and parietal regions, which seems to be a distinguishing feature of DLB, may account for the shorter latency to dementia and could be mediated by the APOE ϵ4 allele. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  17. Applying the lewis model in industrialized countries: W. Arthur Lewis and the Dual Economy of Manchester in the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, P.; Ingham, B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The University of Manchester and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. We document, for the first time, the institution-building activities of the development economist W. Arthur Lewis (1915-91) as founder of Community House and the South Hulme Evening Centre, two further education centres which sought to fight discrimination among the Afro-Caribbean communities of Manchester in the 1950s. We depict the struggle by Afro-Caribbeans to achieve a decent standard of living (and to escape from the 'subsis...

  18. Metal-free pincer ligand chemistry polycationic phosphonium Lewis acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkop, Kevin M; Stephan, Douglas W

    2017-03-21

    Oxidation of 2,6-bis(diphenylphosphine)methyl pyridine with MeO3SCF3, yields the dication [2,6-(CH2PMePh2)2C5H3N][CF3SO3]22, while subsequent treatment with two equivalents of [K(THF)n][B(C6F5)4] (n = 1.3-1.5) afforded [2,6-(CH2PMePh2)2C5H3N][B(C6F5)4]23. Analogous treatment using XeF2 afforded 2,6-(CH2PF2Ph2)2C5H3N 4, while subsequent fluoride abstractions afford the corresponding [BF4], [CF3SO3] and [B(C6F5)4] salts, 5-7, respectively. Compound 4 reacts with an excess of MeO3SCF3 to give [2,6-(CH2PF2Ph2)2C5H3N(CH3)][CF3SO3] 8 while subsequent reaction with [Et3Si·2C7H8][B(C6F5)4] gave the related tricationic species, 9. The Lewis acidity of these di- and triphosphonium cations 3, 7 and 9 was examined and their utility as Lewis acid catalysts was assessed in the dimerization of 1,1-diphenylethylene, the hydrodefluorination of 1-fluoroadamantane, and the dehydrocoupling of phenol and silane.

  19. Modeling non-unity Lewis number effects in premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Ed; Pitsch, Heinz

    2009-11-01

    The combustion of hydrogen in Low Swirl Burners (LSB) is considered as an alternative for power production for it is characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, lean hydrogen premixed flames are subject to thermo-diffusive instabilities induced by the large diffusivity of hydrogen. The numerical modeling of these flows remain challenging for the transition of small scale instabilities into large scale turbulent structures cannot be modeled by conventional theories. In this work, a model is presented for the simulation of premixed flames with non-unity Lewis number fuels. This model relies on the Levelset/Progress variable approach which was found perfectly suited for the modeling of premixed flames with close to unity Lewis number fuels such as methane. Combined with the solution of an additional transport equation for mixture fraction, this model is formulated and validated in simple 1D laminar premixed flames. The model is found to capture accurately global quantities such as burning velocity and flame thickness as well as mixture fraction fluctuations. Then, this model is applied in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a Low Swirl Burner of H2/Air (φ=0.4). The simulation shows the formation of a strongly wrinkled flame with local extinction. The results obtained with this new formulation show significant improvement when compared with experimental measurements.

  20. Motion discrimination in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Filoteo, J Vincent; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Hansen, Lawrence A; Hamilton, Joanne M

    2015-10-20

    Visual processing abilities of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia were assessed psychophysically using a simple horizontal motion discrimination task that engages the dorsal visual processing stream. Participants included patients with mild dementia with DLB, AD dementia or Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD), without dementia with PD, and normal controls. Participants indicated the left or right direction of coherently moving dots that were embedded within dynamic visual noise provided by randomly moving dots. The proportion of coherently moving dots was increased or decreased across trials to determine a threshold at which participants could correctly indicate their direction with greater than 80% accuracy. Motion discrimination thresholds of patients with DLB and PDD were comparable and significantly higher (i.e., worse) than those of patients with AD dementia. The thresholds of patients with AD dementia and patients with PD were normal. These results were confirmed in subgroups of patients with DLB/PDD and AD dementia with autopsy-confirmed disease. A motion discrimination threshold greater than 0.23 distinguished between DLB/PDD and AD dementia with 67% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Differential deficits in detecting direction of simple horizontal motion suggest that dorsal processing stream dysfunction is greater in DLB and PDD than in AD dementia. Therefore, impaired performance on simple visual motion discrimination tasks that specifically engage occipitoparietal brain regions suggests the presence of Lewy body pathology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Adele Parot: Beacon of the Dioclesian Lewis School of Gymnastic Expression in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert Knight

    In the late 1800's, Dioclesian Lewis developed and introduced into the schools his new concept of physical education. Dr. Lewis thought in terms of preventing illness and maintaining bodily strength and health through physical fitness. His "new gymnastics" were based on programs of exercise movements. Employing light equipment suitable…

  2. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  3. Cerrahi girişimlerin Lewy body demansa etkisi: iki olgu sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Demiryürek, Bekir Enes; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Ceylan, Mustafa; Demiryürek, Esra; Yaylacı, Selçuk

    2017-01-01

    Lewy body dementiaisa neurodegenerative dementing disorder. It is most common form of dementiaafter Alzheimer’sdisease. Dementia with Lewy bodies is primarily characterized ascognitive decline, visual hallucinations and motor features (parkinsonism).Other clinical symptoms include REM (rapid eye movement) sleep behavior disorder, serious neuroleptic sensitivity and dysautonomiasupport diagnosis. Both postoperative cognitive deficit and post operatifdelirium are more common in elderly patients...

  4. LewiSpace: An Exploratory Study with a Machine Learning Model in an Educational Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Ramla; Ouellet, Sébastien; Frasson, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The use of educational games as a tool for providing learners with a playful and educational aspect is widespread. In this paper, we present an educational game that we developed to teach a chemistry lesson, namely drawing a Lewis diagram. Our game is a 3D environment known as LewiSpace and aims at balancing between playful and educational…

  5. Oral Interpretation of C.S. Lewis'"Narnia Tales": A Refracting of "Pictures."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carolyn

    "The Chronicles of Narnia" are a series of seven fairy tales written by C.S. Lewis that have become popular with both children and adults. Lewis points to five aspects of the fairy tale form that made the form suitable for expressing the images he saw. The aspects are: (1) no love interest; (2) no close psychology; (3) severe restraints…

  6. Historical Contributions of Lewis, Willis, and Ogbu to American Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the work of Oscar Lewis, Paul Willis, and John U. Ogbu, who used the concept of culture to explain the difficulties some children had in schools. Although Lewis, Willis, and Ogbu were well trained as ethnographers and their work influenced educators, critics complained that their explanations did not fit their evidence. The…

  7. Sentence Processing in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel G.; McMillan, Corey T.; Chandrasekaran, Keerthi; Dreyfuss, Michael; Ash, Sharon; Avants, Brian; Cook, Philip; Moore, Peachie; Libon, David J.; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Prior work has related sentence processing to executive deficits in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We extended this investigation to patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and PD dementia (PDD) by examining grammatical and working memory components of sentence processing in the full range of patients with Lewy body…

  8. The highly Lewis acidic dicationic phosphonium salt: [(SIMes)PFPh₂][B(C₆F₅)₄]₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Michael H; Mehta, Meera; Stephan, Douglas W

    2014-06-16

    The dicationic imidazolium-phosphonium salt [(SIMes)PFPh2][B(C6F5)4]2 has been prepared and shown to exhibit remarkable Lewis acidity in stoichiometric reactions and acting as an effective Lewis acid catalyst for the hydrodefluorination of fluoroalkanes and the hydrosilylation of olefins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The First Confirmed Case of Down Syndrome with Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V. P.; Airuehia, E.; Carey, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second commonest cause of dementia in the general population. Several researches have established an association between Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease. Very few studies have however showed such an association between dementia with Lewy bodies and Down syndrome. The occurrence of DLB in persons…

  10. Differences and similarities between Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, T.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of cognitive and motor symptoms. Both diagnoses share many features, like the presence of Lewy bodies, the core symptomatology and the core neurochemical

  11. Synthesis of dimeric lactose and dimeric (sialyl) Lewis(X) glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gege, Christian; Schmidt, Richard R

    2002-06-12

    To investigate structural requirements for the homophilic interaction between carbohydrates on planar model membranes, divalent derivatives with enforced proximity between the two carbohydrate epitopes (lactose, Lewis(X), and sialyl Lewis(X)) were synthesized by use of a dimeric membrane anchor as scaffold.

  12. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, E.B.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diells-Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  13. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  14. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  15. Cognitive impairment, decline and fluctuations in older community-dwelling subjects with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Z.; Yu, L.; Boyle, P. A.; Leurgans, S. E.; Bennett, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lewy bodies are common in the ageing brain and often co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. There is little known regarding the independent role of Lewy body pathology in cognition impairment, decline and fluctuations in community-dwelling older persons. We examined the contribution of Lewy body pathology to dementia, global cognition, cognitive domains, cognitive decline and fluctuations in 872 autopsied subjects (mean age = 87.9 years) from the Rush Religious Order Study (n = 491) and Memory and Aging Project (n = 381) longitudinal community-based clinical–pathological studies. Dementia was based on a clinical evaluation; annual cognitive performance tests were used to create a measure of global cognition and five cognitive domains. Lewy body type was determined by using α-synuclein immunostained sections of substantia nigra, limbic and neocortical regions. Statistical models included multiple regression models for dementia and cognition and mixed effects models for decline. Cognitive fluctuations were estimated by comparing standard deviations of individual residuals from mean trajectories of decline in those with and without Lewy bodies. All models controlled for age, sex, education, Alzheimer’s disease pathology and infarcts. One hundred and fifty-seven subjects (18%) exhibited Lewy body pathology (76 neocortical-type, 54 limbic-type and 27 nigra-predominant). One hundred and three (66%) subjects with Lewy body pathology had a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neocortical-type, but not nigral-predominant or limbic-type Lewy body pathology was related to an increased odds of dementia (odds ratio = 3.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.78–5.81) and lower cognition (P Lewy body pathology was also related to a faster decline in global cognition (P Lewy body pathology was related to lower and faster decline in visuospatial skills (P = 0.042). The relationship of Lewy body pathology to cognition and dementia was not modified by Alzheimer

  16. Streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in F344----Lewis and in Lewis----F344 bone marrow chimeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Bruggen, M.C.; van den Broek, M.F.; van den Berg, W.B. (University Hospital Nijmegen, (Netherlands))

    1991-09-01

    Streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis (AA) are rat models for chronic, erosive polyarthritis. Both models can be induced in susceptible Lewis rats, whereas F344 rats are resistant. In AA as well as in SCW arthritis, antigen-specific T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to be crucial for chronic disease. In this communication the authors describe their studies to probe the cellular mechanism responsible for the difference in susceptibility of Lewis and F344, using bone marrow chimeras. By transplanting bone marrow cells from F344 into lethally irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to SCW arthritis induction. F344 rats reconstituted with Lewis bone marrow, i.e., Lewis----F344 chimeras, develop an arthritis upon SCW injection. For AA comparable results were obtained. These data suggest that both resistance and susceptibility to bacterium-induced chronic arthritis are mediated by hemopoietic/immune cells and that the recipiental environment does not influence the susceptibility to chronic joint inflammation.

  17. Elucidating the Key Role of a Lewis Base Solvent in the Formation of Perovskite Films Fabricated from the Lewis Adduct Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobing; Zhi, Lili; Li, Yahui; Fang, Fei; Cui, Xian; Yao, Youwei; Ci, Lijie; Ding, Kongxian; Wei, Jinquan

    2017-09-27

    High-quality perovskite films can be fabricated from Lewis acid-base adducts through molecule exchange. Substantial work is needed to fully understand the formation mechanism of the perovskite films, which helps to further improve their quality. Here, we study the formation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films by introducing some dimethylacetamide into the PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide solution. We reveal that there are three key processes during the formation of perovskite films through the Lewis acid-base adduct approach: molecule intercalation of solvent into the PbI2 lattice, molecule exchange between the solvent and CH3NH3I, and dissolution-recrystallization of the perovskite grains during annealing. The Lewis base solvents play multiple functions in the above processes. The properties of the solvent, including Lewis basicity and boiling point, play key roles in forming smooth perovskite films with large grains. We also provide some rules for choosing Lewis base additives to prepare high-quality perovskite films through the Lewis adduct approach.

  18. Transcriptional network analysis in frontal cortex in Lewy body diseases with focus on dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santpere, Gabriel; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Andres-Benito, Pol; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Navarro, Arcadi; Ferrer, Isidro

    2017-03-21

    The present study investigates global transcriptional changes in frontal cortex area 8 in incidental Lewy Body disease (iLBD), Parkinson disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We identified different coexpressed gene sets associated with disease stages, and gene ontology categories enriched in gene modules and differentially expressed genes including modules or gene clusters correlated to iLBD comprising upregulated dynein genes and taste receptors, and downregulated innate inflammation. Focusing on DLB, we found modules with genes significantly enriched in functions related to RNA and DNA production, mitochondria and energy metabolism, purine metabolism, chaperone and protein folding system and synapses and neurotransmission (particularly the GABAergic system). The expression of more than fifty selected genes was assessed with real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence of molecular cortical alterations in iLBD and involvement of several key metabolic pathways and gene hubs in DLB which may underlie cognitive impairment and dementia. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  19. Understanding the Lewis Acidity of Co(II) Sites on a Silica Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Deven P; Cook, Amanda K; Lam, Erwin; Wong, Louise; Copéret, Christophe

    2017-07-17

    Heterogeneous catalysts consisting of isolated transition-metal sites dispersed on the surface of metal oxide supports are commonly used in the chemical industry. Often their reactivity relies on the Lewis acidity of the active sites on the surface of the catalyst. A recent report from our group showed that silica-supported Co(II) sites, prepared via surface organometallic chemistry, are active in both alkene hydrogenation and alkane dehydrogenation, possibly linked to the Lewis acidity of the Co(II) sites. Here we use molecular probes and analogues to both qualitatively and quantitatively model the Lewis acidity of the surface sites. Some sites do not bind probe molecules like carbon monoxide, tetrahydrofuran, and olefins, while others exhibit a continuum of Lewis acidities. This is consistent with variations in the coordination environment of Co. These results suggest that only the most Lewis acidic sites are involved in dehydrogenation and hydrogenation, consistent with catalyst poisoning studies.

  20. Organometallic-Lewis acid complex system; Yuki kinzoku ruisusan fukugo kei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kadota, I. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Organometallic compounds, which are indispensable in modern organic synthesis, have created further great promise by a combination with a Lewis acid. Although an organocopper reactant has excellent properties as a reactant, it often suffers from low reactivity. In this case, the co-presence of a Lewis acid in the system can markedly improve the conversion of the reaction. The combination of an organometallic compound with a Lewis acid can fully control the position, stereoselectivity and functional group selectivity. An enolate-Lewis acid complex system has been found to be useful in {beta}-lactam synthesis by coupling three components. Most of group 14 organometallic compounds are stable against oxygen and water and easy to handle. In other words, they have low reactivity. However, these compounds, when combined with a Lewis acid, can develop excellent selectivity which is very useful in steric control in a chain system. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, L F; Donovick, P J

    2014-06-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is one of the most prevalent dementia diagnoses. However, differential diagnosis between dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia can still be very difficult given the overlap in neuropathology, clinical presentation, cognitive, and neuroanatomical changes. A literature review of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia was conducted using PubMed. Accurate diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies is crucial in order to more accurately predict the progression of the disease and negative side effects from pharmacological treatment. The differences and similarities between dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia are highlighted in order to aid clinicians in differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  3. Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies in Parkinson's disease dementia: which is more important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Yaroslau; Parkkinen, Laura; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Vandrovcova, Jana; Holton, Janice L; Collins, Catherine; Lashley, Tammaryn; Kallis, Constantinos; Williams, David R; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew J; Revesz, Tamas

    2011-05-01

    The relative importance of Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies to dementia in Parkinson's disease remains unclear. We have examined the combined associations of α-synuclein, tau and amyloid-β accumulation in 56 pathologically confirmed Parkinson's disease cases, 29 of whom had developed dementia. Cortical and subcortical amyloid-β scores were obtained, while tau and α-synuclein pathologies were rated according to the respective Braak stages. Additionally, cortical Lewy body and Lewy neurite scores were determined and Lewy body densities were generated using morphometry. Non-parametric statistics, together with regression models, receiver-operating characteristic curves and survival analyses were applied. Cortical and striatal amyloid-β scores, Braak tau stages, cortical Lewy body, Lewy neurite scores and Lewy body densities, but not Braak α-synuclein stages, were all significantly greater in the Parkinson's disease-dementia group (Pdementia than the severity of any single pathology. Additionally, cortical amyloid-β scores (r=-0.62; P=0.043) and Braak tau stages (r=-0.52; P=0.028), but not Lewy body scores (r=-0.25; P=0.41) or Braak α-synuclein stages (r=-0.44; P=0.13), significantly correlated with mini-mental state examination scores in the subset of cases with this information available within the last year of life (n=15). High cortical amyloid-β score (P=0.017) along with an older age at onset (P=0.001) were associated with a shorter time-to-dementia period. A combination of Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies is a robust pathological correlate of dementia in Parkinson's disease, with quantitative and semi-quantitative assessment of Lewy pathology being more informative than Braak α-synuclein stages. Cortical amyloid-β and age at disease onset seem to determine the rate to dementia.

  4. Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies in Parkinson’s disease dementia: which is more important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Vandrovcova, Jana; Holton, Janice L.; Collins, Catherine; Lashley, Tammaryn; Kallis, Constantinos; Williams, David R.; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew J.; Revesz, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Summary The relative importance of Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies to dementia in Parkinson’s disease remains unclear. We have examined the combined associations of α-synuclein, tau and amyloid-β accumulation in 56 pathologically confirmed Parkinson’s disease cases, 29 of whom had developed dementia. Cortical and subcortical amyloid-β scores were obtained, while tau and α-synuclein pathologies were rated according to the respective Braak stages. Additionally, cortical Lewy body and Lewy neurite scores were determined and Lewy body densities were generated using morphometry. Non-parametric statistics, together with regression models, receiver-operating characteristic curves and survival analyses were applied. Cortical and striatal amyloid-β scores, Braak tau stages, cortical Lewy body, Lewy neurite scores and Lewy body densities, but not Braak α-synuclein stages, were all significantly greater in the Parkinson’s disease-dementia group (P dementia than the severity of any single pathology. Additionally, cortical amyloid-β scores (r = −0.62; P = 0.043) and Braak tau stages (r = −0.52; P = 0.028), but not Lewy body scores (r = −0.25; P = 0.41) or Braak α-synuclein stages (r = −0.44; P = 0.13), significantly correlated with mini-mental state examination scores in the subset of cases with this information available within the last year of life (n = 15). High cortical amyloid-β score (P = 0.017) along with an older age at onset (P = 0.001) were associated with a shorter time-to-dementia period. A combination of Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies is a robust pathological correlate of dementia in Parkinson’s disease, with quantitative and semi-quantitative assessment of Lewy pathology being more informative than Braak α-synuclein stages. Cortical amyloid-β and age at disease onset seem to determine the rate to dementia. PMID:21596773

  5. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Michael; Mavros, Yorgi; Sachdev, Perminder S; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD), which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic) results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA) exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD. A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002) is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/. 111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports) evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s), exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s) for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants. Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms exercise

  6. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  7. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Anti-Lewis alloimmunization: report of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, L M M; Lobo, G R; Moron, A F; Camano, L; Araujo Júnior, E; Araujo, E; Guimarães Filho, H A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perinatal results of seven pregnant women with anti-Lewis antibodies and evaluate the need to screen for these antigens during routine prenatal care. São Paulo Universtity Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. 200 Rh-negative pregnant women with a positive indirect Coombs test, managed during a 6-year period. The charts of all patients were reviewed to collect pertinent data and the variables were analyzed. Indirect Coombs test titer, intrauterine transfusion, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, birthweight, neonatal transfusion, duration of neonatal hospitalization and perinatal mortality. All newborn infants were classified as adequate for gestational age at birth and none needed intrauterine or neonatal transfusions. All infants, except one, were discharged in good health on the third day after birth. Alloimmunized pregnancies (Levis antigens) have good perinatal results.

  16. Alfred Lewis : romance e poesia em dois idiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Warrin, Donald

    1981-01-01

    “[…]. Da experiência açoriana tirou Alfred Lewis a inspiração para escrever, em inglês, o seu primeiro romance, Home is an Island. Aí se retrata a vida de um jovem ilhéu, José de Castro, até ao momento da sua emigração para a Terra do Ouro. O livro teve bastante sucesso no mercado americano e perante os muitos críticos que o comentaram. Notou-se o estilo ao mesmo tempo singelo e cheio de ricas imagens poéticas, a qualidade sensível e espiritual do romance e a atmosfera de repouso e tranquilid...

  17. Renal Failure in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Presenting as Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fekete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, originally described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, may be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic derangements, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics. Catatonia may include paratonia, waxy flexibility (cerea flexibilitas, stupor, mutism, echolalia, and catalepsy (abnormal posturing. A case of catatonia as a result of acute renal failure in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies is described. This patient recovered after intravenous fluid administration and reinstitution of the atypical dopamine receptor blocking agent quetiapine, but benzodiazepines and amantadine are additional possible treatments. Recognition of organic causes of catatonia leads to timely treatment and resolution of the syndrome.

  18. Efficient Synthesis of the Lewis A Tandem Repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kobayashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The convergent synthesis of the Lewis A (Lea tandem repeat is described. The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against carcinoma growth. The Lea unit, {β-d-Gal-(1→3-[α-l-Fuc-(1→4]-β-d-GlcNAc}, was synthesized by stereoselective nitrile-assisted β-galactosylation with the phenyl 3-O-allyl-2,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-1-thio-β-galactoside, and ether-assisted α-fucosylation with fucosyl (N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate. This common Lea unit was easily converted to an acceptor and donor in high yields, and the stereoselective assembly of the hexasaccharide and dodecasaccharide as the Lea tandem repeat framework was achieved by 2-trichloroacetamido-assisted β-glycosylation and the (N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate method.

  19. [The neurochemistry and neuropharmacology of diffuse Lewy body disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour-Wadih, T; Alonso-Navarro, H; Ayuso-Peralta, L; Jiménez-Jiménez, F J

    The main neurochemical alteration in diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) is the cholinergic deficit in the cerebral cortex, which involves mainly cholin-acetyl-transferase. There have been also described dopamine deficiency and alterations affecting other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as serotonin, noradrenaline, neuropeptides, etc. Cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism studies usually show diffuse hypoperfusion or hypometabolism, with higher alteration of associative cortex, including occipital involvement. Several studies have shown increased markers of oxidative stress in brain and other tissues, suggesting its possible role in the pathogenesis of DLBD. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors seem to improve cognitive and conductual symptoms, although their usefulness according evidence-based medicine criteria is weak. Some patients need atypical neuroleptics at low doses to get the symptomatic control of conductual alterations.

  20. Lewis Carroll and psychoanalysis: why nothing adds up in wonderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Each generation of psychoanalyst has found different things to value and sometimes to censure in Lewis Carroll's remarkable fiction and flights of fancy. But what does Carroll's almost 'surrealist' perspective in the Alice stories tell us about the rituals and symbols that govern life beyond Wonderland and Looking-Glass World? Arguing that Carroll's strong interest in meaning and nonsense in these and later works helps make the world strange to readers, the better to show it off-kilter, this essay focuses on Jacques Lacan's Carroll - the writer-logician who stressed, as Lacan did, the difficulty and price of adapting to the symbolic order. By reconsidering Lacan's 1966 homage to the eccentric Victorian, I argue that Carroll's insight into meaning and interpretation remains of key interest to psychoanalysts intent on hearing all that he had to say about psychic life. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  1. Violence and mental illness: what Lewis Carroll had to say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Miller, Judy

    2014-12-01

    In 1873 Skeffington Lutwidge, a Lunacy Commission inspector of asylums in England, was killed by an asylum patient. Lutwidge was the uncle and close friend of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, also known as Lewis Carroll. One year later, Carroll began writing The Hunting of the Snark, a poem whose meaning has mystified Carroll enthusiasts. In fact, the poem is a description of the Lunacy Commission inspection team and reflects Carroll's personal understanding of, and reaction to, the killing of his uncle by an individual with a severe mental illness. Carroll's close relationship with his uncle also explains the prominence of psychotic thinking in Carroll's work, including the Mad Hatter's tea party. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Time perception in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesimple, Blandine; Dieudonné, Bénédicte; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Verny, Marc; Giannopulu, Irini

    2016-06-01

    Disturbances of time perception could explain some behavioral disorders in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and the aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate time perception in these patients. 7 patients with DLB (mean age = 82±6,8 years) were compared to 7 cognitively normal subjects (m = 81.2±6,8 years) for spatiotemporal orientation, verbal estimation, semantic knowledge, rhythm perception and verbal time estimation. The scores on the semantic scale of temporality were statistically different between the two groups, and patients made more rhythm errors than the control sample. Moreover, a significant improvement between the first and second assessment on verbal time estimation was found in the control subjetcs but not in the patients. Time perception seems to be disturbed in patients with DLB, but more studies are required to understand this result with the behavioural disorders.

  3. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body Dementias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB.

  4. Imaging in Dementia With Lewy Bodies: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rosie; Colloby, Sean J

    2016-09-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) while common in older age can present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer disease (AD). Imaging studies have improved our understanding of the neurobiological changes in DLB during life and how they differ from AD. This has led to significant advances in the development of new techniques, such as dopaminergic imaging, which can aid the clinical diagnosis. Other functional imaging methods also show promise in helping to assess the influence of differing pathologies in DLB, most notably, AD-related and vascular pathology during life. This article will provide an overview of the main imaging findings in DLB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Mark Edward Lewis, The Flood Myths of Early China

    OpenAIRE

    Formoso, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Ce livre nous convie à une incursion dans l’univers foisonnant des mythes de régénération du monde de la Chine ancienne, correspondant pour l’essentiel à la période des Royaumes Combattants (480-220 av. J.-C.) et à celle des Premiers Empires (220 av. J.-C.-220 ap. J-C). Prenant le thème quasi universel du déluge comme axe central de l’étude, Mark Edward Lewis passe en revue avec beaucoup de finesse et d’érudition les schèmes relationnels ou institutionnels qui dans le système de pensée des an...

  6. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Kim, Young-Cho; Narayanan, Nandakumar S

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although, there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB.

  7. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  8. Can we clinically diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was initially identified and confirmed primarily by pathology, but is soon to be incorporated into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria as a clinical disease entity. Despite these advances over more than 20 years, current data suggest that the sensitivity of accurate clinical diagnosis of DLB is still very low, although there is mounting evidence that supportive features may increase diagnostic accuracy. Although DLB remains easy to identify pathologically with different cellular pathologies differentiating it from other dementia syndromes, pathological identification using only Lewy body pathology has been shown to be inaccurate due to overlap with patients without dementia symptoms. A number of studies now suggest that a combination of cellular pathologies, which include α-synuclein and β-amyloid deposition as well as dopamine denervation, assist with differentiating this dementia syndrome from others. The clinical and pathological overlap with the tauopathy of Alzheimer’s disease still remains to be clarified. To determine more robust and independent clinicopathological correlates from Alzheimer’s disease, longitudinal prospective studies, using specific clinical batteries on dementia patients reaching the proposed criteria for DLB, with post-mortem assessment of the multiple pathologies associated with dementia, are required. Identifying genetic causes for DLB is another approach to investigate the pathogenesis of DLB. However this approach has been hindered to date by difficulties with identifying DLB clinically. The use of novel techniques is likely to advance knowledge on the pathogenesis of DLB and assist with redefining clinical and pathologic diagnostic criteria. To achieve the goal of more accurate clinical diagnosis of DLB, breakthroughs are necessary on the pathogenesis of DLB. PMID:23398715

  9. Can we clinically diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB was initially identified and confirmed primarily by pathology, but is soon to be incorporated into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria as a clinical disease entity. Despite these advances over more than 20 years, current data suggest that the sensitivity of accurate clinical diagnosis of DLB is still very low, although there is mounting evidence that supportive features may increase diagnostic accuracy. Although DLB remains easy to identify pathologically with different cellular pathologies differentiating it from other dementia syndromes, pathological identification using only Lewy body pathology has been shown to be inaccurate due to overlap with patients without dementia symptoms. A number of studies now suggest that a combination of cellular pathologies, which include α-synuclein and β-amyloid deposition as well as dopamine denervation, assist with differentiating this dementia syndrome from others. The clinical and pathological overlap with the tauopathy of Alzheimer’s disease still remains to be clarified. To determine more robust and independent clinicopathological correlates from Alzheimer’s disease, longitudinal prospective studies, using specific clinical batteries on dementia patients reaching the proposed criteria for DLB, with post-mortem assessment of the multiple pathologies associated with dementia, are required. Identifying genetic causes for DLB is another approach to investigate the pathogenesis of DLB. However this approach has been hindered to date by difficulties with identifying DLB clinically. The use of novel techniques is likely to advance knowledge on the pathogenesis of DLB and assist with redefining clinical and pathologic diagnostic criteria. To achieve the goal of more accurate clinical diagnosis of DLB, breakthroughs are necessary on the pathogenesis of DLB.

  10. Visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies: transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John-Paul; Firbank, Michael; Barnett, Nicola; Pearce, Sarah; Livingstone, Anthea; Mosimann, Urs; Eyre, Janet; McKeith, Ian G; O'Brien, John T

    2011-12-01

    The aetiology of visual hallucinations is poorly understood in dementia with Lewy bodies. Pathological alterations in visual cortical excitability may be one contributory mechanism. To determine visual cortical excitability in people with dementia with Lewy bodies compared with aged-matched controls and also the relationship between visual cortical excitability and visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. Visual cortical excitability was determined by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to the occiput to elicit phosphenes (transient subjective visual responses) in 21 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and 19 age-matched controls. Phosphene parameters were similar between both groups. However, in the patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, TMS measures of visual cortical excitability correlated strongly with the severity of visual hallucinations (P = 0.005). Six patients with dementia with Lewy bodies experienced visual hallucination-like phosphenes (for example, seeing people or figures on stimulation) compared with none of the controls (P = 0.02). Increased visual cortical excitability in dementia with Lewy bodies does not appear to explain visual hallucinations but it may be a marker for their severity.

  11. Chemoselective Lewis pair polymerization of renewable multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.; Chen, Eugene Y.-X.

