Sample records for randomly-selected stream sites

  1. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))


    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  2. Microbial Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in US Streams and Rivers (United States)

    We compared microbial ecoenzymatic activity at 2122 randomly-selected stream and river sites across the conterminous US. The sites were evenly distributed between wadeable and non-wadeable streams and rivers. Sites were aggregated into nine larger physiographic provinces for stat...

  3. Stream habitat connectivity in the Canadian Arctic: an on-site approach to design and construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baki, Abul Basar M; Zhu, David Z; Tonn, William M; Cahill, Christopher L; Courtice, Gregory J


    We developed a successful on-site approach for design and construction of stream modifications that addressed challenging remote-site conditions of limited field data and available construction materials...

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  5. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo


    Legislative and managing entities of EU member states face a comprehensive task because the chemical and ecological impacts of contaminated sites on surface waters must be assessed. The ecological assessment is further complicated by the low availability or, in some cases, absence of ecotoxicity...... data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...... ecotoxicity, but they are continuously discharged into the stream by way of a long-lasting source generating longterm chronic exposure of the stream biota. Our results show that taxonomical density and diversity of especially sediment dwelling taxa were reduced by [50 % at the sampling sites situated...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  7. A simple protocol using underwater epoxy to install annual temperature monitoring sites in rivers and streams (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Dona L. Horan; Sherry P. Wollrab


    Thermal regimes in rivers and streams are fundamental determinants of biological processes and are often monitored for regulatory compliance. Here, we describe a simple technique for establishing annual monitoring sites that uses underwater epoxy to attach miniature sensors to large rocks and cement bridge supports, which then serve as protective anchors. More than 500...

  8. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to quantify the lead (Pb) uptake by two water plants reeds (Phragmites australis) and papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site, Kampala (Uganda) and (ii) to compare the two species in Pb uptake downstream. As such, leachate samples were collected at the ...

  9. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  10. Exploring species and site contributions to beta diversity in stream insect assemblages. (United States)

    Heino, Jani; Grönroos, Mira


    It was recently suggested that beta diversity can be partitioned into contributions of single sites to overall beta diversity (LCBD) or into contributions of individual species to overall beta diversity (SCBD). We explored the relationships of LCBD and SCBD to site and species characteristics, respectively, in stream insect assemblages. We found that LCBD was mostly explained by variation in species richness, with a negative relationship being detected. SCBD was strongly related to various species characteristics, such as occupancy, abundance, niche position and niche breadth, but was only weakly related to biological traits of species. In particular, occupancy and its quadratic terms showed a very strong unimodal relationship with SCBD, suggesting that intermediate species in terms of site occupancy contribute most to beta diversity. Our findings of unravelling the contributions of sites or species to overall beta diversity are of high importance to community ecology, conservation and bioassessment using stream insect assemblages, and may bear some overall generalities to be found in other organism groups.

  11. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Triplett, M.B.; Fow, C.L.; White, M.K.


    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Watersheds for U.S Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sampling sites 1996-2000. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital representation of the watersheds of 43 sites on large river systems sampled by the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) of the U. S....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  14. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned (United States)

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.


    The effects of agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended-sediment concentrations, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were examined in a comparative study of three small, rural stream basins in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina and Virginia between 2004 and 2007. The study was designed to assess changes in stream quality associated with stream-improvement efforts at two sites in comparison to a control site (Hogan Creek), for which no improvements were planned. In the drainage basin of one of the stream-improvement sites (Bull Creek), several agricultural best management practices, primarily designed to limit cattle access to streams, were implemented during this study. In the drainage basin of the second stream-improvement site (Pauls Creek), a 1,600-foot reach of the stream channel was restored and several agricultural best management practices were implemented. Streamflow conditions in the vicinity of the study area were similar to or less than the long-term annual mean streamflows during the study. Precipitation during the study period also was less than normal, and the geographic distribution of precipitation indicated drier conditions in the southern part of the study area than in the northern part. Dry conditions during much of the study limited opportunities for acquiring high-flow sediment samples and streamflow measurements. Suspended-sediment yields for the three basins were compared to yield estimates for streams in the southeastern United States. Concentrations of suspended sediment and nutrients in samples from Bull Creek, the site where best management practices were implemented, were high compared to the other two sites. No statistically significant change in suspended-sediment concentrations occurred at the Bull Creek site following implementation of best management practices. However, data collected before and after channel stabilization at the Pauls

  15. Stream habitat characteristics of fixed sites in the western Lake Michigan drainages, Wisconsin and Michigan, 1993-95 (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Giddings, E.M.


    Habitat characteristics of 11 fixed sites in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1993 through 1995 as part of the ecological assessment of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Evaluation of habitat consisted of more than 75 measurements at three spatial levels: drainage basin, stream segment between major tributaries (length from 1 to 14 kilometers), and stream reach (approximately 150 meters). The 11 fixed sites consisted of 8 "indicator" sites with drainage basins that differ in bedrock type, surficial deposits, and land use; and 3 "integrator" sites with drainage basins that contain a mixture of bedrock type, surficial deposits, and land use. Spatial and temporal variations in habitat characteristics are described and compared. Comparisons are limited to indicator sites except for comparisons amongbasin characteristics, which include all fixed sites. Two habitat classification schemes used in Wisconsin and Michigan were used to rank the quality of habitat in indicator streams. Reach-level data were collected at two additional reaches at three of the indicator sites to assess the representativeness of the reach for overall stream conditions.

  16. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.


    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum ..cap alpha.. concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum ..beta..-..gamma.. concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10/sup 4/ pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.


    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  18. STREAM II-V7: Revision for STREAM II-V6 to include outflow from all Savannah River Site tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maze, Grace M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    STREAM II is the aqueous transport model of the Weather Information Display (WIND) emergency response system at Savannah River Site. It is used to calculate transport in the event of a chemical or radiological spill into the waterways on the Savannah River Site. Improvements were made to the code (STREAM II V7) to include flow from all site tributaries to the Savannah River total flow and utilize a 4 digit year input. The predicted downstream concentrations using V7 were generally on the same order of magnitude as V6 with slightly lower concentrations and quicker arrival times when all onsite stream flows are contributing to the Savannah River flow. The downstream arrival time at the Savannah River Water Plant ranges from no change to an increase of 8.77%, with minimum changes typically in March/April and maximum changes typically in October/November. The downstream concentrations are generally no more than 15% lower using V7 with the maximum percent change in January through April and minimum changes in June/July.

  19. Statistical Assessment of Water Quality Parameters for Pollution Source Identification in Sukhnag Stream: An Inflow Stream of Lake Wular (Ramsar Site, Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Aijaz Bhat


    Full Text Available The precursors of deterioration of immaculate Kashmir Himalaya water bodies are apparent. This study statistically analyzes the deteriorating water quality of the Sukhnag stream, one of the major inflow stream of Lake Wular. Statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA, regression analysis, and cluster analysis, were applied to 26 water quality parameters. PCA identified a reduced number of mean 2 varifactors, indicating that 96% of temporal and spatial changes affect the water quality in this stream. First factor from factor analysis explained 66% of the total variance between velocity, total-P, NO3–N, Ca2+, Na+, TS, TSS, and TDS. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed a similarity of 96% between sites IV and V and 94% between sites II and III. The dendrogram of seasonal similarity showed a maximum similarity of 97% between spring and autumn and 82% between winter and summer clusters. For nitrate, nitrite, and chloride, the trend in accumulation factor (AF showed that the downstream concentrations were about 2.0, 2.0, and 2.9, times respectively, greater than upstream concentrations.

  20. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  1. Biogeochemical plant site conditions in stream valleys after winter flooding: a phytometer approach (United States)

    Beumer, V.; Ohm, J. N.; van Wirdum, G.; Beltman, B.; Griffioen, J.; Verhoeven, J. T. A.


    Reintroduction of winter flooding events will have strong effects on the plant growth conditions in the parts of stream valleys that have not been accustomed to flooding in recent years. The major goal of this research is, firstly, to investigate the plant growth conditions in floodplain soils in the period after a winter flood and, secondly, to assess whether a phytometer setup is suitable for the evaluation of winter flooding on plant growth conditions. Soil cores of three agricultural and three semi-natural grassland sites have been exposed to a simulated winter flooding event. Then, cores were subjected to spring conditions in a growth chamber and were planted with seedlings of Anthoxantum odoratum and Lythrum salicaria. The growth conditions changed in opposite directions for our two phytometer species, expressed as biomass and nutrient changes. We discuss possible causes of an increase or decrease in biomass, such as (1) soil nutrient effects (N, P and K), (2) toxic effects of NH4, Fe and Al, and (3) possible shortage of other macro- and micronutrients. The conclusions are that plant growth after winter flooding was affected by enhanced nutrient and toxicant availabilities in agricultural sites and mainly by soil nutrients in the semi-natural sites. The use of the two species selected had clear advantages: Lythrum salicaria is well-suited to assess the nutrient status in previously flooded soils, because it is a well-known invader of wetlands and not easily hampered by potentially toxic compounds, while A. odoratum is less frequently found at wetland soils and more sensitive to toxic compounds and, therefore, a better indicator of possible toxic effects as a result of winter flooding than L. salicaria.

  2. Assessment of wadeable stream resources in the driftless area ecoregion in Western Wisconsin using a probabilistic sampling design. (United States)

    Miller, Michael A; Colby, Alison C C; Kanehl, Paul D; Blocksom, Karen


    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), with support from the U.S. EPA, conducted an assessment of wadeable streams in the Driftless Area ecoregion in western Wisconsin using a probabilistic sampling design. This ecoregion encompasses 20% of Wisconsin's land area and contains 8,800 miles of perennial streams. Randomly-selected stream sites (n = 60) equally distributed among stream orders 1-4 were sampled. Watershed land use, riparian and in-stream habitat, water chemistry, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected at each true random site and an associated "modified-random" site on each stream that was accessed via a road crossing nearest to the true random site. Targeted least-disturbed reference sites (n = 22) were also sampled to develop reference conditions for various physical, chemical, and biological measures. Cumulative distribution function plots of various measures collected at the true random sites evaluated with reference condition thresholds, indicate that high proportions of the random sites (and by inference the entire Driftless Area wadeable stream population) show some level of degradation. Study results show no statistically significant differences between the true random and modified-random sample sites for any of the nine physical habitat, 11 water chemistry, seven macroinvertebrate, or eight fish metrics analyzed. In Wisconsin's Driftless Area, 79% of wadeable stream lengths were accessible via road crossings. While further evaluation of the statistical rigor of using a modified-random sampling design is warranted, sampling randomly-selected stream sites accessed via the nearest road crossing may provide a more economical way to apply probabilistic sampling in stream monitoring programs.

  3. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  4. Short-term stream flow forecasting at Australian river sites using data-driven regression techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, Melise


    Full Text Available This study proposes a computationally efficient solution to stream flow forecasting for river basins where historical time series data are available. Two data-driven modeling techniques are investigated, namely support vector regression...

  5. Regional Regression Equations to Estimate Flow-Duration Statistics at Ungaged Stream Sites in Connecticut (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.


    Multiple linear regression equations for determining flow-duration statistics were developed to estimate select flow exceedances ranging from 25- to 99-percent for six 'bioperiods'-Salmonid Spawning (November), Overwinter (December-February), Habitat Forming (March-April), Clupeid Spawning (May), Resident Spawning (June), and Rearing and Growth (July-October)-in Connecticut. Regression equations also were developed to estimate the 25- and 99-percent flow exceedances without reference to a bioperiod. In total, 32 equations were developed. The predictive equations were based on regression analyses relating flow statistics from streamgages to GIS-determined basin and climatic characteristics for the drainage areas of those streamgages. Thirty-nine streamgages (and an additional 6 short-term streamgages and 28 partial-record sites for the non-bioperiod 99-percent exceedance) in Connecticut and adjacent areas of neighboring States were used in the regression analysis. Weighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine the predictive equations; weights were assigned based on record length. The basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of area with coarse-grained stratified deposits, percentage of area with wetlands, mean monthly precipitation (November), mean seasonal precipitation (December, January, and February), and mean basin elevation-are used as explanatory variables in the equations. Standard errors of estimate of the 32 equations ranged from 10.7 to 156 percent with medians of 19.2 and 55.4 percent to predict the 25- and 99-percent exceedances, respectively. Regression equations to estimate high and median flows (25- to 75-percent exceedances) are better predictors (smaller variability of the residual values around the regression line) than the equations to estimate low flows (less than 75-percent exceedance). The Habitat Forming (March-April) bioperiod had the smallest standard errors of estimate, ranging from 10.7 to 20.9 percent. In

  6. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment


    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  7. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  8. Can a priori defined reference criteria be used to select reference sites in Danish streams? Implications for implementing the Water Framework Directive. (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Jørgensen, Joan; Skriver, Jens; Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Hoffman, Carl Christian; Kjellerup Larsen, Lars M


    An important step in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive is to define and characterize the natural status, designated as the reference condition (RC). Here we present the results of a type-specific screening for reference stream sites in Denmark using two different approaches. First, we performed a screening applying physicochemical, hydro-morphological and pressure criteria at the catchment, reach and site level of a total of 128 sites a priori selected by the regional water authorities as representing the best sites in Denmark. Second, we performed a GIS screening of all mapped streams in Denmark (26,000 km representing app. 90% of all Danish streams) using solely land use characteristics in the catchment area to target the search for larger stream sites to comply with the WFD requirements of type-specificity. Among the 128 sites we did not find any that fulfilled all criteria applied at the catchment, reach and site level using recommended RC threshold values and only three sites using threshold values that were less strict. Similarly very few km (<1%) of the GIS screened streams fulfilled catchment land use criteria, suggesting that the potential of identifying RC sites in Denmark is very limited. The lack of success in the screening process clearly demonstrates a need for alternative methods to establish RC for Danish streams. We propose a combined approach that includes the development of a guiding image for RC for all the stream biota needed to evaluate the ecological quality. This guiding image should be based on historical data, expert knowledge and investigations in streams situated in countries that are subjected to less intense land use and, at the same time, share both topographical and climatic similarities with Denmark, e.g. the Baltic countries.

  9. Quantifying geomorphic change at ephemeral stream restoration sites using a coupled-model approach (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Sankey, Joel B.; Dean, David; Caster, Joshua; DeLong, Stephen; DeLong, Whitney; Pelletier, Jon D.


    Rock-detention structures are used as restoration treatments to engineer ephemeral stream channels of southeast Arizona, USA, to reduce streamflow velocity, limit erosion, retain sediment, and promote surface-water infiltration. Structures are intended to aggrade incised stream channels, yet little quantified evidence of efficacy is available. The goal of this 3-year study was to characterize the geomorphic impacts of rock-detention structures used as a restoration strategy and develop a methodology to predict the associated changes. We studied reaches of two ephemeral streams with different watershed management histories: one where thousands of loose-rock check dams were installed 30 years prior to our study, and one with structures constructed at the beginning of our study. The methods used included runoff, sediment transport, and geomorphic modelling and repeat terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys to map landscape change. Where discharge data were not available, event-based runoff was estimated using KINEROS2, a one-dimensional kinematic-wave runoff and erosion model. Discharge measurements and estimates were used as input to a two-dimensional unsteady flow-and-sedimentation model (Nays2DH) that combined a gridded flow, transport, and bed and bank simulation with geomorphic change. Through comparison of consecutive DEMs, the potential to substitute uncalibrated models to analyze stream restoration is introduced. We demonstrate a new approach to assess hydraulics and associated patterns of aggradation and degradation resulting from the construction of check-dams and other transverse structures. Notably, we find that stream restoration using rock-detention structures is effective across vastly different timescales.

  10. Quantifying geomorphic change at ephemeral stream restoration sites using a coupled-model approach (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Sankey, Joel B.; Dean, David; Caster, Joshua J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Henderson-DeLong, Whitney; Pelletier, Jon D.


    Rock-detention structures are used as restoration treatments to engineer ephemeral stream channels of southeast Arizona, USA, to reduce streamflow velocity, limit erosion, retain sediment, and promote surface-water infiltration. Structures are intended to aggrade incised stream channels, yet little quantified evidence of efficacy is available. The goal of this 3-year study was to characterize the geomorphic impacts of rock-detention structures used as a restoration strategy and develop a methodology to predict the associated changes. We studied reaches of two ephemeral streams with different watershed management histories: one where thousands of loose-rock check dams were installed 30 years prior to our study, and one with structures constructed at the beginning of our study. The methods used included runoff, sediment transport, and geomorphic modelling and repeat terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys to map landscape change. Where discharge data were not available, event-based runoff was estimated using KINEROS2, a one-dimensional kinematic-wave runoff and erosion model. Discharge measurements and estimates were used as input to a two-dimensional unsteady flow-and-sedimentation model (Nays2DH) that combined a gridded flow, transport, and bed and bank simulation with geomorphic change. Through comparison of consecutive DEMs, the potential to substitute uncalibrated models to analyze stream restoration is introduced. We demonstrate a new approach to assess hydraulics and associated patterns of aggradation and degradation resulting from the construction of check-dams and other transverse structures. Notably, we find that stream restoration using rock-detention structures is effective across vastly different timescales.

  11. Tritium in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the East Kazakhstan Oblast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Peter I [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vintro, Luis Leon [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Omarova, Aigul [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Napoles, Humberto Jimenez [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, Nicholas D [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)


    The concentration of tritium has been determined in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal, Tel'kem, Balapan and Degelen Mountains areas of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The data show that levels of tritium in domestic well waters within the settlement of Sarzhal are extremely low at the present time with a median value of 4.4 Bq dm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7 Bq dm{sup -3}). These levels are only marginally above the background tritium content in surface waters globally. Levels in the atomic craters at Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 are between one and two orders of magnitude higher, while the level in Lake Balapan is approximately 12 600 Bq dm{sup -3}. Significantly, levels in streams and test-tunnel waters sourced in the Degelen Mountains, the site of approximately 215 underground nuclear tests, are a further order of magnitude higher, being in the range 133 000-235 500 Bq dm{sup -3}. No evidence was adduced which indicates that domestic wells in Sarzhal are contaminated by tritium-rich waters sourced in the Degelen massif, suggesting that the latter are not connected hydrologically to the near-surface groundwater recharging the Sarzhal wells. Annual doses to humans arising from the ingestion of tritium in these well waters are very low at the present time and are of no radiological significance.

  12. Hydrologic Connectivity and Land Use Effects on Sediment Accumulation on Stream Floodplains of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. (United States)

    Eddy, J.; Yeager, K. M.; Barton, C.; Phillips, J. D.


    Natural sediment accumulation on floodplains is important to maintain water quality of streams, to support regional biodiversity as an ecotone between aquatic and terrestrial environments, and to serve as a sink for organic and inorganic carbon. Recent research suggests that land use and hydrologic connectivity play important roles in determining rates of sediment accumulation. This study hypothesizes that changes in hydrologic connectivity have a greater impact on sediment accumulation rates than changes in land use. Nine sediment cores from seven sub-basins were taken from the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, and processed for grain-size, radioisotope dating, particulate organic carbon (POC), and microscopy. Stratigraphic columns were created for all nine cores. Extensive historical records, aerial, and satellite imagery are used to identify anthropogenic disturbances which may have influenced rates of sediment accumulation, as well as to calculate the percentage of natural vegetation in 1951 and 2014. Grain-size analysis and microscopy indicate that the majority of sediment studied is sand-sized quartz; changes in grain-size classification is used to indicate potential differences in sediment sources. LiDAR and field survey data were used to identify 251 stream flow impediments that potentially affect hydrologic connectivity. Results from radioisotope dating and POC have been used to calculate sediment mass accumulation rates (SMAR; g cm-2 y-1) and linear accumulation rates (LAR; cm y-1) for each of the cores. Preliminary findings show that plots of SMAR versus the number of flow impediments have steeper slopes than plots of SMAR versus the percent difference in vegetation (from 1951 to 2014). This signifies that flow impediments, as a proxy for hydrologic connectivity, have a stronger effect on sediment accumulation rates than changes in land use. This knowledge can help future stream restoration efforts by focusing resources to more efficiently attain

  13. Hydraulic assessment of existing and alternative stream crossings providing fish and wildlife passage at seven sites in Massachusetts (United States)

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.