    2017-07-01

    Multivinyl-functionalized γ-butyrolactones, γ-vinyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γVMMBL) and γ-allyl-γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γAMMBL), have been synthesized from biorenewable ethyl levulinate and effectively polymerized by Lewis pairs consisting of an organic N-heterocyclic carbene Lewis base and a strong organo-Lewis acid E(C6F5)3 (E = Al, B). This Lewis pair polymerization is quantitatively chemoselective, proceeds exclusively via polyaddition across the conjugated α-methylene double bond without participation of the γ-vinyl or γ-allyl double bond, and produces high-molecular-weight functionalized polymers with unimodal molecular-weight distributions. The Al-based Lewis pair produces a polymer with approximately 5.5 times higher molecular weight than that produced by the B-based Lewis pair. The resulting vinyl-functionalized polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and stable at room temperature, and can be thermally cured into crosslinked materials. This article is part of the themed issue 'Frustrated Lewis pair chemistry'.

  12. Lewis pair polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs: Acid, base and monomer scope and polymerization mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2012-01-01

    Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C 6F 5) 3 with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl- α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C 6F 5) 3-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C 6F 5) 3, can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P tBu 3), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P 4- tBu). The P 4- tBu/Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10 4 h -1 (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M n = 2.12 × 10 5 g mol -1, PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P γMMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C 6F 5) 3 adduct with P tBu 3 and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the tBu 3P/ Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial induction period, and the polymerization

  13. Distribution of Lewis (FUT3)genotype and allele: frequencies in a biethnic United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, B; Pankow, J S; Salomaa, V; Couper, D; Morris, T L; Brantley, K R; Hiller, K M; Heiss, G; Weston, B W

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of four major single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (T59G, T1067G, T202C, and C314T) of the Lewis ( FUT3)gene in a biethnic United States population. This population-based cross-sectional study was based on data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which included 761 males and females aged 45-64 years, who had no known/detected clinical atherosclerotic disease (577 Caucasians, 184 African Americans). The main outcome measures were prevalence of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies for four SNPs of the FUT3gene. The most common genotype was the "wild type" at all four nucleotide positions ( WWWW), which was found to be present in 46.9% of ARIC participants. At least one mutant allele was detected in 51.7% of Caucasians, and 56.7% of African Americans ( P=0.59). The frequencies of mutant alleles ranged from 6.3% to 18.4% at the four FUT3gene sites examined. The distribution of the Lewis genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly by ethnicity at sites 59, 202, and 314. The prevalence of the Lewis genotype suggesting a lack of alpha(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase activity was 11.6% in Caucasians and 9.9% in African Americans ( P=0.67). Four specific SNPs of the Lewis genotype are common in the population at large. However, these four SNPs seem to fail to explain the majority of Lewis-negative phenotype in African Americans, given that Lewis-negative genotype prevalence was about one-third of what was expected. Use of rapid DNA sequencing and simultaneous Lewis phenotype determination could avoid the problems associated with haplotype determination and Lewis genotype grouping. Further studies testing SNPs of the Lewisgene are warranted, in particular among African Americans.

  14. [Atypical Lewy body disease revealed by burning mouth syndrome and a pseudo-psychiatric syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvat, J; Thomas-Anterion, C; Decousus, M; Perret-Liaudet, A; Laurent, B

    2010-05-01

    Among the degenerative diseases of the nervous system, Lewy body disease has the most psychiatric symptoms especially hallucinations, delusion and identification disorders. We report a case of Lewy body disease that started with a burning mouth syndrome for three year as the only symptom before the development of a pseudo-psychiatric syndrome (melancholy and Capgras). None of the usual cardinal criteria were present. MRI, cerebrospinal fluid, and DAT scan findings enabled the diagnosis. The dopaminergic hypothesis put forward in some cases of burning mouth syndrome might explain this symptom in Lewy body disease. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Delirium prior to dementia as a clinical phenotype of Lewy body disease: an autopsied case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Kawakami, Ito; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Iritani, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    Although delirium shares clinical characteristics with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), there is limited information regarding the relationship between delirium and Lewy body pathology. Here, we report an 89-year-old Japanese woman with an episode of delirium who was pathologically confirmed to have limbic-type Lewy body disease (LBD). Although she exhibited transient visual hallucinations during the delirium, she had no overt dementia. She developed no core clinical features of DLB and died of pneumonia at the age of 90 years. This autopsied case suggests that delirium may be one of the clinical phenotypes of LBD prior to the onset of dementia.

  16. Lewis Pair Catalysts in the Polymerization of Lactide and Related Cyclic Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters, especially poly(lactide (PLA, are used widely as biodegradable and biocompatible materials, yet their controllable synthesis, especially the stereoselective synthesis of polyesters, is still a challenge. Recently some excellent Lewis pair catalysts for ring-opening polymerization (ROP of lactide and related cyclic esters have emerged. This review article will highlight the key advances in the ROP catalyzed by Lewis pair compounds with the aim of encouraging the wider application of Lewis pair catalysts in the polymerization of lactide and related cyclic esters.

  17. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  18. [Radiosensitization effect of black garlic extract on lung cancer cell line Lewis cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui-qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yi-shan; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Ke

    2013-08-01

    To explore the radiosensitization effect of black garlic extract (BGE) on lung cancer cell line Lewis cells. The inhibition rate of lung cancer cells after BGE action was detected by MTT. Effect of BGE combined radiotherapy on the colony formation rate was observed by cloning formation assay. Changes of the cell morphology were observed by Hoechst staining. Changes of the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Real time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of bcl-2 and bax. BGE could have significant inhibitory action on the growth of lung cancer Lewis cells. The combination of BGE and radiotherapy (by 60Co gamma) significantly induced Lewis cells' apoptosis in G2/M stage, obviously decreased the expression of bcl-2, and up-regulated the expression of bax. BGE could sensitize the lung cancer Lewis cells to ionizing irradiation. This effect might be probably caused by changing the cell cycles and affecting expressions of bax and bcl-2.

  19. Annelated pyridines as highly nucleophilic and Lewis basic catalysts for acylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Raman; Unzner, Teresa; Nigst, Tobias A; De Rycke, Nicolas; Mayer, Peter; Wendt, Bernd; David, Olivier R P; Zipse, Hendrik

    2013-05-10

    New heterocyclic derivatives of 9-azajulolidine have been synthesized and characterized with respect to their nucleophilicity and Lewis basicity. The Lewis basicity of these bases as quantified through their theoretically calculated methyl-cation affinities correlate well with the experimentally measured reaction rates for addition to benzhydryl cations. All newly synthesized pyridines show exceptional catalytic activities in benchmark acylation reactions, which correlate only poorly with Lewis basicity or nucleophilicity parameters. A combination of Lewis basicity with charge and geometric parameters in the framework of a three-component quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is, however, highly predictive. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  1. Perfil clinico y neuropsicologico: enfermedad de Parkinson/enfermedad por cuerpos de Lewy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garzon-Giraldo, Maria Luz Dey; Carvajal- Castrillon, Julian; Montoya-Arenas, David Andres

    2015-01-01

    La demencia por cuerpos de Lewy y la enfermedad de Parkinson son dos sindromes comunes con signos y sintomas similares que hacen dificil establecer un diagnostico exacto, especialmente en las etapas...

  2. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  3. Highlighting High Performance: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College’s Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials

  4. Advocacy, education, and the role of not-for-profit organizations in Lewy body dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Lewy body dementias (LBDs) represent a spectrum of dementias that are associated with the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain and that dramatically impact both the person diagnosed and the family caregiver. LBD charities provide education of the public and health-care professionals, emotional support to families, and advocacy to policy-makers on the needs of LBD families and advance research. The US-based Lewy Body Dementia Association and the Lewy Body Society in the UK play an important role in reducing the burden that LBD places on families and society and provide leadership on issues affecting LBD families. Health-care providers are encouraged to refer families upon diagnosis to LBD charities as an additional resource to clinical care. PMID:26082807

  5. Metals in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease: Relevance to Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllum, Erin J; Finkelstein, David I

    2016-11-01

    Despite being a common form of dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies is relatively under-researched when compared with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This has arisen from the fact that dementia with Lewy bodies has been historically difficult to diagnose resulting in a lack of well-defined clinical cohorts and post-mortem tissue available for scientific research. Dementia with Lewy bodies shares clinical and pathological features with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease so it is therefore likely that it also has similar pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease. This review will discuss the role of biological metals in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and whether there are indications that metals may also be involved in dementia with Lewy bodies.

  6. C{sub 2}-symmetric Copper(II) complexes as chiral Lewis acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.A.; Murry, J.A.; Matt, P. von [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Two new Cu(II)-derived Lewis acid catalysts 1 and 2 have been prepared and their utility as catalysts in the Diels-Alder reaction documented. While complex 1 is effective in catalyzing the cycloaddition of unsaturated aldehyde dienophiles with cyclopentadiene complex 2 is optimal for imide dienophiles. This study provides a rational basis for the design of Lewis acids based on the coordinating capacity of cationic Cu(II) complexes which possess sufficient Lewis acidity to catalyze a range of synthetically useful Diels-Alder reactions. In particular, documentation of the importance of counterion structure in the use of cationic metal centers as Lewis acids has been made for the first time.

  7. Reduced frequency of blood group Lewis a-b- in female Type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; Prinsen, K.; Lemkes, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To examine a disputed association between the Lewis(a(-)b(-)) phenotype and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Lewis red blood cell phenotyping was performed for 97 T1D White patients and 100 control subjects using monoclonal antibodies. Two historical cohorts were also included as a control...... population. RESULTS: T1D patients had a lower frequency (4.1%) of Lewis(a(-)b(-)) blood group compared with simultaneously tested healthy control subjects (10.0%) and the historical control group (11.1%, P = 0.02). Male T1D patients showed a Lewis(a(-)b(-)) frequency of 8.0%, which was similar to both...

  8. Functional connectivity in cortical regions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Eva R; Blamire, Andrew M; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T

    2012-02-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal were measured to investigate connectivity between key brain regions hypothesized to be differentially affected in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. These included connections of the hippocampus, because of its role in learning, and parietal and occipital areas involved in memory, attention and visual processing. Connectivity was investigated in 47 subjects aged 60 years and over: 15 subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies, 16 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 16 control subjects. Subjects were scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. The mean blood oxygenation level-dependent signal time series was extracted from seed regions in the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and primary visual cortex and correlated with all other brain voxels to determine functional connectivity. Both subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease showed greater connectivity than control subjects. Compared with controls, the dementia with Lewy bodies group had greater connectivity between the right posterior cingulate cortex and other brain areas. In dementia with Lewy bodies, there were no significant differences in hippocampal connectivity compared with controls, but in Alzheimer's disease left hippocampal connectivity was greater compared with controls. There were no significant differences between groups for precuneus or primary visual cortex connectivity. No seed regions showed significantly less connectivity in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies or Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. We found greater connectivity with the posterior cingulate in dementia with Lewy bodies and with the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Consistent with the known relative preservation of memory in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer

  9. Functional connectivity in cortical regions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamire, Andrew M.; Firbank, Michael J.; O'Brien, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal were measured to investigate connectivity between key brain regions hypothesized to be differentially affected in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. These included connections of the hippocampus, because of its role in learning, and parietal and occipital areas involved in memory, attention and visual processing. Connectivity was investigated in 47 subjects aged 60 years and over: 15 subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies, 16 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 16 control subjects. Subjects were scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. The mean blood oxygenation level-dependent signal time series was extracted from seed regions in the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and primary visual cortex and correlated with all other brain voxels to determine functional connectivity. Both subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease showed greater connectivity than control subjects. Compared with controls, the dementia with Lewy bodies group had greater connectivity between the right posterior cingulate cortex and other brain areas. In dementia with Lewy bodies, there were no significant differences in hippocampal connectivity compared with controls, but in Alzheimer's disease left hippocampal connectivity was greater compared with controls. There were no significant differences between groups for precuneus or primary visual cortex connectivity. No seed regions showed significantly less connectivity in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies or Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. We found greater connectivity with the posterior cingulate in dementia with Lewy bodies and with the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Consistent with the known relative preservation of memory in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer

  10. New derivatives of reducing oligosaccharides and their use in enzymatic reactions: efficient synthesis of sialyl Lewis a and sialyl dimeric Lewis x glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bårström, M; Bengtsson, M; Blixt, O; Norberg, T

    2000-10-06

    The reducing oligosaccharides lactose and lacto-N-tetraose were reductively aminated with benzyloxycarbonylaminoaniline and sodium cyanoborohydride, followed by treatment of the resulting secondary amines with acetic anhydride. The resulting N-acetyl-N-(4-benzyloxycarbonylaminophenyl)-1-amino-1-deoxyaldi tol oligosaccharide derivatives were subjected to stepwise enzymatic elongation with various glycosyltransferases/nucleotide sugars. Purification of the products after each enzymatic step was conveniently performed by solid-phase extraction on silica gel C-18 cartridges. Two oligosaccharide derivatives (with sialyl Lewis a and sialyl dimeric Lewis x structures) were prepared. Conversion of the obtained derivatives into neoglycoproteins by the sequence hydrogenolysis, thiophosgene treatment, and protein coupling was carried out.

  11. Apolipoprotein E gene in Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, D

    1997-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) epsilon 4 allele is a risk factor for early and late onset Alzheimer's disease. This prompted us to examine other neurophyschiatric phenotypes. Epsilon 4 allele was significantly enriched in Lewy body dementia (n = 39) but not in Parkinson's disease (n = 50) or Schizophrenia (n = 175) compared to aged non-demented controls (n = 47) and the Scottish population (n = 400). We conclude that Lewy body disease should be regarded as a variant of Alzheimer's but not Parkinson's disease.

  12. Bifunctional ligands in combination with phosphines and Lewis acidic phosphonium [corrected] for the carbonylative Sonogashira reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Lu, Yong; Liu, Ye

    2015-07-11

    The combination of phosphine-ligated Pd catalysis and phosphonium(V) [corrected] Lewis acid catalysis has been developed for the carbonylative Sonogashira reaction using phosphino-phosphonium [corrected] salts (L1-L4) as bifunctional ligands, in which the Lewis acidic phosphonium(V) [corrected] cations can form secondary bonds with O atoms (in C=O) to cooperatively stabilize Pd-acyl intermediates.

  13. Visual Hallucinations in PD and Lewy Body Dementias: Old and New Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onofrj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Hallucinations (VH are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s Disease (PD and the Lewy body dementias (LBD of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB. The origin of VH in PD and LBD is debated: earlier studies considered a number of different possible mechanisms underlying VH including visual disorders, Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep Intrusions, dysfunctions of top down or bottom up visual pathways, and neurotransmitter imbalance.

  14. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  15. 18F-FDG PET assessment of Lewy body dementia with cerebellar diaschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faham, Zaid; Zein, Rami K; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer disease and Lewy body dementia are the 2 most common causes of dementia. Each disease has distinctive regional metabolic reduction patterns on (18)F-FDG PET. In this report, we present a rare case of an elderly man with dementia whereby (18)F-FDG PET clearly showed Lewy body disease with crossed cerebellar diaschisis. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  16. MRI of the Swallow Tail Sign: A Useful Marker in the Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S; Fällmar, D; Schwarz, S; Wahlund, L-O; van Westen, D; Hansson, O; Larsson, E-M; Haller, S

    2017-09-01

    There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility-weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. Interrater agreement was moderate (κ = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%-85%; P Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3-28; P Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulness of the swallow tail sign was rater-dependent with the highest sensitivity equaling 100%. The swallow tail sign has diagnostic potential in Lewy body dementia and may be a complement in the diagnostic work-up of this condition. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Chung, S J; Oh, Y-S; Yoon, J H; Sunwoo, M K; Hong, J Y; Kim, J-S; Lee, P H

    2015-09-01

    The burden of amyloid β is greater in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies than in those with Parkinson disease dementia, and an increased amyloid β load is closely related to a higher incidence of cerebral microbleeds. Here, we investigated the prevalence and topography of cerebral microbleeds in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and those with Parkinson disease dementia to examine whether cerebral microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies than in those with Parkinson disease dementia. The study population consisted of 42 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 88 patients with Parkinson disease dementia, and 35 controls who underwent brain MR imaging with gradient recalled-echo. Cerebral microbleeds were classified as deep, lobar, or infratentorial. The frequency of cerebral microbleeds was significantly greater in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (45.2%) than in those with Parkinson disease dementia (26.1%) or in healthy controls (17.1%; P = .017). Lobar cerebral microbleeds were observed more frequently in the dementia with Lewy bodies group (40.5%) than in the Parkinson disease dementia (17%; P = .004) or healthy control (8.6%; P = .001) group, whereas the frequencies of deep and infratentorial cerebral microbleeds did not differ among the 3 groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared with the healthy control group, the dementia with Lewy bodies group was significantly associated with the presence of lobar cerebral microbleeds after adjusting for age, sex, nonlobar cerebral microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities, and other vascular risk factors (odds ratio, 4.39 [95% CI, 1.27-15.25]). However, compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinson disease dementia group was not significantly associated with lobar cerebral microbleeds. This study showed that patients with dementia with Lewy bodies had a greater burden of cerebral microbleeds and exhibited a lobar predominance of cerebral

  18. Thioarsenides: A case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long range Lewis acid-base directed van der Waals interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  19. Thioarsenides: a case for long-range Lewis acid-base-directed van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Wallace, A. F.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-04-01

    Electron density distributions, bond paths, Laplacian and local-energy density properties have been calculated for a number of As4S n ( n = 3, 4 and 5) thioarsenide molecular crystals. On the basis of the distributions, the intramolecular As-S and As-As interactions classify as shared bonded interactions, and the intermolecular As-S, As-As and S-S interactions classify as closed-shell van der Waals (vdW) bonded interactions. The bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths link regions of locally concentrated electron density (Lewis-base regions) with aligned regions of locally depleted electron density (Lewis-acid regions) on adjacent molecules. The paths are comparable with intermolecular paths reported for several other molecular crystals that link aligned Lewis base and acid regions in a key-lock fashion, interactions that classified as long-range Lewis acid-base-directed vdW interactions. As the bulk of the intermolecular As-S bond paths (~70%) link Lewis acid-base regions on adjacent molecules, it appears that molecules adopt an arrangement that maximizes the number of As-S Lewis acid-base intermolecular bonded interactions. The maximization of the number of Lewis acid-base interactions appears to be connected with the close-packed array adopted by molecules: distorted cubic close-packed arrays are adopted for alacránite, pararealgar, uzonite, realgar and β-AsS and the distorted hexagonal close-packed arrays adopted by α- and β-dimorphite. A growth mechanism is proposed for thioarsenide molecular crystals from aqueous species that maximizes the number of long-range Lewis acid-base vdW As-S bonded interactions with the resulting directed bond paths structuralizing the molecules as a molecular crystal.

  20. Metal–ligand multiple bonds as frustrated Lewis pairs for C–H functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Whited, Matthew T

    2012-01-01

    The concept of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) has received considerable attention of late, and numerous reports have demonstrated the power of non- or weakly interacting Lewis acid–base pairs for the cooperative activation of small molecules. Although most studies have focused on the use of organic or main-group FLPs that utilize steric encumbrance to prevent adduct formation, a related strategy can be envisioned for both organic and inorganic complexes, in which "electronic frustration"...

  1. Lewis Swift celebrated comet hunter and the people's astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    This biography covers the life of Lewis Swift (1820-1913), who discovered 13 comets and nearly 1,200 other deep sky objects. All 13 comets found by Swift now bear his name, including three periodic comets with periods of 6 years (11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR), 9 years (64P/Swift-Gehrels), and 133 years (109P/Swift-Tuttle). Swift's enthusiasm and success as an amateur astronomer helped make him famous in the United States. With the help of others, Swift was able to buy a 16-inch refractor, the third largest telescope in the United States at the time. Hulbert Harrington Warner built "Warner Observatory" to house this telescope. As a prolific writer and lecturer, Swift's stories appeared in newspapers and magazines, while his lectures showed that he was able to explain anything in a way that everyone could understand.  When Warner went broke during the "Panic of 1893," Swift was forced to leave his home. Almost two dozen invitations arrived from around the United States asking him to bring his telescope to their ci...

  2. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias.

  3. Olfactory dysfunction in incidental Lewy body disease and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Adler, Charles H; Hentz, Joseph G; Dugger, Brittany N; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Beach, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well-established and may represent one of the earliest signs of the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of olfactory dysfunction, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), to clinical and pathological parameters of clinicopathologically diagnosed PD (n = 10), incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) (n = 13), and identically assessed controls who lacked a neurodegenerative disease (n = 69). Mean UPSIT scores were significantly lower in PD (16.3, p < 0.001) and ILBD (22.2, p = 0.004) compared to controls (27.7). Using an UPSIT cutoff score of <22 (the 15th percentile) the sensitivity for detecting PD was 9/10 (90%) and ILBD 6/13 (46%), while the specificity was 86% (Controls with score of <22 = 10/69). These results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that olfactory testing could be useful as a screening tool for identifying early, pre-motor PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Shell shock at Queen Square: Lewis Yealland 100 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Stefanie C; Jones, Edgar; Lees, Andrew J

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the treatment of functional neurological symptoms during World War I by Lewis Yealland at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic in London. Yealland was among the first doctors in Britain to incorporate electricity in the systematic treatment of shell shock. Our analysis is based on the original case records of his treatment of 196 soldiers with functional motor and sensory symptoms, functional seizures and somatoform disorders. Yealland's treatment approach integrated peripheral and central electrical stimulation with a variety of other--psychological and physical--interventions. A combination of electrical stimulation of affected muscles with suggestion of imminent improvement was the hallmark of his approach. Although his reported success rates were high, Yealland conducted no formal follow-up. Many of the principles of his treatment, including the emphasis on suggestion, demonstration of preserved function and the communication of a physiological illness model, are encountered in current therapeutic approaches to functional motor and sensory symptoms. Yealland has been attacked for his use of electrical stimulation and harsh disciplinary procedures in popular and scientific literature during and after World War I. This criticism reflects changing views on patient autonomy and the social role of doctors and directly impacts on current debates on ethical justification of suggestive therapies. We argue that knowledge of the historical approaches to diagnosis and management of functional neurological syndromes can inform both aetiological models and treatment concepts for these challenging conditions.

  5. White Matter Hyperintensities in Mild Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Oppedal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to explore the load of white matter hyperintensities (WMH in patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD and compare to Alzheimer’s disease (AD and normal controls (NC. Methods: Diagnosis of LBD and AD was made according to consensus criteria and cognitive tests were administered. MRI scans for 77 (61 AD and 16 LBD patients and 37 healthy elderly control subjects were available for analysis. We segmented WMH from FLAIR images using an automatic thresholding technique and calculated the volume of WMH in several regions of the brain, using non-parametric tests to compare groups. Multivariate regression was applied. Results: There were no significant differences in WMH between AD and LBD. We found a significant correlation between total and frontal WMH and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and verbal fluency scores in the AD group, but not in the LBD group. Conclusion: The WMH load in LBD was similar to that of AD. A correlation between WMH load and cognition was found in the AD group, but not in the LBD group, suggesting that vascular disease contributes to cognitive impairment in AD but not LBD.

  6. Fort Lewis electric energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Currie, J.W.; DeSteese, J.G.; Dirks, J.A.; Marseille, T.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1991-10-01

    In support of the US DOE Federal Energy Management Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations. Fort Lewis, a US Army installation near Tacoma, Washington, was selected as the pilot site for developing this approach. This site was chosen in conjunction with the interests of the Bonneville Power Administration to develop programs for its federal sector customers and the Army Forces Command to develop an in-house program to upgrade the energy efficiency of its installations. This report documents the electricity assessment portion of the approach, providing an estimate of the electricity use baseline and efficiency improvement potential for major sectors and end uses at the Fort. Although the assessment did not identify all possible efficiency improvement opportunities, it is estimated that electricity use can be reduced by at least 20% cost-effectively at the $0.045/kWh marginal cost of electricity in the Pacific Northwest. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Functional evaluation of cerebral cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pilato, Fabio; Dileone, Michele; Saturno, Eleonora; Profice, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Daniele, Antonio; Ranieri, Federico; Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido; Tonali, Pietro A

    2007-08-15

    Neurochemical investigations have demonstrated central cholinergic dysfunction in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Central cholinergic circuits of the human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. This test, named short latency afferent inhibition has been shown in healthy subjects to be sensitive to the blockage of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and it is impaired in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), a cholinergic form of dementia, while it is normal in non-cholinergic forms of dementia such as fronto-temporal dementia. We evaluated short latency afferent inhibition in a group of patients with DLB and compared the data with that from a group of AD patients and a control group of age-matched healthy individuals. Short latency afferent inhibition was significantly reduced in DLB and AD patients. The findings suggest that this method can be used as a non-invasive test for the assessment of cholinergic pathways in patients with dementia and may represent a useful additional tool for discriminating between cholinergic and non-cholinergic forms of dementia.

  8. Pharmacological Management of Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Chris; McKeith, Ian; Taylor, John-Paul; Lafortune, Louise; Mioshi, Eneida; Mak, Elijah; Cambridge, Victoria; Mason, James; Thomas, Alan; O'Brien, John T

    2015-08-01

    The authors examined research on effects, costs, and patient and caregiver views of pharmacological management strategies for Lewy body dementia. Studies were identified through bibliographic databases, trials registers, gray literature, reference lists, and experts. The authors used the search terms "Lewy or parkinson" and "dementia" through March 2015 and used the following inclusion criteria: participants with diagnoses of Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, or Parkinson's disease dementia (or participants' caregivers); investigation of pharmacological management strategies; outcome measures and test scores reported. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by at least two authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and when studies could not be combined, summaries were provided. Forty-four studies examining 22 strategies were included in the review. Meta-analysis indicated beneficial effects of donepezil and rivastigmine for cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Rivastigmine, but not donepezil, was associated with greater risk of adverse events. Meta-analysis of memantine suggested that it is well tolerated but with few benefits. Descriptive summaries provide some evidence of benefits for galantamine, modafinil, levodopa, rotigotine, clozapine, duloxetine, clonazepam, ramelteon, gabapentin, zonisamide, and yokukansan. Piracetam, amantadine, selegiline, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and citalopram do not appear to be effective. High-level evidence related to pharmacological strategies for managing Lewy body dementia is rare. Strategies for important areas of need in Lewy body dementia, such as autonomic symptoms and caregiver burden, have not been investigated, nor have the views of patients and caregivers about pharmacological strategies.

  9. Early-onset familial lewy body dementia with extensive tauopathy: a clinical, genetic, and neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarimón, Jordi; Molina-Porcel, Laura; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Blesa, Rafael; Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; González-Neira, Anna; Estorch, Montserrat; Ma Grau, Josep; Barraquer, Lluís; Roig, Carles; Ferrer, Isidre; Lleó, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Spanish family in which 3 of 4 siblings had dementia with Lewy bodies, 2 of them starting at age 26 years and the other at 29 years. The father has recently been diagnosed with Lewy body disease, with onset at 77 years. Neuropathological examination of the brain of the index patient disclosed unusual features characterized by diffuse Lewy body disease and generalized neurofibrillary tangle pathology but with no amyloid deposits in any region. Moreover, Lewy body pathology colocalized with neurofibrillary tangles in most affected neurons. Mutation screening that included all coding exons of presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), alpha-synuclein (SNCA), beta-synuclein (SNCB), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), glucocerebrosidase (GBA), and exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes did not identify any mutation. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in 4 family members and ruled out any pathogenic duplication or deletion in the entire genome. In summary, we report a unique family with pathologically confirmed early-onset dementia with Lewy bodies with widespread tau and alpha-synuclein deposition. The absence of mutations in genes known to cause Lewy body disease suggests that a novel locus or loci are implicated in this neurodegenerative disease.

  10. Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cognitive decline in lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Carla; van Steenoven, Inger; Londos, Elisabet; Blanc, Frédéric; Auestad, Bjørn; Kramberger, Milica G; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mollenhauer, Brit; Boada, Mercè; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease pathologies are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but their clinical relevance is not clear. CSF biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 reflect Alzheimer's disease neuropathology antemortem. In PD, low CSF amyloid beta 1-42 predict long-term cognitive decline, but little is known about these biomarkers as predictors for cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers predict cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. From a large European dementia with Lewy bodies multicenter study, we analyzed baseline Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and serial MMSE (baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up) in 100 patients with Lewy body dementia. Linear mixed-effects analyses, adjusted for sex, age, baseline MMSE, and education, were performed to model the association between CSF biomarkers and rate of cognitive decline measured with MMSE. An Alzheimer's disease CSF profile was defined as pathological amyloid beta 1-42 plus pathological total tau or phosphorylated tau. The Alzheimer's disease CSF profile, and pathological levels of amyloid beta 1-42, were associated with a more rapid decline in MMSE (2.2 [P Lewy body dementia patients. Future prospective studies should include larger samples, centralized CSF analyses, longer follow-up, and biomarker-pathology correlation. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Lewis Carroll, a educação e o ensino de geometria na Inglaterra vitoriana - Lewis Carroll, education and the teaching of geometry in victorian England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montoito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte da pesquisa motivada pela tradução para o português do livro Euclides e seus rivais modernos, publicado por Lewis Carroll em 1879, este artigo se inscreve numa série de estudos que visam a um exame hermenêutico dessa obra. São discutidos temas relacionados com a educação, a educação matemática e o ensino de geometria na Inglaterra vitoriana.Palavras-chave: Lewis Carroll, Euclides e seus rivais modernos, história da educação, educação matemática, geometria. LEWIS CARROLL, EDUCATION AND THE TEACHING OF GEOMETRY IN VICTORIAN ENGLANDAbstractResearch partly motivated by Lewis Carrroll's Euclid and his modern rivals (1879 portuguese translation, this paper presents some hermeneutical remarks taken as necessary to understand the context in which such book was produced. The paper focuses particularly on education, in general, and on the teaching of mathematics and geometry in victorian England.Key-words: Lewis Carroll, Euclid and his modern rivals, history of education, mathematics education, geometry. LEWIS CARROLL, LA EDUCACIÓN Y EL ENSINO DE GEOMETRÍA EN LA INGLATERRA VICTORIANAResumenParte de la investigación motivada por la traducción al portugués del libro Euclides y sus enemigos modernos, publicado por Lewis Carroll en 1879, este artículo se inscribe en una serie de estudios que tienen por objetivo hacer un examen hermenéutico de la obra. Son aquí discutidos temas relacionados como la educación, la educación matemática y la enseñanza de geometría en la Inglaterra victoriana.Palabras-clave: Lewis Carroll, Euclides y sus enemigos modernos, historia de la educación, educación matemática, geometría. LEWIS CARROLL, L’ÉDUCATION ET L’ENSEIGMENT DE GÉOMÉTRIE EN L’ANGLETERRE VICTORIENNERésuméFaisant partie de la recherche motivée par la traduction en portugais du livre Euclide et ses rivaux modernes, publié par Lewis Carrol en 1879 , cet article s’inscrit dans une série d’études dont le but

  12. The child labor in the United States by Lewis Hine’s lensO trabalho infantil nos Estados Unidos pelas lentes de Lewis Hine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pacheco dos Santos Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From the photographic production of Lewis Wickes Hine, this paper aims to discuss the use of photographic iconography for elucidating aspects of the history of child labor in the United States. Between 1908 and 1924, serving the National Child Labor Committee, Lewis Hine recorded and reported, through his camera, many faces of child labor in the USA and made a decisive contribution to the debate on the use of child labor in the contemporary world.A partir da produção fotográfica do estadunidense Lewis Wickes Hine, este trabalho vislumbra discutir a potencialidade do uso da iconografia fotográfica para a elucidação de aspectos da história do trabalho infantil nos Estados Unidos. Entre 1908 e 1924,a serviço do National Child Labor Committee, Lewis Hine registrou e denunciou através de sua câmera, as inúmeras faces do trabalho de crianças nos EUA e deu uma contribuição decisiva para o debate sobre o emprego do trabalho infantil no mundo contemporâneo.

  13. Demência com corpos de Lewy: uma revisão para o psiquiatra Dementia with Lewy bodies: a review for psychiatrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Tavares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A demência com corpos de Lewy (DCL tornou-se hoje uma entidade nosológica distinta, considerada por muitos autores a segunda causa principal de demência degenerativa, atrás apenas da doença de Alzheimer. Sua neuropatologia é caracterizada pela presença de corpos de Lewy tanto em regiões corticais como em áreas subcorticais do encéfalo. As principais manifestações clínicas incluem: declínio cognitivo progressivo, alucinações visuais recorrentes, flutuação no estado cognitivo e sinais parkinsonianos. Observa-se maior sensibilidade a efeitos indesejáveis de medicamentos neurolépticos e a resposta a medicações inibidoras da acetilcolinesterase é geralmente boa.Lewy body dementia became today a distinct nosological entity, considered by many authors the second cause of degenerative dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. Its neuropathology is caracterized by the presence of Lewy bodies both in cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The main clinical manifestations are: progressive cognitive impairment, recurrent visual hallucinations, fluctuating cognitive status and parkinsonian signs. There is greater sensitivity to side effects of neuroleptic drugs and the response to cholinesterase inhibitors is generally good.

  14. Properties of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells Surviving Curcumin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yan, Michael E. Geusz, Roudabeh J. Jamasbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory agent curcumin can selectively eliminate malignant rather than normal cells. The present study examined the effects of curcumin on the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cell line and characterized a subpopulation surviving curcumin treatments. Cell density was measured after curcumin was applied at concentrations between 10 and 60 μM for 30 hours. Because of the high cell loss at 60 μM, this dose was chosen to select for surviving cells that were then used to establish a new cell line. The resulting line had approximately 20% slower growth than the original LLC cell line and based on ELISA contained less of two markers, NF-κB and ALDH1A, used to identify more aggressive cancer cells. We also injected cells from the original and surviving lines subcutaneously into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and monitored tumor development over three weeks and found that the curcumin surviving-line remained tumorigenic. Because curcumin has been reported to kill cancer cells more effectively when administered with light, we examined this as a possible way of enhancing the efficacy of curcumin against LLC cells. When LLC cells were exposed to curcumin and light from a fluorescent lamp source, cell loss caused by 20 μM curcumin was enhanced by about 50%, supporting a therapeutic use of curcumin in combination with white light. This study is the first to characterize a curcumin-surviving subpopulation among lung cancer cells. It shows that curcumin at a high concentration either selects for an intrinsically less aggressive cell subpopulation or generates these cells. The findings further support a role for curcumin as an adjunct to traditional chemical or radiation therapy of lung and other cancers.

  15. Brain amyloid and cognition in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Stephen N; Locascio, Joseph J; Marquie, Marta; Santarlasci, Andrea L; Rentz, Dorene M; Maye, Jacqueline; Johnson, Keith A; Growdon, John H

    2012-07-01

    Many patients with PD develop PD with dementia (PDD), a syndrome that overlaps clinically and pathologically with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); PDD and DLB differ chiefly in the relative timing of dementia and parkinsonism. Brain amyloid deposition is an early feature of DLB and may account, in part, for its early dementia. We sought to confirm this hypothesis and also to determine whether amyloid accumulation contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia in the broad range of parkinsonian diseases. Twenty-nine cognitively healthy PD, 14 PD subjects with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 18 with DLB, 12 with PDD, and 85 healthy control subjects (HCS) underwent standardized neurologic and neuropsychological examinations and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) imaging with PET. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes were obtained in many patients. PiB retention was expressed as the distribution volume ratio using a cerebellar tissue reference. PiB retention was significantly higher in DLB than in any of the other diagnostic groups. PiB retention did not differ across PDD, PD-MCI, PD, and HCS. Amyloid burden increased with age and with the presence of the ApoE ε4 allele in all patient groups. Only in the DLB group was amyloid deposition associated with impaired cognition. DLB subjects have higher amyloid burden than subjects with PDD, PD-MCI, PD, or HCS; amyloid deposits are linked to cognitive impairment only in DLB. Early amyloid deposits in DLB relative to PDD may account for their difference in the timing of dementia and parkinsonism. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian

    2017-08-01

    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  17. Defining the recognition elements of Lewis Y-reactive antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdutta Saha

    Full Text Available Antibody response to carbohydrate antigens is often independent of T cells and the process of affinity/specificity improvement is considered strictly dependent on the germinal centers. Antibodies induced during a T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2 response are less variable and less functionally versatile than those induced with T cell help. The antigen specificity consequences of accumulation of somatic mutations in antibodies during TI-2 responses of Marginal Zone (MZ B cells is a fact that still needs explanation. Germline genes that define carbohydrate-reactive antibodies are known to sculpt antibody-combining sites containing innate, key side-chain contacts that define the antigen recognition step. However, substitutions associated with MZ B cell derived antibodies might affect the mobility and polyspecificity of the antibody. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed antibodies reactive with the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY to define the residue subset required for the reactive repertoire for the LeY antigen. Our molecular simulation studies of crystallographically determined and modeled antibody-LeY complexes suggests that the heavy-chain germline gene VH7183.a13.20 and the light-chain Vκ cr1 germline gene are sufficient to account for the recognition of the trisaccharide-H determinant Types 1-4, while the specificity for LeY is driven by the CDR3 backbone conformation of the heavy chain and not the side chain interactions. These results confirm that these monoclonals use germline-encoded amino acids to recognize simple carbohydrate determinants like trisaccharide-H but relies on somatic mutations in the periphery of the combining site to modify affinity for LeY through electrostatic interactions that leads to their optimized binding. These observations bring further attention to the role of mutations in T-cell independent antibodies to distinguish self from non-self carbohydrate antigens.

  18. Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Yuan Zhu [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Zhu Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Li Lei; Shi Huashan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Xiao Jianghong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China); Li Zhiping, E-mail: lizhiping620312@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

  19. Manipulating the Lewis antigen specificity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin lectinolysin

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    Sara eLawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs attack cells by punching large holes in their membranes. Lectinolysin from Streptococcus mitis is unique among CDCs due to the presence of an N-terminal lectin domain that enhances the pore-forming activity of the toxin. We recently determined the crystal structures of the lectin domain in complex with various glycans. These structures revealed the molecular basis for the Lewis antigen specificity of the toxin. Based on this information we have used in silico molecular modelling to design a mutant toxin, which we predicted would increase its specificity for Lewis y, an antigen found on the surface of cancer cells. Surprisingly, we found by surface plasmon resonance binding experiments that the resultant mutant lectin domain exhibited higher specificity for Lewis b antigens instead. We then undertook comparative crystallographic and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild-type and mutant lectin domains to understand the molecular basis for the disparity between the theoretical and experimental results. The crystallographic results revealed that the net number of interactions between Lewis y and wild-type versus mutant was unchanged whereas there was a loss of a hydrogen bond between mutant and Lewis b compared to wild-type. In contrast, the molecular dynamics studies revealed that the Lewis b antigen spent more time in the binding pocket of the mutant compared to wild-type and the reverse was true for Lewis y. The results of these simulation studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the surface plasmon resonance studies. This work is part of a program to engineer lectinolysin so that it will target and kill specific cells in human diseases.

  20. Loss of EEG Network Efficiency Is Related to Cognitive Impairment in Dementia With Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dellen, Edwin; de Waal, Hanneke; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Lemstra, Afina W; Slooter, Arjen J C; Smits, Lieke L; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether disturbed EEG resting-state functional connectivity and network organization are a potential neurophysiological substrate of cognitive impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies. EEG recordings were obtained in dementia with Lewy bodies patients, Alzheimer's disease patients and controls, matched for age and sex (N = 66 for each group; 14 [21%] female; mean age: 70 years). We analyzed functional connectivity of band-filtered EEG time series using the phase lag index. Functional brain network topology was analyzed with the minimum spanning tree. Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test A, and Visual Association Test were used as cognitive measures. Dementia with Lewy bodies patients showed lower connectivity strength in the alpha frequency band, compared to both controls and Alzheimer's disease patients (P dementia with Lewy bodies patients was less efficient and contained less hubs (P dementia with Lewy bodies patients, lower alpha band phase lag index correlated with Visual Association Test scores and Trail Making Test scores (ρ = 0.33 and ρ = 0.31, respectively), whereas leaf fraction (a measure of 'network efficiency') correlated with Visual Association Test scores (ρ = 0.29) and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (ρ = 0.27). Functional networks of dementia with Lewy bodies patients are characterized by decreased connectivity strength and a loss of network efficiency and hubs. Severity of these disturbances is related to cognitive impairment, suggesting that network disturbances mediate between neuropathology and the clinical syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Similarity of symptoms between transient epileptic amnesia and Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Watanabe, Masako; Kosaka, Kenji; Ozaki, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy with the main symptom of amnesia is known as transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. The concept that Lewy body disease includes Parkinson's disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies was proposed in the 2005 revision of the Clinical Diagnostic Criteria. Here, we describe a woman with cognitive impairment, olfactory dysfunction, and reduced 123 I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake on myocardial scintigraphy. The patient and her family and friends were unaware of parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, or epilepsy for a long period. After syncope occurred twice within a short interval, electroencephalography revealed sharp waves from the bilateral frontal to parietal lobes, indicating a diagnosis of TEA. The present case prompted us to compare the symptoms of TEA with the clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies, revealing their similarities. We also discuss whether Lewy body disease may cause TEA rather than having an incidental association with it. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  2. Chemoresistance Is Associated with MUC1 and Lewis y Antigen Expression in Ovarian Epithelial Cancers

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    Danye Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation and clinical significance between the expression of Mucin-1 (MUC1 and the Lewis y antigen with chemoresistance in ovarian epithelial cancers. Methods: Ovarian cancer patients (n = 92 treated at our hospital from May 2005 to July 2009 were divided, according to their treatment and follow-up outcomes, into a resistant group (n = 37 or sensitive group (n = 55. The expression of MUC1 and Lewis y antigen in ovarian cancer tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry and correlated with chemoresistance. Results: The positive rates of MUC1 and Lewis y antigen in the resistant group were both 91.89%, significantly higher than their positive rates in the sensitive group (65.45% and 69.09%, respectively, and both p < 0.05. MUC1 or Lewis y expression and the pathological stage of the tissue were independent risk factors for chemoresistance (all p < 0.05. Conclusion: The increased expression of MUC1 and the Lewis y antigen is a significant risk factor for chemoresistance in patients with ovarian epithelial cancer.

  3. Endothelin-converting enzymes degrade α-synuclein and are reduced in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, James Scott; Love, Seth

    2017-04-01

    We have examined the roles of the endothelin-converting enzyme-1 and -2 (ECE-1 and ECE-2) in the homeostasis of α-synuclein (α-syn) and pathogenesis of Lewy body disease. The ECEs are named for their ability to convert inactive big endothelin to the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (EDN1). We have found that ECE-1 and ECE-2 cleave and degrade α-syn in vitro and siRNA-mediated knockdown of ECE-1 and ECE-2 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly increased α-syn both intracellularly (within the cell lysate) (p Lewy body disease, we measured ECE-1 and ECE-2 levels by sandwich ELISA in post-mortem samples of cingulate cortex (a region with a predilection for Lewy body pathology) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and age-matched controls. ECE-1 (p Lewy body pathology as indicated by the level of α-syn phosphorylated at Ser129 (r = -0.54, p < 0.01 for ECE-1 and r = -0.49, p < 0.05 for ECE-2). Our novel findings suggest a role for ECEs in the metabolism of α-syn that could contribute to the development and progression of DLB. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Neural correlates of attention‐executive dysfunction in lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeleva, Xenia; Cherry, George; Killen, Alison; Gallagher, Peter; Burn, David J.; Thomas, Alan J.; O'Brien, John T.; Taylor, John‐Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Attentional and executive dysfunction contribute to cognitive impairment in both Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Using functional MRI, we examined the neural correlates of three components of attention (alerting, orienting, and executive/conflict function) in 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 32 patients with Lewy body dementia (19 with dementia with Lewy bodies and 13 with Parkinson's disease with dementia), and 23 healthy controls using a modified Attention Network Test. Although the functional MRI demonstrated a similar fronto‐parieto‐occipital network activation in all groups, Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia patients had greater activation of this network for incongruent and more difficult trials, which were also accompanied by slower reaction times. There was no recruitment of additional brain regions or, conversely, regional deficits in brain activation. The default mode network, however, displayed diverging activity patterns in the dementia groups. The Alzheimer's disease group had limited task related deactivations of the default mode network, whereas patients with Lewy body dementia showed heightened deactivation to all trials, which might be an attempt to allocate neural resources to impaired attentional networks. We posit that, despite a common endpoint of attention‐executive disturbances in both dementias, the pathophysiological basis of these is very different between these diseases. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1254–1270, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26705763

  5. Neural correlates of attention-executive dysfunction in lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firbank, Michael; Kobeleva, Xenia; Cherry, George; Killen, Alison; Gallagher, Peter; Burn, David J; Thomas, Alan J; O'Brien, John T; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-03-01

    Attentional and executive dysfunction contribute to cognitive impairment in both Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Using functional MRI, we examined the neural correlates of three components of attention (alerting, orienting, and executive/conflict function) in 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 32 patients with Lewy body dementia (19 with dementia with Lewy bodies and 13 with Parkinson's disease with dementia), and 23 healthy controls using a modified Attention Network Test. Although the functional MRI demonstrated a similar fronto-parieto-occipital network activation in all groups, Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia patients had greater activation of this network for incongruent and more difficult trials, which were also accompanied by slower reaction times. There was no recruitment of additional brain regions or, conversely, regional deficits in brain activation. The default mode network, however, displayed diverging activity patterns in the dementia groups. The Alzheimer's disease group had limited task related deactivations of the default mode network, whereas patients with Lewy body dementia showed heightened deactivation to all trials, which might be an attempt to allocate neural resources to impaired attentional networks. We posit that, despite a common endpoint of attention-executive disturbances in both dementias, the pathophysiological basis of these is very different between these diseases. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stochastic Modeling of Rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia Using Bartlett Lewis Rectangular Pulses Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Suliman Hanaish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of Bartlett Lewis rectangular pulse rainfall models, namely, the Original Bartlett Lewis (OBL, Modified Bartlett Lewis (MBL, and 2N-cell-type Bartlett Lewis model (BL2n, are considered. These models are fitted to the hourly rainfall data from 1970 to 2008 obtained from Petaling Jaya rain gauge station, located in Peninsular Malaysia. The generalized method of moments is used to estimate the model parameters. Under this method, minimization of two different objective functions which involve different weight functions, one weight is inversely proportional to the variance and another one is inversely proportional to the mean squared, is carried out using Nelder-Mead optimization technique. For the purpose of comparison of the performance of the three different models, the results found for the months of July and November are used for illustration. This performance is assessed based on the goodness of fit of the models. In addition, the sensitivity of the parameter estimates to the choice of the objective function is also investigated. It is found that BL2n slightly outperforms OBL. However, the best model is the Modified Bartlett Lewis MBL, particularly when the objective function considered involves weight which is inversely proportional to the variance.

  7. Neprilysin activity in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with dementia and amyloid-β42 levels in Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Stoycheva, Velichka; Schmid, Benjamin; Schulte, Claudia; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Brockmann, Kathrin; Melms, Arthur; Gasser, Thomas; Berg, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Lewy body disease, defined by the occurrence of α-synuclein aggregates as fibrils in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, is associated with increased probabilities for both co-occurrence of dementia, and co-occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, in particular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and lowered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels. Not surprisingly, in patients with Lewy body disease patients, there is a strong association between dementia and Aβ pathology. Neprilysin (NEP) is an Aβ-degrading protein found at presynaptic terminals and in body fluids. Reduced CSF NEP activity levels have been shown to occur in early AD, suggesting that altered CSF NEP activity levels may also be associated with dementia and lowered CSF Aβ42 levels in Lewy body disease. Hypothesizing a relation between CSF NEP activity and dementia in Lewy body disease, we determined CSF and serum NEP activity, and Aβ42 levels of 41 demented Lewy body disease patients, 38 non-demented Lewy body disease patients, and of 23 elderly controls. Demented Lewy body disease patients had lowered CSF NEP activity levels (0.3 pmol/min*ml, 0.2-81.5), compared to both non-demented Lewy body disease subjects (8.5 pmol/min*ml, 0.2-87.2; p=0.004) and controls (21.5 pmol/ml*min, 0.15-413.4; p=0.02). In addition, CSF NEP activity levels correlated positively with CSF Aβ42 levels (Rho=0.28, p=0.008) which was not explained by the presence or absence of ApoE4. Serum NEP activity levels were not significantly different between the groups. We conclude that, in Lewy body disease, CSF NEP activity levels are associated with dementia, probably via the Aβ pathway.

  8. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the behaviour of biradicaloid [P(μ-NTer)]2 towards Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-05-07

    The well-known diphosphadiazane-1,3-diyl [P(μ-NTer)]2 (Ter = 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-phenyl) was treated with Lewis bases such as N-heterocyclic carbenes and Lewis acids e.g. gold(i) chloride complexes. In the reaction with the Lewis base, fragmentation of the P2N2 framework was observed, yielding a salt of the type [(NHC)2P](+)[(TerN)2P](-) in a clean reaction. The reaction of [P(μ-NTer)]2 with gold(i) chloride afforded 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes. The dinuclear complex [(ClAu)2P(μ-NTer)2P] displays a bridging P atom between both gold centers, as has been observed for P based zwitterions.

  10. NASA Lewis Helps Develop Advanced Saw Blades for the Lumber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures and Material Divisions are centers of excellence in high-temperature alloys for aerospace applications such as advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Lewis' expertise in these fields was enlisted in the development of a new generation of circular sawblades for the lumber industry to use in cutting logs into boards. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Forest Products Laboratory and their supplier had succeeded in developing a thinner sawblade by using a nickel-based alloy, but they needed to reduce excessive warping due to residual stresses. They requested assistance from Lewis' experts, who successfully eliminated the residual stress problem and increased blade strength by over 12 percent. They achieved this by developing an innovative heat treatment based on their knowledge of nickel-based superalloys used in aeropropulsion applications.

  11. Glucocerebrosidase, a new player changing the old rules in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na-Young; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, He-Jin; Kim, Yoon Suk; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) cause Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disease with recessive inheritance. Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is a lysosomal lipid hydrolase that digests glycolipid substrates, such as glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. GBA1 mutations have been implicated in Lewy body diseases (LBDs), such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Parkinsonism occurs more frequently in certain types of GD, and GBA1 mutation carriers are more likely to have LBDs than non-carriers. Furthermore, GCase is often found in Lewy bodies, which are composed of α-synuclein fibrils as well as a variety of proteins and vesicles. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms of action of GBA1 mutations in LBDs with particular emphasis on α-synuclein aggregation by reviewing the current literature on the role of GCase in lysosomal functions and glycolipid metabolism.

  12. Robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Runsen; Xiang, Jie; Han, Dingpei; Zhang, Yajie; Li, Hecheng

    2017-11-01

    This video clip demonstrated a performance of robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis. The patient had an esophageal mass located approximately 33 cm away from incisor, and robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was applied for him. Importantly, a double-layer esophago-gastric anastomosis was made by robotic hand-sewn suture. Our early experience demonstrated that the robot-sewn intrathoracic anastomosis is feasible and safe with a lower complication rate and the absence of anastomotic leakage.

  13. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  14. Robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Runsen; Xiang, Jie; Han, Dingpei; Zhang, Yajie

    2017-01-01

    This video clip demonstrated a performance of robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic robot-sewn anastomosis. The patient had an esophageal mass located approximately 33 cm away from incisor, and robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy was applied for him. Importantly, a double-layer esophago-gastric anastomosis was made by robotic hand-sewn suture. Our early experience demonstrated that the robot-sewn intrathoracic anastomosis is feasible and safe with a lower complication rate and the absence of anastomotic leakage. PMID:29268555

  15. Polimorfismo dos genes ABO, Lewis e Secretor correlacionados com o câncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Gradella, Débora Barreto Teresa [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    A expressão de antígenos ABH e Lewis tem sido associada com o desenvolvimento e prognóstico do câncer, diferenciação tumoral e metástase. Considerando que o carcinoma ductal invasivo (CADI) de mama apresenta múltiplas alterações, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o polimorfismo dos genes ABO, Lewis e Secretor, bem como a fenotipagem ABO podem estar associados ao câncer de mama e com parâmetros anatomoclínicos do tumor. Foram avaliadas 76 mulheres portadoras de CADI e 78 mulheres doadoras...

  16. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about a young girl who has lost her hair due to illness. Chris Gray and Brent Wilson wrote the song. Gray had been a teacher at St. Jude helping kids there who were being treated for ... girls longed to have hair to braid again. The songwriters managed to get ...

  17. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011, in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str., with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [B. loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, B. gounellei (Marseul, 1887a, B. jubaris (Lewis, 1901, B. festiva (Lewis, 1891, B. foliosoma sp. n., B. sapphirina sp. n., B. furtiva sp. n., B. pernix sp. n., B. applanatis sp. n., B. disciformis sp. n., B. nebulosa sp. n., B. brunnea sp. n.], B. godmani group [B. godmani (Lewis, 1888, B. venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845, B. riehli (Marseul, 1862, comb. n., B. scintillans sp. n., B. isthmia sp. n., B. rossi sp. n., B. navarretei sp. n., B. maculata sp. n., B. deliberata sp. n., B. excelsa sp. n., B. violacea (Marseul, 1853, B. varicolor (Marseul, 1887b, B. dives (Marseul, 1862, B. eximia (Lewis, 1888, B. splendida sp. n., B. jacinta sp. n., B. prasina sp. n., B. opulenta sp. n., B. illustris (Lewis, 1900, B. choaspites (Lewis, 1901, B. lewisi Mazur, 1984], B. salobrus group [B. salobrus (Marseul, 1887b, B. turgifrons sp. n., B. crassa sp. n., B. anthracina sp. n., B. emarginata sp. n., B. obsoleta sp. n.], B. ruficauda group [B. ruficauda sp. n., B. repens sp. n.], B. angusta group [B

  18. Hallucinations and signs of parkinsonism help distinguish patients with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies from patients with Alzheimer's disease at presentation: a clinicopathological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ala, T A; K.H. Yang; Sung, J. H.; Frey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a retrospective clinicopathological study, the presentation features of patients with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies (Lewy body dementia) with those of patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: From a population of 426 cases from the dementia brain bank, 39 cases of Lewy body dementia and 61 cases of Alzheimer's disease with presentation details were identified. RESULTS: The Lewy body dementia group had significantly more frequent hallucinations (23% v 3%, P = ...

  19. Monoaminergic biomarkers of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.; Vermeiren, Y.; Aerts, T.; Dam, van D.; Gerritsen, M. J.; Spikman, J. M.; van Laar, T.; de Deyn, P. P.

    Objective: The objective of this study was the identification of biochemicalmarkers of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD)and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) by focusing on cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) and serum levels of various monoaminergic neurotransmittersacross different stages of

  20. α-Synuclein pathology in the cranial and spinal nerves in Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in neurons and glial cells is a histological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently, filamentous aggregations of phosphorylated α-synuclein have been reported in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells, but not in axons, in the peripheral nervous system in MSA, mainly in the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Here we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the cranial and spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia of patients with LBD. Lewy axons were found in the oculomotor, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves, but not in the hypoglossal nerve. The glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves were most frequently affected, with involvement in all of 20 subjects. In the spinal nerve roots, Lewy axons were found in all of the cases examined. Lewy axons in the anterior nerves were more frequent and numerous in the thoracic and sacral segments than in the cervical and lumbar segments. On the other hand, axonal lesions in the posterior spinal nerve roots appeared to increase along a cervical-to-sacral gradient. Although Schwann cell cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the spinal nerves, they were only minimal. In the dorsal root ganglia, axonal lesions were seldom evident. These findings indicate that α-synuclein pathology in the peripheral nerves is axonal-predominant in LBD, whereas it is restricted to glial cells in MSA. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Ernie J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400 degrees C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to

  2. Distribution and Load of Amyloid-β Pathology in Parkinson Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepp, Dagmar H; Vergoossen, Dana L E; Huisman, Evelien; Lemstra, Afina W; Berendse, Henk W; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; van de Berg, Wilma D J

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD), Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) differ clinically with regard to the presence and timing of dementia. In this postmortem study, we evaluated whether the burden and distribution pattern of amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology differs among these

  3. Multi-organ distribution of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein histopathology in subjects with Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Vedders, Linda; Lue, Lihfen; White Iii, Charles L; Akiyama, Haru; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Walker, Douglas G

    2010-06-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated alpha-synuclein was used to stain sets of sections of spinal cord and tissue from 41 different sites in the bodies of 92 subjects, including 23 normal elderly, 7 with incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), 17 with Parkinson's disease (PD), 9 with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 19 with Alzheimer's disease with Lewy bodies (ADLB) and 17 with Alzheimer's disease with no Lewy bodies (ADNLB). The relative densities and frequencies of occurrence of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein histopathology (PASH) were tabulated and correlated with diagnostic category. The greatest densities and frequencies of PASH occurred in the spinal cord, followed by the paraspinal sympathetic ganglia, the vagus nerve, the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine organs. The frequency of PASH within other organs and tissue types was much lower. Spinal cord and peripheral PASH was most common in subjects with PD and DLB, where it appears likely that it is universally widespread. Subjects with ILBD had lesser densities of PASH within all regions, but had frequent involvement of the spinal cord and paraspinal sympathetic ganglia, with less-frequent involvement of end-organs. Subjects with ADLB had infrequent involvement of the spinal cord and paraspinal sympathetic ganglia with rare involvement of end-organs. Within the gastrointestinal tract, there was a rostrocaudal gradient of decreasing PASH frequency and density, with the lower esophagus and submandibular gland having the greatest involvement and the colon and rectum the lowest.

  4. Lewis Nkosi: A Fragile Soul's Quest for Home | Gall | English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lewis Nkosi left South Africa in 1961 on a permanent exit visa on his way to study at Harvard as a Nieman Fellow. During his seventy-three years, he lived in England, America, Zambia, Poland, and Switzerland, and he transitioned from denying homesickness (because he had no home) to feeling it acutely (because he had ...

  5. The use of EEG in the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roks, G.; Korf, E.S.C.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Stam, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although reports on EEG in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are conflicting, the recent diagnostic guidelines define EEG abnormalities as being supportive for the diagnosis. We examined EEG abnormalities in 18 patients with DLB, 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 36 patients with

  6. Life on the Fringe: The Early Writings of Lewis Nkosi and Nat Nakasa1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One evening in the late 1950s, Lewis Nkosi and his friend Nat Nakasa were walking through downtown Johannesburg when, as both later recalled, they decided to stop into a whites-only restaurant called The Texan. They ordered their coffees at the bar, knowing that the American man behind the counter expected them to ...

  7. Effects of lighting conditions on sleep and wakefulness in albino Lewis and pigmented Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, R M; Gilliland, M A; Obermeyer, W H

    1998-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that albino but not pigmented rats show acute increases in REM sleep following light-to-dark transitions. Light and dark have also been shown to have direct effects on NREM sleep and wakefulness in albino rats. Little is known, however, about the direct light-dark effects on sleep patterns in pigmented animals. The purpose of the present study was to compare the direct effects of light and dark on REM sleep, NREM sleep, and waking in albino Lewis and pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats. Groups of albino Lewis and pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to various light-dark (LD) schedules. In the first experiment, the lighting schedules were LD 12:12 and LD 3:3. The second experiment compared LD 12:12 with an irregular schedule consisting of short light and dark periods of unequal length. Both Lewis and BN rats slept more during the light and were awake more during the dark on all schedules. REM sleep patterns in light and dark periods were opposite, however. Lewis rats spent more of their sleep in REM sleep during dark than the light, whereas BN rats had a higher proportion of REM sleep in the light. The results suggest that there are substantial direct effects of light and dark on sleep in pigmented as well as in albino rats, although these effects are not always the same in magnitude or even in direction.

  8. Lewis Acid-Base Properties of a Low Carbon Aluminium Killed Steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important factor in achieving maximum adhesion of a particular coating system to the substrate lies in the proper preparation of the substrate prior to the application of paint. The Lewis acid-base properties of the outer metal surface play a determinant role in many of these applications, and the chemical reactions involved ...

  9. Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon bond forming reactions in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, JBFN; Feringa, BL; Keller, E; Otto, S

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent progress that has been made in the field of Lewis-acid catalysis of carbon carbon-bond-forming reactions in aqueous solution. Since water hampers the hard hard interactions between the catalyst and the reactant, it often complicates catalysis. However, once

  10. Zeolite Beta: The Relationship Between Calcination Procedure, Aluminum Configuration and Lewis Acidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Kunkeler, P.J.; Zuurdeeg, B.J.; Waal, J.C. van der; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Bekkum, H. van

    1998-01-01

    Zeolite Beta was calcined under a variety of carefully controlled conditions to study the influence of (hydro)thermal treatments on the catalytic activity of zeolite Beta in the Lewis acid-catalyzed Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction of ketones. The activity of (H)Beta can be increased by several

  11. An Extended Lewis/Stalnaker Semantics and the New Problem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Extended Lewis/Stalnaker Semantics and the New Problem of Counterpossibles. Jeffrey Goodman. Abstract. Closest-possible-world analyses of counterfactuals suffer from what has been called the 'problem of counterpossibles': some counterfactuals with metaphysically impossible antecedents seem plainly false, but ...

  12. Enantioselective conjugate additions of α-amino radicals via cooperative photoredox and Lewis acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Espelt, Laura; McPherson, Iain S; Wiensch, Eric M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2015-02-25

    We report the highly enantioselective addition of photogenerated α-amino radicals to Michael acceptors. This method features a dual-catalyst protocol that combines transition metal photoredox catalysis with chiral Lewis acid catalysis. The combination of these two powerful modes of catalysis provides an effective, general strategy to generate and control the reactivity of photogenerated reactive intermediates.