    Seven existing road crossing structures at streams in Massachusetts were evaluated hydraulically and compared to hypothetical alternative structures designed for Aquatic Organism Passage (AOP) using standards developed by the Massachusetts River Continuity Partnership. Hydraulic simulations made for flood flows ranging from 20- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) indicate that the existing structures are at full capacity for many of the simulated AEP floods, causing appreciable backwater upstream from the structure, which exacerbates upstream flooding and causes road overflow in many cases. The existing structures also create an impediment to AOP by failing to meet standards for openness, height, span, and velocity. Simulated hypothetical road crossing structures that provide for fish and wildlife passage by meeting or exceeding the AOP standards were able to convey most simulated AEP flood flows without causing appreciable backwater upstream from the structure. At sites where backwater was still present, it occurred only at the highest simulated flows and was compounded by the low downstream gradient that affected the water-surface elevation at the structure. The simulations of the alternative structures also indicate that, in addition to improved passage for fish and wildlife, the structures are more resilient to large floods and provide a greater buffer to uncertainties and potential changes in flood flows than the existing stream-crossing structures.

  14. Characteristics of the turbulence in the flow at a tidal stream power site. (United States)

    Milne, I A; Sharma, R N; Flay, R G J; Bickerton, S


    This paper analyses a set of velocity time histories which were obtained at a fixed point in the bottom boundary layer of a tidal stream, 5 m from the seabed, and where the mean flow reached 2.5 m s(-1). Considering two complete tidal cycles near spring tide, the streamwise turbulence intensity during non-slack flow was found to be approximately 12-13%, varying slightly between flood and ebb tides. The ratio of the streamwise turbulence intensity to that of the transverse and vertical intensities is typically 1 : 0.75 : 0.56, respectively. Velocity autospectra computed near maximum flood tidal flow conditions exhibit an f(-2/3) inertial subrange and conform reasonably well to atmospheric turbulence spectral models. Local isotropy is observed between the streamwise and transverse spectra at reduced frequencies of f>0.5. The streamwise integral time scales and length scales of turbulence at maximum flow are approximately 6 s and 11-14 m, respectively, and exhibit a relatively large degree of scatter. They are also typically much greater in magnitude than the transverse and vertical components. The findings are intended to increase the levels of confidence within the tidal energy industry of the characteristics of the higher frequency components of the onset flow, and subsequently lead to more realistic performance and loading predictions.

  15. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.


    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  16. Estimating peak-flow frequency statistics for selected gaged and ungaged sites in naturally flowing streams and rivers in Idaho (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Transportation Department, updated regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow statistics at ungaged sites on Idaho streams using recent streamflow (flow) data and new statistical techniques. Peak-flow statistics with 80-, 67-, 50-, 43-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities (1.25-, 1.50-, 2.00-, 2.33-, 5.00-, 10.0-, 25.0-, 50.0-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively) were estimated for 192 streamgages in Idaho and bordering States with at least 10 years of annual peak-flow record through water year 2013. The streamgages were selected from drainage basins with little or no flow diversion or regulation. The peak-flow statistics were estimated by fitting a log-Pearson type III distribution to records of annual peak flows and applying two additional statistical methods: (1) the Expected Moments Algorithm to help describe uncertainty in annual peak flows and to better represent missing and historical record; and (2) the generalized Multiple Grubbs Beck Test to screen out potentially influential low outliers and to better fit the upper end of the peak-flow distribution. Additionally, a new regional skew was estimated for the Pacific Northwest and used to weight at-station skew at most streamgages. The streamgages were grouped into six regions (numbered 1_2, 3, 4, 5, 6_8, and 7, to maintain consistency in region numbering with a previous study), and the estimated peak-flow statistics were related to basin and climatic characteristics to develop regional regression equations using a generalized least squares procedure. Four out of 24 evaluated basin and climatic characteristics were selected for use in the final regional peak-flow regression equations.Overall, the standard error of prediction for the regional peak-flow regression equations ranged from 22 to 132 percent. Among all regions, regression model fit was best for region 4 in west

  17. Mapping of depositional and non-depositional areas in Salinas, California streams with concurrent pyrethroid and benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D


    This study used sediment mapping to determine the spatial extent of depositional and non-depositional areas in the wetted stream bed of four urban streams in Salinas, California. After the stream mapping was completed, 8 pyrethroids were analytically measured from randomly selected sites in 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the four Salinas streams. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected and identified from depositional and non-depositional areas where pyrethroids were measured. In addition, physical habitat was also evaluated at each site where benthic communities were collected. Based on a random sampling design, 24 % of the 96 sediment sampling sites in the Salinas streams were classified as predominately depositional areas. Mean total pyrethroid concentrations were approximately 2× to 61× times higher in depositional areas of the Salinas streams when compared to non-depositional areas. Physical habitat scores from the 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the Salinas stream sites were extremely low compared with other California streams thus demonstrating that impaired physical habitat is a critical stressor in these streams. Approximately 6,300 individual macroinvertebrates were picked and identified from 70 taxa from the 24 Salinas stream sites. The most dominant taxa collected were all considered tolerant of environmental stressors and dominant taxa from both depositional and non-deposition areas were similar. Ten different benthic metrics for the Salinas streams were similar for the depositional areas, where pyrethroid concentrations consistently exceeded laboratory based toxicity thresholds, and non-depositional areas where pyrethroid concentrations were much lower. These results suggest that factors other than pyrethroids are responsible for impacting resident benthic communities in these urban Salinas streams.

  18. Geospatial database of the study boundary, sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Button, Daniel T.; Baker, Nancy T.; Burley, Thomas E.; Van Metre, Peter C.


    In 2013, the first of several Regional Stream Quality Assessments (RSQA) was done in the Midwest United States. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) was a collaborative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA), the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). One of the objectives of the RSQA, and thus the MSQA, is to characterize the relationships between water-quality stressors and stream ecology and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic biota within the streams (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). To meet this objective, a framework of fundamental geospatial data was required to develop physical and anthropogenic characteristics of the study region, sampled sites and corresponding watersheds, and riparian zones. This dataset is composed of the four fundamental geospatial data layers that were developed for the Midwest study: 1) study boundary, 2) sampled sites, 3) watershed boundaries, and 4) riparian-zone boundaries.References cited:Nakagaki, N., Qi, S.L., and Baker, N.T., 2016, Selected environmental characteristics of sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment: U.S. Geological Survey data release, Geological Survey, 2012, The Midwest stream quality assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3124, 2 p.

  19. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water. (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias


    On-site and on-line systems that provide an integrated surveillance of physicochemical and microbiological parameters gain significance in water quality monitoring. Particular relating to diffuse pollution from agricultural areas and use-orientated protection of waters the detection of faecal pollution is a fundamental part. For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological faecal pollution of water, the beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter. Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the sensitivity and specificity concerning the faecal indication capacity of GLUC in relation to standard assays (Cabral 2010). Interference effects of physicochemical parameters on the enzymatic activity respectively fluorescence have been discussed (Molina-Munoz et al. 2007; Tryland and Fiksdal 1998, Biswal et al. 2003). Results from a monitoring of a rivulet in an agricultural catchment in Lower Austria (HOAL - Hydrological Open Air Laboratory) are presented here. The HOAL offers technical resources that allow measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution and to apply various hydrological methods in one catchment. Two automated enzymatic measuring devices (Coliguard, mbOnline, Austria) and physicochemical in-stream measurements are used, as well as in-stream spectroscopy (spectrolyser, s::can, Austria). Accuracy of both enzymatic measuring devices is compared through diverse hydrological and seasonal conditions. Reference analyses by cultivation based determination were performed. Data from Coliguard devices is combined with physicochemical and spectroscopy data to gain information about the

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  1. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  2. Estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentrations using near real-time continuous water-quality and streamflow data from five stream sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2007–16 (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.


    Several streams used for recreational activities, such as fishing, swimming, and boating, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, are known to have periodic elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, a type of bacteria used to indicate the potential presence of fecally related pathogens that may pose health risks to humans exposed through water contact. The availability of near real-time continuous stream discharge, turbidity, and other water-quality data for some streams in the county presents an opportunity to use surrogates to estimate near real-time concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria and thus provide some information about associated potential health risks during recreational use of streams.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department (CCHD) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), has collected discrete stream samples for analysis of FC concentrations during March–October annually at or near five gaging stations where near real-time continuous data on stream discharge, turbidity, and water temperature have been collected since 2007 (or since 2012 at 2 of the 5 stations). In 2014, the USGS, in cooperation with the CCWRA and CCHD, began to develop regression equations to estimate FC concentrations using available near real-time continuous data. Regression equations included possible explanatory variables of stream discharge, turbidity, water temperature, and seasonal factors calculated using Julian Day with base-10 logarithmic (log) transformations of selected variables.The regression equations were developed using the data from 2007 to 2015 (101–106 discrete bacteria samples per site) for three gaging stations on Brandywine Creek (West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, and Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford) and from 2012 to 2015 (37–38 discrete bacteria samples per site) for one station each on French Creek near Phoenixville and

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  4. Stage-discharge relations and annual nitrogen and phosphorus load estimates for stream sites in the Elk River Basin, 2006–2008 (United States)

    Hoos, Anne B.; Williams, Shannon D.; Wolfe, William J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), measured continuous discharge at 4 water-quality monitoring sites and developed stage-discharge ratings for 10 additional water-quality monitoring sites in the Elk River Basin during 2006 through 2008. The discharge data were collected to support stream load assessments by TDEC. Annual nitrogen and phosphorus loads were estimated for the four sites where continuous daily discharge records were collected. Reported loads for the period 2006 through 2008 are not representative of long-term mean annual conditions at the sites in this study, however, because of severe drought conditions in the Elk River Basin during this period.

  5. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.


    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  6. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management


    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  7. Development of a stream habitat index for the Northern Lakes and Forest Ecoregions (United States)

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Wang, Lizhu; Simon, Thomas P.; Stewart, Paul M.


    Physical habitat was quantified in 105 randomly selected streams across the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion during 1998 and 1999 to develop a stream habitat index for the region. Physical habitat measures (106) were classified into four groups: substrate, instream cover, riparian zone–land use, and geomorphology–hydrology. Variable reduction procedures yielded seven variables: sinuosity, percent of substrate gravel or larger, percent substrate as detritus or muck, percent of bank with forested cover, amount of bank erosion, number of large logs per 100 m, and mean length of pools. Streams were separated by a gradient value of 3 m/km (low N = 70; high N = 35) and assigned to model and test data sets. For low-gradient streams in the model data set, the seven habitat variables explained 47% of the variation in index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores. To produce the habitat index, the coefficients in the regression were used to weight each of the seven variables. For low-gradient streams in the test data set, the habitat index explained 20% of the variation in IBI scores. A habitat index could not be developed for high-gradient sites, probably due to the low number of sites. Comparison of habitat to IBI scores provides resource managers with a method to evaluate the contribution of habitat quality to the IBI score.

  8. Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Alpine streams during annual snowmelt: investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology. (United States)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Alumbaugh, Robert E; Cook, Michelle E


    Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.

  9. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  10. Analysis of low flows and selected methods for estimating low-flow characteristics at partial-record and ungaged stream sites in western Washington (United States)

    Curran, Christopher A.; Eng, Ken; Konrad, Christopher P.


    A regional low-flow survey of small, perennial streams in western Washington was initiated by the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission (NWIFC), NWIFC-member tribes, and Point-No-Point Treaty Council in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in 2007 and repeated by the tribes during the low-flow seasons of 2008–09. Low-flow measurements at 63 partial-record and miscellaneous streamflow-measurement sites during surveys in 2007–09 are used with concurrent flows at continuous streamflow-gaging stations (index sites) within the U.S. Geological Survey network to estimate the low-flow metric Q7,10 at each measurement site (Q7,10 is defined as the lowest average streamflow for a consecutive 7-day period that recurs on average once every 10 years). Index-site correlation methods for estimating low-flow characteristics at partial-record sites are reviewed and an empirical Monte Carlo technique is used with the daily streamflow record at 43 index sites to determine the error and bias associated with estimating the Q7,10 at synthetic partial-record sites using three methods: Q-ratio, MOVE.1, and Base-Flow Correlation. The Q-ratio method generally has the lowest error and least amount of bias for 170 scenarios, with each scenario defined by the number of concurrent flow measurements between the partial-record and index sites (ranging from 4 to 20) and the combination of basin attributes used to select the index site. The root-mean square error for the Q-ratio method ranged from 70 to 118 percent, depending on the scenario. The scenario with the smallest root-mean square error used four concurrent flow measurements and the basin attributes: basin area, mean annual precipitation, and base-flow recession time constant, also referred to as tau (τ).

  11. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pine-hardwood stands: nitrogen responses in soil, soil water, and streams (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank


    Few studies have examined the consequences of site preparation burning in an ecosystem context. As Swift et al. (1993) explain in detail, a major study is being conducted in the southern Appalachians to understand the effects of a fell and bum site preparation treatment on basic ecosystem processes and the integrated response to disturbance. The intent is to determine...

  12. The Relative Influence of Catchment and Site Variabbles on Fish and Macroinvertebrate Richness in Cerrado Biome Streams (United States)

    Landscape and site-scale data aid the interpretation of biological data and management alternatives. We evaluated how three classes of environmental variables (natural landscape, anthropogenic pressures, and local physical habitat), influence fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage...

  13. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.


    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  14. Streams with Strahler Stream Order (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  15. Uranium concentrations in lake and stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.E.


    During the summer of 1976, 141 water and 211 sediment samples were taken from 147 locations in the Susitna River basin in Alaska by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for the LASL. These samples were taken to provide preliminary information on the uranium concentrations in waters and sediments from the Susitna River basin and to test the analytical methods proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska. The uranium determinations resulting from the fluorometric analysis of the water samples and the delayed-neutron counting of the sediment samples are presented. The low levels of uranium in the water samples, many of which were below the detectable limit of the LASL fluorometric technique, indicate that a more sensitive analytical method is needed for the analysis of Alaskan water samples from this area. An overlay showing numbered sample locations and overlays graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in the water and sediment samples, all at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing USGS topographic sheets, are also provided as plates.

  16. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.


    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  17. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois (United States)

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.


    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium

  18. Defining nutrient and biochemical oxygen demand baselines for tropical rivers and streams in São Paulo State (Brazil): a comparison between reference and impacted sites. (United States)

    Cunha, Davi G F; Dodds, Walter K; Carmo Calijuri, Maria do


    Determining reference concentrations in rivers and streams is an important tool for environmental management. Reference conditions for eutrophication-related water variables are unavailable for Brazilian freshwaters. We aimed to establish reference baselines for São Paulo State tropical rivers and streams for total phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN), nitrogen-ammonia (NH(4) (+)) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) through the best professional judgment and the trisection methods. Data from 319 sites monitored by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (2005 to 2009) and from the 22 Water Resources Management Units in São Paulo State were assessed (N = 27,131). We verified that data from different management units dominated by similar land cover could be analyzed together (Analysis of Variance, P = 0.504). Cumulative frequency diagrams showed that industrialized management units were characterized by the worst water quality (e.g. average TP of 0.51 mg/L), followed by agricultural watersheds. TN and NH(4) (+) were associated with urban percentages and population density (Spearman Rank Correlation Test, P < 0.05). Best professional judgment and trisection (median of lower third of all sites) methods for determining reference concentrations showed agreement: 0.03 & 0.04 mg/L (TP), 0.31 & 0.34 mg/L (TN), 0.06 & 0.10 mg-N/L (NH(4) (+)) and 2 & 2 mg/L (BOD), respectively. Our reference concentrations were similar to TP and TN reference values proposed for temperate water bodies. These baselines can help with water management in São Paulo State, as well as providing some of the first such information for tropical ecosystems.

  19. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan. (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D


    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.


    source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in


    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  2. Estimation of low-flow statistics at ungaged sites on streams in the Lower Hudson River Basin, New York, from data in geographic information systems (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Freehafer, Douglas A.


    A variety of watershed properties available in 2015 from geographic information systems were tested in regression equations to estimate two commonly used statistical indices of the low flow of streams, namely the lowest flows averaged over 7 consecutive days that have a 1 in 10 and a 1 in 2 chance of not being exceeded in any given year (7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows). The equations were based on streamflow measurements in 51 watersheds in the Lower Hudson River Basin of New York during the years 1958–1978, when the number of streamflow measurement sites on unregulated streams was substantially greater than in subsequent years. These low-flow indices are chiefly a function of the area of surficial sand and gravel in the watershed; more precisely, 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows both increase in proportion to the area of sand and gravel deposited by glacial meltwater, whereas 7-day, 2-year low flows also increase in proportion to the area of postglacial alluvium. Both low-flow statistics are also functions of mean annual runoff (a measure of net water input to the watershed from precipitation) and area of swamps and poorly drained soils in or adjacent to surficial sand and gravel (where groundwater recharge is unlikely and riparian water loss to evapotranspiration is substantial). Small but significant refinements in estimation accuracy resulted from the inclusion of two indices of stream geometry, channel slope and length, in the regression equations. Most of the regression analysis was undertaken with the ordinary least squares method, but four equations were replicated by using weighted least squares to provide a more realistic appraisal of the precision of low-flow estimates. The most accurate estimation equations tested in this study explain nearly 84 and 87 percent of the variation in 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows, respectively, with standard errors of 0.032 and 0.050 cubic feet per second per square mile. The equations

  3. Stream Crossings (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  4. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model. (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N


    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Development of invertebrate community indexes of stream quality for the islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Wolff, Reuben H.


    rating. Additionally, quantitative macroinvertebrate samples collected from 31 randomly selected sites on Oʻahu in 2006-07 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Wadeable Stream Assessment (WSA) were used to refine and develop an ICI of stream quality for Oʻahu. The set of metrics that were included in the revised index were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, turbellarian relative abundance, amphipod relative abundance, nonnative mollusk abundance, and nonnative crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and/or red cherry shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata sinensis) presence or absence. The Oʻahu ICI classified 10 of the 31 sites (32.3 percent) as "good" quality communities, 16 of the sites (51.6 percent) as "fair" quality communities, and 5 of the sites (16.1 percent) as "poor" quality communities. A reanalysis of 18 of the Oʻahu macroinvertebrate sites used to develop the P-HBIBI resulted in the reclassification of 3 samples. The beginning of a statewide ICI was developed on the basis of a combination of metrics from the Maui and Oʻahu ICIs. This combined ICI is intended to help identify broad problem areas so that the Hawaii State Department of Health (HIDOH) can prioritize their efforts on a statewide scale. Once these problem areas are identified, the island-wide ICIs can be used to more accurately assess the quality of individual stream reaches so that the HIDOH can prioritize their efforts on the most impaired streams. By using the combined ICI, 70 percent of the Maui sites and 10 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "good" quality sites; 25 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "fair" quality sites; and 5 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "poor" quality sites.

  6. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012 (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.


    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  7. The significance of groundwater-stream interactions and fluctuating stream chemistry on waterborne uranium contamination of streams—a case study from a gold mining site in South Africa (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Jacobus van der Walt, Izak


    Through seepage, dissolved uranium and other heavy metals migrate from tailings deposits of gold mines via groundwater into adjacent fluvial systems. The extent of associated stream contamination is determined, inter alia, by the retardation of dissolved contaminants along the pathway and the rate in which polluted groundwater enters the stream channel. Comparing several sediment-water systems of the aqueous pathway significantly higher immobilisation of U was found in (fast-flowing) surface water systems such as the stream than in (slow moving) alluvial groundwater of the floodplain. Mainly triggered by redox-initiated co-precipitation bottom sediments in streams act as geochemical barrier and long-term sink for U and other heavy metals from polluted groundwater. Real-time in situ measurements of hydraulic interactions between contaminated groundwater and streamwater suggest a highly dynamic water exchange between both water bodies, including daily inversions of the direction of flow in certain times of the year. This results in distinct diurnal differences of the associated stream contamination. The extent of subsequent downstream transport of U within the fluvial system is largely determined by pronounced diurnal oscillations of pH and redox potential in the stream, affecting U-speciation as well as adsorption and precipitation rates. In addition event-triggered fluctuations of both parameter impact on the fluvial transport of U.

  8. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis. (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A


    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  9. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  10. Stream systems. (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves


    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  11. Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA (United States)

    Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.


    Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain

  12. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann


    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  13. Miscellaneous streams best management practices (BMP) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J., Westinghouse Hanford


    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and U.S. Department of Energy Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order) lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (`State Waste Discharge Permit Program`) or WAC 173-218 (`Washington Underground Injection Control Program`) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized as Phase I and Phase II Streams, and Miscellaneous Streams. There were originally 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams, however some of these streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams, and are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The three criteria for identifying streams that are potentially affecting groundwater are: (1) streams discharging to surface contaminated areas (referred to as category `b` streams); (2) potentially contaminated streams (referred to as category `c` streams); and (3) streams discharging within 91 meters (300 feet) of a contaminated crib, ditch, or trench (referred to as category `d` streams). Miscellaneous Streams that meet any of these criteria must be evaluated for application of best management practices (BMP). The purpose of this report is to provide the best management practice preferred alternative. The list of BMP streams has been revised since the original submittal. Several streams from the original list of BMP streams have already been eliminated through facility upgrades, reduction of steam usage, and facility shutdowns. This document contains a description of the changes to the list of BMP streams, applicable definitions and regulatory requirements and possible alternatives, and a schedule for implementing the preferred alternatives.

  14. Stream Evaluation (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  15. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.


    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers. (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S


    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  17. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia. (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada


    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  18. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community


    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N


    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  19. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids export to boreal first order streams (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Finér, Leena; Laurén, Ari; Launiainen, Samuli; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Starr, Mike


    Clear-cutting has been observed to generally increase leaching and element exports to adjacent watercourses. Most studies on the effects of clear-cutting on nutrient export in north European boreal forests have been short-term and were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s when forestry practices were different from those of today. Nowadays clear-cut areas are smaller, soil preparation methods are lighter (less soil disturbance), and buffer zones are left along watercourses. Several hundred thousand hectares of forests are clear-cut and soils are scarified before regeneration operations in Fennoscandia, but little is known of the long-term impacts of the current methods on the surface water quality. We studied the long-term (14 years) effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on runoff (mm) and the export of total nitrogen (total N), total organic nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), total phosphorus (total P), phosphate (PO4-P), total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended solids (SS) in two paired-catchments in Eastern Finland. In accordance with current forest management guidelines, clear cutting (stem-only removal) were carried out on 34% (C34) and 12% (C12) of the area of the treated catchments, scarification carried out after 2 years and planting with Scots pine seedlings after 3 years. Buffer zones were left between the clear-cut areas and the catchment outlet stream. In the case of the C34 catchment, clear-cutting increased annual runoff and exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS. Annual runoff increased by 4 - 102 mm (1-30%). The annual exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS increased by at most 0.36 (72%), 0.35 (76%), 0.15 (1056%), 0.002 (35%) and 2.0 (715%) kg/ha, respectively. For the C12 catchment, annual runoff did not change and only exports of PO4-P and SS increased. Annual export of PO4-P increased by at maximum 0.007 kg/ha (69%) and that of SS by at maximum 0.55 kg/ha (271%). Clear-cutting induced increases in runoff and

  20. A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment & Restoration Projects (United States)

    This report lays out a framework for approaching stream assessment and restoration projects that focuses on understanding the suite of stream functions at a site in the context of what is happening in the watershed.

  1. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.M.


    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macro-invertebrate taxa.

  2. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL


    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  3. Restoration of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osborne, L. L.; Bayley, P. B.; Higler, L. W. G.


    Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991......Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991...

  4. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (United States)



    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) and USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) will be collaborating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) to assess stream quality across the Midwestern United States. The sites selected for this study are a subset of the larger NRSA, implemented by the EPA, States and Tribes to sample flowing waters across the United States ( The goals are to characterize water-quality stressors—contaminants, nutrients, and sediment—and ecological conditions in streams throughout the Midwest and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic organisms in the streams. Findings will contribute useful information for communities and policymakers by identifying which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality. This collaborative study enhances information provided to the public and policymakers and minimizes costs by leveraging and sharing data gathered under existing programs. In the spring and early summer, NAWQA will sample streams weekly for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. During the same time period, CERC will test sediment and water samples for toxicity, deploy time-integrating samplers, and measure reproductive effects and biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish or amphibians. NRSA will sample sites once during the summer to assess ecological and habitat conditions in the streams by collecting data on algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities and collecting detailed physical-habitat measurements. Study-team members from all three programs will work in collaboration with USGS Water Science Centers and State agencies on study design, execution of sampling and analysis, and reporting.

  5. Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) in stream water and irrigated crop Carrots (Daucus carota sativa) in Naraguta area of Jos were determined. The stream water was sampled at three different sites A, B and C which were about 200m apart along the stream. The Daucus ...

  6. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations. (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H


    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  7. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke


    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  8. National Aquatic Resource Survey Rivers and Streams Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data are from 1,000 river and stream sites across the conterminous US where consistent biological, chemical, physical and watershed data were gathered. The sites...

  9. StreamCat (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  10. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)


    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  11. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3 (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.


    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  12. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine. (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud


    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  13. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, R.D.A.; Ishihara, A.; Klop, J.W.


    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called 'productive' if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  14. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan


    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  15. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.


    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  16. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  17. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  18. Students' Experiences with Live Video-Streamed Teaching Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Buus, Lillian; Thorsen, Jonas


    Students' Experiences with Live Video-Streamed Classes The bachelor programme in biomedical laboratory technology at VIA Faculty of Health Sciences offers a combination of live video-streamed and traditional teaching. It is the student’s individual choice whether to attend classes on......-site or to attend classes from home via live video-stream. Our previous studies revealed that interaction and dialog between attendants were reduced in the live-streamed sessions compared to on-site teaching, and that the main reasons were technological issues and the teacher’s choice of teaching methods. One......-site and live video-streamed teaching. The results document a continuous progress in technological transparency, as the live video-streamed classes increasingly support the student’s flexibility in ways of attending and interacting in classes. Interaction is facilitated through teacher driven support, resulting...

  19. Macroinvertebrate diversity loss in urban streams from tropical forests. (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Portela, Clayton; Nessimian, Jorge L


    The increase of human activities in recent years has significantly interfered and affected aquatic ecosystems. In this present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization in the community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrates from Atlantic Forest streams. The sampling was conducted in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012. The streams were characterized for its environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. The macroinvertebrates were sampled on rocky substrates with a kicknet. A total of 5370 individuals were collected from all streams and were distributed among Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. In urban sites, all those orders were found, except Megaloptera, while only Mollusca was not found in preserved streams. We performed a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis that separated two groups distributed among sites in urban communities and another group outside this area. The dominance was significantly higher at urban sites, while the α diversity and equitability were greater in preserved sites. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was also performed, indicating that most taxa associated with high values of the Habitat Integrity Index (HII) and a few genus of the order Diptera with the high values of ammonia, total nitrogen, associated to streams in urban sites. Urban and preserved streams differ by physical-chemical variables and aquatic macroinvertebrates. In urban streams, there is most dominance, while α diversity and equitability are higher in preserved streams.

  20. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert


    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  1. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.


    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  2. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry. (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C


    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  3. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob


    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  4. Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition impacts in headwater streams using bedrock geology, GIS, angling, and stream chemistry. (United States)

    Kirby, C S; McInerney, B; Turner, M D


    Atmospheric acid deposition is of environmental concern worldwide, and the determination of impacts in remote areas can be problematic. Rainwater in central Pennsylvania, USA, has a mean pH of approximately 4.4. Bedrock varies dramatically in its ability to neutralize acidity. A GIS database simplified reconnaissance of non-carbonate bedrock streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and identified potentially chronically impacted headwater streams, which were sampled for chemistry and brook trout. Stream sites (n=26) that originate in and flow through the Tuscarora had a median pH of 5.0 that was significantly different from other formations. Shawangunk streams (n=6) and non-Tuscarora streams (n=20) had a median pH of 6.0 and 6.3, respectively. Mean alkalinity for non-Tuscarora streams (2.6 mg/L CaCO(3)) was higher than the mean for Tuscarora streams (0.5 mg/L). Lower pH and alkalinity suggest that the buffering capability of the Tuscarora is inferior to that of adjacent sandstones. Dissolved aluminum concentrations were much higher for Tuscarora streams (0.2 mg/L; approximately the lethal limit for brook trout) than for non-Tuscarora streams (0.03 mg/L) or Shawangunk streams (0.02 mg/L). Hook-and-line methods determined the presence/absence of brook trout in 47 stream reaches with suitable habitat. Brook trout were observed in 21 of 22 non-Tuscarora streams, all 6 Shawangunk streams, and only 9 of 28 Tuscarora stream sites. Carefully-designed hook-and-line sampling can determine the presence or absence of brook trout and help confirm biological impacts of acid deposition. 15% of 334 km of Tuscarora stream lengths are listed as "impaired" due to atmospheric deposition by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 65% of the 101 km of Tuscarora stream lengths examined in this study were impaired.

  5. StreamStats, version 4 (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.


    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  6. Effect of size of unfed fry at release on survival and growth of juvenile steelhead in streams and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery, Silver Creek, and Twenty-Mile Creek; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1996 and 1999): Chapter 7 (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.


    We tested whether differences in size of unfed fry at release affected survival and growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in hatchery ponds and streams. Differences in fry size were produced by selecting and spawning females that differed in the mean size of their eggs. Experiments were initiated in 1996 and 1999 with hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho. Fry size groups were small (mean fork length=26.7 mm, mean weight=0.149 g) and large (28.1 mm, 0.197 g) in 1996 and small (27.5 mm, 0.159 g), medium (28.2 mm, 0.190 g), and large (28.9 mm, 0.201 g) in 1999. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period and in streams to late summer, three months after release, was higher for the large than for the small group in 1996 but was similar among groups in 1999. Survival in streams to age - 1 appeared to show the same pattern (large>small in 1996; no difference in 1999), but differences among fry size groups in emigration as well as mortality may have been involved. The inconsistency between years may have resulted because some 1996 female parents of the small group had exceptionally small eggs and were a year younger than the other 1996 females and all 1999 females. Growth in the hatchery was similar among groups in both years whereas growth in streams was faster for the large than for the small group in both years and intermediate for the medium group in 1999. Growth in streams appeared to be limited by food availability. Initially large fry probably out - competed smaller fry for limited food; however, we found no evidence that dispersal from release sites or emigration from streams was caused by competitive displacement of small by larger fish. 


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.


    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  8. Prediction of pesticide toxicity in Midwest streams (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Stone, Wesley W.; Nowell, Lisa H.


    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models—fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera—were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  9. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  10. User aware video streaming (United States)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy


    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  11. The case against streaming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia Mironova


    .... Cassidy, the safety coordinator at the Airline Pilots Association, says Levine and others advocating for live data streaming are oversimplifying the issue and overlooking the logistical concerns...

  12. Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.


    Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL

  13. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.


    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  14. Habitat hydraulic models - a tool for Danish stream quality assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    ) from 1995-2004 and the simulated WUA are correlated between years for the whole stream and between stretches in the stream to estimate the relation between the present measures of biological quality and the habitat hydraulic simulation. The applicability/utility of habitat hydraulic models in relation...... and hydromorphological and chemical characteristics has to be enlightened (EUROPA, 2005). This study links catchment hydrology, stream discharge and physical habitat in a small Danish stream, the stream Ledreborg, and discusses the utility of habitat hydraulic models in relation to the present criteria and methods used...... observations and "site-specific" habitat suitability indices (HSI) are constructed. "Site-specific" HSI's are compared to other HSI's for Danish streams (Søholm and Jensen, 2003) and general HSI's used in other habitat hydraulic modelling projects (Lund, 1996; Fjordback et al. 2002; Thorn and Conallin, 2004...

  15. LHCb trigger streams optimization (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.


    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  16. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.


    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  17. Continuous Dissolved Oxygen Measurements and Modelling Metabolism in Peatland Streams. (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan J; Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Malcolm, Iain; Tetzlaff, Doerthe


    Stream water dissolved oxygen was monitored in a 3.2km2 moorland headwater catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The stream consists of three 1st order headwaters and a 2nd order main stem. The stream network is fringed by peat soils with no riparian trees, though dwarf shrubs provide shading in the lower catchment. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is regulated by the balance between atmospheric re-aeration and the metabolic processes of photosynthesis and respiration. DO was continuously measured for >1 year and the data used to calibrate a mass balance model, to estimate primary production, respiration and re-aeration for a 1st order site and in the 2nd order main stem. Results showed that the stream was always heterotrophic at both sites. Sites were most heterotrophic in the summer reflecting higher levels of stream metabolism. The 1st order stream appeared more heterotrophic which was consistent with the evident greater biomass of macrophytes in the 2nd order stream, with resulting higher primary productivity. Comparison between respiration, primary production, re-aeration and potential physical controls revealed only weak relationships. However, the most basic model parameters (e.g. the parameter linking light and photosynthesis) controlling ecosystem processes resulted in significant differences between the sites which seem related to the stream channel geometry.

  18. Students' Experiences with Live Video-Streamed Teaching Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Buus, Lillian; Thorsen, Jonas


    -site and live video-streamed teaching. The results document a continuous progress in technological transparency, as the live video-streamed classes increasingly support the student’s flexibility in ways of attending and interacting in classes. Interaction is facilitated through teacher driven support, resulting...

  19. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  20. Fish community and bioassessment responses to stream network position (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.


    If organisms move beyond the boundaries of local sampling units, regional metacommunity dynamics could undermine the ability of bioassessment studies to characterize local environmental quality. We tested the prediction that fish dispersal influences local fish community structure and bioassessment metrics as a function of site position within stream networks. We evaluated fish community data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in West Virginia, USA, to compare the influences of stream network position, ecoregion, basin, and stream size on local fish community composition. We assigned sites to 1 of 3 stream network positions: 1) main channels (MC, n  =  12) encompassed streams with upstream catchment areas >200 km2, 2) mainstem tributaries (MT, n  =  43) flowed into MC-sized confluences within 15 fluvial km, 3) headwater tributaries (HT, n  =  31) lacked such riverine confluences within 15 fluvial km. MT and HT sites had similar upstream catchment sizes and landuse gradients, but species richness was greater in MT sites than HT sites, whereas MT and MC sites were not different in this regard. Three bioassessment metrics were greater in MT sites than HT sites (intolerant species richness, cyprinid species richness, benthic species richness), but a multimetric index of biotic integrity did not differ among stream network positions. Ordinations revealed that fish community composition was organized primarily by zoogeographic basin (Monongahela River basin, New River basin, Ohio River basin), ecoregion (Central Appalachian Plateau, Western Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley), and stream size. Riverine specialists were more abundant in MT than HT sites and were more abundant in basins connected to the Ohio River than in basins isolated from the Ohio River by a large waterfall (New River). Our results suggest that contemporary dispersal among streams influences fish community composition

  1. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    , the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...... oscillating plates. Furthermore, under general thermodynamic conditions, we derive the time-dependent first- and second-order equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The coupling from fluid equations to particle motion is achieved through the expressions for the streaming-induced drag...

  2. River-stream connectivity affects fish bioassessment performance. (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Angermeier, Paul L


    Stream fish bioassessment methods assume that fish assemblages observed in sample sites reflect responses to local stressors, but fish assemblages are influenced by local factors as well as regional dispersal to and from connected streams. We hypothesized that fish movement to and from refugia and source populations in connected rivers (i.e., riverine dispersal) would weaken or decouple relations between fish community metrics and local environmental conditions. We compared fish-environment relations between streams that flow into large rivers (mainstem tributaries) and streams that lack riverine confluences (headwater tributaries) at multiple spatial grains using data from the USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in the mid-Atlantic highlands, USA (n = 157 sites). Headwater and mainstem tributaries were not different in local environmental conditions, but showed important differences in fish metric responses to environmental quality gradients. Stream sites flowing into mainstem channels within 10 fluvial km showed consistently weaker relations to local environmental conditions than stream sites that lacked such mainstem connections. Moreover, these patterns diminished at longer distances from riverine confluences, consistent with the hypothesis of riverine dispersal. Our results suggest that (1) the precision of fish bioassessment metrics may be improved by calibrating scoring criteria based on the spatial position of sites within stream networks and (2) the spatial grain of fish bioassessment studies may be manipulated to suit objectives by including or excluding fishes exhibiting riverine dispersal.

  3. Does DNA barcoding improve performance of traditional stream bioassessment metrics? (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate community composition is used to assess wetland and stream condition and to help differentiate the effects of stressors among sites. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding has been promoted as a way to increase taxonomic resolution and, thereby, to increa...

  4. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan


    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community.......The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  5. Roads Near Streams (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  6. Future Roads Near Streams (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  7. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  8. Streaming tearing mode (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.


    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  9. Streaming media bible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack, Steve


    This book "tells you everything you need to know to produce professional-quality streaming media for the Internet, from an overview of the available systems and tools to high-end techniques for top quality results...

  10. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard


    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  11. DNR 24K Streams (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  12. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5 (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.


    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  13. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitew, Menberu [Univ. of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc., Athens, GA (United States); Jackson, Rhett [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.


    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  14. Nitrate Relationships between Stream Baseflow, Well Water, and Land Use in the Tomorrow-Waupaca Watershed


    Henry Lin; Rebecca Cook; Byron Shaw


    We examined the use of stream baseflow water quality as a representative measure of mean ground water quality in the Tomorrow-Waupaca Watershed in central Wisconsin and the relationship between agricultural land use and watershed water quality. From 1997 to 1999, 38 stream sites were sampled for nitrate during winter and summer baseflow conditions. Some sites have been sampled during winter baseflow conditions since 1994. The land area contributing ground water to each stream sampling site wa...

  15. Video streaming: implementation and evaluation in an undergraduate nursing program. (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Glover, Pauline


    Video streaming technology enables video content, held on the web sites, to be streamed via the web. We report the implementation and evaluation of video streaming in an undergraduate nursing program in a metropolitan university in Australia. Students (n=703) were emailed a survey with a 15% response rate. We found that 91% (n=74) of respondents stated that video streaming assisted their learning. Forty-six percent(n=50) of students had difficulty accessing video streaming (particularly at the beginning of the study period). Over a 97-day period there were 8440 "hits" to the site from 1039 different internet protocol (IP) addresses. There were 4475 video streaming sessions undertaken by users. Video streaming was used for reviewing previously attended lectures (52%, n=56), examination preparation (34%, n=37), viewing missed lectures (27%, n=29) and class preparation (9%, n=10). Our experience with the introduction of video streaming has met with general enthusiasm from both students and teaching staff. Video streaming has particular relevance for rural students.