  13. Learning without Education. An Interview with Lewis J. Perelman. Background Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, Douglas

    This interview with Lewis J. Perelman examines issues raised by his recent book, "School's Out" (1992), which describes the current educational system as an obsolete technology that is rapidly being replaced by the new metaprocess of hyperlearning. Hyperlearning will combine teaching and learning with artificial intelligence, broadband…

  14. Computers in aeronautics and space research at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This brochure presents a general discussion of the role of computers in aerospace research at NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Four particular areas of computer applications are addressed: computer modeling and simulation, computer assisted engineering, data acquisition and analysis, and computer controlled testing.

  15. Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the Lewis structure representation of various free radicals, which are quite similar to the ClO radical and its isoelectronic analogues. The analysis of the periodic trends of these radicals shows that oxygen is the most electronegative atom among them.

  16. Paradise Lost and Found: Obedience, Disobedience, and Storytelling in C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Considers how in the fantasy series "The Chronicles of Narnia" and "His Dark Materials," by C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman respectively, the authors use symbols and themes from "Paradise Lost." Notes that each author's narrative choice uses his view of cosmic order to persuade readers that obedience should be…

  17. Cation sensing by a luminescent metal-organic framework with multiple Lewis basic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qun; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Yiwei; Miao, Jun; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Li; Shi, Zhan; Zheng, Zhiping

    2013-03-18

    A series of novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks were synthesized using a ligand featuring three carboxylate groups stationed on a triazinyl central motif. The readily accessible multiple Lewis basic triazinyl N atoms allow for complexation of incoming metal ions. Such interactions have been established quantitatively.

  18. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  19. A Partial Test of Oscar Lewis's Culture of Poverty Theory in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David B.

    In an effort to test certain aspects of Oscar Lewis's "Culture of Poverty Theory" in the rural South, an investigation was made of the differences in participation patterns of the rural poor, those factors associated with participation patterns of the rural poor, and the relationship between the social participation patterns of one…

  20. Highlighting High Performance: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin Colleges Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

  1. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College's Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

  2. NASA Lewis Research Center low-gravity fluid management technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Carney, M. J.; Hochstein, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    A history of the Lewis Research Center in space fluid management technology program is presented. Current programs which include numerical modeling of fluid systems, heat exchanger/radiator concept studies, and the design of the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility are discussed. Recent analytical and experimental activities performed to support the Shuttle/Centaur development activity are highlighted.

  3. "Shutting up like a Telescope": Lewis Carroll's "Curious Condensation Method for Evaluating Determinants"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Adrian; Torrence, Eve

    2007-01-01

    Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) discovered a "curious" method for computing determinants. It is an iterative process that uses determinants of 2 x 2 submatrices of a matrix to obtain a smaller matrix. When the process ends, the result is the determinant of the original matrix. This article discusses both the algorithm and what may have led Dodgson…

  4. A. G. Vernon Harcourt: A Founder of Chemical Kinetics and a Friend of "Lewis Carroll."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, John

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the life of A. G. Vernon Harcourt, a founder of chemical kinetics, contributor to the purification of coal gas from sulfur compounds, inventor of the percentage chloroform inhaler, friend to Lewis Carroll, and instructor to the Prince of Wales. (CS)

  5. All in the Golden Afternoon: The Early Life of Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the early life of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) for its implications on early environments which nurture giftedness. The paper notes the close family ties, intellectual models provided by adults, the role of imaginary games, and identification of giftedness by educators. (DB)

  6. Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

  7. Lewis Acid Enabled Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral β-Substituted Amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Mamen; Yan, Xingchen; Collados, Juan F; White, Paul B; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R

    2017-01-01

    Here we report that readily available silyl- and boron-based Lewis acids in combination with chiral copper catalysts are able to overcome the reactivity issues of unactivated enamides, known as the least reactive carboxylic acid derivatives, toward alkylation with organomagnesium reagents. Allowing

  8. Synergy, compatibility, and innovation: merging Lewis acids with stereoselective enamine catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Andrea; Mengozzi, Luca; Wilson, Claire M; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    In recent years there has been an accelerated rate of development in the field of organocatalysis, with asymmetric organocatalysis now reaching full maturity. The invention of new organocatalytic reactions and the exploration of new concepts now appear in tandem with the application of organocatalytic techniques in the synthesis of natural products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). After a "golden rush" in organocatalysis, researchers are now starting to combine different methods, thereby taking advantage of the significant benefits of synergy. Metals are used in combination with organocatalytic processes, thus reaching complexity that is found in nature, where enzymes take advantage of the presence of certain metals to increase the arsenal of organic transformations available. In this Focus review, we illustrate the possibility of a "happy marriage" between Lewis acids and organocatalytic stereoselective processes. Questions have been raised about the combination of Lewis acids and organocatalysis owing to the presence of water and/or strong bases in these processes. Some Lewis acids have been shown to be compatible with organocatalysis and concepts relating to their use will be illustrated herein. To summarize the fruitful use of Lewis acids in stereoselective organocatalytic processes, we will draw attention to the advantages and selectivity achieved using this method.

  9. Loss of Dopamine Transporter Binding and Clinical Symptoms in Dementia With Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepel, Françoise J; Dalen, Ingvild; Grüner, Renate; Booij, Jan; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S; Buter, Tirza C; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of clinical symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. The aim of this study was to explore the association between loss of striatal dopamine transporter binding and symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. Thirty-five patients with dementia with Lewy bodies underwent single-photon emission computerized tomography brain imaging with N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ([(123) I]FP-CIT). Associations between striatal binding ratios and motor (UPDRS), psychiatric (Neuropsychiatric Inventory; [NPI]), and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and neuropsychological tests) symptoms were assessed by linear regression analysis. The explorative analysis showed that the motor UPDRS was negatively associated with putamen dopamine transporter binding, whereas no association with striatal dopamine transporter binding was found for total NPI, hallucinations, apathy, depression, anxiety, and MMSE scores. However, in post-hoc analysis, executive impairment was positively associated with dopamine transporter loss after adjustment of age and gender. Dopamine deficiency in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies was associated with severity of motor symptoms, but did not correlate significantly with ratings of neurobehavioral disturbances or overall cognition. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. A Multicenter Study of Glucocerebrosidase Mutations in Dementia With Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalls, Michael A.; Duran, Raquel; Lopez, Grisel; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; McKeith, Ian G.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Morris, Christopher M.; Theuns, Jessie; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Mann, David M. A.; Snowden, Julie; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Halliwell, Nicola; Davidson, Yvonne; Gibbons, Linda; Harris, Jenny; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Bras, Jose; Hardy, John; Clark, Lorraine; Marder, Karen; Honig, Lawrence S.; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter; Brockmann, Kathrin; Gasser, Thomas; Novellino, Fabiana; Quattrone, Aldo; Annesi, Grazia; De Marco, Elvira Valeria; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E.; Bilbao, Juan M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Ghetti, Bernardino; Nichols, William C.; Pankratz, Nathan; Halliday, Glenda; Lesage, Suzanne; Klebe, Stephan; Durr, Alexandra; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Giasson, Benoit I.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Hurtig, Howard I.; Tayebi, Nahid; Landazabal, Claudia; Knight, Melanie A.; Keller, Margaux; Singleton, Andrew B.; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Sidransky, Ellen

    Importance: While mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) are associated with an increased risk for Parkinson disease (PD), it is important to establish whether such mutations are also a common risk factor for other Lewy body disorders. Objective: To establish whether GBA1 mutations are a risk factor

  11. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  12. The Brainstem Pathologies of Parkinson's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Kay; Mahlke, Josefine; Siswanto, Sonny; Krueger, Reijko; Heinsen, Helmut; Auburger, Georg; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Wicht, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rueb, Udo

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are among the human synucleinopathies, which show alpha-synuclein immunoreactive neuronal and/or glial aggregations and progressive neuronal loss in selected brain regions (eg, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, pedunculopontine

  13. The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Martin, Jean-Jacques; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Depression and psychosis are two of the most severe neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both NPS have negative effects on cognitive performance and life expectancy. The current study aimed to investigate and compare

  14. Macrophages in the retina of normal Lewis rats and their dynamics after injection of lipopolysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.; de Vos, A. F.; Kijlstra, A.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the density, distribution, and morphology of macrophages (bone marrow-derived microglia) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive cells in the retina of Lewis rats and the dynamics of these cells after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection.

  15. Striatal Dopamine Transporter Binding Does Not Correlate with Clinical Severity in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Andersen, Birgitte B; Pinborg, Lars H

    2013-01-01

    Patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) show both clinical and histopathologic overlap with Alzheimer disease patients and Parkinson disease patients. In this study, we correlated the core features of DLB (dementia, parkinsonism, hallucinations, and fluctuations) with striatal dopamine......, symptoms are not associated with a reduction in striatal DAT despite its firm involvement in DLB pathology....

  16. Daniel Day-Lewis lihvis Oscari-rolli neli aastat / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Paul Thomas Andersoni Upton Sinclairi "Õli" järgi lavastatud "Veri hakkab voolama" ("There Will Be Blood"), peaosas Daniel Day-Lewis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Näitleja võitis oma rolliga parima meespeaosatäitja Oscari. Tema tööst rolli(de)ga

  17. Enhancing Cation Diffusion and Suppressing Anion Diffusion via Lewis-Acidic Polymer Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Savoie, Brett M; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to increase both the energy density and stability of lithium-based batteries, but low Li-ion conductivity remains a barrier to technological viability. SPEs are designed to maximize Li-ion diffusivity relative to the anion, while maintaining sufficient salt solubility. It is thus remarkable that polyethylene oxide (PEO), the most widely used SPE, exhibits Li-ion diffusivity that is an order of magnitude smaller than that of typical counter-ions, such as TFSI, at moderate salt concentrations. Here, we show that Lewis-basic polymers like PEO intrinsically favor slow cation and rapid anion diffusion while this relationship can be reversed in Lewis-acidic polymers. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Lewis-acidic polyboranes are identified that achieve up to a ten-fold increase in Li-ion diffusivity and a significant decrease in anion diffusivity, relative to PEO. The results for this new class of Lewis-acidic SPEs illustrate a general principle for incre...

  18. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. LEWIS-ACID CATALYSIS OF A DIELS-ALDER REACTION IN WATER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, S.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1995-01-01

    The reaction between the diene 1 and cyclopentadiene (2) is efficiently catalysed by small amounts of Lewis acids (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ Zn2+). The reaction in an aqueous solution containing 0.010 M Cu(NO3)(2) is 250.000 times faster than that in acetonitrile. This huge acceleration is the result of a

  20. 2-Substituted-1,3,2-dithioborolans as Chiral Lewis Acid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Glynn

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,2-Dithioborolans substituted at the 2-position with various homochiral groups can act as chiral Lewis acids in the Diels-Alder reaction between crotonaldehyde or methacrolein with cyclopentadiene. The endo:exo selectivities obtained were good although the enantiomeric excesses were low to moderate.

  1. Providing Total Quality Fundamentals: 1995 Workshops for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Technical Services Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, Paul; Jacinto,Gilda; Simek, Jimmy

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) agency-wide movement to cultivate a quality workplace is the basis for Lewis Research Center to implement Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) initiatives. The Lewis Technical Services Directorate (TSD) introduced the Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) workshops to its work force as an opportunity to introduce the concepts and principles of TQF. These workshops also provided the participants with the opportunity to dialogue with fellow TSD employees and managers. This report describes, through the perspective of the Lewis TSD TQF Coaches, how the TQF work- shop process was accomplished in TSD. It describes the structure for addressing the need, implementation process, input the TSD Coaches provided, common themes and concerns raised, conclusions, and recommendations. The Coaches concluded that these types of workshops could be the key to open the communication channels that are necessary to help everyone at Lewis understand where they fit in the organization. TQF workshops can strengthen the participant's connection with the Mission, Vision of the Center, and Vision of the Agency. Reconunendations are given based on these conclusions that can help the TSD Quality Board develop attainable measures towards a quality workplace.

  2. Validation of the Lewis score for the evaluation of small-bowel Crohn's disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, José; Dias de Castro, Francisca; Magalhães, Joana; Moreira, Maria João; Rosa, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The Lewis score was developed to measure mucosal inflammatory activity as detected by small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). The aim of the current study was to validate the Lewis score by assessing interobserver correlation and level of agreement in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective, single-center, double-blind study including patients with isolated small-bowel Crohn's disease who underwent SBCE. The Lewis score was calculated using a software application, based on the characteristics of villous edema, ulcers, and stenoses. The Lewis score was independently calculated by one of three investigators and by a central reader (gold standard). Interobserver agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficient and Bland - Altman plots. A total of 70 patients were consecutively included (mean age 33.9 ± 11.7 years). The mean Lewis score was 1265 and 1320 for investigators and the central reader, respectively. There was a high correlation, both for scores obtained for each tertile (first tertile r = 0.659 - 0.950, second tertile r = 0.756 - 0.906, third tertile r = 0.750 - 0.939), and for the global score (r = 0.745 - 0.928) (P reader (first tertile ICC = 0.788 - 0.971, second tertile ICC = 0.824 - 0.943, third tertile ICC = 0.857 - 0.968, global score ICC = 0.852 - 0.960; P < 0.0001). The inflammatory activity was classified as normal (score < 135) in 2.9 % vs. 2.9 %, mild (score ≥ 135 - < 790) in 51.4 % vs. 55.7 %, and moderate to severe (score ≥ 790) in 45.8 % vs. 41.4 % of patients, respectively (P < 0.001). A strong interobserver agreement was demonstrated for the determination of the Lewis score in a practical clinical setting, validating this score for the reporting of small-bowel inflammatory activity. The Lewis score might be used for diagnosing, staging, follow-up, and therapeutic assessment of patients with isolated

  3. Hippocampal α-Synuclein in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Contributes to Memory Impairment and Is Consistent with Spread of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, David H; Roy, Subhojit; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas R; Hansen, Lawrence A; Masliah, Eliezer; Gage, Fred H

    2017-02-15

    Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC). While the EC had numerous classic somatic Lewy bodies, CA2 contained mainly Lewy neurites in presumed axon terminals, suggesting the involvement of the EC → CA2 circuitry in the pathogenesis of DLB symptoms. Clinicopathological correlations with measures of verbal and visual memory supported a role for EC Lewy pathology, but not CA2, in causing these memory deficits. Lewy pathology in CA1-the main output region for CA2-correlated best with results from memory testing despite a milder pathology. This result indicates that CA1 may be more functionally relevant than CA2 in the context of memory impairment in DLB. These correlations remained significant after controlling for several factors, including concurrent Alzheimer's pathology (neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) and the interval between time of testing and time of death. Our data suggest that although hippocampal Lewy pathology in DLB is predominant in CA2 and EC, memory performance correlates most strongly with CA1 burden.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study provides a detailed neuropathologic analysis of hippocampal Lewy pathology in human patients with autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies. The approach-informed by regional molecular markers, concurrent Alzheimer's pathology analysis, and relevant clinical data-helps tease out the relative contribution of Lewy pathology to memory dysfunction in the

  4. [Effects of simvastatin on the proliferation, invasion and radiosensitivity in Lewis lung cancer cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S F; Cheng, J; Geng, S; Gao, S

    2017-04-23

    Objective: To investigate the effects of simvastatin on proliferation, invasion and radiosensitivity of mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line in vitro. Methods: The inhibitory effects of simvastatin on proliferation of Lewis lung cancer cells were detected by MTT assay. Matrigel invasion and migration assay was used to determine the invasion and motility ability of the Lewis cells. P38 activity was measured by p38 activity detection kit, and the expressions of p-p38, MKP-1, RhoA and MMP-2 were analyzed by Western blot. Lung cancer xenograft model was established in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were randomly divided into control group, simvastatin group, radiotherapy alone group and combined treatment group. The mice were killed 27 days after inoculation. The tumor mass, volume and lung metastatic nodules in the mice were compared. Results: The cell proliferation rates of 0 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L, 20 μmol/L and 30 μmol/L simvastatin groups were 100%, (87.0±9.0)%, (76.5±8.1)% and (67.0±7.3)%, respectively (Psimvastatin, radiotherapy group and combined treatment groups were 6.24±1.09, 3.07±0.71 g, 5.09±1.16, 2.43±0.53 g, 3.12±0.68, 1.96±0.62 g and 2.65±0.38, 1.12±0.43 g, respectively (all Psimvastatin groups (all PSimvastatin inhibits the proliferation of Lewis cell line by inhibiting the activity of p38 and expression of p-p38. Meanwhile, simvastatin reduces the invasion and motility of Lewis cell line through down-regulating the expression of RhoA and MMP-2. When combined with radiotherapy, simvastatin can inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, and improve the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy synergistically.

  5. Distribution of cerebral amyloid deposition and its relevance to clinical phenotype in Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iseki, Eizo; Higashi, Shinji; Kasanuki, Koji; Murayama, Norio; Togo, Takashi; Katsuse, Omi; Uchikado, Hirotake; Aoki, Naoya; Kosaka, Kenji; Arai, Heii; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2010-12-03

    Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are clinically distinguished based only on the duration of parkinsonism prior to dementia. It is known that there is considerable pathological overlap between these two conditions, but the pathological difference between them remains unknown. We evaluated Alzheimer-type pathology in 30 brains of patients with Lewy body dementia using standardized methods based on those of the Brain-Net Europe (BNE) Consortium. Only 2 of 13 PDD cases (15%) showed Aβ-immunoreactive pathology in the midbrain (amyloid phase IV). In contrast, 12 of 17 DLB cases (71%) exhibited midbrain involvement. Four of the DLB cases (24%) but none of the PDD cases exhibited Aβ-immunoreactive pathology in the cerebellum (amyloid phase V). The ratio of cases with subtentorial involvement of amyloid deposition was significantly higher in DLB than in PDD. The median of amyloid phases was significantly greater in DLB than in PDD, but there was no difference in neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) Braak stages or in Lewy body scores. When patients were classified according to whether dementia or parkinsonism had occurred first, the rate of dementia having occurred first was significantly greater in amyloid phase IV and V than in phase 0-I, with phase III in the middle, though there was no significant difference in median NFT Braak stage or mean Lewy body score associated with amyloid phase. These results suggest that amyloid deposition may contribute to the timing of the onset of dementia relative to that of parkinsonism in Lewy body dementia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymorphisms of Lewis and Secretor genes are related to breast cancer and metastasis in axillary lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa, Debora Barreto; Santos, Raquel Alves; Takahashi, Catarina Satie; Carrara, Helio H; Moreira, Haroldo W; Mattos, Luis Carlos; Lia-Neto, Nicolino; Cunha, Leonardo A; Bassi, Carmem Lucia; Soares, Edson Garcia; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Mello, Elaine Rodrigues; Soares, Christiane Pienna

    2010-10-01

    ABH and Lewis antigen expression has been associated with cancer development and prognosis, tumor differentiation, and metastasis. Considering that invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) presents multiple molecular alterations, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the polymorphism of ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes, as well as ABO phenotyping, could be associated with tumor differentiation and lymph nodes metastasis. Seventy-six women with IDC and 78 healthy female blood donors were submitted to ABO phenotyping/genotyping and Lewis and Secretor genotyping. Phenotyping was performed by hemagglutination and genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes were classified by individual single nucleotide polymorphism at sites 59, 1067, 202, and 314 of the Lewis gene, 428 of the Secretor gene, and 261 (O1 allele), 526 (O2 and B allele), and 703 (B allele). No association was found between breast cancer and ABO antigen expression (P = 0.9323) or genotype (P = 0.9356). Lewis-negative genotype was associated with IDC (P = 0.0126) but not with anatomoclinical parameters. Nonsecretor genotype was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0149). In conclusion, Lewis and Secretor genotyping could be useful to predict respectively breast cancer susceptibility and axillary lymph nodes metastasis.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin modulates mucin glycosylation with sialyl-Lewis(x) to increase binding to airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayme L; Jia, Jing; Choi, Woosuk; Choe, Shawn; Miao, Jinfeng; Xu, Ying; Powell, Rebecca; Lin, Jingjun; Kuang, Zhizhou; Gaskins, H Rex; Lau, Gee W

    2016-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients battle life-long pulmonary infections with the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). An overabundance of mucus in CF airways provides a favorable niche for PA growth. When compared with that of non-CF individuals, mucus of CF airways is enriched in sialyl-Lewis(x), a preferred binding receptor for PA. Notably, the levels of sialyl-Lewis(x) directly correlate with infection severity in CF patients. However, the mechanism by which PA causes increased sialylation remains uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the ability of PA virulence factors to modulate sialyl-Lewis(x) modification in airway mucins. We found pyocyanin (PCN) to be a potent inducer of sialyl-Lewis(x) in both mouse airways and in primary and immortalized CF and non-CF human airway epithelial cells. PCN increased the expression of C2/4GnT and ST3Gal-IV, two of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the stepwise biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis(x), through a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, PA bound more efficiently to airway epithelial cells pre-exposed to PCN in a flagellar cap-dependent manner. Importantly, antibodies against sialyl-Lewis(x) and anti-TNF-α attenuated PA binding. These results indicate that PA secretes PCN to induce a favorable environment for chronic colonization of CF lungs by increasing the glycosylation of airway mucins with sialyl-Lewis(x).

  8. Nightmares without atonia as an early symptom of diffuse Lewy bodies disease Pesadelos sem atonia como primeiro sintoma da doença difusa a corpos de Lewy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A male 70 years old patient with diffuse or ''pure'' Lewy body disease is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical features of nightmares with no atonia, attention deficits with fluctuation in cognitive function, incapacity to find his way around the neighbourhood and other formerly familiar environments and mild neuropsychiatric symptoms. Neuropsychological assessment showed memory deficits, visuospatial and visuo-constructive disturbances. He had neither parkinsonism nor recurrent visual hallucinations typically well formed and detailled. Neuroimaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed mild diffuse cortical atrophy, mostly on the left temporal lobe and a decrease of N-acetil-aspartate levels. A cholinesterase inhibitor was prescribed to this patient during 6 months with clinically relevant behavioral effect. Diagnosis confirmation was made by post-mortem neuropathological findings. Macroscopical features were mild atrophy on the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, notedly on the frontal lobes. Microscopically, there was neuronal loss and diffuse classic Lewy bodies. Brainstem (substantia nigra, raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, limbic cortex, and neocortex (frontal, parietal and temporal were the areas of predilection for Lewy bodies. Hematoxylin-eosin and Bielschowsky staining did not show neuronal swelling (balooned cell, argyrophilic inclusion (Pick's bodies, neurofibrillary tangles nor senile plaques. Immunohistochemical staining for anti-tau, anti-beta-amyloid, and anti-prion protein were negative. Antiubiquitine reaction was positive for Lewy body in the cerebral cortex and brainstem.É descrito o caso de homem de 70 anos de idade com história progressiva, iniciada há 6 anos com pesadelos, problemas com a atenção e memória recente, dificuldade de encontrar lugares familiares e episódios de alucinação visual pouco elaborados. Na primeira avaliação neuropsicol

  9. Building new discrete supramolecular assemblies through the interaction of iso-tellurazole N-oxides with Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Peter C; Jenkins, Hilary A; Britten, James F; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio

    2017-10-13

    The supramolecular macrocycles spontaneously assembled by iso-tellurazole N-oxides are stable towards Lewis bases as strong as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) but readily react with Lewis acids such as BR 3 (R = Ph, F). The electron acceptor ability of the tellurium atom is greatly enhanced in the resulting O-bonded adducts, which consequently enables binding to a variety of Lewis bases that includes acetonitrile, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4,4'-bipyridine, triphenyl phosphine, a N-heterocyclic carbene and a second molecule of iso-tellurazole N-oxide.

  10. An order in Lewy body disorders: Retrograde degeneration in hyperbranching axons as a fundamental structural template accounting for focal/multifocal Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihara, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs). Although dramatic efficacy of levodopa boosted an enthusiasm for this nigra-centralism, extranigral lesions were identified, especially after identification of alpha-synuclein (αS) as a major constituent of LBs. Frequent αS lesions in the lower brainstem with their presumed upward spread were coupled with the self-propagating property of αS molecule, as a molecular template, to constitute the prion-Braak hypothesis. This hybrid concept might expectedly explain clinical, structural and biochemical features of PD/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as if they were stereotypic. In spite of this ordered explanation, recent studies have demonstrated unexpectedly that αS lesions in the human brain, as well as their corresponding clinical manifestations, are much more disordered. Even with such a chaos of LB disorders, affected neuronal groups are uniformly characterized by hyperbranching axons, which may facilitate distal-dominant degeneration and retrograde progression of LB-related degeneration along axons as a fundamental structural order to template LB disorders. This "structural template" hypothesis may explain why: (i) some selective groups are prone to develop Lewy pathology; (ii) their clinical manifestations (especially non-motor components) are vague and generalized without somatotopic accentuation; (iii) distal axons and terminals are preferentially affected

  11. In Situ Redox Manipulation of Subsurface Sediments from Fort Lewis, Washington: Iron Reduction and TCE Dechlorination Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Evans, John C.

    2000-03-17

    The feasibility of chemically treating sediments from the Ft. Lewis, Washington, Logistics Center to develop a permeable barrier for dechlorination of TCE was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments.

  12. Effectiveness of low-dose pregabalin in three patients with Lewy body disease and central neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Ozaki, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Many patients with Lewy body disease complain of pain, and their pain may be associated with this disease. Recently, pain has become a focus of attention in Parkinson's disease, but there is little information regarding pain in patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. We used pregabalin to treat three Lewy body disease patients with chronic pain that may have been related to degeneration of central neurons. All three patients responded well to pregabalin at 25-50 mg/day. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of pregabalin showing efficacy for central neuropathic pain in Parkinson's disease or Lewy body disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  14. All-electric economy is coming. [Interview with Floyd W. Lewis, new chairman of EEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    Mr. Lewis states that some utility executives consider the all-electric economy as approaching so rapidly as to be ''uncomfortable.'' He says the all-electric economy is not obvious to everyone because investor-owned electric utilities are struggling with and gaining strength from the most complicated business climate the industry has ever experienced. Mr. Lewis answered many queries dealing with subjects such as public acceptance of nuclear energy, the difficulties of the political and financial climates in the industry, rate increases and metering methods, conversion from oil to coal, reliability, research, siting and right of eminent domain for coal slurry pipelines, HVDC power transmission, and employment. ''The regulatory climate has improved considerably,'' he says. (MCW)

  15. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runpu Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  16. NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel Works With Small Local Company to Test Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic Coatings, Inc., wanted to test coating products that would enable the company to approach new markets. A Space Act Agreement with NASA Lewis Research Center afforded them this opportunity. They used Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel to test coating products for reduced ice adhesion, industrial and aerospace lubrication applications, a tiremold release coating now used in the production of tires for the Boeing 777, and a product that solidifies asbestos fibers (which is being tested as an insulator in a power plant in Iowa). Not only was the testing a success, but during these activities, Dynamic Coatings met another coating company with whom they now have a joint venture offering a barnacle-repellent coating for marine applications, now on the market in Florida.

  17. A Lewis Base Catalysis Approach for the Photoredox Activation of Boronic Acids and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fabio; Sharma, Upendra K; Grunenberg, Lars; Saha, Debasmita; Johannsen, Sandra; Sedelmeier, Joerg; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Ley, Steven V

    2017-11-20

    We report herein the use of a dual catalytic system comprising a Lewis base catalyst such as quinuclidin-3-ol or 4-dimethylaminopyridine and a photoredox catalyst to generate carbon radicals from either boronic acids or esters. This system enabled a wide range of alkyl boronic esters and aryl or alkyl boronic acids to react with electron-deficient olefins via radical addition to efficiently form C-C coupled products in a redox-neutral fashion. The Lewis base catalyst was shown to form a redox-active complex with either the boronic esters or the trimeric form of the boronic acids (boroxines) in solution. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Metalloenzyme-like catalyzed isomerizations of sugars by Lewis acid zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Deval, Ricardo; Assary, Rajeev S.; Nikolla, Eranda; Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Hwang, Son-Jong; Palsdottir, Arna; Silverman, Dorothy; Lobo, Raul F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Davis, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Isomerization of sugars is used in a variety of industrially relevant processes and in glycolysis. Here, we show that hydrophobic zeolite beta with framework tin or titanium Lewis acid centers isomerizes sugars, e.g., glucose, via reaction pathways that are analogous to those of metalloenzymes. Specifically, experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that glucose partitions into the zeolite in the pyranose form, ring opens to the acyclic form in the presence of the Lewis acid center, isomerizes into the acyclic form of fructose, and finally ring closes to yield the furanose product. The zeolite catalysts provide processing advantages over metalloenzymes such as an ability to work at higher temperatures and in acidic conditions that allow for the isomerization reaction to be coupled with other important conversions. PMID:22665778

  19. Elk Monitoring Protocol for Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Boetsch, John R.; Cole, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources. Elk were critical to sustaining the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition by providing food and clothing over the winter of 1805-1806. Today, elk viewing opportunities in the park and surrounding region generate broad appeal with the visiting public, which number over 250,000 per year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. This protocol describes procedures for monitoring trends in the use of the Fort Clatsop area by Roosevelt elk. Specific objectives of elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP are to measure the relative use and proportion of area used by elk during winter in the Fort Clatsop Unit of the park, and the rate at which elk are sighted from roads in and around the park. Relative use and the proportion of area used by elk are determined from elk fecal pellet surveys conducted every other year in the Fort Clatsop park unit. Pairs of observers visit a systematic array of permanent plots in the fall to clear them of elk fecal pellets, and return to the plots in late winter to count elk fecal pellets that have accumulated during winter. Half of the subplots are counted by two independent observers, which allows for the estimation of relative use and proportion of area occupied by elk with analyses of detection biases that account for unseen elk pellet groups. Standardized road surveys are conducted in and near the Fort Clatsop park unit three or four times monthly during alternate months. Data from road surveys are used to quantify the rate that park visitors would be expected to see elk, when driving the selected set of routes. The monitoring protocol is based on three field seasons of development and testing. The protocol narrative describes the background, rationale, sampling design, field methods, analytical methods, data management, reporting

  20. Synaptic proteins predict cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczki, Erika; Francis, Paul T; Howlett, David; Pereira, Joana B; Höglund, Kina; Bogstedt, Anna; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Baek, Jean-Ha; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Attems, Johannes; Ballard, Clive; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to compare the levels of three synaptic proteins involved in different steps of the synaptic transmission: Rab3A, SNAP25, and neurogranin, in three common forms of dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Parkinson's disease dementia. A total of 129 postmortem human brain samples were analyzed in brain regional specific manner exploring their associations with morphologic changes and cognitive decline. We have observed robust changes reflecting synaptic dysfunction in all studied dementia groups. There were significant associations between the rate of cognitive decline and decreased levels of Rab3 in DLB in the inferior parietal lobe and SNAP25 in AD in the prefrontal cortex. Of particular note, synaptic proteins significantly discriminated between dementia cases and controls with over 90% sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the proposition that synaptic markers can predict cognitive decline in AD, should be extended to Lewy body diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Lewis Acid Zeolites for Biomass Conversion: Perspectives and Challenges on Reactivity, Synthesis, and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Helen Y; Lewis, Jennifer D; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-07

    Zeolites containing Sn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, or Ta heteroatoms are versatile catalysts for the activation and conversion of oxygenated molecules owing to the unique Lewis acid character of their tetrahedral metal sites. Through fluoride-mediated synthesis, hydrophobic Lewis acid zeolites can behave as water-tolerant catalysts, which has resulted in a recent surge of experimental and computational studies in the field of biomass conversion. However, many open questions still surround these materials, especially relating to the nature of their active sites. This lack of fundamental understanding is exemplified by the many dissonant results that have been described in recent literature reports. In this review, we use a molecular-based approach to provide insight into the relationship between the structure of the metal center and its reactivity toward different substrates, with the ultimate goal of providing a robust framework to understand the properties that have the strongest influence on catalytic performance for the conversion of oxygenates.