  16. Isolating the impact of sediment toxicity in urban streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Stephen, E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research (CESAR), The University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Melbourne Water Research and Technology, Melbourne Water Corporation, PO Box 4342, VIC 3000 (Australia); Carew, Melissa; Hoffmann, Ary [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research (CESAR), The University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)


    Several factors can contribute to the ecological degradation of stream catchments following urbanization, but it is often difficult to separate their relative importance. We isolated the impact of polluted sediment on the condition of an urban stream in Melbourne, Australia, using two complementary approaches. Using a rapid bioassessment approach, indices of stream condition were calculated based on macroinvertebrate field surveys. Urban stream reaches supported impoverished macroinvertebrate communities, and contained potentially toxic concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Using a field microcosm approach, a bioassay was carried out to assess sediment pollution effects on native macroinvertebrates. Sediment from urban sites substantially altered the microcosm macroinvertebrate community, most likely due to elevated heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Macroinvertebrate surveys combined with a bioassay approach based on field microcosms can help isolate the effect of stream pollutants in degraded ecosystems. - Field microcosms isolate the ecological impact of polluted sediment in an urban stream.

  17. Gulf stream separation dynamics (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  18. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  19. Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J.; Peterson, Erin E.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Wenger, Seth J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Sowder, Colin; Steel, E. Ashley; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Jordan, Chris E.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Som, Nicholas; Monestiez, Pascal


    Streams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human populations. Accurate information regarding the status and trends of stream resources is vital for their effective conservation and management. Most statistical techniques applied to data measured on stream networks were developed for terrestrial applications and are not optimized for streams. A new class of spatial statistical model, based on valid covariance structures for stream networks, can be used with many common types of stream data (e.g., water quality attributes, habitat conditions, biological surveys) through application of appropriate distributions (e.g., Gaussian, binomial, Poisson). The spatial statistical network models account for spatial autocorrelation (i.e., nonindependence) among measurements, which allows their application to databases with clustered measurement locations. Large amounts of stream data exist in many areas where spatial statistical analyses could be used to develop novel insights, improve predictions at unsampled sites, and aid in the design of efficient monitoring strategies at relatively low cost. We review the topic of spatial autocorrelation and its effects on statistical inference, demonstrate the use of spatial statistics with stream datasets relevant to common research and management questions, and discuss additional applications and development potential for spatial statistics on stream networks. Free software for implementing the spatial statistical network models has been developed that enables custom applications with many stream databases.

  20. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.


    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  1. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  2. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium. (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna


    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  3. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies. (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  4. Response of Chironomidae (Diptera to impoundments in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybkowska


    Full Text Available This study evaluated for one year the effects of three small dams located in low order sections of the Bzura, Mrożyca and Mroga Streams (central Poland on their benthic communities (Chironomidae. Six sampling sites were established in these streams (one above and one below each dam reservoir at a distance of several dozen km from one another, all these lotic ecosystems being a part of the Vistula drainage basin. The composition of benthic fauna at the upstream and downstream sites of each river was compared using multivariate techniques (CLUSTER and NDS. The downstream sites of these streams display different seasonal hydrological regimes due to management of the reservoirs and the amount of forested versus agricultural land use in their catchments. The highest macrobenthic density was observed at the upstream site in the Bzura Stream (over 25 000 ind.m-2 while at the other sites macrobenthos was less numerous. At each stream benthic macroinvertebrates were dominated by Oligochaeta and Chironomidae (midges constituted from over 30% to over 90% of the total macrobenthic density. In the upstream reaches due to small fluctuations of abiotic parameters (discharge large populations of a small number of chironomid species (mainly Chironomini dominated in the benthos, while in the downstream reaches a moderate disturbance enabled a much higher number of species to develop and coexist, but at a lower level of density than at the upstream sites (the Bzura and Mrożyca Streams. In turn when the size of inorganic substrate particles was larger (gravel at the downstream site not only a higher number of species but also their higher density than in upstream site (the Mroga Stream might be observed.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1379.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  5. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.


    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  6. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization (United States)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.


    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  7. The Biogeochemistry of Seattle's Urban Streams (United States)

    Yonemura, R.


    Urban development is underway at an unprecedented pace in the city of Seattle, WA. What were once productive salmon spawning ecosystems are now highly altered ecosystems that reflect the impacts of human land-use change. However, the impact that these changes have had on the carbon biogeochemistry have not been studied. We investigate the biogeochemical properties over time of two urban streams in Seattle; Ravenna Creek, an urban park and closed network, and Thornton Creek, a recently day-lighted and restored stream network. We conducted a longitudinal sampling along each of these creeks from their headwaters down to their confluences with Lake Washington. Our data suggest that these systems are supersaturated in both dissolved carbon dioxide and dissolved methane. Preliminary results reveal that carbon dioxide and methane are both highest at the end of Ravenna Creek located on the surface of a preexisting landfill. The highest carbon dioxide and methane levels on Thornton Creek are located at the uppermost site and the site directly below a golf course. These findings suggest that local land-use has an impact on the concentrations of dissolved gases in the surrounding water bodies with implications for urban streams as localized sources of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Additional data on nutrients and stream metabolism will highlight the consistency of these gas concentrations over time, and provide an additional indicator into the health of these urban systems.

  8. Evidence for fish dispersal from spatial analysis of stream network topology (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.


    Developing spatially explicit conservation strategies for stream fishes requires an understanding of the spatial structure of dispersal within stream networks. We explored spatial patterns of stream fish dispersal by evaluating how the size and proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology) explained variation in fish assemblage structure and how this relationship varied with local stream size. We used data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (n = 308 sites). We quantified stream network topology with a continuous analysis based on the rate of downstream flow accumulation from sites and with a discrete analysis based on the presence of mainstem river confluences (i.e., basin area >250 km2) within 20 fluvial km (fkm) from sites. Continuous variation in stream network topology was related to local species richness within a distance of ???10 fkm, suggesting an influence of fish dispersal within this spatial grain. This effect was explained largely by catostomid species, cyprinid species, and riverine species, but was not explained by zoogeographic regions, ecoregions, sampling period, or spatial autocorrelation. Sites near mainstem river confluences supported greater species richness and abundance of catostomid, cyprinid, and ictalurid fishes than did sites >20 fkm from such confluences. Assemblages at sites on the smallest streams were not related to stream network topology, consistent with the hypothesis that local stream size regulates the influence of regional dispersal. These results demonstrate that the size and proximity of connected streams influence the spatial distribution of fish and suggest that these influences can be incorporated into the designs of stream bioassessments and reserves to enhance management efficacy. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  9. Effect of developmental stage of unfed fry on survival and growth of steelhead released in a stream and hatchery ponds (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 6 (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.


    We tested whether differences in developmental stage of unfed fry at release affected subsequent survival and growth of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in a stream and hatchery ponds. Differences in development were created by artificially spawning hatchery steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho, and incubating their progeny at three different temperatures (means=10.9, 11.3, and 11.7°C). Time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) was predicted from incubation temperature using a model. MAWW is equivalent to the button - up fry stage of development. Developmental stages at release were “underdeveloped” (97.7% of model - predicted time to MAWW, mean weight=0.177 g, proportion yolk=0.087), “intermediate” (102.5%, 0.179 g, 0.044), and “overdeveloped” (107.9%, 0.156 g, 0.030). Neither survival nor growth in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period differed among groups. In the stream, frequency of overdeveloped fish relative to the other two groups decreased fro m release in May to September, probably indicating lower survival for the overdeveloped fish during that interval since emigration of sub - yearlings is typically negligible. Length in September was less for overdeveloped than for intermediate fish and was in between for underdeveloped fish, suggesting that growth between May and September was less for overdeveloped fish than for intermediate fish. Although changes in relative frequency and size occurred among fry development groups from September to one ye ar later, those changes may have reflected differences in emigration rate during the interval rather than differential survival or growth. Our results show a cost to survival and growth in a stream, but not in a hatchery, from overdevelopment characterize d by loss of weight and yolk reserves relative to fry closer to MAWW at release. We didn’t find any cost from underdevelopment; however, our underdeveloped fry were closer to MAWW than the

  10. Stream Water Quality Model (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  11. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative dissol...... dissolved substance. Modeling of chemical and biological turnover of substances....

  12. Streaming-video produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Poul


     E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsf...... E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele...... produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort...... tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på....

  13. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik


    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  14. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  15. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services


    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.


    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation ...

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  18. The Students Experiences With Live Video-Streamed Teaching Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Buus, Lillian


    The Bachelor's Degree Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Science at VIA Faculty of Health Sciences offers a combination of live video-streamed and traditional teaching. It is the student’s individual choice whether to attend classes on-site or to attend classes from home via live video-stream. Our...... method inspired from mobile probes (Ørngreen & Jørgensen, n.d.). The research results document a continuous progress in technological transparency, as the live video-streamed classes increasingly support the student’s flexibility in ways of attending and interacting in classes. The analysis shows...... transparency in the live video-streamed teaching sessions during a 5-year period of continuous development of technological and pedagogical solutions for live-streamed teaching. Data describing student’s experiences were gathered in a longitudinal study of four sessions from 2012 to 2017 using a qualitative...

  19. Small Streams - 50 ft Setback (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is streams extracted from the VHD that have a drainage area of less than two square miles. These streams are given a simple 50-foot setback from top of...

  20. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform. (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G


    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  1. Climate Drivers of Alaska Summer Stream Temperature (United States)

    Bieniek, P.; Bhatt, U. S.; Plumb, E. W.; Thoman, R.; Trammell, E. J.


    The temperature of the water in lakes, rivers and streams has wide ranging impacts from local water quality and fish habitats to global climate change. Salmon fisheries in Alaska, a critical source of food in many subsistence communities, are sensitive to large-scale climate variability and river and stream temperatures have also been linked with salmon production in Alaska. Given current and projected climate change, understanding the mechanisms that link the large-scale climate and river and stream temperatures is essential to better understand the changes that may occur with aquatic life in Alaska's waterways on which subsistence users depend. An analysis of Alaska stream temperatures in the context of reanalysis, downscaled, station and other climate data is undertaken in this study to fill that need. Preliminary analysis identified eight stream observation sites with sufficiently long (>15 years) data available for climate-scale analysis in Alaska with one station, Terror Creek in Kodiak, having a 30-year record. Cross-correlation of summer (June-August) water temperatures between the stations are generally high even though they are spread over a large geographic region. Correlation analysis of the Terror Creek summer observations with seasonal sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Pacific broadly resembles the SST anomaly fields typically associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). A similar result was found for the remaining stations and in both cases PDO-like correlation patterns also occurred in the preceding spring. These preliminary results demonstrate that there is potential to diagnose the mechanisms that link the large-scale climate system and Alaska stream temperatures.

  2. Query Processing on Data Streams


    Stegmaier, Bernhard


    Data stream processing is currently gaining importance due to the rapid increase in data volumes and developments in novel application areas like e-science, e-health, and e-business. In this thesis, we propose an architecture for a data stream management system and investigate methods for query processing on data streams in such systems. In contrast to traditional database management systems (DBMSs), queries on data streams constitute continuous subscriptions for retrieving interesting data r...

  3. Selection of Stream Insect Larvae for Indicating Anthropogenic Impact (United States)

    This study examined the total mercury concentrations, [Hg], and 15N values in macro-invertebrates collected from 35 stream sites in Rhode Island, USA, to determine the organism groups most suitable for use as indicators of anthropogenic impact. Site selection was designed to cov...

  4. Macrophyte communities of European streams with altered physical habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hare, M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Nijboer, R.C.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Ferreira, T.


    The impact of altering hydro-morphology on three macrophyte community types was investigated at 107 European stream sites. Sites were surveyed using standard macrophyte and habitat survey techniques (Mean Trophic Rank Methodology and River Habitat Survey respectively). Principal Components Analysis

  5. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)


    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  8. Stream channel responses and soil loss at off-highway vehicle stream crossings in the Ouachita National Forest (United States)

    Daniel A. Marion; Jonathan D. Phillips; Chad Yocum; Stephanie H. Mehlhope


    This study investigates the geomorphic effects of ford-type stream crossings in an off-highway vehicle (OHV) trail complex in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. At a total of 15 crossing sites, we used a disturbed vs. undisturbed study design to assess soil truncation and an upstream vs. downstream design to assess in-channel effects. The 15 sites ranged from OHV...

  9. Influence of headwater site conditions and riparian buffers on terrestrial salamander response to forest thinning. (United States)

    D.E. Rundio; D.H. Olson


    We examined the effect of forest thinning and riparian buffers along headwater streams on terrestrial salamanders at two sites in western Oregon. Salamander numbers were reduced postthinning at one site with lower down-wood volume. Terrestrial salamander distributions along stream-to-upslope transects suggest benefits of one and two site-potential tree-height stream...

  10. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.


    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  11. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  12. Whole-stream response to nitrate loading in three streams draining agricultural landscapes. (United States)

    Duff, John H; Tesoriero, Anthony J; Richardson, William B; Strauss, Eric A; Munn, Mark D


    Physical, chemical, hydrologic, and biologic factors affecting nitrate (NO3(-)) removal were evaluated in three agricultural streams draining orchard/dairy and row crop settings. Using 3-d "snapshots" during biotically active periods, we estimated reach-level NO3(-) sources, NO3(-) mass balance, in-stream processing (nitrification, denitrification, and NO3(-) uptake), and NO3(-) retention potential associated with surface water transport and ground water discharge. Ground water contributed 5 to 11% to stream discharge along the study reaches and 8 to 42% of gross NO3(-) input. Streambed processes potentially reduced 45 to 75% of ground water NO3(-) before discharge to surface water. In all streams, transient storage was of little importance for surface water NO3(-) retention. Estimated nitrification (1.6-4.4 mg N m(-2) h(-1)) and unamended denitrification rates (2.0-16.3 mg N m(-2) h(-1)) in sediment slurries were high relative to pristine streams. Denitrification of NO3(-) was largely independent of nitrification because both stream and ground water were sources of NO3(-). Unamended denitrification rates extrapolated to the reach-scale accounted for Nitrate retention as a percentage of gross NO3(-) inputs was >30% in an organic-poor, autotrophic stream with the lowest denitrification potentials and highest benthic chlorophyll a, photosynthesis/respiration ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen, and diurnal NO3(-) variation. Biotic processing potentially removed 75% of ground water NO3(-) at this site, suggesting an important role for photosynthetic assimilation of ground water NO3(-) relative to subsurface denitrification as water passed directly through benthic diatom beds.

  13. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge


    Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches...... and coverage of macrophytes. Riparian land use, valley form and information on channelisation and channel dredging were also collected. Small headwater streams were either dominated by forests or semi-natural land use. In contrast, the riparian areas of the streams in the larger streams were dominated...

  14. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther


    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  15. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  16. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  17. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  18. Suspended-sediment and nutrient loads for Waiakea and Alenaio Streams, Hilo, Hawaii, 2003-2006 (United States)

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Nishimoto, Dale C.


    Suspended sediment and nutrient samples were collected during wet-weather conditions at three sites on two ephemeral streams in the vicinity of Hilo, Hawaii during March 2004 to March 2006. Two sites were sampled on Waiakea Stream at 80- and 860-foot altitudes during March 2004 to August 2005. One site was sampled on Alenaio Stream at 10-foot altitude during November 2005 to March 2006. The sites were selected to represent different land uses and land covers in the area. Most of the drainage area above the upper Waiakea Stream site is conservation land. The drainage areas above the lower site on Waiakea Stream, and the site on Alenaio Stream, are a combination of conservation land, agriculture, rural, and urban land uses. In addition to the sampling, continuous-record streamflow sites were established at the three sampling sites, as well as an additional site on Alenaio Stream at altitude of 75 feet and 0.47 miles upstream from the sampling site. Stage was measured continuously at 15-minute intervals at these sites. Discharge, for any particular instant, or for selected periods of time, were computed based on a stage-discharge relation determined from individual discharge measurements. Continuous records of discharge were computed at the two sites on Waiakea Stream and the upper site on Aleniao Stream. Due to non-ideal hydraulic conditions within the channel of Alenaio Stream, a continuous record of discharge was not computed at the lower site on Alenaio Stream where samples were taken. Samples were analyzed for suspended sediment, and the nutrients total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, and total phosphorus. Concentration data were converted to instantaneous load values: loads are the product of discharge and concentration, and are presented as tons per day for suspended sediment or pounds per day for nutrients. Daily-mean loads were computed by estimating concentrations relative to discharge using graphical constituent loading analysis techniques. Daily

  19. Greenland Ice Sheet supraglacial stream morphology and dynamics (United States)

    Chu, V.; Smith, L. C.; Yang, K.; Legleiter, C. J.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Forster, R. R.; Gleason, C. J.; Pitcher, L. H.; Moustafa, S.


    Recently observed increases in temperature and melt extent over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have prompted studies gauging the response of the ice sheet and outlet glaciers to increasing meltwater input. Satellite images show supraglacial streams abundantly covering the western ablation zone throughout the melt season that transport large volumes of meltwater into moulins and to the ice edge, yet these streams remain poorly studied. Here, we present a high-resolution study of five different supraglacial stream networks in the western GrIS ablation zone, manually digitized from panchromatic and multispectral WorldView-1/2 imagery. These high-resolution stream networks, with drainage areas ranging between 0.5 - 31 km2 in size and 500 - 1800 m in elevation, are compared with large rivers extracted from multispectral WorldView-2 imagery using an automated remote sensing method, and can help define scaling properties of larger rivers as well as constrain remotely sensed retrievals of discharge. Four of these stream networks contain field measurements of stream hydraulics from a field campaign during 20 July - 20 August 2012. This extensive field campaign provided 77 cross-sectional measurements of water flow velocity, stream depth, width, and water surface slope from traditional field surveys, and also provided longitudinal measurements of water surface velocity and elevation from river drifters. Additionally, two highly sampled sites at 500 m and 875 m elevation provide measurements of ablation rate, stream incision rate, and stream and air temperatures. These drainage networks are categorized by discharge, glacier slope, width-to-depth ratio, channel roughness, Froude number, meander wavelength, sinuosity, and channel pattern. Such measurements form a critical first assessment of GrIS supraglacial stream morphology and dynamics.

  20. Impact of Extreme Climatic Events on the Temperature Regimes in Urban Streams (United States)

    Parchem, C.; Stewart, I. T.


    Urban streams provide important aquatic and riparian habitat close to population centers, as well as other ecosystem services such as flood protection, storm water drainage and recreational functions. Yet, they are already greatly impacted by human action through water management, channel modifications, destruction of riparian habitat, and pollution. This has potentially rendered them more vulnerable to the climatic extremes projected from climatic changes. From 2012 - 2016, California has experienced to date the most severe drought since the beginning of weather recordings. The combination of the resulting extremely low stream flows exacerbated by low precipitation, high evaporation rates, and greater human demand on water, with high temperature have increased the temperature regime in urban streams. However, the extent to which urban stream temperatures are impacted by extreme climatic conditions and what role stream morphology, stream flow characteristics, and riparian vegetation play, are not sufficiently understood. For this project, we monitored stream temperature, dissolved oxygen, and flow depth along a network of 18 sites in the Los Gatos Creek, Guadalupe River, and Coyote Creek, located in the urban regions of the southern San Francisco Bay Area. Monitoring sites were distributed from stream headwaters to flood plains and represented a variety of stream environments. We examined the variation in stream temperature and dissolved oxygen with extreme air temperature, extremely low flow conditions, riparian shading, and channel morphology. Our results show that during the recent drought, hourly stream temperatures rose up to 34°C during summer heat waves for sites in the lower stream reaches without riparian shading. By contrast, shaded sites with deeper flows, and minimally affected by water management were able to maintain lower temperatures by several degrees. Understanding the conditions driving the response of urban streams to climatic extremes can aid

  1. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)


    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  2. The California stream quality assessment (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.


    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  3. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Williams, John Michael


    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction and discarding the raw event. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissi...

  4. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean


    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  5. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server



    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  6. Stream Macroinvertebrate Occurrence along Gradients in Organic Pollution and Eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Skriver, Jens; Larsen, Søren Erik


    We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part of the Da......We analysed a large number of concurrent samples of macroinvertebrate communities and chemical indicators of eutrophication and organic pollution [total-P, total-N, NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5)] from 594 Danish stream sites. Samples were taken over an 11-year time span as part...

  7. Large Scale Risks from Agricultural Pesticides in Small Streams. (United States)

    Szöcs, Eduard; Brinke, Marvin; Karaoglan, Bilgin; Schäfer, Ralf B


    Small streams are important refuges for biodiversity. In agricultural areas, they may be at risk from pesticide pollution. However, most related studies have been limited to a few streams on the regional level, hampering extrapolation to larger scales. We quantified risks as exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and used German monitoring data to quantify the drivers thereof and to assess current risks in small streams on a large scale. The data set was comprised of 1 766 104 measurements of 478 pesticides (including metabolites) related to 24 743 samples from 2301 sampling sites. We investigated the influence of agricultural land use, catchment size, as well as precipitation and seasonal dynamics on pesticide risk taking also concentrations below the limit of quantification into account. The exceedances of risk thresholds dropped 3.7-fold at sites with no agriculture. Precipitation increased detection probability by 43%, and concentrations were the highest from April to June. Overall, this indicates that agricultural land use is a major contributor of pesticides in streams. RACs were exceeded in 26% of streams, with the highest exceedances found for neonicotinoid insecticides. We conclude that pesticides from agricultural land use are a major threat to small streams and their biodiversity. To reflect peak concentrations, current pesticide monitoring needs refinement.

  8. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.


    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  9. Global characteristics of stream flow seasonality and variability (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Diaz, Henry F.


    Monthly stream flow series from 1345 sites around the world are used to characterize geographic differences in the seasonality and year-to-year variability of stream flow. Stream flow seasonality varies regionally, depending on the timing of maximum precipitation, evapotranspiration, and contributions from snow and ice. Lags between peaks of precipitation and stream flow vary smoothly from long delays in high-latitude and mountainous regions to short delays in the warmest sectors. Stream flow is most variable from year to year in dry regions of the southwest United States and Mexico, the Sahel, and southern continents, and it varies more (relatively) than precipitation in the same regions. Tropical rivers have the steadiest flows. El Nin??o variations are correlated with stream flow in many parts of the Americas, Europe, and Australia. Many stream flow series from North America, Europe, and the Tropics reflect North Pacific climate, whereas series from the eastern United States, Europe, and tropical South America and Africa reflect North Atlantic climate variations.

  10. Data streams algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S


    Data stream algorithms as an active research agenda emerged only over the past few years, even though the concept of making few passes over the data for performing computations has been around since the early days of Automata Theory. The data stream agenda now pervades many branches of Computer Science including databases, networking, knowledge discovery and data mining, and hardware systems. Industry is in synch too, with Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) and special hardware to deal with data speeds. Even beyond Computer Science, data stream concerns are emerging in physics, atmospheric

  11. Estimated Perennial Streams of Idaho and Related Geospatial Datasets (United States)

    Rea, Alan; Skinner, Kenneth D.


    The perennial or intermittent status of a stream has bearing on many regulatory requirements. Because of changing technologies over time, cartographic representation of perennial/intermittent status of streams on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is not always accurate and (or) consistent from one map sheet to another. Idaho Administrative Code defines an intermittent stream as one having a 7-day, 2-year low flow (7Q2) less than 0.1 cubic feet per second. To establish consistency with the Idaho Administrative Code, the USGS developed regional regression equations for Idaho streams for several low-flow statistics, including 7Q2. Using these regression equations, the 7Q2 streamflow may be estimated for naturally flowing streams anywhere in Idaho to help determine perennial/intermittent status of streams. Using these equations in conjunction with a Geographic Information System (GIS) technique known as weighted flow accumulation allows for an automated and continuous estimation of 7Q2 streamflow at all points along a stream, which in turn can be used to determine if a stream is intermittent or perennial according to the Idaho Administrative Code operational definition. The selected regression equations were applied to create continuous grids of 7Q2 estimates for the eight low-flow regression regions of Idaho. By applying the 0.1 ft3/s criterion, the perennial streams have been estimated in each low-flow region. Uncertainty in the estimates is shown by identifying a 'transitional' zone, corresponding to flow estimates of 0.1 ft3/s plus and minus one standard error. Considerable additional uncertainty exists in the model of perennial streams presented in this report. The regression models provide overall estimates based on general trends within each regression region. These models do not include local factors such as a large spring or a losing reach that may greatly affect flows at any given point. Site-specific flow data, assuming a sufficient period of

  12. Assessing the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome according to NCEP ATP III in Germany: feasibility and quality aspects of a two step approach in 1550 randomly selected primary health care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz


    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn describes a cluster of metabolic disorders and is considered a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Although a high prevalence is commonly assumed in Germany data about the degree of its occurrence in the population and in subgroups are still missing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn according to the NCEP ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in persons aged ≥18 years attending a general practitioner in Germany. Here we describe in detail the methods used and the feasibility of determining the MetSyn in a primary health care setting. Research design and methods: The German-wide cross-sectional study was performed during two weeks in October 2005. Blood samples were analyzed in a central laboratory. Waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed, data on smoking, life style, fasting status, socio-demographic characteristics and core information from non-participants collected. Quality control procedures included telephone-monitoring and random on-site visits. In order to achieve a maximal number of fasting blood samples with a minimal need for follow-up appointments a stepwise approach was developed. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated, the Taylor expansion method used to estimate standard errors needed for calculation of confidence intervals for clustered observations. Results: In total, 1511 randomly selected general practices from 397 out of 438 German cities and administrative districts enrolled 35,869 patients (age range: 18-99, women 61.1%. More than 50,000 blood samples were taken. Fasting blood samples were available for 49% of the participants. Of the participating patients 99.3% returned questionnaires to the GP, only 12% were not filled out completely. The overall prevalence of the MetSyn (NCEP/ATP III 2001 was found to be 19.8%, with men showing higher prevalence rates than women (22

  13. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J. J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Loinaz, Maria Christina


    Mitigation activities to improve water quality and quantity in streams as well as stream management and restoration efforts are conducted in the European Union aiming to improve the chemical, physical and ecological status of streams. Headwater streams are often characterised by impairment...... of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We...... studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities...

  14. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell


    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie


    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara


    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  16. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.


    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  17. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1 (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.


    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  18. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  19. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and Telegraph...

  20. We All Stream for Video (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008


    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  1. Save Our Streams and Waterways. (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  2. Measuring Stream Dynamics with Fiber Optics (United States)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas


    I'll review recent work using a fiber optic based distributed temperature system to gauge stream temperatures over a several kilometer reach with spatial resolution down to one meter, and temperature resolution to 0.1C. The system has been installed in the H. J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research Site in southern Oregon to help gauge ground water/surface water fluxes, as well as the Walla Walla river to aid with fish habitat studies. The talk will describe how interdisciplinary work between applied physics and ecology can provide novel measurement solutions for ecologies and climates in flux.

  3. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing


    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha


    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  4. Mapping Episodic Stream Activity for the Ridgecrest Solar Power Project, Kern County, California (United States)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N.; Brady, R. H., III; Vyverberg, K.; Weinman, B.


    Large-scale renewable energy projects are being developed in the California desert region on large tracts of predominantly undeveloped land (total area of developed land for individual project sites vary from 327 acres to 8,230 acres). The absence of a standard method of identifying and accounting for episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is an area of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for protecting natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for an accurate dryland stream delineation protocol that is consistent, efficient, accessible, and accurately reflects the extent and distribution of streams on a site. Dryland stream delineation protocol based on a scientific, geomorphic and ecological understanding of dryland stream processes will help ensure dryland streams are accurately identified for the purposes of environmental impact assessments and project permitting. Such a method is currently being developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). This thesis work critically evaluates the stream delineation and stream impact assessment previously completed by the developer for the proposed renewable energy project in El Paso Fan, El Paso Mountains, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with the results achieved in the field using the MESA (Mapping Episodic Stream Activity) stream delineation methods and protocols and mobile GIS mapping technology.

  5. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael


    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice...... programmers learn faster and better while at the same time laying the foundation for a more thorough treatment of more advanced aspects of software engineering. In this article, two examples demonstrate the application of STREAM. The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory programming courses...... at our universities for the past three years and the results are very encouraging. We report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study indicates a positive effect on the development of students’ process competences....

  6. Nitrate Relationships between Stream Baseflow, Well Water, and Land Use in the Tomorrow-Waupaca Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Lin


    Full Text Available We examined the use of stream baseflow water quality as a representative measure of mean ground water quality in the Tomorrow-Waupaca Watershed in central Wisconsin and the relationship between agricultural land use and watershed water quality. From 1997 to 1999, 38 stream sites were sampled for nitrate during winter and summer baseflow conditions. Some sites have been sampled during winter baseflow conditions since 1994. The land area contributing ground water to each stream sampling site was delineated, resulting in 38 sub-basins. In addition, over 3500 test results from private wells in the watershed were compiled and mapped using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Nitrate concentrations in stream baseflow and well waters were found to have strong positive correlation in the sub-basins of second order or higher. This indicates that stream baseflow may be valid for monitoring mean ground water quality in watersheds predominantly fed by ground water, where much of the stream nitrate is believed to originate from ground water. Analysis of seasonal variation in the stream data showed that winter nitrate concentrations were higher than summer concentrations, implying that winter stream monitoring may be more critical for the assessment of overall ground water quality in the watershed. We also found that, as the amount of agricultural land increased in each sub-basin, average nitrate concentrations in the well and stream waters also increased, suggesting a connection between agricultural land use and nitrate contamination of water resources in the watershed.

  7. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  8. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  9. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index (United States)

    Hack, John T.


    The generally regular three-dimensional geometry of drainage networks is the basis for a simple method of terrain analysis providing clues to bedrock conditions and other factors that determine topographic forms. On a reach of any stream, a gradient-index value can be obtained which allows meaningful comparisons of channel slope on streams of different sizes. The index is believed to reflect stream power or competence and is simply the product of the channel slope at a point and channel length measured along the longest stream above the pointwhere the calculation is made. In an adjusted topography, changes in gradient-index values along a stream generally correspond to differences in bedrock or introduced load. In any landscape the gradient index of a stream is related to total relief and stream regimen. Thus, climate, tectonic events, and geomorphic history must be considered in using the gradient index. Gradient-index values can be obtained quickly by simple measurements on topographic maps, or they can be obtained by more sophisticated photogrammetric measurements that involve simple computer calculations from x, y, z coordinates.

  10. Quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002--10 (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy S.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.


    Stream quality in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, was assessed on the basis of land use, hydrology, stream-water and streambed-sediment chemistry, riparian and in-stream habitat, and periphyton and macroinvertebrate community data collected from 22 sites during 2002 through 2010. Stream conditions at the end of the study period are evaluated and compared to previous years, stream biological communities and physical and chemical conditions are characterized, streams are described relative to Kansas Department of Health and Environment impairment categories and water-quality standards, and environmental factors that most strongly correlate with biological stream quality are evaluated. The information is useful for improving water-quality management programs, documenting changing conditions with time, and evaluating compliance with water-quality standards, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions, and other established guidelines and goals. Constituent concentrations in water during base flow varied across the study area and 2010 conditions were not markedly different from those measured in 2003, 2004, and 2007. Generally the highest specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions in water occurred at urban sites except the upstream Cedar Creek site, which is rural and has a large area of commercial and industrial land less than 1 mile upstream on both sides of the creek. The highest base-flow nutrient concentrations in water occurred downstream from wastewater treatment facilities. Water chemistry data represent base-flow conditions only, and do not show the variability in concentrations that occurs during stormwater runoff. Constituent concentrations in streambed sediment also varied across the study area and some notable changes occurred from previously collected data. High organic carbon and nutrient concentrations at the rural Big Bull Creek site in 2003 decreased

  11. Landscape characteristics of a stream and wetland mitigation banking program. (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Sholtes, Joel; Doyle, Martin W


    In the United States, stream restoration is an increasing part of environmental and land management programs, particularly under the auspices of compensatory mitigation regulations. Markets and regulations surrounding stream mitigation are beginning to mirror those of the well-established wetland mitigation industry. Recent studies have shown that wetland mitigation programs commonly shift wetlands across space from urban to rural areas, thereby changing the functional characteristics and benefits of wetlands in the landscape. However, it is not yet known if stream mitigation mirrors this behavior, and if so, what effects this may have on landscape-scale ecological and hydrological processes. This project addresses three primary research questions. (1) What are the spatial relationships between stream and wetland impact and compensation sites as a result of regulations requiring stream and wetland mitigation in the State of North Carolina? (2) How do stream impacts come about due to the actions of different types of developers, and how do the characteristics of impacts sites compare with compensation sites? (3) To what extent does stream compensation relocate high-quality streams within the river network, and how does this affect localized (intrawatershed) loss or gain of aquatic resources? Using geospatial data collected from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the Army Corps of Engineers' Wilmington District, we analyzed the behavior of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program in providing stream and wetland mitigation for the State of North Carolina. Our results suggest that this program provides mitigation (1) in different ways for different types of permittees; (2) at great distances (both Euclidean and within the stream network) from original impacts; (3) in significantly different places than impacts within watersheds; and (4) in many cases, in different watersheds from original impacts. Our analysis also reveals problems with regulator

  12. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.


    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  13. Testing the field of dreams hypothesis: functional responses to urbanization and restoration in stream ecosystems. (United States)

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B; Hassett, Brooke A; Cada, Peter; Bernhardt, Emily S


    As catchments become increasingly urban, the streams that drain them become increasingly degraded. Urban streams are typically characterized by high-magnitude storm flows, homogeneous habitats, disconnected riparian zones, and elevated nitrogen concentrations. To reverse the degradation of urban water quality, watershed managers and regulators are increasingly turning to stream restoration approaches. By reshaping the channel and reconnecting the surface waters with their riparian zone, practitioners intend to enhance the natural nutrient retention capacity of the restored stream ecosystem. Despite the exponential growth in stream restoration projects and expenditures, there has been no evaluation to date of the efficacy of urban stream restoration projects in enhancing nitrogen retention or in altering the underlying ecosystem metabolism that controls instream nitrogen consumption. In this study, we compared ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake kinetics in four stream restoration projects within urban watersheds to ecosystem functions measured in four unrestored urban stream segments and four streams draining minimally impacted forested watersheds in central North Carolina, U.S.A. All 12 sites were surveyed in June through August of 2006 and again in January through March of 2007. We anticipated that urban streams would have enhanced rates of ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake relative to forested streams due to the increases in nutrient loads and temperature associated with urbanization, and we predicted that restored streams would have further enhanced rates for these ecosystem functions by virtue of their increased habitat heterogeneity and water residence times. Contrary to our predictions we found that stream metabolism did not differ between stream types in either season and that nitrate uptake kinetics were not different between stream types in the winter. During the summer, restored stream reaches had substantially higher rates of nitrate uptake

  14. Assessing Ecosystem Integrity And Macroinvertebrates Community Structure Towards Conservation Of Small Streams In Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija


    Full Text Available This study attempts to use biological indices such as Biological Monitoring Working Party BMWP Average Score Per Taxa ASPT and Hilsenhoff Family Biotic Index FBI in order to determine the ecosystem health and water quality of Nzovwe stream in Mbeya Tanzania. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Nzovwe stream using semi-quantitative techniques from March to June 2016. About 500 meters of Nzovwe stream was divided into 5 sampling sites each site was 100 meters apart. The macroinvertebrates were collected from all the possible microhabitats of each site using a 250m mesh size D- frame kick net. Macroinvertebrate specimens were preserved in the 70 ethyl alcohol in the polyethylene bottles. The samples were identified to the family level using standard identification keys. The BMWP score and ASPT score indicated good and moderate stream water quality respectively. The FBI showed the stream had possibility of some organic pollution. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index shows the sampling sites were moderately polluted or possibly impaired. Macroinvertebrates in pollution class II were abundant suggesting moderate pollution. Moreover the Midge Insects Diptera and Snail indicated the stream water quality or ecosystem health is between unimpaired and possibly impaired. Based on these results the study concludes that the stream ecosystem is moderately polluted and therefore the study recommends a regular stream monitoring.

  15. Physical and biological responses of streams to suburbanization of historically agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Chris L. Burcher; E.F. Benfield


    We investigated whether suburbanization influenced the physical and biological characteristics of ten 3rd-0r 4th-order streams that drain historically agricultural watersheds in the southern Appalachians near Asheville, North Carolina. Five watersheds had areas of recent suburban development proximal to stream sites, and 5...

  16. Using high-frequency sampling to detect effects of atmospheric pollutants on stream chemistry (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Elizabeth W. Boyer


    We combined information from long-term (weekly over many years) and short-term (high-frequency during rainfall and snowmelt events) stream water sampling efforts to understand how atmospheric deposition affects stream chemistry. Water samples were collected at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT, a temperate upland forest site that receives elevated atmospheric...


    Resource managers are often challenged by the lack of adequate benchmarks, or reference conditions, for assessing the biological condition of streams. Increasing human alteration of landscapes reduces the availability of minimally-disturbed stream sites that can be used to repre...

  18. Nitrate removal and denitrification in headwater agricultural streams of the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Headwater streams can serve as important sites for nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds. Here we examine the influence of agricultural streams on watershed N export in the Willamette River Basin of western Oregon, USA, a region with mixed agricultural, urban and forestry land uses...

  19. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA (United States)

    A. Argerich; S.L. Johnson; S.D. Sebestyen; C.C. Rhoades; E. Greathouse; J.D. Knoepp; M.B. Adams; G.E. Likens; J.L. Campbell; W.H. McDowell; F.N. Scatena; G.G. Ice


    To examine whether stream nitrogen concentrations in forested reference catchments have changed over time and if patterns were consistent across the USA, we synthesized up to 44 yr of data collected from 22 catchments at seven USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests. Trends in stream nitrogen presented high spatial variability both among catchments at a site and among...

  20. Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Lahaina District, West Maui, Hawai'i (United States)

    Cheng, Chui Ling


    The purpose of this study was to characterize streamflow availability under natural low-flow conditions for streams in the Lahaina District, west Maui, Hawaiʻi. The study-area streams included Honolua Stream and tributary Pāpua Gulch, Honokahua Stream and tributary Mokupeʻa Gulch, Kahana Stream, Honokōwai Stream and tributaries Amalu and Kapāloa Streams, Wahikuli Gulch and tributary Hāhākea Gulch, Kahoma Stream and tributary Kanahā Stream, Kauaʻula Stream, Launiupoko Stream, Olowalu Stream, and Ukumehame Gulch. The results of this study can be used to assist in the determination of technically defensible instream-flow standards for the study-area streams. Low-flow characteristics for natural (unregulated) streamflow conditions were represented by flow-duration discharges that are equaled or exceeded between 50 and 95 percent of the time. Partial-record sites were established on 10 main streams and 5 tributary streams, mainly upstream from existing surface-water diversions. Flow characteristics were determined using historical and current streamflow data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous sites, and additional data collected as part of this study. Based on strategically scheduled observations, six of the study-area streams were ephemeral streams that were observed to remain dry at least 50 percent of the time: Pāpua Gulch, Honokahua Stream and its tributary Mokupeʻa Gulch, Kahana Stream, and Wahikuli Gulch and its tributary Hāhākea Gulch. For the remaining streams with measurable flow, Honolua, Honokōwai, Kahoma, Kanahā, Kauaʻula, Launiupoko, and Olowalu Streams, and Ukumehame Gulch, flow-duration discharges were computed for the 30-year base period (water years 1984–2013), using two record-augmentation techniques. The 95-percent flow-duration discharges ranged from 0 to 4.8 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The 50-percent flow-duration discharges ranged from 0.47 to 9.5 ft3/s. This study also estimated the streamflow

  1. Major Kansas Perennial Streams : 1961 and 2009 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of major perennial streams in Kansas for the years 1961 and 2009. The map shows a decrease in streams regarded as perennial in 1961, compared to stream regarded...