  2. Recognition by familiarity is preserved in Parkinson's without dementia and Lewy-Body disease

    OpenAIRE

    Algarabel González, Salvador; Rodríguez, Lucía-Azahara; Escudero, Joaquín; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Pitarque, Alfonso; Cómbita, Lina-Marcela; Mazón Herrero, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The retrieval deficit hypothesis states that the lack of deficit in recognition often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease is because of the low retrieval requirements of the task, given that these patients have retrieval and not encoding deficits. To test this hypothesis we investigated recognition memory by familiarity in Parkinson’s patients and in patients with Lewy Bodies disease and Parkinson with dementia. Method: We analyzed to what extent the experimental groups w...

  3. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  4. Lewis acidic zn(ii) schiff base complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anselmo, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis shows studies towards new applications of Schiff base complexes in homogeneous catalysis . Specifically, we investigated “salen” ligands (including N2S2 chelating systems) and also examined other aspects that are generally considered important in the context of increasing the sustainability of chemical processes. Studies on the use of these Lewis acidic compounds in the catalysis of the fixation of carbon dioxide, multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of...

  5. Noninteracting, vicinal frustrated P/B-Lewis pair at the norbornane framework: synthesis, characterization, and reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Kehr, Gerald; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Schwickert, Christian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Warren, Timothy H; Fröhlich, Roland; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Erker, Gerhard

    2013-06-19

    Hydroboration of dimesitylnorbornenylphosphane with Piers' borane [HB(C6F5)2] gave the frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) 4 in good yield. It has the -PMes2 Lewis base attached at the 2-endo position and the -B(C6F5)2 group 3-exo oriented at the norbornane framework. The vicinal FLP 4 was shown by X-ray diffraction and by spectroscopy to be a rare example of an intramolecular noninteracting pair of a Lewis acid and Lewis base functionality. The FLP 4 rapidly splits dihydrogen heterolytically at ambient temperature to yield the phosphonium/hydrido borate zwitterion 5. It adds to the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde and to carbon dioxide to yield the adducts 6 and 7, respectively. Compounds 5-7 were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound 4 adds to the S═O function of sulfur dioxide to give a pair of diastereomeric heterocyclic six-membered ring products due to the newly formed sulfur chirality center, annulated with the norbornane skeleton, which were investigated by (31)P/(11)B single and double resonance solid state NMR experiments. Compound 8 was also characterized by X-ray diffraction. The FLP 4 undergoes a clean N,N-addition to nitric oxide (NO) to give a norbornane annulated five-membered heterocyclic persistent FLP-NO aminoxyl radical 12 (characterized, e.g., by X-ray diffraction and EPR spectroscopy). Additionally, the FLP radical was characterized by (1)H solid state NMR spectroscopy. The radical 12 undergoes a H-atom abstraction reaction with 1,4-cyclohexadiene to yield the respective diamagnetic FLP-NOH product 13, which was also characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  6. DFT study of the Lewis acid mediated synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Hannes; Svatunek, Dennis; Skrinjar, Philipp; Horkel, Ernst; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids by C-acylation of pyrrolidine-2,4-diones was studied by density functional theory (DFT). DFT was applied to the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TeA), an important representative of these bioactive natural compounds. Lewis acid mediated C-acylation in combination with previous pH-neutral domino N-acylation-Wittig cyclization can be used for the efficient preparation of 3-acyltetramic acids. Nevertheless, quite harsh conditions are still required to carry out this synthetic step, leading to unwanted isomerization of stereogenic centers in some cases. In the presented study, the reaction pathway for the C-acetylation of (5S,6S-5-s-butylpyrrolidine-2,4-dione was studied in terms of mechanism, solvent effects, and Lewis acid activation, in order to obtain an appropriate theoretical model for further investigations. Crucial steps were identified that showed rather high activation barriers and rationalized previously reported experimental discoveries. After in silico optimization, aluminum chlorides were found to be promising Lewis acids that promote the C-acylation of pyrrolidine-2,4-diones, whereas calculations performed in various organic solvents showed that the solvent had only a minor effect on the energy profiles of the considered mechanisms. This clearly indicates that further synthetic studies should focus on the Lewis-acidic mediator rather than other reaction parameters. Additionally, given the results obtained for different reaction routes, the stereochemistry of this C-acylation is discussed. It is assumed that the formation of Z-configured TeA is favored, in good agreement with our previous studies.

  7. New Lewis Structures through the application of the Hypertorus Electron Model

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Yepez

    2010-01-01

    The hypertorus electron model is applied to the chemical bond. As a consequence, the bond topology can be determined. A linear correlation is found between the normalized bond area and the bond energy. The normalization number is a whole number. This number is interpreted as the Lewis's electron pair. A new electron distribution in the molecule follows. This discovery prompts to review the chemical bond, as it is understood in chemistry and physics.

  8. Divergent functional connectivity during attentional processing in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kobeleva, X; Firbank, M; L. Peraza; Gallagher, P.; Thomas, A; Burn, DJ; O'Brien, John Tiernan; Taylor, J-P

    2017-01-01

    Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT),...

  9. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K; Sardesai, N Y; Quattrocchi, C

    2008-01-01

    VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis. Here, we have studied ...... the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans....

  10. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  11. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of transthyretin in Lewy body disorders with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Tian, Youyong; Baur, Stephanie Maria; Gauger, Tina; Odoj, Bartholomäus; Schmid, Benjamin; Schulte, Claudia; Deuschle, Christian; Heck, Susanna; Apel, Anja; Melms, Arthur; Gasser, Thomas; Berg, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) without (non-demented, PDND) and with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are subsumed under the umbrella term Lewy body disorders (LBD). The main component of the underlying pathologic substrate, i.e. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, is misfolded alpha-synuclein (Asyn), and--in particular in demented LBD patients--co-occurring misfolded amyloid-beta (Abeta). Lowered blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of transthyretin (TTR)--a clearance protein mainly produced in the liver and, autonomously, in the choroid plexus--are associated with Abeta accumulation in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a recent study suggests that TTR is involved in Asyn clearance. We measured TTR protein levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 131 LBD patients (77 PDND, 26 PDD, and 28 DLB) and 72 controls, and compared TTR levels with demographic and clinical data as well as neurodegenerative markers in the CSF. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TTR gene which are considered to influence the ability of the protein to carry its ligands were also analyzed. CSF TTR levels were significantly higher in LBD patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by PDND patients. In addition, CSF TTR levels correlated negatively with CSF Abeta(1-42), total tau and phospho-tau levels. Serum TTR levels did not significantly differ among the studied groups. There were no relevant associations between TTR levels and genetic, demographic and clinical data, respectively. These results suggest an involvement of the clearance protein TTR in LBD pathophysiology, and should motivate to elucidate TTR-related mechanisms in LBD in more detail.

  12. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of transthyretin in Lewy body disorders with and without dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Maetzler

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD without (non-demented, PDND and with dementia (PDD, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB are subsumed under the umbrella term Lewy body disorders (LBD. The main component of the underlying pathologic substrate, i.e. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, is misfolded alpha-synuclein (Asyn, and--in particular in demented LBD patients--co-occurring misfolded amyloid-beta (Abeta. Lowered blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of transthyretin (TTR--a clearance protein mainly produced in the liver and, autonomously, in the choroid plexus--are associated with Abeta accumulation in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a recent study suggests that TTR is involved in Asyn clearance. We measured TTR protein levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 131 LBD patients (77 PDND, 26 PDD, and 28 DLB and 72 controls, and compared TTR levels with demographic and clinical data as well as neurodegenerative markers in the CSF. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TTR gene which are considered to influence the ability of the protein to carry its ligands were also analyzed. CSF TTR levels were significantly higher in LBD patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by PDND patients. In addition, CSF TTR levels correlated negatively with CSF Abeta(1-42, total tau and phospho-tau levels. Serum TTR levels did not significantly differ among the studied groups. There were no relevant associations between TTR levels and genetic, demographic and clinical data, respectively. These results suggest an involvement of the clearance protein TTR in LBD pathophysiology, and should motivate to elucidate TTR-related mechanisms in LBD in more detail.

  13. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2011-08-19

    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and normal aging

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, R; Scheltens, P.; Gholkar, A.; Ballard, C; McKeith, I; Ince, P.; Perry, R.; O'Brien, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are associated with an increase in changes in white matter on MRI. The aims were to investigate whether white matter changes also occur in dementia with Lewy bodies and to examine the relation between white matter lesions and the cognitive and non-cognitive features of dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia.
METHODS—Proton density and T2 weighted images were obtained on a 1.0 Tesla MRI sca...

  15. Discrimination of dementia with lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease using the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A; Williams, Karren; Grace, Janet; Tremont, Geoffrey; Westervelt, Holly; Stern, Robert A

    2003-06-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of the Clock Drawing Test to discriminate Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Recent advances in medical treatments for dementia underscore the importance of differentiating among dementia subtypes. Clinically, Dementia with Lewy bodies can often be difficult to discriminate from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease because of similar and overlapping cognitive and motor features. While the Clock Drawing Test has been shown to discriminate dementia from normal aging fairly accurately, less is known about its ability to discriminate between various dementia groups. Patients with Alzheimer disease (n = 22), patients with cognitively impaired Parkinson disease (n = 17), and patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20), matched for age, education, and dementia severity, were compared on the Clock Drawing Test, scored for overall accuracy as well as the presence of specific error types. There were no significant group differences on a global quantitative measure of Clock Drawing Test performance. With regard to differences on the error types evaluated, the patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies were more likely to make conceptual errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, and the patients with Parkinson disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies made more planning errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease. Classification accuracy was fair, with 69% overall classification for Alzheimer disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies, and 68% overall classification for Parkinson disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies. Although some differences may exist in the qualitative features of clock drawing performance between these patient groups, overall clock drawing performance is relatively similar, and as a single instrument, the Clock Drawing Test provides limited discrimination of Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  16. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki

    2017-10-16

    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A reduced gastric corpus microvascular blood flow during Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy detected by laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Svendsen, Lars B; Secher, Niels H

    2017-01-01

    microcirculation. METHODS: Gastric microcirculation was assessed prior to and after reconstruction of gastric continuity in 25 consecutive patients operated for adenocarcinoma with open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy while hemodynamic variables were recorded. RESULTS: During upper laparotomy, microcirculation......). The decrease in corpus microcirculation took place unrelated to central cardiovascular variables. CONCLUSION: Using LSCI technique, we identified a reduced microcirculation at the corpus area during open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. LSCI provides an option for real-time assessment of gastric microcirculation...

  18. FROM THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION TO IBM, DELL, AND SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: TEACHING HISTORY AND LEADERSHIP TO BUSINESS STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey J. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    History is not a tomb of dead facts but a resource that can inform and improve everyday decision making. Experience as an analytical tool is invaluable for solving problems in changing and competitive environments. “From the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which coincides with the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (2003—2006), demonstrates how contemporary business concepts of visionary leadership, systematic planning, and organizational climate were instrumental to the succe...

  19. Recognition by familiarity is preserved in Parkinson's without dementia and Lewy-Body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Rodríguez, Lucía-Azahara; Escudero, Joaquín; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Pitarque, Alfonso; Cómbita, Lina-Marcela; Mazón, Jose F

    2010-09-01

    The retrieval deficit hypothesis states that the lack of deficit in recognition often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease is because of the low retrieval requirements of the task, given that these patients have retrieval and not encoding deficits. To test this hypothesis we investigated recognition memory by familiarity in Parkinson's patients and in patients with Lewy Bodies disease and Parkinson with dementia. We analyzed to what extent the experimental groups were able to recognize by familiarity in a typical yes/no recognition memory task. The experimental groups were patients with early nondemented Parkinson's disease, advanced nondemented Parkinson's disease, demented Parkinson's patients, and patients with dementia with Lewy Bodies. We compared their performance with a group of young and another group of old healthy participants. The estimation of familiarity was made by analyzing recognition of word targets and distractors consisting of combinations of different letters in comparison with a condition in which targets and distractors were composed of similar letters, even though subjects were unaware of the independent variable. The results indicate that familiarity was used at the same level by controls, patients with early Parkinson's disease and patients with dementia with Lewy Bodies. Although late Parkinson patients also used familiarity, its effect was only marginally significant. Patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia were not capable of using familiarity in recognition memory. Our results support the retrieval deficit hypothesis as Parkinson's patients without dementia show no deficit in a situation in which the retrieval requirements are minimal. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Bringing CLARITY to the human brain: visualization of Lewy pathology in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A K L; Hurry, M E D; Ng, O T W; DeFelice, J; Lai, H M; Pearce, R K B; Wong, G T-C; Chang, R C-C; Gentleman, S M

    2016-10-01

    CLARITY is a novel technique which enables three-dimensional visualization of immunostained tissue for the study of circuitry and spatial interactions between cells and molecules in the brain. In this study, we aimed to compare methodological differences in the application of CLARITY between rodent and large human post mortem brain samples. In addition, we aimed to investigate if this technique could be used to visualize Lewy pathology in a post mortem Parkinson's brain. Rodent and human brain samples were clarified and immunostained using the passive version of the CLARITY technique. Samples were then immersed in different refractive index matching media before mounting and visualizing under a confocal microscope. We found that tissue clearing speed using passive CLARITY differs according to species (human vs. rodents), brain region and degree of fixation (fresh vs. formalin-fixed tissues). Furthermore, there were advantages to using specific refractive index matching media. We have applied this technique and have successfully visualized Lewy body inclusions in three dimensions within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, and the spatial relationship between monoaminergic fibres and Lewy pathologies among nigrostriatal fibres in the midbrain without the need for physical serial sectioning of brain tissue. The effective use of CLARITY on large samples of human tissue opens up many potential avenues for detailed pathological and morphological studies. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  1. The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.

    2004-01-01

    TAVELERS RETRACING LEWIS AND CLARKE JOURNEY to the Pacific over the past two hundred years have witnessed tre mendous change to the Columbia River Gorge and its pri mary feature, the Columbia River. Dams, reservoirs, timber harvest, altered fisheries, transportation infrastructure, and growth and shrinkage of communities have transformed the river and valley.1 This radically different geography of human use and habitation is commonly contrasted with the sometimes romantic view of a prior time provided both by early nineteenth-century chroniclers and present-day critics of the modern condition ? an ecotopia of plentiful and perpetual resources sustaining a stable culture from time immemorial. Reality is more com plicated. Certainly the human-caused changes to the Columbia River and the gorge since Lewis and Clark have been profound; but the geologic his tory of immense floods, landslides, and volcanic eruptions that occurred before their journey had equally, if not more, acute effects on landscapes and societies of the gorge. In many ways, the Lewis and Clark Expedi tion can be viewed as a hinge point for the Columbia River, the changes engineered to the river and its valley in the two hundred years since their visit mirrored by tremendous changes geologically engendered in the thousands of years before. 

  2. Conformational Search on the Lewis X Structure by Molecular Dynamic: Study of Tri- and Pentasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khebichat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play vital roles in many biological processes, such as recognition, adhesion, and signalling between cells. The Lewis X determinant is a trisaccharide fragment implicated as a specific differentiation antigen, tumor antigen, and key component of the ligand for the endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule, so it is necessary or essential to determine and to know their conformational and structural properties. In this work, conformational analysis was performed using molecular dynamics (MD simulation with the AMBER10 program package in order to study the dynamic behavior of of the Lewis X trisaccharide (β-D-Gal-(1,4-[α-L-Fuc-(1,3]-β-D-GlcNAc-OMe and the Lewis X pentasaccharide (β-D-Gal-(1,4-[α-L-Fuc-(1,3]-β-D-GlcNAc-(1,3-β-D-Gal-(1,4-β-D-Glu-OMe in explicit water model at 300 K for 10 ns using the GLYCAM 06 force field.

  3. Visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies: magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John-Paul; Firbank, Michael J.; He, Jiabao; Barnett, Nicola; Pearce, Sarah; Livingstone, Anthea; Vuong, Quoc; McKeith, Ian G.; O’Brien, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations and visuoperceptual deficits are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that cortical visual function may be abnormal. Aims To investigate: (1) cortical visual function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); and (2) the nature and severity of perfusion deficits in visual areas using arterial spin labelling (ASL)-MRI. Method In total, 17 participants with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB group) and 19 similarly aged controls were presented with simple visual stimuli (checkerboard, moving dots, and objects) during fMRI and subsequently underwent ASL-MRI (DLB group n = 15, control group n = 19). Results Functional activations were evident in visual areas in both the DLB and control groups in response to checkerboard and objects stimuli but reduced visual area V5/MT (middle temporal) activation occurred in the DLB group in response to motion stimuli. Posterior cortical perfusion deficits occurred in the DLB group, particularly in higher visual areas. Conclusions Higher visual areas, particularly occipito-parietal, appear abnormal in dementia with Lewy bodies, while there is a preservation of function in lower visual areas (V1 and V2/3). PMID:22500014

  4. Topiramate improves psychiatric symptoms in a patient with Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G

    2014-12-01

    Many patients with Lewy body dementia develop visual hallucinations and other psychiatric symptoms. These patients are hypersensitive to antipsychotic drugs. Although patients tolerate atypical better than typical antipsychotics, both types can cause major extrapyramidal side effects. The anticonvulsant mood stabilizer topiramate, which does not cause parkinsonism, has been used as adjuvant therapy for both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; these symptoms can resemble those of Lewy body dementia. This report documents a 65-year-old woman with a 3-year history of progressive dementia that over the past 2 years had become complicated by severe extrapyramidal symptoms and agitated hallucinations. Her hallucinations became daily and were disrupting to her family. She was given a clinical diagnosis of Lewy body dementia after imaging and laboratory studies ruled out other etiologies. Treatment with olanzapine relieved her psychotic symptoms but caused severe dystonias, daily myoclonic jerks, and tremors. Stopping the olanzapine and starting topiramate 25 mg daily eliminated the hallucinations and agitation without worsening her extrapyramidal side effects. However, the topiramate was stopped because the patient reportedly developed anorexia and significant weight loss. Her hallucinations returned. When topiramate was reinstated at 12.5 mg a day, her agitation resolved, although her hallucinations continued. After 6 months on this dose, her agitation was still fairly well controlled without serious side effects or worsening of her parkinsonian symptoms.

  5. Human cognition and the dynamics of failure to rescue: the Lewis Blackman case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Kimberly; Haskell, Helen; Johnson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Lewis Blackman was a 15-year-old boy who died 4 days after having surgery to correct a congenital deformity of the chest. The story of his death serves as a chilling reminder that quality and safety are not abstract ideals but rather tangible goals designed to prevent tragedies like the one experienced by Lewis Blackman's family. The authors sought to find an explanatory model for the events that transpired and posit that the answer lies at the intersection of several distinct yet interrelated phenomena: (a) the failure of dual process theory; (b) anchoring and belief perseverance; (c) the role of power and authority; and (d) the fragmented care delivery system in the hospital setting. To prevent similar tragedies in the future, the authors propose 5 strategies for nursing educators: incorporate "cognitive unmooring" questions into student assessments of patients; integrate information about System 1 and System 2 thinking into the didactic portion of the curriculum; include cases similar to Lewis Blackman's into simulation experiences; ensure that students learn how to recognize and address authority gradients with supervisors, physicians, and other members of the health care team; and provide students with experiences including the patient/family as members of the care team. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and molecular tumbling properties of sialyl Lewis X and derived neoglycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gege, Christian; Geyer, Armin; Schmidt, Richard R

    2002-06-03

    The sialyl Lewis X (sLeX) epitope has become a prominent target for biological studies because of its role in inflammation through binding to selectins. This epitope is located at the terminal end in glycosphingolipids and a lactose unit serves as spacer to the ceramide moiety. This paper focuses on the influence of the spacer structure and spacer length in regard to the mobility of the sLeX epitope. To this end sLex neoglycolipids 1a-c, with one, two, or three lactose units as spacer between the sLeX tetrasaccharide epitope and the membrane anchor, were synthesized. The synthetic strategy was also applied to the synthesis of the corresponding Lewis X (LeX) derivatives. The glycolipids were inserted in model membranes, and the tumbling frequencies of the sLex tetrasaccharide epitopes were then analysed by NMR spectroscopy. A nonaethylene glycol spacer decouples the carbohydrate moiety from the membrane mobility while (oligo-)lactoses act as more rigid distance keepers between the Lewis epitope and the surface of the membrane. Quantification of the different degrees of decoupling was possible by analysis of rotational correlation times.

  7. Efficient Lewis Acid Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Key Intermediate of Coenzyme Q10 under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of a valuable intermediate of coenzyme Q10 by microwave-assisted Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation is reported. The acidity of six [Etpy]BF4-based ionic liquids was characterized by means of the FT-IR technique using acetonitrile as a molecular probe. The catalytic activities of these ionic liquids were correlated with their Lewis acidity. With increasing Lewis acid strength of the ionic liquids, their catalytic activity in the Friedel-Crafts reaction increased, except for [Etpy]BF4-AlCl3. The effects of the reaction system, the molar fraction of Lewis acid in the Lewis acid ILs and heating techniques were also investigated. Among the six Lewis acid ionic liquids tested [Etpy]BF4-ZnCl2 showed the best catalytic activity, with a yield of 89% after a very short reaction time (150 seconds. This procedure has the advantages of higher efficiency, better reusability of ILs, energy conservation and eco-friendliness. The method has practical value for preparation of CoQ10 on an industrial scale.

  8. Lewis Y antigen modified CD47 is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis and promotes early ovarian cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingzi; Zhu, Liancheng; Zhuang, Huiyu; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Song; Liu, Shuice; Liu, Qing; Liu, Dawo; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in the mechanisms of tumor immune escape. CD47 participates in tumor immune escape by combining with SIRPα to reduce the phagocytic activity of macrophages. There are six potential N-glycosylation sites on CD47, and glycosylation is known to be necessary for its membrane localization. However, it is still unknown to what extent glycosylation influences CD47 ligand binding properties and subsequent signaling. By using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we showed that CD47 contains Lewis y antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that both the positive expression and the overexpression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen in cancer tissues and borderline tumors were significantly higher than those in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues (P CD47 and Lewis y antigen was evident (r = 0.47, P CD47 and Lewis y antigen showed significant correlations with the clinical pathological parameters of ovarian cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards, lymph node metastasis, and degree of differentiation] (P CD47 was an independent adverse risk factor for the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Cases with both high CD47 and Lewis y antigen expression had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that Lewis y antigens of CD47 may play a crucial role in the development of ovarian cancer, and could be new targets for immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:26609483

  9. The clinical characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies and a consideration of prodromal diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common type of degenerative dementia following Alzheimer’s disease (AD). DLB is clinically and pathologically related to Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD dementia, and the three disorders can be viewed as existing on a spectrum of Lewy body disease. In recent years there has been a concerted effort to establish the phenotypes of AD and PD in the prodromal phase (before the respective syndromes of cognitive and motor impairment are expressed). Evidence for the prodromal presentation of DLB is also emerging. This paper briefly reviews what is known about the clinical presentation of prodromal DLB before discussing the pathology of Lewy body disease and how this relates to potential biomarkers of prodromal DLB. The presenting features of DLB can be broadly placed in three categories: cognitive impairment (particularly nonamnestic cognitive impairments), behavioural/psychiatric phenomena (for example, hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD)) and physical symptoms (for example, parkinsonism, decreased sense of smell, autonomic dysfunction). Some noncognitive symptoms such as constipation, RBD, hyposmia and postural dizziness can predate the onset of memory impairment by several years in DLB. Pathological studies of Lewy body disease have found that the earliest sites of involvement are the olfactory bulb, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve, the peripheral autonomic nervous system, including the enteric nervous system, and the brainstem. Some of the most promising early markers for DLB include the presence of RBD, autonomic dysfunction or hyposmia, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy, measures of substantia nigra pathology and skin biopsy for α-synuclein in peripheral autonomic nerves. In the absence of disease-modifying therapies, the diagnosis of prodromal DLB is of limited use in the clinic. That said, knowledge of the prodromal development of DLB could help

  10. Interactions of Verkade's Superbase with Strong Lewis Acids: From Labile Mono- and Binuclear Lewis Acid-Base Complexes to Phosphenium Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummadi, Suresh; Kenefake, Dustin; Diaz, Rony; Unruh, Daniel K; Krempner, Clemens

    2017-09-05

    A series of mono- and binuclear Lewis acid-base complexes of the formulas N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→LA [LA = BH 3 (8), Ga(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (10), GaCl 3 (11)], LA←N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P [LA = Al(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (6a), AlMe 3 (6b), AlEt 3 (6c), AlBu i 3 (6d), BF 3 (13)], and LA←N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→LA [Lewis acid (LA) = Al(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (7a), AlMe 3 (7b), AlEt 3 (7c), AlBu i 3 (7d), AlCl 3 (7e), BH 3 (9)] were generated from reactions of Verkade's base, N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P (1), with various boron-, aluminum-, and gallium-containing Lewis acids, and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. {N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→C 7 H 7 }[BF 4 ] (5) was synthesized via the treatment of 1 with [C 7 H 7 ][BF 4 ]. The reaction of 1 with B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 , followed by the addition of [Ph 3 C] 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ], gave rise to the rearranged borate salt [PN 4 C 9 H 17 (Pr i ) 2 ][B 12 Cl 12 ] (3), while treating 1 with [Ph 3 C] 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ] exclusively afforded {N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 PH} 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ] (4). Reactions of 1 with 2 equiv of GaCl 3 and BF 3 , respectively, afforded the novel phosphenium gallate and borate salts 12a, 12b, and 15. The solid-state structures of 1, 3-5, 6b, 7a, 7b, 7e, 8, 10, 11, 12b, 13, and 15 were determined by X-ray crystallography.

  11. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  12. A descriptive study of Lewy body dementia with functional imaging support in a Chinese population: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Y F; Chu, L W; Lee, S C

    2017-06-01

    Lewy body dementia includes dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. There have been limited clinical studies among Chinese patients with Lewy body dementia. This study aimed to review the presenting clinical features and identify risk factors for complications including falls, dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, and mortality in Chinese patients with Lewy body dementia. We also wished to identify any difference in clinical features of patients with Lewy body dementia with and without an Alzheimer's disease pattern of functional imaging. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with Lewy body dementia supported by functional imaging. Baseline demographics, presenting clinical and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, functional and cognitive assessment scores, and complications during follow-up were reviewed. Patients with Lewy body dementia were further classified as having an Alzheimer's disease imaging pattern if functional imaging demonstrated bilateral temporoparietal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion with or without precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus hypometabolism or hypoperfusion. The pre-imaging accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 52%. In 83% of patients, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia were evident. Falls, dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, and death occurred in 70%, 52%, 26%, 26%, and 30% of patients, respectively with corresponding event rates per person-years of 0.32, 0.17, 0.18, 0.08, and 0.10. Patients with aspiration pneumonia compared with those without were more likely to have dysphagia (100% vs 35%; P=0.01). Deceased patients with Lewy body dementia, compared with alive patients, had a higher (median [interquartile range]) presenting Clinical Dementia Rating score (1 [1-2] vs 0.5 [0.5-1.0]; P=0.01), lower mean (± standard deviation) baseline Barthel index (13 ± 7 vs 18 ± 4; P=0.04), and were more likely to be prescribed levodopa (86% vs 31%; P=0.03). Patients with

  13. The Role of MgCl 2 as a Lewis Base in ROMgCl-MgCl 2 Electrolytes for Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; He, Meinan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Brombosz, Scott M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Vaughey, John T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois 60439 USA

    2016-02-04

    A series of strong Lewis acid-free alkoxide/siloxide-based Mg electrolytes were deliberately developed with remarkable oxidative stability up to 3.5 V (vs. Mg/Mg2+). Despite the perception of ROMgCl (R=alkyl, silyl) as a strong base, ROMgCl acts like Lewis acid, whereas the role of MgCl2 in was unambiguously demonstrated as a Lewis base through the identification of the key intermediate using single crystal X-ray crystallography. This Lewis-acid-free strategy should provide a prototype system for further investigation of Mg-ion batteries.