  2. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  3. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand. (United States)

    Meulen, Kathleen


    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  4. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  5. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  6. Heterogeneity and Stream-Aquifer Interaction in an Unconsolidated Aquifer (United States)

    McElwee, C. D.; Healey, J. M.


    In north central Kansas the Republican River and its associated alluvial sediments are important regional surface and groundwater supplies. A test site, adjacent to the Republican River, has been established within the porous alluvial sediments to study stream-aquifer interaction and aquifer heterogeneity. This is potentially important research for understanding how to maintain a desired stream flow in the presence of withdrawals from the stream and the aquifer. The site installation consists of seven observation wells located along a line perpendicular to the river channel and centered about a productive irrigation well. In addition to water level data, several geophysical techniques (direct push electrical conductivity, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic methods) have been used at this site to characterize the aquifer. The results of the geophysical methods are reported in another paper at this meeting. Water level data collected over a two-week period shows two consecutive irrigation cycles. Each cycle consists of two days of intensive pumping followed by five days of recovery. Several significant elements of stream-aquifer systems can be seen in the data. The water level data demonstrates a regional water level decline in the alluvium that mimics stream gage data located up and down stream from the site, thereby confirming stream-aquifer interaction. Most of the observation wells located symmetrically around the irrigation well show the normal asymmetry expected for a river acting as a specified head boundary. However, heterogeneity causes one pair of symmetric wells to behave differently. Hydraulic data analysis with an automated program (SuprPumpII) demonstrates a degree of heterogeneity within the alluvial sediments not evident from descriptive geologic drilling logs or geophysical logs. A time-drawdown plot of a symmetric pair of observation wells, 310W and 310E, shows an atypical response of the aquifer during early pumping times due to

  7. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical parameters were investigated in Ochani Stream site in Ejamah Ebubu, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State. The results show that a major crude oil spillage occurred at Ejamah Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria approximately 30 ...

  8. Stream degradation, fish abundance and the potential viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen sites on nine second- and third-order streams in the Mount Cameroon area, with varying degrees of human disturbance, were sampled during wet and dry seasons over 21 months in 2003–2005 to estimate their potential for sustainable exploitation of ornamental fishes. In total, 35 species of fish representing 22 ...

  9. Significance of headwater streams and perennial springs in ecological monitoring in Shenandoah National Park (United States)

    Snyder, Craig D.; Webb, James R.; Young, John A.; Johnson, Zane B.


    Shenandoah National Park has been monitoring water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems since 1979. These monitoring efforts were designed to assess the status and trends in stream condition associated with atmospheric deposition (acid rain) and changes in forest health due to gypsy moth infestations. The primary objective of the present research was to determine whether the current long-term macroinvertebrate and water-quality monitoring program in Shenandoah National Park was failing to capture important information on the status and trends in stream condition by not sufficiently representing smaller, headwater streams. The current benthic-macroinvertebrate and water-chemistry sampling designs do not include routine collection of data from streams with contributing watershed areas smaller than 100 hectares, even though these small streams represent the overwhelming proportion of total stream length in the park. In this study, we sampled headwater sites, including headwater stream reaches (contributing watershed area approximately 100 hectares (ha) and perennial springs, in the park for aquatic macroinvertebrates and water chemistry and compared the results with current and historical data collected at long-term ecological monitoring (LTEM) sites on larger streams routinely sampled as part of ongoing monitoring efforts. The larger purpose of the study was to inform ongoing efforts by park managers to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the current aquatic monitoring program in light of other potential stressors (for example, climate change) and limited resources. Our results revealed several important findings that could influence management decisions regarding long-term monitoring of park streams. First, we found that biological indicators of stream condition at headwater sites and perennial springs generally were more indicative of lower habitat quality and were more spatially variable than those observed at sites on routinely

  10. Streaming patterns in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Périnet, Nicolas; Urra, Héctor; Mujica, Nicolás; Gordillo, Leonardo


    Waves patterns in the Faraday instability have been studied for decades. Besides the rich dynamics that can be observed on the waves at the interface, Faraday waves hide beneath them an elusive range of flow patterns --or streaming patterns-- which have not been studied in detail until now. The streaming patterns are responsible for a net circulation in the flow which are reminiscent of convection cells. In this article, we analyse these streaming flows by conducting experiments in a Faraday-wave setup. To visualize the flows, tracers are used to generate both trajectory maps and to probe the streaming velocity field via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). We identify three types of patterns and experimentally show that identical Faraday waves can mask streaming patterns that are qualitatively very different. Next we propose a three-dimensional model that explains streaming flows in quasi-inviscid fluids. We show that the streaming inside the fluid arises from a complex coupling between the bulk and the boundar...

  11. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian


    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  12. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.


    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites......) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity - significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being....

  13. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao


    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  14. Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs. (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada


    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic

  15. Stream Metabolism and Aquatic Vegetation in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes (United States)

    Munn, M. D.; Bales, J. D.; Waite, I.


    Forty-six streams across 7 agricultural areas of the United States were assessed using 2-station whole-stream metabolism techniques and aquatic vegetation measurements. Land use was dominated by agriculture, ranging from 0.1 to 92 percent (mean = 44 percent), with agricultural practices ranging from low intensity pasture to high intensity irrigated agriculture. Streams represented a gradient of nutrient concentrations for TN (0.07- 9.0 mg/L) and TP (0.002-1.7 mg/L). Measures of aquatic vegetation included benthic algal biomass (chlorophyll a/m2) and percent macrophyte cover. Additional data included stream and riparian habitat and basin features. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 0.1 to 12 g O2/ m2/ d, with highest production occurring in macrophyte-dominated streams in Idaho and Minnesota, and benthic periphyton-dominated streams in the Ozarks (Arkansas and Missouri). GPP was positively correlated with macrophyte cover (r=0.35), but not with algal biomass. Macrophyte driven systems occurred almost exclusively in open canopy systems where canopy was less than 27 percent. Nutrient concentrations in streams were not determined to be important explanatory variables for GPP; however, modeled estimates of nitrogen and phosphorous inputs to the watershed were related to benthic algal biomass and macrophyte cover in specific agricultural areas. Habitat played a key role in GPP, benthic algal biomass, and macrophyte cover, with indicators of light (for example, canopy cover or suspended sediment), often determined to be significant explanatory variables. Approximately 75 percent of sites had negative net ecosystem production indicating heterotrophic metabolism; intensive agriculture dominated many of these streams. Nutrient management strategies in agricultural landscapes require an understanding of nutrient sources, transport mechanisms, habitat condition, and ecosystem processes in order to make sound decisions on land use practices.

  16. Impacts of pesticides and natural stressors on leaf litter decomposition in agricultural streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette


    surveyed pesticide contamination and rates of leaf litter decomposition in 14 1st and 2nd order Danish streams using litter bags with coarse and ¿ne mesh sizes. Two sites differing in physical habitat complexity were sampled in each stream, and we used this approach to differentiate the effects...... of pesticides between sites with uniform (silt and sand) and more heterogeneous physical properties. Microbial litter decomposition was reduced by a factor two to four in agricultural streams compared to forested streams, and we found that the rate of microbial litter decomposition responded most strongly...... to pesticide toxicity for microorganisms and not to eutrophication. Moreover, the rate of microbial litter decomposition was generally 50% lower at sites with uniform physical habitats dominated by soft substrate compared to the sites with more heterogeneous physical habitats. The rate of macroinvertebrate...

  17. Stream Temperature Monitoring on Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2001-2012 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Stream temperature was monitored at 18 sites on 14 rivers in Togiak National Wildlife Refuge between 2001 and 2012. Temperature was recorded on an hourly basis using...

  18. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae) in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Mazzoni; CF. Rezende; LR. Manna


    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes...


    Using redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), we assessed relationships among chemical and physical characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages at stream sites sampled by the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) in...


    Using reduncancy (RDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) we assessed relationships between chemical and physical characteristics and periphyton at 105 stream sites sampled by REMAP in the mineral belt of the southern Rockies ecoregion in Colorado. We contrasted results ob...

  1. Chironomid (Diptera) distribution and diversity in Tibetan streams with different glacial influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean


    -fed streams supported higher species turnover (beta diversity). 4. Detrended correspondence analysis scattered the study sites along the first ordination axis, representing a combination of distance from glacier and channel stability. Two-way indicator analysis distinguished three groups of sites. Group 1...... represented the sites closest to the glacier and were characterised by unstable channel conditions and low temperature with characteristic taxa Diamesa sp. 1, Orthocladius (Eud.) sp. and Rheocricotopus sp. Group 2 was made up of glacier-fed streams situated further from glaciers, with unstable channels...... and characterised by Orthocladius (Euo.) sp. Group 3 contained non-glacial streams as well as a glacier-fed stream further from the glacier margin. For these sites, stable channels and high conductivity were characteristic and Cricotopus (C.) sp., Pseudosmittia sp, Polypedilum sp., Eukiefferiella gracei group...

  2. Stream Temperature Data in the Little Blitzen watershed of SE Oregon, 2009-15 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes stream temperatures from two data loggers installed at one site in the Little Blitzen River of SE Oregon as part of a redband trout...

  3. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai


    and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled......We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  4. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration


    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  6. Video streaming into the mainstream. (United States)

    Garrison, W


    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  7. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming. (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory


    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.


    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  9. Design Automation for Streaming Systems (United States)


    Verilog back-end emits them as black boxes. 3.6 System Composition We synthesize a system as a composition of stream-connected pages, where a page...Figure 6.5 shows a sample state flow graph for clustering. Each node denotes a state and its action. Each black 242 Chapter 6. Streaming Programmable...Bilsen, Marc Engels, Rudy Lauwereins, and Jean Peper - straete. Cyclo-static dataflow. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 44(2):397– 408, February


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer


    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  11. Identifying pathways and processes affecting nitrate and orthophosphate inputs to streams in agricultural watersheds. (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J; Duff, John H; Wolock, David M; Spahr, Norman E; Almendinger, James E


    Understanding nutrient pathways to streams will improve nutrient management strategies and estimates of the time lag between when changes in land use practices occur and when water quality effects that result from these changes are observed. Nitrate and orthophosphate (OP) concentrations in several environmental compartments were examined in watersheds having a range of base flow index (BFI) values across the continental United States to determine the dominant pathways for water and nutrient inputs to streams. Estimates of the proportion of stream nitrate that was derived from groundwater increased as BFI increased. Nitrate concentration gradients between groundwater and surface water further supported the groundwater source of nitrate in these high BFI streams. However, nitrate concentrations in stream-bed pore water in all settings were typically lower than stream or upland groundwater concentrations, suggesting that nitrate discharge to streams was not uniform through the bed. Rather, preferential pathways (e.g., springs, seeps) may allow high nitrate groundwater to bypass sites of high biogeochemical transformation. Rapid pathway compartments (e.g., overland flow, tile drains) had OP concentrations that were typically higher than in streams and were important OP conveyers in most of these watersheds. In contrast to nitrate, the proportion of stream OP that is derived from ground water did not systematically increase as BFI increased. While typically not the dominant source of OP, groundwater discharge was an important pathway of OP transport to streams when BFI values were very high and when geochemical conditions favored OP mobility in groundwater.

  12. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory R. Lagasse


    Full Text Available Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in stream habitats. Using the program's monitoring protocol, we assessed the habitat characteristics of eight streams within the Koeye and Namu watersheds, then used a statistical power simulation to determine within-stream sampling requirements for detecting changes in substrate composition that may affect salmon habitat suitability. We also assessed resource constraints and perceived threats to stream habitats via questionnaires to coastal First Nations' stewardship staff. Results suggest that the current recommended sample size of 6 within-stream transects has low statistical power for detecting biologically significant changes in fine sediment. Given limited monitoring resources, we recommend higher transect sampling intensities within productive riffle-pool streams, but an emphasis on monitoring site level characteristics, such as large woody debris and pool volume, in less productive, high gradient cascade-pool streams. Questionnaire results highlight the need for flexibility and local adaptation in monitoring efforts because of differences in resource constraints among First Nations communities. If successfully implemented, the stream assessment program can integrate local knowledge with western science to inform ecosystem-based management of watersheds within the Great Bear Rainforest.

  13. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams. (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P


    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  14. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams. (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton


    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  15. Jet stream related observations by MST radars (United States)

    Gage, K. S.


    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  16. The search for reference conditions for stream vegetation in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup-Pedersen, Anette; Springe, G.; Riis, Tenna


    1. The European Water Framework Directive provides a framework for improving the ecological quality of stream ecosystems, with deviation from reference used as a measure of ecological status. 2. Here we examine the possibility of using less impacted stream sites from Latvia, Lithuania and Poland...... in the Central and Eastern Lowland ecoregions. Macrophyte assemblages could not be delineated using physical stream site characteristics; however a gradual change in assemblage composition was attributed to differences in alkalinity and human impact. 4. Assemblages of contemporary vegetation in Denmark were...

  17. The Morphology of Streams Restored for Market and Nonmarket Purposes: Insights From a Mixed Natural-Social Science Approach (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.


    Stream restoration is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy creates an environment where restored stream 'credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of mitigation on restoration design and construction is unknown. We use geomorphic surveys to quantify the differences between restored and nonrestored streams, and the difference between streams restored for market purposes (compensatory mitigation) from those restored for nonmarket programs. Physical study sites are located in the state of North Carolina, USA. We also analyze the social and political-economic drivers of the stream restoration and mitigation industry using analysis of policy documents and interviews with key personnel including regulators, mitigation bankers, stream designers, and scientists. Restored streams are typically wider, shallower and geomorphically more homogeneous than nonrestored streams. For example, nonrestored streams are typically characterized by more than an order of magnitude variability in radius of curvature and meander wavelength within a single study reach. By contrast, the radius of curvature in many restored streams does not vary for nearly the entire project reach. Streams restored for the mitigation market are typically headwater streams and part of a large, complex of long restored main channels, and many restored tributaries; streams restored for nonmarket purposes are typically shorter and consist of the main channel only. Interviews reveal that social forces shape the morphology of restored streams. Designers integrate many influences including economic and regulatory constraints, but traditions of practice have a large influence as well. Home to a fairly mature stream mitigation banking market, North Carolina can provide

  18. Influences of wildfire and channel reorganization on spatial and temporal variation in stream temperature and the distribution of fish and amphibians (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Charlie H. Luce; Bruce E. Rieman


    Wildfire can influence a variety of stream ecosystem properties. We studied stream temperatures in relation to wildfire in small streams in the Boise River Basin, located in central Idaho, USA. To examine the spatio-temporal aspects of temperature in relation to wildfire, we employed three approaches: a pre­post fire comparison of temperatures between two sites (one...

  19. Plato on the Stream. Platonism in the Age of Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bisson


    Full Text Available This article defends a Platonist view of streaming. It is opposite to the mainstream representation that streaming has “liquidated” the structure both objective and collective of musical experience. On the contrary, streaming is the support of a new kind of musical object, which is distinct both from the allographic notational objects (scores and from the phonographic ones (records. This third kind of object has to be characterized as a flux-object. The way it is diffused and accessible implies a new kind of experience. Cyberspace in which this experience takes place is characterized as an “hyperobjective noosphere”: the relation of streaming with the subjects of musical experience is akin to the relation of atmosphere or biosphere to the living beings. This article invites to an ascetic exercise: the everyday experience of the listener has to become mindful of the “swarm community” in which s/he participates by streaming. Thus it develops a renewed musical Platonism, as a kind of response to “object-oriented ontologies”. According to this renewed Platonism, dispositional properties are essential to the objects. Objects have no sense apart from the relation to individual and collective subjectivations that are potential parts of them.

  20. CO2 time series patterns in contrasting headwater streams of North America (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Rob


    We explored the underlying patterns of temporal stream CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) variability using highfrequency sensors in seven disparate headwater streams distributed across the northern hemisphere. We also compared this dataset of [40,000 pCO2 records with other published records from lotic systems. Individual stream sites exhibited relatively distinct pCO2 patterns over time with few consistent traits across sites. Some sites showed strong diel variability, some exhibited increasing pCO2 with increasing discharge, whereas other streams had reduced pCO2 with increasing discharge or no clear response to changes in flow. The only ‘‘universal’’ signature observed in headwater streams was a late summer pCO2 maxima that was likely driven by greatest rates of organic matter respiration due to highest annual temperatures. However, we did not observe this seasonal pattern in a southern hardwood forest site, likely because the region was transitioning from a severe drought. This work clearly illustrates the heterogeneous nature of headwater streams, and highlights the idiosyncratic nature of a non-conservative solute that is jointly influenced by physics, hydrology, and biology. We suggest that future researchers carefully select sensor locations (within and among streams) and provide additional contextual information when attempting to explain pCO2 patterns.

  1. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur


    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  2. Site Dependent Beneficial Effects of Aquaculture Effluent (United States)

    Buzby, K. M.; Viadero, R. C.


    The effect of aquaculture effluent on community structure was examined in a stream formed by the discharge of treated acid mine water. The mine water stream and the raceway stream whose source was treated mine water were sampled. In addition, a site below the confluence of the mine water and raceway streams was also sampled. Initially, there were no significant differences in macroinvertebrate density, diversity or community structure in the closed canopy, low light, mine water and raceway streams. However, in the high light environment below the confluence, the community included a substantial proportion of grazers and density was significantly lower. After an inadvertent resuspension of precipitated metal hydroxides from the AMD treatment facility, communities in the mine water stream and below the confluence were strongly dominated by chironomids while the raceway stream maintained much of its diversity. At the end of the study period diversity in all streams was significantly greater than in earlier samples however, densities were 6-8x lower than initial values in the raceway and mine water streams. This study demonstrated that there was little effect of aquaculture effluent on the benthic community in a low-light environment. Additionally, aquaculture effluent mediated the negative effects of AMD metals.

  3. Arcturus stream : A case study (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham Eswar

    Stellar streams are a group of gravitationally unbound stars which share same kinematic properties, and hence form coherent structures in the velocity space. Their origin is not clear. The concept of stellar streams or moving groups was introduced much early (Eggen 1958) and were thought as dispersed cluster remnants retaining the original kinematics. Subsequently, studies suggested that these are debris of accreted satellite galaxy in the Milkyway and belong to an old stellar population in the solar neighborhood. Kinematic studies reveal that the stream member stars are old and belong to thick disk of the Galaxy. Satellite acceretion scenario is one front runner proposal for the thick disk formation in the Galactic disk. In this study, we have explored one of the streams, known as Arcturus stream, through high resolution spectroscopy. Preliminary abundance results for a sample of Arcturus stream are obtained and compared with groups of stars that belong to thick disk and dwarf spheroidals. Alpha elements, that are known to be produced mainly in the massive but short lived SNII, seem to be enhanced relative to Fe, a dominant product in long lived SNIa. This suggests that the Arcturus stream stars are old and are mostly produced in the era where SNII was predominant. Abundance results are very similar to the results of Galactic thick disk, which is a distinct component in the disk, both kinematically and chemically. It seems Arcturus is a subgroup within the thick disk but to establish whether the group is distinct from the thick disk, we have to determine differential age estimate for a sample of thick disk and Arcturus stars at the overlapping [Fe/H].

  4. The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Malcolm


    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km2 catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics on various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect on freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular. Keywords: temperature, thermal regime, forest, salmon, hydrology, Girnock Burn, Cairngorm

  5. Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams. (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Khaleel, Tayseer Kh M; Jamous, Rana M


    The biodiversity and richness of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine, using hair baiting (HBT) and surface dilution plate (SDP) techniques, over 8- and 6-month periods, respectively. The effect of wastewater effluent and selected ecological factors on these fungi in relation to species diversity and population densities were also considered. Fifty keratinophilic fungal species were recovered from the aquatic habitats studied, of which 42 were recovered from stream sites and 22 from swimming pools. Of these fungi 6 were either dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) or dermatophyte related species (Chrysosporium merdarium, Ch. tropicum, Ch. keratinophilum and T. terrestre). The most frequently isolated species in the three pools were Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides, using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). The most abundant species were Acr. strictum, and Aspergillus flavus. However, only 4 species were isolated using the SDA medium amended with 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). The most frequent and abundant species in the three stream sites using SDA medium were Geotricum candidum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. The most frequent species in the three sites using the 5-FC medium, was Paecilomyces lilacinus. Using HBT, the most abundant and frequent species in the three stream sites were G. candidum, and Pa. lilacinus, on SDA medium, and Pa. lilacinus, and Gliocladium nigrovirens on the 5-FC medium. The 5-FC medium was more suitable for the isolation of dermatophytes and closely related species than the SDA medium; 6 were recovered on 5-FC, whereas only one on the SDA medium. Variation in the levels of keratinophilic fungal populations from the three stream sites sampled 5 times over an 8-month period, followed comparable fluctuation patterns. Wastewater affected fungal population densities with the highest

  6. Organic waste compounds as contaminants in Milwaukee-area streams (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew; Bruce, Jennifer L.


    Organic waste compounds (OWCs) are ingredients and by-products of common agricultural, industrial, and household substances that can contaminate our streams through sources like urban runoff, sewage overflows, and leaking septic systems. To better understand how OWCs are affecting Milwaukee-area streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, conducted a three-year study to investigate the presence and potential toxicity of 69 OWCs in base flow, stormflow, pore water, and sediment at 14 stream sites and 3 Milwaukee harbor locations. This fact sheet summarizes the major findings of this study, including detection frequencies and concentrations, potential toxicity, the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of urbanization.

  7. A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Steeves, Peter A.


    A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure were developed for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts. The equation provides city and town conservation commissions and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection a method for assessing whether streams are intermittent or perennial at a specific site in Massachusetts by estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially at that site. This information could assist the environmental agencies who administer the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a 200-foot-wide protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line along each side of a perennial stream, with exceptions for some urban areas. The equation was developed by relating the observed intermittent or perennial status of a stream site to selected basin characteristics of naturally flowing streams (defined as having no regulation by dams, surface-water withdrawals, ground-water withdrawals, diversion, wastewater discharge, and so forth) in Massachusetts. This revised equation differs from the equation developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in that it is solely based on visual observations of the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites across Massachusetts and on the evaluation of several additional basin and land-use characteristics as potential explanatory variables in the logistic regression analysis. The revised equation estimated more accurately the intermittent or perennial status of the observed stream sites than the equation from the previous study. Stream sites used in the analysis were identified as intermittent or perennial based on visual observation during low-flow periods from late July through early September 2001. The database of intermittent and perennial streams included a total of 351 naturally flowing (no regulation) sites, of which 85 were observed to be intermittent and 266 perennial

  8. Information content of stream level class data for hydrological model calibration (United States)

    van Meerveld, H. J. Ilja; Vis, Marc J. P.; Seibert, Jan


    Citizen science can provide spatially distributed data over large areas, including hydrological data. Stream levels are easier to measure than streamflow and are likely also observed more easily by citizen scientists than streamflow. However, the challenge with crowd based stream level data is that observations are taken at irregular time intervals and with a limited vertical resolution. The latter is especially the case at sites where no staff gauge is available and relative stream levels are observed based on (in)visible features in the stream, such as rocks. In order to assess the potential value of crowd based stream level observations for model calibration, we pretended that stream level observations were available at a limited vertical resolution by transferring streamflow data to stream level classes. A bucket-type hydrological model was calibrated with these hypothetical stream level class data and subsequently evaluated on the observed streamflow records. Our results indicate that stream level data can result in good streamflow simulations, even with a reduced vertical resolution of the observations. Time series of only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, especially when the class boundary was chosen towards the highest stream levels. There was some added value in using up to five stream level classes, but there was hardly any improvement in model performance when using more level classes. These results are encouraging for citizen science projects and provide a basis for designing observation systems that collect data that are as informative as possible for deriving model based streamflow time series for previously ungauged basins.

  9. Information content of stream level class data for hydrological model calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. I. van Meerveld


    Full Text Available Citizen science can provide spatially distributed data over large areas, including hydrological data. Stream levels are easier to measure than streamflow and are likely also observed more easily by citizen scientists than streamflow. However, the challenge with crowd based stream level data is that observations are taken at irregular time intervals and with a limited vertical resolution. The latter is especially the case at sites where no staff gauge is available and relative stream levels are observed based on (invisible features in the stream, such as rocks. In order to assess the potential value of crowd based stream level observations for model calibration, we pretended that stream level observations were available at a limited vertical resolution by transferring streamflow data to stream level classes. A bucket-type hydrological model was calibrated with these hypothetical stream level class data and subsequently evaluated on the observed streamflow records. Our results indicate that stream level data can result in good streamflow simulations, even with a reduced vertical resolution of the observations. Time series of only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, especially when the class boundary was chosen towards the highest stream levels. There was some added value in using up to five stream level classes, but there was hardly any improvement in model performance when using more level classes. These results are encouraging for citizen science projects and provide a basis for designing observation systems that collect data that are as informative as possible for deriving model based streamflow time series for previously ungauged basins.

  10. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature? (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.


    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  11. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp


    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  12. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C


    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  13. The AB Dor Moving Group: A Chemically Heterogeneous Kinematic Stream? (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Bubar, E. J.; Mamajek, E. E.; Young, P. A.


    The AB Dor Moving Group is the nearest kinematic group to the Sun. It consists of a "nucleus" of 10 comoving stars at distance 20 pc (Zuckerman et al. 2004), along with dozens of purported "stream" members spread out across the sky, with distances up to 140 pc away (Torres et al. 2008). We perform a kinematic and chemical analysis of a sample of 10 AB Dor "stream" members to test whether they constitute a physical stellar group. We use the NEMO Galactic kinematic code to investigate the orbits of the stream members, and perform a chemical abundance analysis using high resolution, high S/N spectra taken with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay 6.5-m telescope. Using a chi-squared test with the measured abundances for 10 different elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Si, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Ba), we find that only a few of the ten purported AB Dor stream members appear to constitute a statistically chemically homogeneous sample. Our orbit simulations show that some of the "stream" members were hundreds of pc from AB Dor 100 Myr ago, and hence were unlikely to have formed near the eponymous star. The lack of kinematic and chemical coherence among the stream sample suggests that the published lists of AB Dor moving group members are unlikely to represent the dispersed remnant of a single star formation episode. Our study does not rule out the physicality of the AB Dor "nucleus" identified by Zuckerman et al., which appears to be coeval with the Pleiades ( 120 Myr). We conclude that the AB Dor stream is dynamical in nature, likely containing stars from many different birth sites. This research was supported by NSF grant AST-1008908, an REU supplement, and funds from the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Rochester.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity of within-stream methane concentrations (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; West, William E.; Crary, Benjamin; Spawn, Seth A.; Gubbins, Nicholas; Jones, Stuart E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stanley, Emily H.


    Streams, rivers, and other freshwater features may be significant sources of CH4 to the atmosphere. However, high spatial and temporal variabilities hinder our ability to understand the underlying processes of CH4 production and delivery to streams and also challenge the use of scaling approaches across large areas. We studied a stream having high geomorphic variability to assess the underlying scale of CH4 spatial variability and to examine whether the physical structure of a stream can explain the variation in surface CH4. A combination of high-resolution CH4 mapping, a survey of groundwater CH4 concentrations, quantitative analysis of methanogen DNA, and sediment CH4 production potentials illustrates the spatial and geomorphic controls on CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. We observed significant spatial clustering with high CH4 concentrations in organic-rich stream reaches and lake transitions. These sites were also enriched in the methane-producing mcrA gene and had highest CH4 production rates in the laboratory. In contrast, mineral-rich reaches had significantly lower concentrations and had lesser abundances of mcrA. Strong relationships between CH4and the physical structure of this aquatic system, along with high spatial variability, suggest that future investigations will benefit from viewing streams as landscapes, as opposed to ecosystems simply embedded in larger terrestrial mosaics. In light of such high spatial variability, we recommend that future workers evaluate stream networks first by using similar spatial tools in order to build effective sampling programs.

  15. Quality of Streams in Johnson County, Kansas, and Relations to Environmental Variables, 2003-07 (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.


    The quality of streams and relations to environmental variables in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were evaluated using water, streambed sediment, land use, streamflow, habitat, algal periphyton (benthic algae), and benthic macroinvertebrate data. Water, streambed sediment, and macroinvertebrate samples were collected in March 2007 during base flow at 20 stream sites that represent 11 different watersheds in the county. In addition, algal periphyton samples were collected twice (spring and summer 2007) at one-half of the sites. Environmental data including water and streambed-sediment chemistry data (primarily nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, and organic wastewater compounds), land use, streamflow, and habitat data were used in statistical analyses to evaluate relations between biological conditions and variables that may affect them. This report includes an evaluation of water and streambed-sediment chemistry, assessment of habitat conditions, comparison of biological community attributes (such as composition, diversity, and abundance) among sampling sites, placement of sampling sites into impairment categories, evaluation of biological data relative to environmental variables, and evaluation of changes in biological communities and effects of urbanization. This evaluation is useful for understanding factors that affect stream quality, for improving water-quality management programs, and for documenting changing conditions over time. The information will become increasingly important for protecting streams in the future as urbanization continues. Results of this study indicate that the biological quality at nearly all biological sampling sites in Johnson County has some level of impairment. Periphyton taxa generally were indicative of somewhat degraded conditions with small to moderate amounts of organic enrichment. Camp Branch in the Blue River watershed was the only site that met State criteria for full support of aquatic life in 2007. Since 2003

  16. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration (United States)

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.


    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  17. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen


    flow can combine with the effect of stream meanders and can either enhance or smooth the effect of a meander bend, depending on the regional flow direction. Results from the Grindsted site model showed that real meander geometries had similar effects to those observed for the simpler sinuous streams......, and showed that despite large temporal variations in stream discharge, the spatial pattern of flow is almost constant in time for a gaining stream....

  18. Invasion patterns along elevation and urbanization gradients in Hawaiian streams (United States)

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Luton, C.D.; Goodbred, S.L.; Wolff, R.H.


    Hawaii's extreme isolation has resulted in a native stream fauna characterized by high endemism and unusual life history characteristics. With the rapid increase in the human population, the viability of Hawaiian stream ecosystems is threatened by development and the associated habitat alteration. Thirty-eight sites on three islands (Oahu, Kauai, and Hawaii) were sampled to determine how habitat alteration resulting from urbanization and development was associated with the establishment of introduced species. Undeveloped sites had higher streamflow velocities, more riffles, lower embeddedness, deeper water, larger substrate, and lower water temperature than developed sites. Developed sites additionally had more pools and greater sparseness of riparian canopy cover. Overall, 23 fish species from 11 families and 5 crustacean species from 3 families were collected. Of these, 16 fish species and 3 crustacean species were introduced. Developed sites had on average almost twice as many species as undeveloped sites and were dominated by introduced species. Low-elevation sites were the most developed and supported the highest number of introduced species. However, species composition at some relatively undeveloped sites was impacted by downstream habitat alteration, since all native species must pass through the lower reaches to complete their life cycles. With increasing urbanization and development, the habitat features required by native species are disappearing and streams are becoming more suitable for generalist introduced species, which are typically better adapted for altered habitats than are native species. As development pressures in tropical island ecosystems increase worldwide, this will become an increasingly important issue globally. An understanding of which habitats are most likely to support nonnative species provides information necessary for developing a management strategy to protect aquatic ecosystems from invasive nonnative species.

  19. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  20. A Robust Streaming Media System (United States)

    Youwei, Zhang

    Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

  1. Integration of manual channel initiation and flow path tracing in extracting stream features from lidar-derived DTM (United States)

    Gaspa, M. C.; De La Cruz, R. M.; Olfindo, N. T.; Borlongan, N. J. B.; Perez, A. M. C.


    Stream network delineation based on LiDAR-derived digital terrain model (DTM) may produce stream segments that are inexistent or incomplete because of limitations imposed by extraction procedure, terrain and data. The applicability of a common threshold value in defining streams such as those implemented through the D8 algorithm also remains in question because the threshold varies depending on the geomorphology of the area. Flat areas and improper hydrologic conditioning produce erratic stream network. To counteract these limitations, this study proposes a workflow that improves the stream network produced by the D8 algorithm. It incorporates user-defined channel initiation points as inputs to a tool developed to automatically trace the flow of water into the next actual stream segment. Spurious streams along digital dams and flat areas are also manually reshaped. The proposed workflow is implemented in Iligan River Basin, Philippines using LiDARderived DTM of 1-meter resolution. The Flow Path Tracing (FPT) method counteracts the limits imposed by extraction procedure, terrain and data. It is applicable to different typologies of watersheds by eliminating the need to use site-specific threshold in determining streams. FPT is implemented as a Phyton script to automate the tracing of the streams using the flow direction raster. The FPT method is compared to the blue line digitization and the D8 method using morphometric parameters, such as stream number, stream order and stream length, to assess its performance. Results show that streams derived from the FPT method has higher stream order, number and length. An accuracy of 93.5% produced from field validation of the FPT method's streams strengthens the findings that integrating manual channel head initiation and flow path tracing can be used for nationwide extraction of streams using LiDAR-derived-DTM in the Philippines.

  2. The Relationship Between Grazing, Er osion and Adult Aquatic Insects in Streams in Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hayford


    Full Text Available Overgrazing along stream channels in Mongolia may impact streams by increasing stream channel erosion and in-stream sediments, water temperature, pH, and conductivity. Grazing and erosion impacts may impair stream insects. The Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey sampled 250 streams during summer seasons in 2003-2006 and 2008. On-site identifi cations of aquatic insect families mostly based on collections of adults were recorded for each site, leading us to ask whether the family-level data were useful in biological assessment related to impacts and impairment from grazing and erosion. A double dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis was used to fi nd patterns in sites and aquatic insect communities. Sites did not group by sampling period, but some sites did group by stream size and elevation. However, elevation was not a signifi cant predictor of variation in aquatic insect metrics. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether insect metrics and water quality variables varied signifi cantly between categories of erosion in the stream channel. Plecoptera and Diptera richness decreased with increased erosion and Percent Diptera Richness was the only aquatic insect metric to vary signifi cantly between categories of erosion along the stream channel. Water temperature, conductivity, and pH also signifi cantly increased with increased erosion. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether aquatic insect metrics could be predicted by variation in landscape, water quality and stream reach variables. Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Coleoptera richness increased with increased erosion, conductivity, and pH, but not signifi cantly. Percent Diptera Richness formed the only signifi cant model in the multiple regression analysis, with conductivity the only signifi cant predictor of variation in Percent Diptera Richness. Family-level data generated in the fi eld indicated that sampling for Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera diversity would

  3. Evaluating Changes in Distributions of Summer Stream Temperature following Forest Harvest (United States)

    Johnson, S. L.; Reiter, M.; Jones, J.


    Stream temperature heat budgets are influenced by numerous processes; changes in incoming radiation have been shown to be a major driver of increased stream temperatures. Maximum daily temperature is a commonly used metric for evaluating stream temperature responses to land use. However, single metrics are not able to fully represent the magnitude and duration of temperatures experienced by instream biota. Analyses that make use of all the data: a) more accurately characterize shifts in summer stream temperature regimes, b) quantify potential exposure to critical and non-critical temperatures, and c) help researchers and managers to better understand stream temperature responses to manipulation of streamside and watershed vegetation. Here we examine the distributions of summer stream temperatures before and after forest harvest in the Trask River Watershed Study, in northwestern Oregon. We studied 15 small streams for 10 years; half of the sites had their catchments clearcut harvested in 2012. Four sites had no buffers, with some leave trees, and three sites had 25 ft buffers on both sides. Temperatures were measured during at 30min intervals. Even though these streams are generally cold, we observed high spatial and temporal variation among sites and years, with some sites having normally distributed temperatures, while others showed skewed distributions and long tails. Forest cover, aspect or elevation were not good predictors of temperature distributions pre-harvest. Preliminary analyses using travel time of the stream water suggest that sites with hyporheic flows had narrower distributions of temperatures. After harvest, sites without buffers showed the greatest shift in distributions of temperatures and widest temperature ranges, while sites with narrow buffers showed little change. We are exploring the implications of shifts in temperature distributions before and after harvest against the known thermal tolerances for the dominant resident species (Ascaphus

  4. Effects of Student-Induced Trampling on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in Agricultural Headwater Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Bossley


    Full Text Available Outdoor education (OE stream classes provide students with an opportunity to gain hands-on experience with sampling methods for evaluating stream water quality. Trampling by students as a result of stream classes may disrupt the substrate and negatively impact aquatic macroinvertebrates. The impact of student-induced trampling in headwaters as a result of stream classes on aquatic macroinvertebrates has not been evaluated. Our aim was to document the short-term macroinvertebrate responses to an experimental disturbance that simulated the impacts of trampling by students in riffles within small headwater streams. We measured hydrologic variables, visually estimated substrate composition and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates within control and experimental riffles in three agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio one day prior to experimental disturbance, immediately after disturbance and one day after disturbance. Hydrologic variables and substrate type did not differ daily or between riffle types. Macroinvertebrate abundance, percentage of Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera and percentage of Leuctridae increased after experimental disturbance, while diversity, evenness, percentage of clingers and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS axis 1 site scores declined after disturbance. Macroinvertebrate diversity, percent clingers and NMS axis 1 site scores were lower in experimental riffles than control riffles. None of the macroinvertebrate response variables exhibited a significant interaction effect of day × riffle type that is indicative of an effect of the experimental disturbance. Our results suggest the one-time use of an undisturbed riffle within an agricultural headwater stream for an OE stream class is not likely to impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  5. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke


    -stream habitats were compared through analysis of the measured physical parameters and by applying a habitat model. We found that re-meandering is a more effective way of re-creating near-natural physical conditions in small streams compared to passive restoration. This is probably due to the limited energy...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  6. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.


    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  8. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witwisitpong Maneechan


    Full Text Available The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62. The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality.

  9. Multi-stressor impacts on fungal diversity and ecosystem functions in streams: natural vs. anthropogenic stress. (United States)

    Tolkkinen, M; Mykrä, H; Annala, M; Markkola, A M; Vuori, K M; Muotka, T


    Biological assemblages are often subjected to multiple stressors emerging from both anthropogenic activities and naturally stressful conditions, and species' responses to simultaneous stressors may differ from those predicted based on the individual effects of each stressor alone. We studied the influence of land-use disturbance (forest drainage) on fungal decomposer assemblages and leaf decomposition rates in naturally harsh (low pH caused by black-shale dominated geology) vs. circumneutral streams. We used pyrosequencing to determine fungal richness and assemblage structure. Decomposition rates did not differ between circumneutral and naturally acidic reference sites. However, the effect of forest drainage on microbial decomposition was more pronounced in the naturally acidic streams than in circumneutral streams. Single-effect responses of fungal assemblages were mainly related to geology. Community similarity was significantly higher in the naturally acidic disturbed sites than in corresponding reference sites, suggesting that land-use disturbance simplifies fungal assemblages in naturally stressful conditions. Naturally acidic streams supported distinct fungal assemblages with many OTUs (operational taxonomic unit) unique to these streams. Our results indicate that fungal assemblages in streams are sensitive to both structural and functional impairment in response to multiple stressors. Anthropogenic degradation of naturally acidic streams may decrease regional fungal diversity and impair ecosystem functions, and these globally occurring environments therefore deserve special attention in conservation planning.