  14. Lewis Acid-Base Adduct Approach for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-02-16

    Since the first report on the long-term durable 9.7% solid-state perovskite solar cell employing methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), mesoporous TiO2, and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) in 2012, following the seed technologies on perovskite-sensitized liquid junction solar cells in 2009 and 2011, a surge of interest has been focused on perovskite solar cells due to superb photovoltaic performance and extremely facile fabrication processes. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells reached 21% in a very short period of time. Such an unprecedentedly high photovoltaic performance is due to the intrinsic optoelectronic property of organolead iodide perovskite material. Moreover, a high dielectric constant, sub-millimeter scale carrier diffusion length, an underlying ferroelectric property, and ion migration behavior can make organolead halide perovskites suitable for multifunctionality. Thus, besides solar cell applications, perovskite material has recently been applied to a variety fields of materials science such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasing, X-ray imaging, resistive memory, and water splitting. Regardless of application areas, the growth of a well-defined perovskite layer with high crystallinity is essential for effective utilization of its excellent physicochemical properties. Therefore, an effective methodology for preparation of high quality perovskite layers is required. In this Account, an effective methodology for production of high quality perovskite layers is described, which is the Lewis acid-base adduct approach. In the solution process to form the perovskite layer, the key chemicals of CH3NH3I (or HC(NH2)2I) and PbI2 are used by dissolving them in polar aprotic solvents. Since polar aprotic solvents bear oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, they can act as a Lewis base. In addition, the main group compound PbI2 is known to be a Lewis acid. Thus, PbI2 has a chance

  15. Comparison of Ivor-Lewis vs Sweet esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Xiang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Yawei; Li, Hecheng; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yihua; Hu, Hong; Miao, Longsheng; Ma, Longfei; Luo, Xiaoyang; Chen, Sufeng; Ye, Ting; Zhang, Yiliang; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Haiquan

    2015-04-01

    Sweet esophagectomy is performed widely in China, while the Ivor-Lewis procedure, with potential benefit of an extended lymphadenectomy, is limitedly conducted owing to concern for a higher risk for morbidity. Thus, the role of the Ivor-Lewis procedure for thoracic esophageal cancer needs further investigation. To determine whether Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy is associated with increased postoperative complications compared with the Sweet procedure. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from May 2010 to July 2012 at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China, of 300 patients with resectable squamous cell carcinoma in the middle and lower third of the thoracic esophagus. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either the Ivor-Lewis (n = 150) or Sweet (n = 150) esophagectomy. The primary outcome of this clinical trial was operative morbidity (any surgical or nonsurgical complications). Secondary outcomes included oncologic efficacy (number of lymph nodes resected and positive lymph nodes), postoperative mortality (30-day and in-hospital mortality), and patient discharge. Resection without macroscopical residual (R0/R1) was achieved in 149 of 150 patients in each group. Although there was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the incidence of each single complication, a significantly higher morbidity rate was found in the Sweet group (62 of 150 [41.3%]) than in the Ivor-Lewis group (45 of 150 [30%]) (P = .04). More patients in the Sweet group (8 of 150 [5.3%]) received reoperations than in the Ivor-Lewis group (1 of 150 [0.7%]) (P = .04). The median hospital stay was 18 days in the Sweet group vs 16 days in the Ivor-Lewis group (P = .002). Postoperative mortality rates in the Ivor-Lewis (1 of 150) and Sweet (3 of 150) groups were 0.7% and 2.0%, respectively (P = .25). More lymph nodes were removed during Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy than during the Sweet procedure (22 vs

  16. [Efficacy comparison of Sweet versus Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy in the treatment of middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Zhan, Cheng; Sun, Fenghao; Chen, Li; Shi, Mengkun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Qun

    2016-09-25

    To compare the short-term efficacy and long-term survival between Sweet and Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for patients with middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clinicopathologic data of 1 308 patients with middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing Sweet or Ivor-Lewis procedures in our department from January 2007 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed, including 1 021 patients of Sweet operation (Sweet group) and 287 patients of Ivor-Lewis operation(Ivor-lewis group). Lymph node clearance, lymphatic metastasis, postoperative complication morbidity and long-term survival were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in baseline data between the two groups(all P>0.05). There were more lymph nodes resected during the Ivor-Lewis procedure compared with the Sweet procedure (20.8 vs.19.3, P=0.030). Compared with Ivor-Lewis group, the incidence of wound infection in Sweet group was significantly lower[(3.2%(33/1 021) vs. 8.0%(23/287), P=0.000]. Sweet group had a significantly lower rate of delayed gastric emptying[1.9%(19/1 021) vs. 5.2%(15/287), P=0.002] and significantly shorter hospital stay (14.7 days vs. 17.2 days, P=0.029). With respect to other postoperative complications, such as pulmonary complications, cardiac events, anastomotic leakage, vocal cord palsy, chylothorax and pyothorax, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The 5-year survival rate was not significantly different between the two group (54.0% vs. 56.9%, P=0.873). Stratified analysis based on TNM staging showed that no significant difference of 5-year survival rate was found between the two groups in stageI( and stageIII( patients (P>0.05), while the 5-year survival rate of stageII( patients in Sweet group was significantly lower than that in Ivor-Lewis group (56.4%% vs. 70.4%, P=0.039). For patients with middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Sweet procedure has certain superiority regarding

  17. The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-04-02

    A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system.

  18. Lewis Acid-Base Chemistry of 7-Azaisoindigo-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Nicholas M; Fransishyn, Kyle M; Kelly, Timothy L

    2017-07-26

    Low-band-gap organic semiconductors are important in a variety of organic electronics applications, such as organic photovoltaic devices, photodetectors, and field effect transistors. Building on our previous work, which introduced 7-azaisoindigo as an electron-deficient building block for the synthesis of donor-acceptor organic semiconductors, we demonstrate how Lewis acids can be used to further tune the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. Coordination of a Lewis acid to the pyridinic nitrogen of 7-azaisoindigo greatly diminishes the electron density in the azaisoindigo π-system, resulting in a substantial reduction in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy. This results in a smaller highest occupied molecular orbital-LUMO gap and shifts the lowest-energy electronic transition well into the near-infrared region. Both H + and BF 3 are shown to coordinate to azaisoindigo and affect the energy of the S 0 → S 1 transition. A combination of time-dependent density functional theory and UV/vis and 1 H NMR spectroscopic titrations reveal that when two azaisoindigo groups are present and high concentrations of acid are used, both pyridinic nitrogens bind Lewis acids. Importantly, we demonstrate that this acid-base chemistry can be carried out at the solid-vapor interface by exposing thin films of aza-substituted organic semiconductors to vapor-phase BF 3 ·Et 2 O. This suggests the possibility of using the BF 3 -bound 7-azaisoindigo-based semiconductors as n-type materials in various organic electronic applications.

  19. Relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Taku; Mori, Takaaki; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Sonobe, Naomi; Shimizu, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2015-10-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying the neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies by investigating regional cerebral blood flow. Participants were 27 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for probable dementia with Lewy bodies. All subjects underwent single-photon emission computed tomography scans using technetium-99 m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated by neuropsychiatric inventory. Multiple regression analyses using neuropsychiatric inventory and voxel-based analyses of covariance of the regional cerebral blood flow images between subjects with or without each neuropsychiatric symptom were performed. Additionally, similar voxel-based analyses of covariance between subjects with each neuropsychiatric symptom and normal subjects were performed. There were no significant correlations in any psychiatric symptoms in multiple regression analyses. All subjects had hallucination but none had euphoria. We analyzed eight neuropsychiatric symptom scores with the exception of hallucination and euphoria using voxel-based analyses of covariance. Significant differences of regional cerebral blood flow were shown in groups with agitation, disinhibition, and irritability. Subjects with agitation showed hypoperfusion in the parietal lobule, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus, and hyperperfusion in the fusiform gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the thalamus. Subjects with disinhibition showed hypoperfusion in the left frontal gyrus. Subjects with irritability showed hyperperfusion in the right frontal gyrus. There were no significant differences in regional cerebral blood flow between subjects with any neuropsychiatric symptoms and normal subjects. This study reveals that dysfunction of specific brain regions is associated with various neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The brainstem pathologies of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kay; Mahlke, Josefine; Siswanto, Sonny; Krüger, Reijko; Heinsen, Helmut; Auburger, Georg; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T; Wicht, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are among the human synucleinopathies, which show alpha-synuclein immunoreactive neuronal and/or glial aggregations and progressive neuronal loss in selected brain regions (eg, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, pedunculopontine nucleus). Despite several studies about brainstem pathologies in PD and DLB, there is currently no detailed information available regarding the presence of alpha-synuclein immunoreactive inclusions (i) in the cranial nerve, precerebellar, vestibular and oculomotor brainstem nuclei and (ii) in brainstem fiber tracts and oligodendroctyes. Therefore, we analyzed the inclusion pathologies in the brainstem nuclei (Lewy bodies, LB; Lewy neurites, LN; coiled bodies, CB) and fiber tracts (LN, CB) of PD and DLB patients. As reported in previous studies, LB and LN were most prevalent in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, pedunculopontine and raphe nuclei, periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, parabrachial nuclei, reticular formation, prepositus hypoglossal, dorsal motor vagal and solitary nuclei. Additionally we were able to demonstrate LB and LN in all cranial nerve nuclei, premotor oculomotor, precerebellar and vestibular brainstem nuclei, as well as LN in all brainstem fiber tracts. CB were present in nearly all brainstem nuclei and brainstem fiber tracts containing LB and/or LN. These findings can contribute to a large variety of less well-explained PD and DLB symptoms (eg, gait and postural instability, impaired balance and postural reflexes, falls, ingestive and oculomotor dysfunctions) and point to the occurrence of disturbances of intra-axonal transport processes and transneuronal spread of the underlying pathological processes of PD and DLB along anatomical pathways. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  2. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  3. Dynamin1 concentration in the prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive impairment in Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, Julie; Rangarajan, Sindhoo; Whitfield, David; Alghamdi, Amani; Howlett, David; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Johnson, Mary; Attems, Johannes; Ballard, Clive; Thomas, Alan; O'Brien, John; Aarsland, Dag; Francis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD) together, represent the second most common cause of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The synaptic dysfunctions underlying the cognitive decline and psychiatric symptoms observed throughout the development of PDD and DLB are still under investigation. In this study we examined the expression level of Dynamin1 and phospho-CaMKII, key proteins of endocytosis and synaptic plasticity respectively, as potential markers of molecular processes specifically deregulated with DLB and/or PDD. In order to measure the levels of these proteins, we isolated grey matter from post-mortem prefrontal cortex area (BA9), anterior cingulated gyrus (BA24) and parietal cortex (BA40) from DLB and PDD patients in comparison to age-matched controls and a group of AD cases. Clinical and pathological data available included the MMSE score, neuropsychiatric history, and semi-quantitative scores for AD pathology (plaques - tangles) and for α-synuclein (Lewy bodies). Changes in the expression of the synaptic markers, and correlates with neuropathological features and cognitive decline were predominantly found in the prefrontal cortex. On one hand, levels of Dynamin1 were significantly reduced, and correlated with a higher rate of cognitive decline observed in cases from three dementia groups. On the other hand, the fraction of phospho-CaMKII was decreased, and correlated with a high score of plaques and tangles in BA9. Interestingly, the correlation between the rate of cognitive decline and the level of Dynamin1 remained when the analysis was restricted to the PDD and DLB cases, highlighting an association of Dynamin1 with cognitive decline in people with Lewy Body dementia.

  4. [The primary evaluation of Sal-Ammoniac extract on the therapy action in mice bearing Lewis lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Fen; Du, Gang-Jun; Lin, Hai-Hong; Song, Zi-Hui; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Shuo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the therapy action of Sal-Ammoniac extract on Lewis lung cancer and its toxicity to immunity. The proliferation and cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry respectively. The antitumor effect of Sal-Ammoniac extract was observed by tumor injected subcutaneously in mice and its toxicity to immunity was examined by clearance rate of charcoal particles and delayed type hypersensitivity. Sal-Ammoniac extract could inhibit the proliferation of Lewis lung cancer cells with S cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Sal-Ammoniac extract solution injected in tumor for eight days had 46.7% inhibition on Lewis lung cancer, if taken orally had only 15.7% inhibition on Lewis lung cancer in mice. Sal-Ammoniac extract solution injected subcutaneously or taken orally had no effect on the clearance rate of charcoal particles and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. The antitumor action of Sal-Ammoniac extract has relation to its recipe and has no influence on immunity.

  5. Differential effects of repeated restraint stress on pulsatile lutenizing hormone secretion in female Fischer, Lewis and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X F; Edward, J; Mitchell, J C; Shao, B; Bowes, J E; Coen, C W; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2004-07-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and can suppress pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, resulting in reproductive dysfunction. The histocompatible inbred Fischer and Lewis rat strains exhibit marked phenotypic differences in the activity of the HPA axis, the former being more reactive. Using Fischer, Lewis and Wistar rats, we assessed effects of repeated restraint stress on pulsatile LH secretion. Adult rats were ovariectomized and fitted with cardiac catheters. Blood samples were collected at 5-min intervals for 3-5 h for detection of LH. Less frequent samples were collected for corticosterone measurement. After 2 h, rats were restrained for 60 min. The same regimen was repeated four times at 6-day intervals. The mean peak corticosterone levels achieved during the first restraint in Fischer rats were significantly higher than those in Lewis and Wistar rats. By the time of the fourth episode of restraint, there had been some adaptation of the corticosterone response in the Fischer, but not in the Lewis or Wistar rats. LH pulses were interrupted during the 1st restraint in all experimental groups, although only Fischer rats showed suppression of LH pulses during the subsequent 2-h postrestraint period. During the fourth restraint, LH pulse frequency was still reduced in Wistar, but not in Fischer and Lewis rats, both of which showed a complete habituation. These results suggest that differential control mechanisms underlie the response of the HPA and HPG axes to repeated restraint stress.

  6. The CST3 BB genotype and low cystatin C cerebrospinal fluid levels are associated with dementia in Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Schmid, Benjamin; Synofzik, Matthis; Schulte, Claudia; Riester, Karin; Huber, Heiko; Brockmann, Kathrin; Gasser, Thomas; Berg, Daniela; Melms, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of demented Lewy body disease patients have Alzheimer's disease (AD)- like pathology, in particular amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques. Cystatin C (CysC) is a carrier of soluble Abeta (42) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduces Abeta plaque formation. The CST3 BB genotype leads to a reduced secretion of the protein in vitro and increases the risk for AD, suggesting that variability in the CST3 gene and CysC protein concentration may be associated with dementia in Lewy body disease. We therefore determined the CST3 genotype in 51 demented and 71 nondemented Lewy body disease patients, and in 52 controls, as well as CSF CysC and Abeta (42) levels from 132 of these subjects. The CST3 BB genotype was associated with lowered CSF CysC levels and with dementia. Demented Lewy body disease patients had decreased CSF CysC levels. The correlation between CSF CysC and Abeta (42) levels was high in non-demented subjects, but poor in demented patients. We conclude that, in Lewy body disease, the CST3 BB genotype and low CSF CysC levels are associated with dementia, possibly through a disturbed elimination of soluble Abeta(42).

  7. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993 written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  8. NASA Lewis advanced individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel/hydrogen technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel/hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: (1) to use 26% KOH electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance; (ii) to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and (iii) to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/ or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel/hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26% KOH electrolyte was about 40 000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80% depth-of-discharge (DOD) compared with 3500 cycles for cells containing 31% KOH. Results of the boiler plate cells tests have been validated at Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN. Forty-eight Ah flight cells containing 26 and 31% KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80% DOD, in 10 °C. The three cells containing 26% KOH failed on the average at cycle 19 500. The three cells containing 31% KOH failed on the average at cycle 6400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel/hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, IN under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle-life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 °C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia (1 atm). The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22 694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the noncatalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9588, 13 900 and 20 575). Cycle-life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel/hydrogen cell. A nickel

  9. Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Promoted by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica Z; Yao, Wenzhi; Hastings, Brian T; Lok, Charles K; Wasa, Masayuki

    2016-10-24

    Direct Mannich-type reactions that afford both α- and β-amino esters by the reaction of a broad range of carbonyl compounds and aldimines are disclosed. The transformation is promoted by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base pair, which is proposed to operate cooperatively: Within the catalyst complex, an enolate is generated that then reacts with a hydrogen-bond-activated imine. Noncovalent interactions between reactants and the catalyst provide selectivity and new opportunities for future catalyst design. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bis[N,N'-diisopropylbenzamidinato(-)]silicon(II): Lewis acid/base reactions with triorganylboranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junold, Konstantin; Baus, Johannes A; Burschka, Christian; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Tacke, Reinhold

    2014-09-22

    Reaction of the donor-stabilized silylene 1 (which is three-coordinate in the solid state and four-coordinate in solution) with BEt3 and BPh3 leads to the formation of the Lewis acid/base complexes 2 and 3, respectively, which are the first five-coordinate silicon compounds with an SiB bond. These compounds were structurally characterized by crystal structure analyses and by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies in the solid state and in solution. Additionally, the bonding situation in 2 and 3 was analyzed by quantum chemical studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Acid-Base Pairs in Lewis Acidic Zeolites Promote Direct Aldol Reactions by Soft Enolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-08-17

    Hf-, Sn-, and Zr-Beta zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fighting discrimination: W. Arthur Lewis and the dual economy of Manchester in the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, P.; Ingham, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We document, for the first time, the institution-building activities of the development economist W. Arthur Lewis (1919-1991) as founder of Community House and the South Hulme Evening Centre, two further education centres which sought to fight discrimination among the Afro-Caribbean communities of Manchester in the 1950s. We depict the struggle by Afro-Caribbeans to achieve a decent standard of living (and to escape from the ‘subsistence economy’ which provides the basis for Lewis’ m...

  13. Book Review: Lewis, B. (1975. History: Remembered, Recovered, Invented. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Gurel Kahveci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available How is history used? What are the ways history is used? In this book review, Nihat Kahveci analyzes how Bernard Lewis’s History: Remembered, Recovered, Invented seeks the answers to these important questions. Lewis states in the preface that the historian sometimes “needs to leave his period, his area, and his topic, and take a boarder look at the nature of his vocation and discipline”. The book is such reflection on nature of historical knowledge and discipline of history. Organizing different examples of historical events, the book takes a broad look at the discipline of history.

  14. On the reactivity of tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)cyclopentadienone towards carbon-based Lewis bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Sigrid; Escudero, Daniel; Inés, Blanca; Rust, Jörg; Thiel, Walter; Alcarazo, Manuel

    2015-02-09

    The reactivitiy of tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)cyclopentadienone towards different C-based Lewis bases, such as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), ylides and isonitriles, are reported. While sterically not hindered carbenes were found to yield kinetic adducts by regiospecific nucleophilic attack at the position adjacent to the carbonyl group of the ketone, bulkier nucleophiles afforded the thermodynamically more stable O-bridged zwitterions. Interestingly, isonitriles were found to dimerize and trimerize under the same reaction conditions, forming bicyclic products that evolve differently depending on the nature of the substituents. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Calf thymus extract attenuates severity of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maciej; Kuryszko, Jan; Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of Lewis rats with calf thymus extract (TFX®) and its six-peptide fraction on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interferon- ß served as a reference drug. We found that intramuscular administration of the thymus extract fraction significantly reduced clinical, immunological, histological, and ultrastructural alterations inherent in the disease. We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  16. Did Immanuel Kant have dementia with Lewy bodies and REM behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Immanuel Kant, one of the most brilliant minds of the XVIII century and of western philosophy, suffered from dementia in his late years. Based on the analysis of testimonies of his close friends, in this report we describe his neurological disorder which, after 8years of evolution, led to his death. His cognitive decline was strongly associated with a parasomnia compatible with a severe rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent advances in Ni-H2 technology at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalezsanabria, O. D.; Britton, D. L.; Smithrick, J. J.; Reid, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has concentrated its efforts on advancing the Ni-H2 system technology for low Earth orbit applications. Component technology as well as the design principles were studied in an effort to understand the system behavior and failure mechanisms in order to increase performance and extend cycle life. The design principles were previously addressed. The component development is discussed, in particular the separator and nickel electrode and how these efforts will advance the Ni-H2 system technology.

  18. General aviation internal combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (a) reduced SFC's; (b) improved fuels tolerance; and (c) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to late 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  19. Report of Investigation: Ronald F. Lewis, Major General, U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Figure 5) The Cica Cica Boom club’s website describes a night club with a floor show and lap dancers, an “elegant night club in the heart of the...place. The female enlisted Service member said she told her mother about the incident the day after it occurred. She told her mother , “I think [MG...member’s personal cell phone. Each attempt resulted in a “missed call” because the female delegation member had turned off her cell phone. MG Lewis

  20. Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Randall C.

    1998-01-01

    In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

  1. Progressive Bálint's Syndrome in a Patient Demonstrating Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Nakashima, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a 65-year-old man demonstrating dementia with Lewy bodies who first presented with Bálint's syndrome. Two years later, a mild cognitive impairment was noted. From three years after onset, he developed progressive parkinsonism, visual hallucination, and autonomic dysfunction, in line with the deterioration of the cognitive function. Single photon emission computed tomography with a 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer performed two years after onset revealed hypoperfusion in the restricted area of the bilateral superior parietal lobule, which extended to the lateral occipital cortices within two years. It is suggested that the pathological process can extend from the parietal to occipital lobes.

  2. Polyboramines for Hydrogen Release: Polymers Containing Lewis Pairs in their Backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Audrey; Larini, Paolo; Boisson, Christophe; Monteil, Vincent; Raynaud, Jean; Lacôte, Emmanuel

    2015-12-21

    The one-step polycondensation of diamines and diboranes triggered by the in situ deprotonation of the diammonium salts and concomitant reduction of bisboronic acids leads to the assembly of polymer chains through multiple Lewis pairing in their backbone. These new polyboramines are dihydrogen reservoirs that can be used for the hydrogenation of imines and carbonyl compounds. They also display a unique dihydrogen thermal release profile that is a direct consequence of the insertion of the amine-borane linkages in the polymeric backbone. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Up-regulation of the oligosaccharide sialyl LewisX: a new prognostic parameter in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, T; Berner, A; Kaalhus, O; Tveter, K J; Danielsen, H E; Bryne, M

    1995-05-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer has an unpredictable long-term prognosis. At present, there are few specific predictors to indicate the outcome for the individual patient. We have studied immunoreactivity for type-2 carbohydrate structures, known to be involved in various cell adhesion processes, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. One group of patients (n = 26) did not progress within 3 years after orchiectomy, while another group of patients (n = 33) progressed within 1 year following castration and survived less than 2 years. Among the parameters studied, sialyl LewisX carbohydrate up-regulation was the only variable showing significant association with poor prognosis (P < 0.01). Sialyl LewisX discriminated between these two outcome groups with 71% predictability and 96% specificity. Our results indicate that up-regulation of sialyl LewisX is associated with hormonal-resistant, aggressive disease. This prognostic marker may, therefore, have an important role in selecting proper treatment for patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

  4. Mitochondrial targeting sequence variants of the CHCHD2 gene are a risk for Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaki, Kotaro; Koga, Shunsuke; Heckman, Michael G; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Ando, Maya; Labbé, Catherine; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Walton, Ronald L; Strongosky, Audrey J; Uitti, Ryan J; McCarthy, Allan; Lynch, Timothy; Siuda, Joanna; Opala, Grzegorz; Rudzinska, Monika; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Barcikowska, Maria; Czyzewski, Krzysztof; Puschmann, Andreas; Nishioka, Kenya; Funayama, Manabu; Hattori, Nobutaka; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Boeve, Bradley F; Springer, Wolfdieter; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A

    2015-12-08

    To assess the role of CHCHD2 variants in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body disease (LBD) in Caucasian populations. All exons of the CHCHD2 gene were sequenced in a US Caucasian patient-control series (878 PD, 610 LBD, and 717 controls). Subsequently, exons 1 and 2 were sequenced in an Irish series (355 PD and 365 controls) and a Polish series (394 PD and 350 controls). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence studies were performed on pathologic LBD cases with rare CHCHD2 variants. We identified 9 rare exonic variants of unknown significance. These variants were more frequent in the combined group of PD and LBD patients compared to controls (0.6% vs 0.1%, p = 0.013). In addition, the presence of any rare variant was more common in patients with LBD (2.5% vs 1.0%, p = 0.050) compared to controls. Eight of these 9 variants were located within the gene's mitochondrial targeting sequence. Although the role of variants of the CHCHD2 gene in PD and LBD remains to be further elucidated, the rare variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence may be a risk factor for Lewy body disorders, which may link CHCHD2 to other genetic forms of parkinsonism with mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Biochemical increase in phosphorylated alpha-synuclein precedes histopathology of Lewy-type synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly; Tran, Hung; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Sue, Lucia I; Caviness, John; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-11-01

    A key component in Lewy body (LB) pathology in LB disorders is α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129 (pαsyn). However, it is not known if increase in the level of biochemically measurable pαsyn precedes the presence of histologically identified Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS). To gain sights into possible temporal sequence, we measured levels of pαsyn in cingulate and temporal cortices that develop LTS pathology at later stages of LB disorders. Brain homogenates from 128 autopsy cases including normal controls and subjects classified by Unified LTS histopathology staging system were studied. We found that biochemically measurable pαsyn levels in cingulate and temporal cortices were significantly increased at Unified stages III and IV. When pαsyn levels were compared between LTS density scores instead of Unified stages, significant increases were detected even as LTS density scores increased from 0 to 1 in olfactory bulb and substantia nigra. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that changes of pαsyn levels in cingulate and temporal cortices coincided with the early appearance of the LTS pathology in olfactory bulb and substantia nigra, even though histologically demonstrable LTS was lacking in the cortical region. Therefore, identifying the underlying mechanisms driving these changes could be crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of LB disorders. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransmayr, G N; Holliger, S; Schletterer, K; Heidler, H; Deibl, M; Poewe, W; Madersbacher, H; Kiss, G

    2008-01-22

    The present study sought to investigate lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic and cystometric findings in Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Included were patients with frequency, urgency, incontinence, and nocturia, without major bladder outflow obstruction. The protocol comprised physical examination, urine analysis, prostate specific antigen, 24-hours frequency of micturition, mean voided volume (MVV), free flow before instrumentation (Qmax(before)), post-void residual volume (PVR), and cystometry. Fifteen patients with DLB and PD and 16 patients with AD were examined. MVV, PVR, Qmax(before) and with transurethral catheter, cystometric bladder capacity, and detrusor pressor at maximum flow were similar in the three groups and corresponded to values of the general elderly population. Urge episodes and urge incontinence were observed in 93 and 53% of the patients with DLB, 53 and 27% of the patients with PD, and 19 and 12% of the patients with AD, and detrusor overactivity in 92% of the patients with DLB, 46% of the patients with PD, and 40% of the patients with AD. Urgency and urge incontinence suggest detrusor overactivity, which was more prevalent in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, whereas mean voided volume, free flow, cystometric bladder capacity, and detrusor pressor were similar in the groups. Frequency of micturition could not be reliably assessed in patients with dementia.

  7. Diffusible gradients are out - an interview with Lewis Wolpert. Interviewed by Richardson, Michael K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    In 1969, Lewis Wolpert published a paper outlining his new concepts of "pattern formation" and "positional information". He had already published research on the mechanics of cell membranes in amoebae, and a series of classic studies of sea urchin gastrulation with Trygve Gustavson. Wolpert had presented his 1969 paper a year earlier at a Woods Hole conference, where it received a very hostile reception: "I wasnt asked back to America for many years!". But with Francis Crick lining up in support of diffusible morphogen gradients, positional information eventually became established as a guiding principle for research into biological pattern formation. It is now clear that pattern formation is much more complex than could possibly have been imagined in 1969. But Wolpert still believes in positional information, and regards intercalation during regeneration as its best supporting evidence. However, he and others doubt that diffusible morphogen gradients are a plausible mechanism: "Diffusible gradients are too messy", he says. Since his retirement, Lewis Wolpert has remained active as a theoretical biologist and continues to publish in leading journals. He has also campaigned for a greater public understanding of the stigma of depression. He was interviewed at home in London on July 26th, 2007 by Michael Richardson.

  8. Lewis basicity, adhesion thermodynamic work and coordinating ability on aminated silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra [Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Energía Química y Electroquímica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Paniagua, Sergio A. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Borge, Ignacio [Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Energía Química y Electroquímica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Viales, Christian [Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Montero, Mavis L., E-mail: mavis.montero@ucr.ac.cr [Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Energía Química y Electroquímica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 2060 (Costa Rica)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces with diamines followed by anchoring of copper complexes over the diamine layer, an approach that could be used for advanced functionalization of semiconducting surfaces. • Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. • Higher basicity and thermodynamic work correlate with selective copper acetate monolayer grow. The cyclic voltammetry studies confirm the confined copper redox activity. - Abstract: Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces have been modified with three different amines (aniline, benzylamine and dodecylamine) and diamines (4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 1,12-dodecyldiamine). The surface energy was measured by contact angle technique. For Si-diamine surfaces, Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. We related these data, the amine/diamine nature and their geometry on the surface (via DFT calculations) with the consequent ability to coordinate copper(II) acetate. Finally, copper(II) acetate monolayers behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  9. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  10. Bridging Molecular Genetics and Biomarkers in Lewy Body and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert J. Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have been made in defining the genetic and molecular basis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLBs and related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD which comprise the spectrum of “Lewy body disorders” (LBDs. The genetic alterations and underlying disease mechanisms in the LBD overlap substantially, suggesting common disease mechanisms. As with the other neurodegenerative dementias, early diagnosis in LBD or even identification prior to symptom onset is key to developing effective therapeutic strategies, but this is dependent upon the development of robust, specific, and sensitive biomarkers as diagnostic tools and therapeutic endpoints. Recently identified mutations in the synucleins and other relevant genes in PD and DLB as well as related biomolecular pathways suggest candidate markers from biological fluids and imaging modalities that reflect the underlying disease mechanisms. In this context, several promising biomarkers for the LBD have already been identified and examined, while other intriguing possible candidates have recently emerged. Challenges remain in defining their correlation with pathological processes and their ability to detect DLB and related disorders, and perhaps a combined array of biomarkers may be needed to distinguish various LBDs.

  11. [Case with probable dementia with Lewy bodies, who shows reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), showing reduplicative paramnesia (RP) and Capgras syndrome (CS). The patient, a right-handed 60 year-old male, began to show progressive dementia. At the age of 65, he showed fluctuating cognitive impairment and recurrent visual hallucinations. His SPECT demonstrated hypoperfusion not in the medial temporal cortices, but in the parieto-occipital lobes, where the right hemisphere was dominantly hypoperfused. He was diagnosed with probable DLB. In addition to recurrent visual hallucinations, he showed a sense of self- (or others) transfiguration, consciousness of something non-existent (Leibhaftige Bewusstheit; Jaspers, K.), and fluctuating visuo-spacial impairment. At the age of 67, he gradually complained of his duplicative wives "sosie". Finally he went so far as to talk about a nameless phantom boarder. We considered that RP and CS of this case comprised a sense of self-(or others) transfiguration, misidentification of important persons and places, and productive symptoms such as consciousness of something non-existent (Leibhaftige Bewusstheit) and visual hallucinations. The above mentioned symptoms might be originated not only from the disturbance of visuospacial recognition, which involves the limbic system (especially amygdala), medial frontal cortex, and right hemisphere of the brain, but also from the disturbance of recursive consciousness, due to diffusely damaged brain regions with Lewy body pathology. (Authors' abstract)

  12. Evaluation of the surgical apgar score in patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøyer, Simon; Mantoni, Teit; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2017-02-01

    The Surgical Apgar Score is a simple outcome score based on intraoperative parameters. The scoring system is recently validated in patients undergoing esophagectomy but without comparable results. This study evaluated the ability of the original and modified Surgical Apgar Scores to predict major complications in a patient population undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. We retrospectively examined 234 patients who successfully underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from November 23, 2011 till November 23, 2014. Major complications were defined as Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa or higher within 30 days after surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors associated with major complications. Receiver operating characteristics were performed for determination of the predictive value of the Surgical Apgar Score scoring systems. There were 64 (27.4%) patients with at least one major complication and 4 (1.7%) deaths. The original and modified versions of the Surgical Apgar Score were not associated with major complications and the scoring systems showed no significant predictive value when receiver operating characteristics were performed. The original or modified versions of the Surgical Apgar Score could possibly be useful in some subgroups of esophagectomy patients, but should not be considered to have a general predictive value. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:186-191. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Seeking out the sweet spot in cancer therapeutics: an interview with Lewis Cantley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lewis C. Cantley, Director of the Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center at Weill Cornell Medicine, is a world leader in cancer and metabolic disease research. His seminal discoveries have shed light on the regulation of ion pumps and other transport proteins, insulin-mediated regulation of glucose metabolism and the role of signal transduction networks in cell transformation. At Tufts University in the 1980s, Lewis and his collaborators unveiled and characterized the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway; a discovery that revolutionized the field of lipid signaling. In this interview, he documents his journey from serendipitous discovery of the pathway to determining its diverse physiological functions and role in cancer – an incredible odyssey that has laid the groundwork for clinical trials based on PI3K inhibitors. He also discusses the impact his early life had in spurring a thirst to understand biological processes at the molecular level, highlights how his multiple collaborations have helped in translating his basic discoveries to the clinic and explains why eating a high-sugar diet can be harmful. Ongoing studies in the Cantley lab are aimed at determining the mechanistic underpinnings of pancreatic, colorectal, ovarian and breast cancers, particularly the role of cellular metabolic pathways. The group has recently shown, amongst other breakthroughs, that vitamin C could provide a promising therapy for certain hard-to-treat cancers.

  14. Determining the association of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism with delusions and hallucinations in Lewy body dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Byron; Ballard, Clive; Aarsland, Dag; Londos, Elisabet; Sharp, Sally; Jones, Emma

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism is associated with delusions and hallucinations in people with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson disease dementia (PDD). Prospective cohort study. A total of 187 individuals, recruited from centres in Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were included in this study; 97 with clinically or neuropathologically diagnosed DLB/PDD and 90 cognitively normal individuals as a comparison group. All participants with dementia underwent serial evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms to assess the presence of persistent delusions and hallucinations using the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer disease, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, or the Present Behavioural Examination. Severity of cognitive impairment was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Individuals were genotyped for the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Logistic regression demonstrated that homozygosity for the L/L genotype and lower MMSE were associated with an increased risk for delusions (odds ratio: 11.5 and 1.16, respectively). Neither was significantly associated with hallucinations. This study is the first to demonstrate the 5HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with delusions in Lewy body dementias, with important implications regarding the mechanisms underlying this symptom across the AD/DLB/PDD spectrum. Further studies are warranted to investigate this relationship further and examine treatment opportunities. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Support and information needs following a diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Alison; Flynn, Darren; De Brún, Aoife; O'Brien, Nicola; O'Brien, John; Thomas, Alan J; McKeith, Ian; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the information and support needs of people with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and their families around the time of diagnosis. A volunteer sample of patients with DLB and their family members completed a web survey hosted by the UK based Lewy Body Society in May 2014. This focused on past experiences of information and support received and what information and support needs would have been beneficial at the time of diagnosis. One hundred and twenty five adults responded to the survey. The majority were first degree relatives or spouses of people with DLB (n = 107, 86%). Approximately 50% (n = 61) reported they had not received any tangible support at diagnosis. Thirteen categories of information needs were identified. People with DLB and their family members are currently inadequately supported at diagnosis. There is a need to address information needs related to symptomology, medication and prognosis, including provision of emotional and instrumental social support. Seeking the views of recipients of information and support is important in ensuring relevance and appropriateness prior to the development of interventions to improve the knowledge and coping skills of people with DLB and caregivers.

  16. Uptake index of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy for diagnosing Lewy body disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Kamiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy has been used to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in Lewy body disease (LBD, including Parkinson’s disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The heart-tomediastinum ratio (H/M in PD and DLB is significantly lower than that in Parkinson’s plus syndromes and Alzheimer’s disease. Although this ratio is useful for distinguishing LBD from non-LBD, it fluctuates depending on the system performance of the gamma cameras. Therefore, a new, simple quantification method using 123I-MIBG uptake analysis is required for clinical study. The purpose of this study was to develop a new uptake index with a simple protocol to determine 123I-MIBG uptake on planar images.Methods: The 123I-MIBG input function was obtained from the input counts of the pulmonary artery (PA, which were assessed by analyzing the PA time-activity curves. The heart region of interest used for determining the H/M was used for calculating the uptake index, which was obtained by dividing the heart count by the input count.Results: Forty-eight patients underwent 123I-MIBG chest angiography and planar imaging, after clinical feature assessment and tracer injection. The H/M and 123I-MIBG uptake index were calculated and correlated with clinical features. Values for LBD were significantly lower than those for non-LBD in all analyses (P

  17. Alpha-synuclein oligomers - neurotoxic molecules in Parkinson’s disease and other Lewy body disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ingelsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse intra- and extracellular effects of toxic α-synuclein are believed to be central to the pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy body pathology in the nervous system. One of the physiological roles of α-synuclein relates to the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the presynapse, although it is still unclear whether this mechanism depends on the action of monomers or smaller oligomers. As for the pathogenicity, accumulating evidence suggest that prefibrillar species, rather than the deposits per se, are responsible for the toxicity in affected cells. In particular, larger oligomers or protofibrils of α-synuclein have been shown to impair protein degradation as well as the function of several organelles, such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulating evidence further suggest that oligomers/protofibrils may have a toxic effect on the synapse, which may lead to disrupted electrophysiological properties. In addition, recent data indicate that oligomeric α-synuclein species can spread between cells, either as free-floating proteins or via extracellular vesicles, and thereby act as seeds to propagate disease between interconnected brain regions. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest that α-synuclein have neurotoxic properties and therefore should be an appropriate molecular target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy pathology. In this context, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against α-synuclein oligomers/protofibrils should be a particularly attractive treatment option.

  18. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An exploratory study of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students' application of Lewis's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sumudu R.

    This exploratory study was based on the assumption that proficiency in chemistry must not be determined exclusively on students' declarative and procedural knowledge, but it should be also described as the ability to use variety of reasoning strategies that enrich and diversify procedural methods. The study furthermore assumed that the ability to describe the structure of a molecule using Lewis's model and use it to predict its geometry as well as some of its properties is indicative of proficiency in the essential concepts of covalent bonding and molecule structure. The study therefore inquired into the reasoning methods and procedural techniques of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students when solving problems, which require them to use Lewis's model. The research design included an original survey, designed by the researcher for this study, and two types of interviews, with students and course instructors. The purpose of the survey was two-fold. First and foremost, the survey provided a base for the student interview selection, and second it served as the foundation for the inquiry into the strategies the student use when solving survey problems. Twenty two students were interviewed over the course of the study. The interview with six instructors allowed to identify expected prior knowledge and skills, which the students should have acquired upon completion of the Chemistry I course. The data, including videos, audios, and photographs of the artifacts produced by students during the interviews, were organized and analyzed manually and using QSR NVivo 10. The research found and described the differences between proficient and non-proficient students' reasoning and procedural strategies when using Lewis's model to describe the structure of a molecule. One of the findings clearly showed that the proficient students used a variety of cues to reason, whereas other students used one memorized cue, or an algorithm, which often led to incorrect representations in

  20. Reaktivität von niedervalenten Übergangsmetallkomplexen gegenüber Lewis-Säuren

    OpenAIRE

    Gruß, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Reaktivität von niedervalenten Übergangsmetallkomplexen gegenüber Lewis-Säuren systematisch untersucht. Dabei konnten zwei unterschiedliche Reaktionsmuster aufgedeckt werden. Einerseits wurden Produkte der oxidativen Addition isoliert, andererseits wurde die Bildung von Lewis-Säure-Base-Addukten beobachtet. Die Umsetzung von [Pd(PCy3)2] mit den Bromboranen BrBCat’ und Br2BPip resultiert in den Palladiumborylkomplexen trans [(Cy3P)2Pd(Br)(BCat’)] und...

  1. Investigation of prototypal MOFs consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites for quinoline synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Leng, Kunyue; Cash, Lindsay; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Stackhouse, Chavis A; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-03-21

    A series of prototypal metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites, have been systematically investigated for Friedländer annulation reaction, a straightforward approach to synthesizing quinoline and its derivatives. Amongst them MMCF-2 demonstrates significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the benchmark MOFs, HKUST-1 and MOF-505, as a result of a high-density of accessible Cu(II) Lewis acid sites and large window size in the cuboctahedral cage-based nanoreactor of MMCF-2.

  2. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome and Semantic Dementia in Neuropathologically Proven Lewy Body Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Hamelin, Lorraine; Hahn, Valé; Habert, Marie-Odile; Seilhean, Danielle; Duyckaerts, Charles; Sarazin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The impact of neuropathological lesions on the clinical symptoms and progression of Lewy body disease (LBD) remains unclear. To address this issue, we describe two illustrative cases of autopsy-proven LBD that presented atypical phenotypes of progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome and semantic dementia. Postmortem examination revealed diffuse LBD with massive brainstem involvement in case 1, whereas Lewy bodies predominated in the amygdala and neocortex in case 2. Alzheimer's disease pathology was present in both cases, and TDP-43 inclusions were noted in case 2. These cases illustrate two contrasted clinical presentations and highlight the heterogeneity within the underlying proteinopathies of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. FROM THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION TO IBM, DELL, AND SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: TEACHING HISTORY AND LEADERSHIP TO BUSINESS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available History is not a tomb of dead facts but a resource that can inform and improve everyday decision making. Experience as an analytical tool is invaluable for solving problems in changing and competitive environments. “From the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which coincides with the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (2003—2006, demonstrates how contemporary business concepts of visionary leadership, systematic planning, and organizational climate were instrumental to the success of Thomas Jefferson's “Corps of Discovery” and shows how a mastery of these concepts contributed to the successes of the pioneering US corporations IBM, Southwest Airlines, and Dell.

  4. Mechanisms and Origins of Selectivities of the Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reactions between Arylallenes and Acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiyuan; Li, Wei; Houk, K N

    2017-06-16

    The mechanisms of recently reported Lewis acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions of arylallenes and acrylates were studied using density functional theory calculations. A stepwise mechanism involving short-lived zwitterion intermediates is established. The reaction is endo-selective in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst. The [2 + 2] cycloaddition is not observed because of the greater charge separation in the first step of the [2 + 2] cycloaddition. The origins of chirality transfer in the Diels-Alder reaction using chiral arylallenes are uncovered, and the absolute stereochemistry of the product is predicted.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies selective for α‐synuclein oligomers/protofibrils recognize brain pathology in Lewy body disorders and α‐synuclein transgenic mice with the disease‐causing A30P mutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fagerqvist, Therese; Lindström, Veronica; Nordström, Eva; Lord, Anna; Tucker, Stina M. E; Su, Xingjian; Sahlin, Charlotte; Kasrayan, Alex; Andersson, Jessica; Welander, Hedvig; Näsström, Thomas; Holmquist, Mats; Schell, Heinrich; Kahle, Philipp J; Kalimo, Hannu; Möller, Christer; Gellerfors, Pär; Lannfelt, Lars; Bergström, Joakim; Ingelsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    ...‐synuclein oligomers were generated. These antibodies, which do not bind amyloid‐beta or tau, recognize Lewy body pathology in brains from patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and detect pathology earlier in α...

  6. Investigating the genetic architecture of dementia with Lewy bodies: a two-stage genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Rita; Ross, Owen A; Kun-Rodrigues, Celia; Hernandez, Dena G; Orme, Tatiana; Eicher, John D; Shepherd, Claire E; Parkkinen, Laura; Darwent, Lee; Heckman, Michael G; Scholz, Sonja W; Troncoso, Juan C; Pletnikova, Olga; Ansorge, Olaf; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Morenas-Rodriguez, Estrella; Clark, Lorraine; Honig, Lawrence S; Marder, Karen; Lemstra, Afina; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Londos, Elisabet; Zetterberg, Henrik; Barber, Imelda; Braae, Anne; Brown, Kristelle; Morgan, Kevin; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lashley, Tammaryn; Holton, Janice; Compta, Yaroslau; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Serrano, Geidy E; Beach, Thomas G; Lesage, Suzanne; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Santana, Isabel; Pastor, Pau; Diez-Fairen, Monica; Aguilar, Miquel; Tienari, Pentti J; Myllykangas, Liisa; Oinas, Minna; Revesz, Tamas; Lees, Andrew; Boeve, Brad F; Petersen, Ronald C; Ferman, Tanis J; Escott-Price, Valentina; Graff-Radford, Neill; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Mann, David; Halliday, Glenda M; Hardy, John; Trojanowski, John Q; Dickson, Dennis W; Singleton, Andrew; Stone, David J; Bras, Jose

    2018-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of dementia in elderly people but has been overshadowed in the research field, partly because of similarities between dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. So far, to our knowledge, no large-scale genetic study of dementia with Lewy bodies has been done. To better understand the genetic basis of dementia with Lewy bodies, we have done a genome-wide association study with the aim of identifying genetic risk factors for this disorder. In this two-stage genome-wide association study, we collected samples from white participants of European ancestry who had been diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies according to established clinical or pathological criteria. In the discovery stage (with the case cohort recruited from 22 centres in ten countries and the controls derived from two publicly available database of Genotypes and Phenotypes studies [phs000404.v1.p1 and phs000982.v1.p1] in the USA), we performed genotyping and exploited the recently established Haplotype Reference Consortium panel as the basis for imputation. Pathological samples were ascertained following autopsy in each individual brain bank, whereas clinical samples were collected after participant examination. There was no specific timeframe for collection of samples. We did association analyses in all participants with dementia with Lewy bodies, and also only in participants with pathological diagnosis. In the replication stage, we performed genotyping of significant and suggestive results from the discovery stage. Lastly, we did a meta-analysis of both stages under a fixed-effects model and used logistic regression to test for association in each stage. This study included 1743 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (1324 with pathological diagnosis) and 4454 controls (1216 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies vs 3791 controls in the discovery stage; 527 vs 663 in the replication stage). Results confirm

  7. Elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: 2008-2012 synthesis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Cole, Carla; Clatterbuck, Chris; Boetsch, John; Beirne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources associated with the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Elk were critically important to the Lewis and Clark expedition in providing food and hides that sustained the expedition during the winter of 1805-06 and supplied them for their return east during 1806. Today, elk remain a key component of interpreting the Lewis and Clark story to over 200,000 park visitors each year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. In 2008, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began collaborating with Lewis and Clark NHP and the NPS North Coast and Cascades Network to develop a protocol for monitoring long-term changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of elk use within and adjacent to Lewis and Clark NHP (Griffin et al. 2011). Specific objectives of the monitoring program were to measure trends in (1) relative use of the Fort Clatsop unit by elk during winter; (2) the proportion of areas where elk sign is present in the Fort Clatsop unit in winter; and (3) the frequency of elk sightings from roads in and around the Fort Clatsop unit. This report synthesizes the results of the first four years of monitoring elk distribution and use in Lewis and Clark NHP from 2008-2012. We also present data from FY2012 (Appendix 1), in lieu of an annual report for that year. We used fecal pellet group surveys as the cornerstone for monitoring trends in both relative use of the Fort Clatsop Unit by elk and the proportion of areas where elk sign was present at the end of winter. We estimated pellet group density based on data collected from a network of fecal pellet plots distributed systematically throughout the unit. We developed a double observer sampling scheme that enabled us to estimate detection biases and improve the accuracy of pellet group density estimates. We computed

  8. Carbonyl Activation by Borane Lewis Acid Complexation: Transition States of H2Splitting at the Activated Carbonyl Carbon Atom in a Lewis Basic Solvent and the Proton-Transfer Dynamics of the Boroalkoxide Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Mojgan; Privalov, Timofei

    2017-07-06

    By using transition-state (TS) calculations, we examined how Lewis acid (LA) complexation activates carbonyl compounds in the context of hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds by H 2 in Lewis basic (ethereal) solvents containing borane LAs of the type (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B. According to our calculations, LA complexation does not activate a ketone sufficiently enough for the direct addition of H 2 to the O=C unsaturated bond; but, calculations indicate a possibly facile heterolytic cleavage of H 2 at the activated and thus sufficiently Lewis acidic carbonyl carbon atom with the assistance of the Lewis basic solvent (i.e., 1,4-dioxane or THF). For the solvent-assisted H 2 splitting at the carbonyl carbon atom of (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B adducts with different ketones, a number of TSs are computed and the obtained results are related to insights from experiment. By using the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the DFT for electronic structure calculations, the evolution of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide ionic intermediate and the proton transfer to the alkoxide oxygen atom were investigated. The results indicate a plausible hydrogenation mechanism with a LA, that is, (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B, as a catalyst, namely, 1) the step of H 2 cleavage that involves a Lewis basic solvent molecule plus the carbonyl carbon atom of thermodynamically stable and experimentally identifiable (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-ketone adducts in which (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B is the "Lewis acid promoter", 2) the transfer of the solvent-bound proton to the oxygen atom of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide intermediate giving the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alcohol adduct, and 3) the S N 2-style displacement of the alcohol by a ketone or a Lewis basic solvent molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Efectos de inhibidores de colinesterasa en pacientes con enfermedad asociada a cuerpos de Lewy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar los efectos de los inhibidores de colinesterasas (ICE donepezilo, rivastigmina y galantamina en el tratamiento de demencia con cuerpos de Lewy (DCL y demencia de la enfermedad de Parkinson (DEP. Diseño: Estudio tipo ensayo abierto. Lugar: Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Militar Central (HMC, y Unidad de Diagnóstico de Deterioro Cognitivo y Prevención de Demencia, Clínica Internacional. Participantes: Pacientes con demencia asociada a cuerpos de Lewy y demencia de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Intervenciones: Las mediciones de eficacia en 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de DCL y DEP se realizó con el Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL, Neuro-Psychiatry Inventory (NPI, Prueba de dibujo de Reloj de Manos (PDR-M y la Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale-motor subscale (UPDRS-part III. Principales medidas de resultados: Síntomas cognitivos, funcionamiento global y actividades de vida diaria de los pacientes. Resultados: Diecisiete pacientes fueron tratados con rivastigmina, 9 con galantamina y 7 con donepezilo. Luego de 6 meses de tratamiento, los pacientes en tratamiento con rivastigmina mejoraron en 1,39 puntos en ADAS-cog respecto de su medición basal, mientras que los pacientes tratados con donepezilo y galantamina no mostraron cambios (cambios <0,2 puntos. Respecto al ADCS-ADL, los pacientes tratados con rivastigmina, donepezilo y galantamina demostraron disminución de 0,42, 0,58 y 0,75 puntos, respectivamente. En el MMSE, los pacientes tratados con rivastigmina y donepezilo no mostraron cambios y los pacientes tratados con galantamina tuvieron una disminución promedio de 1,19 puntos. No hubo diferencias significativas en la incidencia de síntomas parkinsonianos en los tres

  10. Tumour necrosis factor-induced uveitis in the Lewis rat is associated with intraocular interleukin 6 production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, A. F.; van Haren, M. A.; Verhagen, C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lewis rats were injected with recombinant murine tumour necrosis factor-alpha either intravitreally (0.08-50 ng) or intracardially (1 microgram). The intraocular inflammatory response induced by tumour necrosis factor was examined by slit-lamp and protein extravasation into aqueous humor was

  11. Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs: C-H versus C≡C activation and CO2 fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelt, C.; Westenberg, H.; Bertini, F.; Ehlers, A.W.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lammertsma, K.; Uhl, W.

    2011-01-01

    Catch it! Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) are easily obtained by hydroalumination of alkynylphosphines. These FLPs can activate terminal acetylenes by two competitive pathways, which were analyzed by DFT calculations, and they can bind carbon dioxide reversibly.

  12. High-fat diet enhances and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency attenuates bone loss in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1-/-) on bone structure in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) by 22% and 21%, trabecular number (Tb.N) by 8% and 4% and bone mineral de...

  13. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan

    2017-10-12

    According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.

  14. 76 FR 10889 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Grow the Army (GTA) Actions at Fort Lewis and the Yakima Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Training Center (YTC), Washington AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA... be found in the ROD which is available for public review at http://www.lewis.army.mil/publicworks... of the Army, Environment, Safety and Occupational Health. BILLING CODE 3710-08-P ...

  15. Direct binding of autoimmune disease related T cell epitopes to purified Lewis rat MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joosten, I; Wauben, M H; Holewijn, M C

    1994-01-01

    characteristics of the Lewis rat MHC class II RT1.B1 molecule. We have now developed a biochemical binding assay which enables competition studies in which the relative MHC binding affinity of a set of non-labelled peptides can be assessed while employing detection of biotinylated marker peptides...

  16. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  17. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  18. Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and changes in plasma cytokine concentrations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

  19. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luisa Caricio; de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oti, Henrique Takeshi; do Socorro Pompeu Loiola, Rosane; Aguiar, Delia Cristina Figueira; dos Santos Barile, Katarine Antonia; do Amaral, Renata Kelly Costa; Barbosa, Hivana Patricia Melo; Fecury, Amanda Alves; de Souza, Juciclayton Tavares

    2006-02-21

    To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expression in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the presence of gastric epithelial lesions. The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa of H pylori-infected gastric ulcer patients was analyzed. Forty-two patients with gastric ulcer were studied, and fifty healthy individuals were used as control group. The blood group antigens were determined by direct hemagglutination, dot-ELISA and immunohistochemical methods in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa specimens, respectively. Diagnosis for H pylori infection was performed by conventional optical microscopy and ELISA. A higher seroprevalence of IgG H pylori specific antibodies was observed in gastric ulcer patients (90%) compared to the control group (60%). We observed a significant increase of phenotypes O, A2 and Lewis b in H pylori-infected patients. The expression of these antigens had progressive alterations in areas of ulcerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia. ABH and Lewis blood group antigens are a good indicator for cellular alterations in the gastric epithelium.

  20. 75 FR 49516 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... observation and photography, ] and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and update the... availability: final comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... plan and environmental impact statement (final CCP/EIS) for the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife...

  1. 76 FR 77247 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for... and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White- tailed Deer... Butler Hansen ROD'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Willapa National Wildlife Refuge Complex...

  2. GDF15/MIC1 and MMP9 Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Parkinson's Disease and Lewy Body Dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Maetzler

    Full Text Available Based on animal and ex-vivo experiments, Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15, also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1, MIC1, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9, a member of the matrix metalloprotease family may be potential markers for Lewy body disorders, i.e. Parkinson's disease with (PDD and without dementia (PDND and Lewy body dementia (DLB. GDF15 has a prominent role in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair, whereas MMP9 degrades, as a proteolytic enzyme, components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid GDF15 and MMP9 levels of 59 PDND, 17 PDD and 23 DLB patients, as well as of 95 controls were determined, and associated with demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters. Our analysis confirmed the already described association of GDF15 levels with age and gender. Corrected GDF15 levels were significantly higher in PDD than in PDND patients, and intermediate in DLB patients. Within Lewy body disorders, GDF15 levels correlated positively with age at onset of Parkinsonism and dementia, Hoehn & Yahr stage and cerebrospinal fluid t-Tau and p-Tau levels, and negatively with the Mini Mental State Examination. Remarkably, it does not relevantly correlate with disease duration. MMP9 was not relevantly associated with any of these parameters. Cerebrospinal GDF15, but not MMP9, may be a potential marker of and in Lewy body disorders.

  3. GDF15/MIC1 and MMP9 Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Parkinson's Disease and Lewy Body Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetzler, Walter; Deleersnijder, Willy; Hanssens, Valérie; Bernard, Alice; Brockmann, Kathrin; Marquetand, Justus; Wurster, Isabel; Rattay, Tim W; Roncoroni, Lorenzo; Schaeffer, Eva; Lerche, Stefanie; Apel, Anja; Deuschle, Christian; Berg, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Based on animal and ex-vivo experiments, Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15, also called Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1, MIC1), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), a member of the matrix metalloprotease family may be potential markers for Lewy body disorders, i.e. Parkinson's disease with (PDD) and without dementia (PDND) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). GDF15 has a prominent role in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair, whereas MMP9 degrades, as a proteolytic enzyme, components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid GDF15 and MMP9 levels of 59 PDND, 17 PDD and 23 DLB patients, as well as of 95 controls were determined, and associated with demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters. Our analysis confirmed the already described association of GDF15 levels with age and gender. Corrected GDF15 levels were significantly higher in PDD than in PDND patients, and intermediate in DLB patients. Within Lewy body disorders, GDF15 levels correlated positively with age at onset of Parkinsonism and dementia, Hoehn & Yahr stage and cerebrospinal fluid t-Tau and p-Tau levels, and negatively with the Mini Mental State Examination. Remarkably, it does not relevantly correlate with disease duration. MMP9 was not relevantly associated with any of these parameters. Cerebrospinal GDF15, but not MMP9, may be a potential marker of and in Lewy body disorders.

  4. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  5. Tumor Progression Is Associated with Increasing CD11b(+) Cells and CCL2 in Lewis Rat Sarcoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Rajbardhan; Kovalská, Jana; Janda, Jozef; Vannucci, Luca; Rajmon, R.; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2015), s. 703-712 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lewis rat sarcoma * CD11b+cells * neutrophils Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2015

  6. Enantioselective Aza-Sakurai Cyclizations: Dual Role of Thiourea as H-Bond Donor and Lewis Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho; Schindler, Corinna S; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-11-16

    An enantioselective, catalytic aza-Sakurai cyclization of chlorolactams has been developed as an efficient entry into indolizidine and quinolizidine frameworks. Structure-enantioselectivity relationship studies and mechanistic analysis point to a dual role of the catalyst wherein the thiourea moiety of the catalyst is engaged in both anion binding and Lewis base activation of a substrate.

  7. Establishing effective working relations with a potential user community - NASA Lewis Research Center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has held a series of six major and unique technology utilization conferences which were major milestones in planned structured efforts to establish effective working relationships with specific technology user communities. These efforts were unique in that the activities undertaken prior to the conference were extensive, and effectively laid the groundwork for productive technology transfer following, and as a direct result of, the conferences. The effort leading to the conference was in each case tailored to the characteristics of the potential user community, however, the common factors comprise a basic framework applicable to similar endeavors. The process is essentially a planned sequence of steps that constitute a technical market survey and a marketing program for the development of beneficial applications of aerospace technology beyond the aerospace field.

  8. Chemistry of stannylene-based Lewis pairs: dynamic tin coordination switching between donor and acceptor character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Kilian M; Freitag, Sarah; Schubert, Hartmut; Gerke, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer; Wesemann, Lars

    2015-03-16

    The coordination chemistry of cyclic stannylene-based intramolecular Lewis pairs is presented. The P→Sn adducts were treated with [Ni(COD)2] and [Pd(PCy3)2] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, PCy3 = tricyclohexylphosphine). In the isolated coordination compounds the stannylene moiety acts either as an acceptor or a donor ligand. Examples of a dynamic switch between these two coordination modes of the P-Sn ligand are illustrated and the structures in the solid state together with heteronuclear NMR spectroscopic findings are discussed. In the case of a Ni(0) complex, (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy of the uncoordinated and coordinated phosphastannirane ligand is presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Migratory route of Strongyloides venezuelensis in Lewis rats: comparison of histological analyses and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Nelson Mendes; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Machado, Gabriel Capella; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; França, Thaís Graziela Donegá; Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Amarante, Alessandro F T; Sartori, Alexandrina; Amarante, Mônica R V

    2011-02-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode that has been used as a model to study human and animal strongyloidiasis. In this study, we compared the sensitivity between traditional methodologies and PCR assay to characterize the dynamics of S. venezuelensis infection and its migration route in Lewis rats subcutaneously infected with 4000 L3. The dynamics of the infection was determined by counting the number of eggs and by detecting parasite deoxyribonucleic acid in faeces samples. Both techniques similarly detected the infection at day 6 after larvae inoculation. However, PCR performed with the genus primer showed higher sensitivity during the recovery phase. Histological analysis and PCR assay were then used to follow parasite tissue migration. S. venezuelensis migration route included the muscular fibers below the skin, the pulmonary alveoli and the small intestine vilosities. The sensitivity of these two techniques to detect parasite's presence in these tissues was statistically similar. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dark science and techno-utopia: the conservative approach of C. S. Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ramos Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of scientific, illustrated and progressive late nineteenth century utopias triggered proposals with alternative meanings. Some of those were articulated through a conservative thought as well as a christian, transcendent and otherworldly metanarrative. C. S. Lewis, for example, provided his answer to the techno-utopia in his essay The Abolition of Man as well as in the novel That Hideous Strength —conclusion of the Cosmic Trilogy (or Ransom Trilogy. We will introduce his challenge through three different arguments: (1 contrary to the project of personality conditioning , education is a link of continuity with the past and of respect for tradition; (2 in the light of the methodological atheism of these dystopias elicited the metaphysical and transcendent lewisian foundation of the imperfection of the human condition; (3 He will reply to the arrogance of social and political engineering by reducing power to a technical criterion of instrumental knowledge with the modest language of politics.

  11. The Reception of C. S.Lewis in Post-Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conţac Emanuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the circumstances surrounding the publication of the Romanian translations of C. S. Lewis’s best known works. In the first part, the author gives information about the Romanian authors who were acquainted with Lewis’s writings during Communism, when the translation and printing of books on religious topics was under the tight control of a totalitarian government. In spite of that control, two Lewis titles-The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and Mere Christianity-which were translated in the US, were smuggled into Romania. The second part of this paper deals with the remarkably changed situation after the emergence of a new regime in 1990. Since then Lewis’s books have been published, often in multiple print runs, by secular as well as Christian publishers, with a total of 12 fiction and 13 non-fiction titles, indicating a wide popular reception of his work.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of genetic correlation in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Rita; Escott-Price, Valentina; Darwent, Lee; Parkkinen, Laura; Ansorge, Olaf; Hernandez, Dena G.; Nalls, Michael A.; Clark, Lorraine; Honig, Lawrence; Marder, Karen; van der Flier, Wiesje; Holstege, Henne; Louwersheimer, Eva; Lemstra, Afina; Scheltens, Philip; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Londos, Elisabet; Zetterberg, Henrik; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Pau; Ferman, Tanis J.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Ross, Owen A.; Barber, Imelda; Braae, Anne; Brown, Kristelle; Morgan, Kevin; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lashley, Tammaryn; Compta, Yaroslau; Revesz, Tamas; Lees, Andrew; Cairns, Nigel J.; Halliday, Glenda M.; Mann, David; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Powell, John; Lunnon, Katie; Lupton, Michelle K.; Dickson, Dennis; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew; Bras, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The similarities between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are many and range from clinical presentation, to neuropathological characteristics, to more recently identified, genetic determinants of risk. Because of these overlapping features, diagnosing DLB is challenging and has clinical implications since some therapeutic agents that are applicable in other diseases have adverse effects in DLB. Having shown that DLB shares some genetic risk with PD and AD, we have now quantified the amount of sharing through the application of genetic correlation estimates, and show that, from a purely genetic perspective, and excluding the strong association at the APOE locus, DLB is equally correlated to AD and PD. PMID:26643944

  13. Dynamic force spectroscopy of the Helicobacter pylori BabA-Lewis b binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnham, Oscar; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Schedin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    The binding strength of the Helicobacter pylori adhesin-receptor complex BabA-ABO/Lewis b has been analyzed by means of dynamic force spectroscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces were performed in situ on single bacterial cells, expressing the high-affinity binding BabA adhesin, by the use of force measuring optical tweezers. The resulting force spectra revealed the mechanical properties of a single BabA-Leb bond. It was found that the bond is dominated by one single energy barrier and that it is a slip-bond. The bond length and thermal off-rate were assessed to be 0.86+/-0.07 nm and 0.015+/-0.006 s(-1), respectively.

  14. Genetic Alzheimer Disease and Sporadic Dementia With Lewy Bodies: A Comorbidity Presenting as Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picková, Tereza; Matěj, Radoslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Keller, Jiří; van der Zee, Julie; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Cséfalvay, Zsolt; Rusina, Robert

    2017-03-01

    We report a 44-year-old woman, with a family history of early-onset dementia, presenting with primary progressive aphasia. This clinically variable syndrome has multiple underlying pathologies, and correlations between clinical manifestations and postmortem neuropathologic findings are controversial. Our patient suffered worsening language impairment with major word-finding difficulties but preserved comprehension. She also developed episodic memory impairment. Her condition progressed to dementia with behavioral changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed early left perisylvian and bitemporal atrophy. The patient died shortly afterward from colon cancer. Neuropathologic examination revealed advanced early-onset Alzheimer and Lewy body disease, plus a clinically nonrelevant metastasis of her colon cancer in her left parietal lobe. Genetic examination revealed a p.Glu184Asp mutation in the presenilin1 gene. Our findings confirm the importance of a thorough appreciation for the clinical and neuropathologic correlations in patients with atypical neurodegenerative dementias.

  15. Combined Lewis acid and Brønsted acid-mediated reactivity of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Nathan D; Liana Allen, C; Nam, Brandon C; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J

    2013-12-15

    Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored. At the outset, we sought to generate proof of principle for this approach to developing catalytic systems for glycosylation. However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Brønsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prophet”or Professor? The Life and Work of Lewis Fry Richardson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Joseph

    This book focuses on a man who, in his lifetime, was scarcely known to the general public. Yet within certain circles, Richardson has had enormous impact within recent years. Although there are many scientists and humanists who exercise influence in their own respective fields, rarely do they bridge disciplines. It is this combination that has made Lewis Fry Richardson a figure worthy of a full-length biography, not just to record his contributions to each field but to provide an analysis and understanding of what motivated his diversity. In another age, Richardson would have been counted as a Renaissance man. He has variously been referred to as a chemist, physicist, mathematician, psychologist, meteorologist, economist, and biologist. In retrospect, he clearly was well ahead of his time, whether the subject in question was his work in numerical weather prediction or in war studies.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new sialyl Lewis X mimetic derived from lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Stephanie M; Lowe, John B; Koreeda, Masato

    2002-08-09

    A sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) mimetic compound, 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl 3-O-carboxymethyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[alpha-L-fucosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2a), has been synthesized in 14 steps from D-lactose. This synthesis features the use of the activated glycosylating donor, lactosyl iodide, in a Koenigs-Knorr sequence, the regioselective derivatization at the C-3 position of the galactose moiety, and the stereoselective construction of a fucose-alpha(1-->6)-lactose linkage. The mimetic was tested for its ability to inhibit human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (hPMNL) adhesion to immobilized recombinant human E-selectin under shear stress conditions.

  18. Frequencies of ABO and Lewis blood groups in Jorge Lobo's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Eliane A.; Ferasçoli, Margarete O.

    2004-01-01

    A doença de Jorge Lobo é uma micose de evolução crônica, causada pelo Lacazia loboi. Os mecanismos envolvidos na suscetibilidade/resistência do hospedeiro frente ao agente não estão ainda elucidados, dentre eles encontra-se a constituição genética. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a distribuição dos grupos sangüíneos ABO e Lewis de pacientes com doença de Jorge Lobo em relação à população geral. Foram analisados 13 pacientes provenientes do estado do Acre, 60 indivíduos da região...

  19. Agitation and psychosis associated with dementia with Lewy bodies exacerbated by modafinil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Eduardo; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Ngo, Myha; Porter, Verna; Apostolova, Liana; Marrocos, Rogério; Ringman, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is commonly associated with excessive daytime somnolence (EDS). Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent that is considered to have limited interaction with the dopaminergic system. As individuals with DLB are predisposed to psychotic symptoms which might be exacerbated by dopaminergic stimulation, modafinil is considered to be an attractive option for the treatment of EDS in DLB. We describe two cases in which administration of modafinil exacerbated agitation and hallucinations in DLB, and we also review data that may explain the mechanisms underlying this effect. In both cases, psychotic symptoms emerged concomitantly with modafinil administration, and remitted following its discontinuation. Although definitive data regarding the benefits and adverse effects of modafinil for the treatment of EDS in DLB await controlled prospective randomized studies, our observations warrant caution regarding its use in this context. PMID:22892657

  20. A novel plant alpha4-fucosyltransferase (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) synthesises the Lewis(a) adhesion determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A S; Vila-Verde, C; Pires, A S; Fevereiro, P S; Costa, J

    2001-06-22

    We have partially characterised an alpha4-fucosyltransferase (alpha4-FucT) from Vaccinium myrtillus, which catalysed the biosynthesis of the Lewis(a) adhesion determinant. The enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C. The optimum pH was 7.0, both in the presence and in the absence of Mn(2+). The enzyme was inhibited by Mn(2+) and Co(2+), and showed resistance towards inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. It transferred fucose to N-acetylglucosamine in the type I Galbeta3GlcNAc motif from oligosaccharides linked to a hydrophobic tail and glycoproteins (containing the type I motif). Sialylated oligosaccharides containing the type II Galbeta4GlcNAc motif were not acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of the plant alpha4-FucT possibly involves a His residue, and it must have arisen by convergent evolution relative to its mammalian counterparts.

  1. Investigating the genetic architecture of dementia with Lewy bodies: a two-stage genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Rita; Ross, Owen A; Kun-Rodrigues, Celia; Hernandez, Dena G; Orme, Tatiana; Eicher, John D; Shepherd, Claire E; Parkkinen, Laura; Darwent, Lee; Heckman, Michael G; Scholz, Sonja W; Troncoso, Juan C; Pletnikova, Olga; Ansorge, Olaf; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Morenas-Rodriguez, Estrella; Clark, Lorraine; Honig, Lawrence S; Marder, Karen; Lemstra, Afina; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Londos, Elisabet; Zetterberg, Henrik; Barber, Imelda; Braae, Anne; Brown, Kristelle; Morgan, Kevin; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Lashley, Tammaryn; Holton, Janice; Compta, Yaroslau; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Serrano, Geidy E; Beach, Thomas G; Lesage, Suzanne; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Santana, Isabel; Pastor, Pau; Diez-Fairen, Monica; Aguilar, Miquel; Tienari, Pentti J; Myllykangas, Liisa; Oinas, Minna; Revesz, Tamas; Lees, Andrew; Boeve, Brad F; Petersen, Ronald C; Ferman, Tanis J; Escott-Price, Valentina; Graff-Radford, Neill; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Mann, David; Halliday, Glenda M; Hardy, John; Trojanowski, John Q; Dickson, Dennis W; Singleton, Andrew; Stone, David J; Bras, Jose

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of dementia in elderly people but has been overshadowed in the research field, partly because of similarities between dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. So far, to our knowledge, no large-scale genetic study of dementia with Lewy bodies has been done. To better understand the genetic basis of dementia with Lewy bodies, we have done a genome-wide association study with the aim of identifying genetic risk factors for this disorder. Methods In this two-stage genome-wide association study, we collected samples from white participants of European ancestry who had been diagnosed with dementia with Lewy bodies according to established clinical or pathological criteria. In the discovery stage (with the case cohort recruited from 22 centres in ten countries and the controls derived from two publicly available database of Genotypes and Phenotypes studies [phs000404.v1.p1 and phs000982.v1.p1] in the USA), we performed genotyping and exploited the recently established Haplotype Reference Consortium panel as the basis for imputation. Pathological samples were ascertained following autopsy in each individual brain bank, whereas clinical samples were collected after participant examination. There was no specific timeframe for collection of samples. We did association analyses in all participants with dementia with Lewy bodies, and also only in participants with pathological diagnosis. In the replication stage, we performed genotyping of significant and suggestive results from the discovery stage. Lastly, we did a meta-analysis of both stages under a fixed-effects model and used logistic regression to test for association in each stage. Findings This study included 1743 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (1324 with pathological diagnosis) and 4454 controls (1216 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies vs 3791 controls in the discovery stage; 527 vs 663 in the

  2. Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development in Lewis rats from a conventional animal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord that is mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes specific to myelin components. In this study we compared development of EAE in Lewis rats from two colonies, one kept in pathogen-free conditions (CEMIB colony and the other (Botucatu colony kept in a conventional animal facility. Female Lewis rats were immunized with 100 µl of an emulsion containing 50 µg of myelin, associated with incomplete Freund's adjuvant plus Mycobacterium butyricum. Animals were daily evaluated for clinical score and weight. CEMIB colony presented high EAE incidence with clinical scores that varied from three to four along with significant weight losses. A variable disease incidence was observed in the Botucatu colony with clinical scores not higher than one and no weight loss. Immunological and histopathological characteristics were also compared after 20 days of immunization. Significant amounts of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were induced by myelin in cultures from CEMIB animals but not from the Botucatu colony. Significantly higher levels of anti-myelin IgG1 were detected in the CEMIB colony. Clear histopathological differences were also found. Cervical spinal cord sections from CEMIB animals showed typical perivascular inflammatory foci whereas samples from the Botucatu colony showed a scanty inflammatory infiltration. Helminths were found in animals from Botucatu colony but not, as expected, in the CEMIB pathogen-free animals. As the animals maintained in a conventional animal facility developed a very discrete clinical, and histopathological EAE in comparison to the rats kept in pathogen-free conditions, we believe that environmental factors such as intestinal parasites could underlie this resistance to EAE development, supporting the applicability of the hygiene hypothesis to EAE.

  3. Fischer 344 and Lewis Rat Strains as a Model of Genetic Vulnerability to Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60% of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore, the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis on differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neuron functionality. Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigation, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in understanding aberrant

  4. Fischer 344 and Lewis rat strains as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCadoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60 % of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis to differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neurons functionality.Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigations, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in

  5. Mixing Process in Ejector Nozzles Studied at Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been studying mixing processes in ejector nozzles for its High Speed Research (HSR) Program. This work is directed at finding ways to minimize the noise of a future supersonic airliner. Much of the noise such an airplane would generate would come from the nozzle, where a hot, high-speed jet exits the engine. Several different nozzle configurations were used to produce nozzle systems with different acoustical and aerodynamic characteristics. The acoustical properties were measured by an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber, and the aerodynamics were measured by traditional pressure and temperature instruments as well as by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), a technique for visualizing the airflow pattern without disturbing it. These measurements were put together and compared for different configurations to examine the relationships between mixing and noise generation. The mixer-ejector nozzle with the installed flow-visualization windows (foreground), the optical equipment and the supporting structure for the Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow visualization (midfield), and the sound-absorbing wedges used to create an anechoic environment for acoustic testing (background) is shown. The High Speed Research Program is a NASA-funded effort, in cooperation with the U.S. aerospace industry, to develop enabling technologies for a future supersonic airliner. One of the technological barriers being addressed is noise generated during near-airport operation. The mixer-ejector nozzle concept is being examined as a way to reduce jet noise while maintaining thrust. Ambient air is mixed with the high-velocity engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and hence the noise generated by the jet. The model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney under NASA contract. The test, completed in June 1995, was conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Effects of fuel Lewis number on localised forced ignition of turbulent homogeneous mixtures: A numerical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipal Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fuel Lewis number LeF (ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 on localised forced ignition and early stages of combustion of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures have been analysed using simple chemistry three-dimensional compressible direct numerical simulations for different values of root-mean-square velocity fluctuation and the energy deposition characteristics (i.e. characteristic width and the duration of energy deposition by the ignitor. The localised forced ignition is modelled using a source term in the energy transport equation, which deposits energy in a Gaussian manner from the centre of the ignitor over a stipulated period of time. The fuel Lewis number LeF has been found to have significant influences on the extent of burning of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures. It has been shown that the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration over which the ignition energy is deposited have significant influences on the success of ignition and subsequent flame propagation. An increase in the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration of energy deposition for a given amount of ignition energy have been found to have detrimental effects on the ignition event, which may ultimately lead to misfire. For a given value of u' (LeF, the rate of heat transfer from the hot gas kernel increases with increasing LeF (u', which in turn leads to a reduction in the extent of overall burning for both stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures but the detrimental effects of high values of u' on localised forced ignition are particularly prevalent for fuel-lean mixtures. Detailed physical explanations have been provided for the observed LeF,u' and energy deposition characteristics effects.

  7. MRI and pathology of REM sleep behavior disorder in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melissa E; Ferman, Tanis J; Boeve, Bradley F; Przybelski, Scott A; Lesnick, Timothy G; Liesinger, Amanda M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Preboske, Gregory M; Lowe, Val J; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Dugger, Brittany N; Knopman, David S; Smith, Glenn E; Parisi, Joseph E; Silber, Michael H; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Dickson, Dennis W; Kantarci, Kejal

    2013-11-05

    To determine structural MRI and digital microscopic characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder in individuals with low-, intermediate-, and high-likelihood dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at autopsy. Patients with autopsy-confirmed low-, intermediate-, and high-likelihood DLB, according to the probability statement recommended by the third report of the DLB Consortium, and antemortem MRI, were identified (n = 75). The clinical history was assessed for presence (n = 35) and absence (n = 40) of probable REM sleep behavior disorder (pRBD), and patients' antemortem MRIs were compared using voxel-based morphometry. Pathologic burdens of phospho-tau, β-amyloid, and α-synuclein were measured in regions associated with early neuropathologic involvement, the hippocampus and amygdala. pRBD was present in 21 patients (60%) with high-likelihood, 12 patients (34%) with intermediate-likelihood, and 2 patients (6%) with low-likelihood DLB. Patients with pRBD were younger, more likely to be male (p ≤ 0.001), and had a more frequent neuropathologic diagnosis of diffuse (neocortical) Lewy body disease. In the hippocampus and amygdala, phospho-tau and β-amyloid burden were lower in patients with pRBD compared with those without pRBD (p < 0.01). α-Synuclein burden did not differ in the hippocampus, but trended in the amygdala. Patients without pRBD had greater atrophy of temporoparietal cortices, hippocampus, and amygdala (p < 0.001) than those with pRBD; atrophy of the hippocampus (p = 0.005) and amygdala (p = 0.02) were associated with greater phospho-tau burdens in these regions. Presence of pRBD is associated with a higher likelihood of DLB and less severe Alzheimer-related pathology in the medial temporal lobes, whereas absence of pRBD is characterized by Alzheimer-like atrophy patterns on MRI and increased phospho-tau burden.

  8. Hypochondriasis as an early manifestation of dementia with Lewy bodies: an autopsied case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iritani, Shuji; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Habuchi, Chikako; Torii, Youta; Matsunaga, Shinji; Ozaki, Norio; Yoshida, Mari; Fujita, Kiyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Discrepancies between clinical and pathological diagnoses of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may occur because the full disease progression remains unclear, especially during the early stage. Herein, we report the case of a 78-year-old Japanese man with hypochondriasis who had autopsy-confirmed limbic-type DLB pathology. He exhibited no core clinical features of DLB. We attempted to identify the clinicopathological correlations in the early stages of DLB. At the age of 77, he became hypochondriacal and exhibited progressive cognitive decline after the death of his wife. He was concerned about his poor physical condition, but hospital examinations did not identify any overtly abnormal findings. At 78 years of age, he consulted a neurologist with complaints of facial numbness and irritability. Neurological examination revealed no overt abnormality, and he scored 21 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild bilateral ventricular enlargement. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having possible Alzheimer's disease. Approximately 1 month after his consult, he died of acute pneumonia in a psychiatric hospital to which he had been admitted for severe aggressive behaviour. He exhibited no core clinical features pointing towards a clinical diagnosis of DLB. Neuropathological investigation revealed limbic-type Lewy body disease with concurrent minimum Alzheimer-type pathology, which corresponds to high-likelihood DLB pathology based on the Third Consortium DLB pathological criteria. The patient had minimum nigral degeneration, which is consistent with the absence of parkinsonism. This autopsied case suggests that some DLB patients exhibit hypochondriasis in the early stage of the disease, even if they lack the core clinical features of DLB. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. DNA methylation changes at SNCA intron 1 in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Yu; Yoshino, Yuta; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Mori, Yoko; Mori, Takaaki; Ozaki, Yuki; Sao, Tomoko; Ochi, Shinichiro; Iga, Jun-Ichi; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    It is difficult to diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) because it exhibits clinical and neuropathological overlap with both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The α-synuclein protein is a major component of Lewy bodies, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates causes synaptic dysfunction in DLB. Epigenetic changes at the synuclein alpha ( SNCA ) gene may be involved in DLB pathogenesis. We examined DNA methylation rates at 10 CpG sites located in intron 1 of SNCA and SNCA mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes to compare DLB patients (n = 20; nine men, 11 women; age = 78.8 ± 7.7 years) with healthy controls (n = 20; eight men, 12 women; age = 77.0 ± 6.9 years). The methylation rate at CpG 4 ( P  = 0.002) and the overall mean methylation rate at these sites (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in DLB patients than in healthy controls after Bonferroni correction. Although SNCA126 , a partial form of SNCA mRNA expression, was significantly increased in DLB ( P  = 0.017), there was no significant difference in total SNCA mRNA expression between DLB patients and healthy controls ( P  = 0.165). No correlation was observed between SCNA mRNA expression levels and blood DNA methylation rates in either DLB or healthy controls. Our findings indicated that lower methylation rates may be a biomarker for DLB. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. The Organization and Anatomy of Narrative Comprehension and Expression in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; Xie, Sharon; Gross, Rachel Goldmann; Dreyfuss, Michael; Boller, Ashley; Camp, Emily; Morgan, Brianna; O’Shea, Jessica; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders (LBSD) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) exhibit deficits in both narrative comprehension and narrative expression. The present research examines the hypothesis that these impairments are due to a material-neutral deficit in organizational executive resources rather than to impairments of language per se. We predicted that comprehension and expression of narrative would be similarly affected and that deficits in both expression and comprehension of narrative would be related to the same anatomic distribution of prefrontal disease. Method We examined 29 LBSD patients and 26 healthy seniors on their comprehension and expression of narrative discourse. For comprehension, we measured accuracy and latency in judging events with high and low associativity from familiar scripts such as “going fishing.” The expression task involved maintaining the connectedness of events while narrating a story from a wordless picture book. Results LBSD patients were impaired on measures of narrative organization during both comprehension and expression relative to healthy seniors. Measures of organization during narrative expression and comprehension were significantly correlated with each other. These measures both correlated with executive measures but not with neuropsychological measures of lexical semantics or grammar. Voxel-based morphometry revealed overlapping regressions relating frontal atrophy to narrative comprehension, narrative expression, and measures of executive control. Conclusions Difficulty with narrative discourse in LBSD stems in part from a deficit of organization common to comprehension and expression. This deficit is related to prefrontal cortical atrophy in LBSD. PMID:22309984

  11. Influence of Gestational Age, Secretor, and Lewis Blood Group Status on the Oligosaccharide Content of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Clemens; Meyer, Christina; Collado, Maria Carmen; Geiger, Lena; García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Bertua-Ríos, Bibiana; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia; Borsch, Christian; Rudloff, Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are considered to play an important role for the infant. As the biotechnical production of some HMOs is feasible today and clinical studies are being designed, the individual variation of the total amount of HMOs and of single components is of particular importance. Our objectives were to investigate whether differences exist between term and preterm milk, milk from mothers with secretor or nonsecretor status, and a Lewis blood group (a+b-), (a-b+), or (a-b-) pattern. Within a longitudinal study 96 milk samples (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk) from 32 mothers with preterm (n = 18) and term (n = 14) infants were collected. Delipidated and deproteinized milk was subjected to porous graphitized carbon cartridges followed by high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Quantitation of 16 single HMOs revealed changes during the first weeks of lactation without discrepancies between term and preterm milk. Significant differences occurred between "secretor" and "nonsecretor" milk (median approximately 10 vs 5 g/L total HMOs). Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) II comprised > 55% of the total HMO content in Lewis blood group (a+b-), "nonsecretor" milk and LNT together with 2'fucosyllactose, LNFP I, and difucosyllactose approximately 60% in Lewis (a-b+), "secretor" milk. In Lewis (a-b-), "secretor" milk 80% of oligosaccharides are due to LNT, 2'fucosyllactose, and LNFP I. There are marked differences in total HMOs and single HMOs in milk depending on Lewis blood group and secretor status, which need to be taken into account in clinical studies.

  12. Effects of non-unity Lewis number of gas-phase species in turbulent nonpremixed sooting flames

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2016-02-13

    Turbulence statistics from two three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of planar n-heptane/air turbulent jets are compared to assess the effect of the gas-phase species diffusion model on flame dynamics and soot formation. The Reynolds number based on the initial jet width and velocity is around 15, 000, corresponding to a Taylor scale Reynolds number in the range 100 ≤ Reλ ≤ 150. In one simulation, multicomponent transport based on a mixture-averaged approach is employed, while in the other the gas-phase species Lewis numbers are set equal to unity. The statistics of temperature and major species obtained with the mixture-averaged formulation are very similar to those in the unity Lewis number case. In both cases, the statistics of temperature are captured with remarkable accuracy by a laminar flamelet model with unity Lewis numbers. On the contrary, a flamelet with a mixture-averaged diffusion model, which corresponds to the model used in the multi-component diffusion three-dimensional DNS, produces significant differences with respect to the DNS results. The total mass of soot precursors decreases by 20-30% with the unity Lewis number approximation, and their distribution is more homogeneous in space and time. Due to the non-linearity of the soot growth rate with respect to the precursors\\' concentration, the soot mass yield decreases by a factor of two. Being strongly affected by coagulation, soot number density is not altered significantly if the unity Lewis number model is used rather than the mixture-averaged diffusion. The dominant role of turbulent transport over differential diffusion effects is expected to become more pronounced for higher Reynolds numbers. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Enhancive effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of human ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Juanjuan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the molecular structural relationship between cell adhesive molecule CD44 and Lewis y antigen, and determine the effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I and the Lewis y antigen-overexpressed cell line RMG-I-H. Methods The expression of CD44 in RMG-I and RMG-I-H cells before and after treatment of Lewis y monoclonal antibody was detected by immunocytochemistry; the expression of Lewis y antigen and CD44 was detected by Western Blot. The structural relationship between Lewis y antigen and CD44 was determined by immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The adhesion and spreading of RMG-I and RMG-I-H cells on hyaluronic acid (HA were observed. The expression of CD44 mRNA in RMG-I and RMG-I-H cells was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Results Immunocytochemistry revealed that the expression of CD44 was significantly higher in RMG-I-H cells than in RMG-I cells (P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusion Lewis y antigen strengthens CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cells.

  14. The ruminant parasite Haemonchus contortus expresses an alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase capable of synthesizing the Lewis x and sialyl Lewis x antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBose-Boyd, R A; Nyame, A K; Jasmer, D P; Cummings, R D

    1998-08-01

    Glycoproteins from the ruminant helminthic parasite Haemonchus contortus react with Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin and Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, which are plant lectins that recognize alpha1,3-fucosylated GlcNAc and terminal beta-GalNAc residues, respectively. However, parasite glycoconjugates are not reactive with Ricinus communis agglutinin, which binds to terminal beta-Gal, and the glycoconjugates lack the Lewis x (Le(x)) antigen or other related fucose-containing antigens, such as sialylated Le(x), Le(a), Le(b) Le(y), or H-type 1. Direct assays of parasite extracts demonstrate the presence of an alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase (alpha1,3FT) and beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (beta1,4GalNAcT), but not beta1,4-galactosyltransferase. The H. contortus alpha1,3FT can fucosylate GlcNAc residues in both lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) Galalpha1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4Glc to form lacto-N-fucopentaose III Galbeta1-->4[Fuca1-->3]GlcNAc beta1-->3Galbeta1-4GIc, which contains the Le(x) antigen, and the acceptor lacdiNAc (LDN) GalNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc to form GalNAc beta1-->4[Fualpha1-->3]GlcNAc. The alpha1,3FT activity towards LNnT is dependent on time, protein, and GDP-Fuc concentration with a Km 50 microM and a Vmax of 10.8 nmol-mg(-1) h(-1). The enzyme is unusually resistant to inhibition by the sulfhydryl-modifying reagent N-ethylmaleimide. The alpha1,3FT acts best with type-2 glycan acceptors (Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-R) and can use both sialylated and non-sialylated acceptors. Thus, although in vitro the H. contortus alpha1,3FT can synthesize the Le(x) antigen, in vivo the enzyme may instead participate in synthesis of fucosylated LDN or related structures, as found in other helminths.

  15. Probing substituent effects on the activation of H(2) by phosphorus and boron frustrated Lewis pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Rebecca C; Ouyang, Eva Y; Geier, Stephen J; Zhao, Xiaoxi; Ramos, Alberto; Stephan, Douglas W

    2010-05-14

    The impact of substituent changes on phosphorus and boron-containing frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) has been examined. The phosphites (RO)(3)P R = Me, Ph form classical Lewis acid-base adducts of the formula (RO)(3)PB(C(6)F(5))(3) R = Me ; R = Ph , whereas P(O-2,4-(t)Bu(2)C(6)H(3))(3) and P(O-2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))(3) generate FLPs. Nonetheless, these latter combinations do not react with H(2). The more basic phosphinite tBu(2)POR, R = tBu reacts with B(C(6)F(5))(3) to give (tBu(2)(H)PO)B(C(6)F(5))(3). The related species tBu(2)POR, R = Ph ; 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3) showed no reaction with B(C(6)F(5))(3) but the FLPs react under H(2) (4 atm) to give [tBu(2)P(OR)H][HB(C(6)F(5))(3)] R = Ph and 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3). Similarly, tBu(2)PCl in combination with B(C(6)F(5))(3), generates an FLP that upon addition of H(2), gives [tBu(2)PH(2)][ClB(C(6)F(5))(3)] albeit in low yield. The diborane 1,4-(C(6)F(5))(2)B(C(6)F(4))B(C(6)F(5))(2) in combination with either tBu(3)P or (C(6)H(2)Me(3))(3)P generates FLPs that react with H(2) to give [R(3)PH](2)[1,4-(C(6)F(5))(2)HB(C(6)F(4))BH(C(6)F(5))(2)] (R = tBu , C(6)H(2)Me(3)). Similarly PhB(C(6)F(5))(2) and tBu(3)P react with H(2) giving [tBu(3)PH][HBPh(C(6)F(5))(2)] . The combination of B(OC(6)F(5))(3) and PtBu(3) also generate an FLP which reacts with H(2) to give [HPtBu(3)][B(OC(6)F(5))(4)] , the product of substituent redistribution. The boronic esters, (C(6)H(4)O(2))BC(6)F(5), (C(6)H(3)FO(2))BC(6)F(5) and (C(6)F(4)O(2))BC(6)F(5), and the borate esters B(OC(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2))(3), B(OC(6)H(2)F(3))(3) and B(OC(6)H(4)CF(3))(3) were prepared and shown to generate FLPs with tBu(3)P or (C(6)H(2)Me(3))(3)P. Nonetheless, no reaction with H(2) was observed for . Collectively these data suggest that there is a threshold of combined Lewis acidity and basicity that is required to effect the splitting of H(2).

  16. The Lewis acidity of fluorophosphonium salts: access to mixed valent phosphorus(III)/(V) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounjet, Lindsay J; Caputo, Christopher B; Stephan, Douglas W

    2013-02-21

    Oxidative fluorination of the electron-deficient phosphine Ph(2)P(C(6)F(5)) using XeF(2), followed by fluoride ion abstraction from the resulting difluorophosphorane Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(5)), produces electrophilic fluorophosphonium salts [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][X] (X = FB(C(6)F(5))(3) or O(3)SCF(3)). Variable temperature NMR spectroscopic analysis of [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)] demonstrates a fluxional process attributed to fluoride ion exchange between B(C(6)F(5))(3) and [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))](+), suggesting that these species have comparable Lewis acidities. This exchange can also be illustrated by adding phosphine Ph(3)P to [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)] at ambient temperature to produce Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(5)) and Ph(3)P-B(C(6)F(5))(3), while heating this mixture results in thermally induced para-substitution of Ph(3)P at the C(6)F(5) group of the phosphonium ion to generate [Ph(3)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2)][FB(C(6)F(5))(3)]. Such frustrated Lewis pair reactivity also can be exploited by reacting [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(5))][O(3)SCF(3)] with silylphosphine Ph(2)PSiMe(3) to afford the unique mixed-valent salt [Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)], which upon the addition of fluoride is converted to Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2). XeF(2) reacts with [Ph(2)P(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)] at ambient temperature, producing equal proportions of the dicationic salt [Ph(2)P(F)(C(6)F(4))P(F)Ph(2)][O(3)SCF(3)](2) and the bis(difluorophosphorane) Ph(2)P(F)(2)(C(6)F(4))P(F)(2)Ph(2), the latter of which can then be quantitatively converted to the former by adding one equiv of Me(3)SiO(3)SCF(3).

  17. PYRIDINEDIOLS AS HCL RECEPTORS - FORMATION OF AN UNUSUAL PYRIDINE.HCL COMPLEX IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE PREPARATION OF LEWIS ACIDIC TITANIUM(IV) CENTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EDEMA, JJH; RIDDER, AM; KELLOGG, RM; VANBOLHUIS, F; KOOIJMAN, H; SPEK, AL; Libbers, Rob

    1993-01-01

    Reaction of pyridinediols 1 with TiCl4 affords in one case an unusual dehydration-HCl complexation; in conjunction with these results, reaction of 1 with HCI indicates a strong affinity of these diols for (Lewis) acids.

  18. Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Lewis and Clark NWR and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer...

  19. Chiral Zn(II)-bisamidine complex as a Lewis-Brønsted combined acid catalyst: application to asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions of α-ketoesters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gotoh, Ryo; Yamanaka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II...

  20. Chiral Zn(II)-Bisamidine Complex as a Lewis-Br?nsted Combined Acid Catalyst: Application to Asymmetric Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions of [alpha]-Ketoesters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryo Gotoh; Masahiro Yamanaka

    2012-01-01

      Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II...