  10. Estimation of River Pollution Index in a Tidal Stream Using Kriging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wei


    Full Text Available Tidal streams are complex watercourses that represent a transitional zone between riverine and marine systems; they occur where fresh and marine waters converge. Because tidal circulation processes cause substantial turbulence in these highly dynamic zones, tidal streams are the most productive of water bodies. Their rich biological diversity, combined with the convenience of land and water transports, provide sites for concentrated populations that evolve into large cities. Domestic wastewater is generally discharged directly into tidal streams in Taiwan, necessitating regular evaluation of the water quality of these streams. Given the complex flow dynamics of tidal streams, only a few models can effectively evaluate and identify pollution levels. This study evaluates the river pollution index (RPI in tidal streams by using kriging analysis. This is a geostatistical method for interpolating random spatial variation to estimate linear grid points in two or three dimensions. A kriging-based method is developed to evaluate RPI in tidal streams, which is typically considered as 1D in hydraulic engineering. The proposed method efficiently evaluates RPI in tidal streams with the minimum amount of water quality data. Data of the Tanshui River downstream reach available from an estuarine area validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. Results of this study demonstrate that this simple yet reliable method can effectively estimate RPI in tidal streams.

  11. Whirling disease among snake river cutthroat trout in two spring streams in Wyoming (United States)

    Hubert, W.A.; Joyce, M.P.; Gipson, R.; Zafft, D.; Money, D.; Hawk, D.; Taro, B.


    We assessed endemic age-0 cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki for evidence of pathology associated with Myxobolus cerebralis in two streams formed by springs in western Wyoming. We hypothesized that the location of spawning sites in spring streams would affect the extent of exposure of cutthroat trout fry to M. cerebralis triactinomyxons (tams), occurrence of the parasite in their bodies, and clinical signs of whirling disease. The spring streams were warm relative to nearby streams flowing from the mountains or spawning and emergence of fry was early compared with fish in mountain streams. Tams were abundant early in the summer and clinical signs of whirling disease among age-0 fish were seen as early as mid-June in one stream. There were high densities of tams in one stream, and densities declined with upstream progression from May through July, whereas in the other stream, low densities of tams were observed in the downstream portion early in the summer, and they were not detected in July and August. Age-0 cutthroat trout were abundant; clinical signs of whirling disease were evident, and histological evidence of whirling disease was common in the stream where tams were abundant. Low densities of age-0 cutthroat trout and no clinical signs of whirling disease were observed in the stream where tams were not abundant. Among sentinel fish in the stream with abundant tams, we found extensive occurrence of M. cerebralis, with many fish showing clinical signs and histological evidence of pathology associated with M. cerebralis. The proportion of sentinel fish with clinical and histological signs of whirling disease decreased with upstream progression. In the stream with low tam, densities sentinel fish became infected with M. cerebralis, but there were essentially no clinical signs or histological indications of whirling disease. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael


    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  14. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.


    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  15. Efficient architectures for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Wolkotte, P.T.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Heysters, P.M.; Athanas, P.; Becker, J.; Brebner, G.; Teich, J.


    This presentation will focus on algorithms and reconfigurable tiled architectures for streaming DSP applications. The tile concept will not only be applied on chip level but also on board-level and system-level. The tile concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or

  16. Video Streaming in Online Learning (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin


    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  17. Estimated Perennial Streams in Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Perennial streams in Idaho have been modeled using regression equations for 7-day, 2-year low flows (7Q2) described in Wood and others (2009, U.S. Geological Survey...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Zhivitskaya


    Full Text Available The problem of formalisation and practical realisation of information streams of logistical systems, as the basic component of a separate kind of systems the logistical information systems having the features and properties that allows to investigate them by means of methods, applicable to information systems is considered.

  19. Data streams models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server


    Discusses issues related to the mining aspects of data streams. Each chapter in this book contains a survey on the topic, the key ideas in the field for that particular topic, and future research directions. It is intended for a professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in industry.

  20. Cryptanalysis of chaotic stream cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrobek, Adrian [Szczecin University of Technology, 71-210 Szczecin (Poland)]. E-mail:


    In [N.S. Philip, K.B. Joseph, Chaos for stream cipher, cs.CR/0102012] Philip and Joseph propose their own cipher algorithm. An efficient attack on the values of the key of this cipher is presented in this Letter. Other weaknesses of this cipher are presented, and proposals of algorithm's improvement as well.

  1. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  2. Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation. (United States)

    Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco


    The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 μg/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests.

  3. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats. (United States)

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C


    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range.

  4. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  5. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.


    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  6. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.


    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  7. Differences in temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption among lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, N. L.


    at ambient temperature by 30-40% and 80-130%, respectively. Faster consumption of organic matter and dissolved oxygen downstream of point sources should increase the likelihood of oxygen stress of the stream biota and lead to the export of less organic matter but more mineralised nutrients to the coastal......1. Temperature, organic carbon and oxygen consumption were measured over a year at 13 sites in four lowlands streams within the same region in North Zealand, Denmark with the objectives of determining: (i) spatial and seasonal differences between open streams, forest streams and streams...... with or without lakes, (ii) factors influencing the temperature dependence of oxygen consumption rate, (iii) consequences of higher temperature and organic content in lake outlets on oxygen consumption rate, and (iv) possible consequences of forecasted global warming on degradation of organic matter. 2. High...

  8. Augmenting CT cardiac roadmaps with segmented streaming ultrasound (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Shechter, Guy; Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Stanton, Douglas; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Laine, Andrew F.; Elgort, Daniel R.


    Static X-ray computed tomography (CT) volumes are often used as anatomic roadmaps during catheter-based cardiac interventions performed under X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. These CT volumes provide a high-resolution depiction of soft-tissue structures, but at only a single point within the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Augmenting these static CT roadmaps with segmented myocardial borders extracted from live ultrasound (US) provides intra-operative access to real-time dynamic information about the cardiac anatomy. In this work, using a customized segmentation method based on a 3D active mesh, endocardial borders of the left ventricle were extracted from US image streams (4D data sets) at a frame rate of approximately 5 frames per second. The coordinate systems for CT and US modalities were registered using rigid body registration based on manually selected landmarks, and the segmented endocardial surfaces were overlaid onto the CT volume. The root-mean squared fiducial registration error was 3.80 mm. The accuracy of the segmentation was quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human volunteer studies via comparison with manual tracings on 9 randomly selected frames using a finite-element model (the US image resolutions of the phantom and volunteer data were 1.3 x 1.1 x 1.3 mm and 0.70 x 0.82 x 0.77 mm, respectively). This comparison yielded 3.70+/-2.5 mm (approximately 3 pixels) root-mean squared error (RMSE) in a phantom study and 2.58+/-1.58 mm (approximately 3 pixels) RMSE in a clinical study. The combination of static anatomical roadmap volumes and dynamic intra-operative anatomic information will enable better guidance and feedback for image-guided minimally invasive cardiac interventions.

  9. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education. (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.


    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  10. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte. (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E


    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  11. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies. (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore


    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability in stream sediment loads using examples from the Gros Ventre Range, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Mark K. Dixon


    Sediment transport rates (dissolved, suspended, and bedload) measured over the course of several years are reported for two streams in the Gros Ventre Mountain range in western Wyoming, USA: Little Granite and Cache Creeks. Both streams drain watersheds that are in relatively pristine environments. The sites are about 20km apart, have runoff dominated by snowmelt and...

  13. Colonization of steelhead in a natal stream after barrier removal (United States)

    Weigel, Dana E.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Martens, Kyle D.; Powell, Madison S.


    Colonization of vacant habitats is an important process for supporting the long-term persistence of populations and species. We used a before–after experimental design to follow the process of colonization by steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout) at six monitoring sites in a natal stream, Beaver Creek, after the modification or removal of numerous stream passage barriers. Juvenile O. mykiss were collected at monitoring sites by using a backpack electrofisher. Passive integrated transponder tags and instream tag reading stations were used in combination with 16 microsatellite markers to determine the source, extent, and success of migrant O. mykiss after implementation of the barrier removal projects. Steelhead migrated into the study area during the first spawning season after passage was established. Hatchery steelhead, although comprising more than 80% of the adult returns to the Methow River basin, constituted a small proportion (23%) of the adult O. mykiss colonizing the study area. Adult steelhead and fluvial Rainbow Trout entered the stream during the first spawning season after barrier removal and were passing the uppermost tag reader (12 km upstream from the mouth) 3–4 years later. Parr that were tagged in Beaver Creek returned as adults, indicating establishment of the anadromous life history in the study area. Population genetic measures at the lower two monitoring sites (lower 4 km of Beaver Creek) significantly changed within one generation (4–5 years). Colonization and expansion of steelhead occurred more slowly than expected due to the low number of adults migrating into the study area.

  14. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015 (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.


    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  15. Modeling Stream Bank Erosion: Practical Stream Results and Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong G. Lai


    Full Text Available Coupled two-dimensional (2D morphodynamic and bank erosion models are gaining attentions in recent years. It has been shown that such models have advantages over the one-dimensional (1D modeling approaches. In this paper, a previous 2D bank erosion model with the moving mesh method is extended to include the fixed mesh approach. Further, two practical streams with differing complexity are simulated to demonstrate the extended model. Both the moving mesh and fixed mesh methods are used in the modeling. The model consists of two components: a 2D flow and mobile-bed model for vertical bed changes and hydraulic forces acting on a bank and a lateral bank retreat model. The 2D vertical model and the lateral bank erosion model are coupled together spatially and temporally through a special procedure and a common mesh. With the experiences gained with practical stream modeling, the modeling procedure and key model input parameters are described. The study shows that the moving and fixed mesh methods together make the extended bank erosion model numerically robust and capable of predicting both the vertical bed changes and the lateral stream bank erosion for complex streams. Each individual method, however, has its own limitations in terms of model accuracy and efficiency. The moving mesh works well if bank retreat is relatively small, e.g., less than one channel width, and produces more accurate results than the fixed mesh method. The fixed mesh may be needed for ensuring numerical stability if a bank may be subject to significant retreat (e.g., more than one channel width. The fixed mesh method, however, is less accurate than the moving mesh method and a much refined mesh may be needed. Both methods need future research and improvements in terms of their model accuracy.

  16. A model to predict stream water temperature across the conterminous USA (United States)

    Catalina Segura; Peter Caldwell; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Yang Zhang


    Stream water temperature (ts) is a critical water quality parameter for aquatic ecosystems. However, ts records are sparse or nonexistent in many river systems. In this work, we present an empirical model to predict ts at the site scale across the USA. The model, derived using data from 171 reference sites selected from the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating...

  17. Erosion at decommissioned road-stream crossings: case studies from three northern California watersheds (United States)

    Sam A. Flanagan; David Fuller; Leonard Job; Sam Morrison


    Post-treatment erosion was observed for 41 decommissioned road stream crossings in three northern California watersheds. Sites were purposefully selected in order to characterize the nature and range of post-treatment erosional responses. Sites with the highest visible erosion were selected in order to better understand the dominant process and incorporate any...

  18. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.


    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.


    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  20. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert


    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  1. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah


    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  2. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede


    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  3. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.


    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  4. Controls on Soil and Stream Nitrogen Cycling in a Mountain-to-Urban Watershed (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Bowen, G. J.; Hall, S. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Bowling, D. R.


    Human activities in cities contribute large quantities of nitrogen (N) to adjacent ecosystems, but it is unclear how various sources of anthropogenic N contribute to and move through local watersheds. We analyzed myriad soil and water samples from across the Jordan River Valley, Salt Lake City, UT in order to assess N dynamics in terrestrial systems, at the riparian-stream interface, and in streams in this coupled human-natural system. We used data from two terrestrial headwater sites to demonstrate that forests tend to be more N-rich in topographic lows compared to hillslopes. Regardless of landscape position, soils beneath herbaceous vegetation had high nitrate concentrations and enriched δ15N values, suggesting overall N richness compared to forests. Isotope data showed that nitrate from all soils and headwater streams was of microbial, rather than direct anthropogenic, origin. In addition, nitrate from nearby streams was isotopically distinct from upland soils, suggesting low hydrologic connectivity between the two. Using data from the headwaters as well as eight additional downstream sites, we found that riparian soil N pools were increasingly decoupled from stream N dynamics lower in the watershed. This was related to where the stream transitioned from gaining to losing water from the groundwater system. Stream N contents were low in undisturbed mountain waters, but increased ten-fold at sites contaminated with urban groundwater. Across five watersheds spanning the Jordan Valley, we found anthropogenic N increasingly impacted streams as watershed size and land use intensity increased. Wastewater treatment plants imparted a further order-of-magnitude increase in stream nitrate concentrations and isotope values. Our work demonstrates that controls on N dynamics shift from topography and vegetation in upper watersheds to groundwater-surface water interactions and human activities in lower, more developed reaches. While the adjacent wildland ecosystem appears to

  5. Integrated assessment of chemical stressors and ecological impact in mixed land use stream systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo

    activities, including contaminated sites. To determine potential impacts, the chemical quality of both organic (i.e. pharmaceuticals, gasoline constituents, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides) and inorganic (i.e. metals, general water chemistry and macroions) compounds was assessed in all three stream...... stream compartments revealed a substantial influence on both stream water and hyporheic zone from the diffuse metal sources (aluminum, barium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc) of both geogenic and anthropogenic origin in the catchment. The release of metals (particularly copper, nickel, zinc) was additionally...... their mutual importance and to reveal “new” sources. It further demonstrated the importance of contaminated sites as a potential noteworthy source to continuously impact the chemical stream quality (> ½ tonne per year of organic xenobiotics). An assessment of the chemical patterns (similarities) along...

  6. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.


    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  7. The role of observer variation in determining Rosgen stream types in northeastern Oregon mountain streams (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Eric Archer; Chris Moyer; Mike Ward


    Consistency in determining Rosgen stream types was evaluated in 12 streams within the John Day Basin, northeastern Oregon. The Rosgen classification system is commonly used in the western United States and is based on the measurement of five stream attributes: entrenchment ratio, width-to-depth ratio, sinuosity, slope, and substrate size. Streams were classified from...

  8. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart


    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  9. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.


    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  10. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry. (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.


    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  11. The significance of small streams (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen


    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  12. The scales of variability of stream fish assemblage at tributary confluences


    István Czeglédi; Alex Sándor Nagy


    Tributary confluences play an important role in the dispersal of organisms, and consequently, in shaping regional scale diversity in stream networks. Despite their importance in dispersal processes, little is known about how ecological assemblages are organized in these habitats. We studied the scales of variability of stream fish assemblages over three seasons using a hierarchical sampling design, which incorporated three tributaries, three sites at the mouth of each tributary and using four...

  13. Invertebrate metacommunity structure and dynamics in an andean glacial stream network facing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, Sophie; Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andino, Patricio


    Under the ongoing climate change, understanding the mechanisms structuring the spatial distribution of aquatic species in glacial stream networks is of critical importance to predict the response of aquatic biodiversity in the face of glacier melting. In this study, we propose to use metacommunity...... theory as a conceptual framework to better understand how river network structure influences the spatial organization of aquatic communities in glacierized catchments. At 51 stream sites in an Andean glacierized catchment (Ecuador), we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, measured physico...

  14. Sediment fingerprinting to determine the source of suspended sediment in a southern Piedmont stream. (United States)

    Mukundan, R; Radcliffe, D E; Ritchie, J C; Risse, L M; McKinley, R A


    Thousands of stream miles in the southern Piedmont region are impaired because of high levels of suspended sediment. It is unclear if the source is upland erosion from agricultural sources or bank erosion of historic sediment deposited in the flood plains between 1830 and 1930 when cotton farming was extensive. The objective of this study was to determine the source of high stream suspended sediment concentrations in a typical southern Piedmont watershed using sediment fingerprinting techniques. Twenty-one potential tracers were tested for their ability to discriminate between sources, conservative behavior, and lack of redundancy. Tracer concentrations were determined in potential sediment sources (forests, pastures, row crop fields, stream banks, and unpaved roads and construction sites), and suspended sediment samples collected from the stream and analyzed using mixing models. Results indicated that 137Cs and 15N were the best tracers to discriminate potential sediment sources in this watershed. The delta15N values showed distinct signatures in all the potential suspended sediment sources, and delta15N was a unique tracer to differentiate stream bank soil from upland subsurface soils, such as soil from construction sites, unpaved roads, ditches, and field gullies. Mixing models showed that about 60% of the stream suspended sediment originated from eroding stream banks, 23 to 30% from upland subsoil sources (e.g., construction sites and unpaved roads), and about 10 to 15% from pastures. The results may be applicable to other watersheds in the Piedmont depending on the extent of urbanization occurring in these watersheds. Better understanding of the sources of fine sediment has practical implications on the type of sediment control measures to be adopted. Investment of resources in improving water quality should consider the factors causing stream bank erosion and erosion from unpaved roads and construction sites to water quality impairment.

  15. Quality scalable video data stream


    Wiegand, T.; Kirchhoffer, H.; Schwarz, H


    An apparatus for generating a quality-scalable video data stream (36) is described which comprises means (42) for coding a video signal (18) using block-wise transformation to obtain transform blocks (146, 148) of transformation coefficient values for a picture (140) of the video signal, a predetermined scan order (154, 156, 164, 166) with possible scan positions being defined among the transformation coefficient values within the transform blocks so that in each transform block, for each pos...

  16. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  17. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams. (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn


    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of remediation on the bacterial community of an acid mine drainage impacted stream. (United States)

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Moitra, Moumita; Woolverton, Christopher J; Leff, Laura G


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) represents a global threat to water resources, and as such, remediation of AMD-impacted streams is a common practice. During this study, we examined bacterial community structure and environmental conditions in a low-order AMD-impacted stream before, during, and after remediation. Bacterial community structure was examined via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Also, bacterial abundance and physicochemical data (including metal concentrations) were collected and relationships to bacterial community structure were determined using BIO-ENV analysis. Remediation of the study stream altered environmental conditions, including pH and concentrations of some metals, and consequently, the bacterial community changed. However, remediation did not necessarily restore the stream to conditions found in the unimpacted reference stream; for example, bacterial abundances and concentrations of some elements, such as sulfur, magnesium, and manganese, were different in the remediated stream than in the reference stream. BIO-ENV analysis revealed that changes in pH and iron concentration, associated with remediation, primarily explained temporal alterations in bacterial community structure. Although the sites sampled in the remediated stream were in relatively close proximity to each other, spatial variation in community composition suggests that differences in local environmental conditions may have large impacts on the microbial assemblage.

  19. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels. (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young


    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. VA - Investigation of in-stream contaminant impacts to endangered Mussels in the upper Tennessee River Basin (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There was no biologically relevant, statistically significant difference in available food or in-stream temperature among sites for each sampling event, these...

  1. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical versus temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry (United States)

    Marcelo Ardon; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert


    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to...

  2. Windward Community College Heeia Stream and Kaneohe Bay Water Quality Assessment Project 2002-2003 (NODC Accession 00014899) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of water quality parameters were taken by Windward Community College faculty and students at eight sites in the Heeia Stream and adjacent bay waters...

  3. Windward Community College Heeia Stream and Kaneohe Bay Water Quality Assessment Project 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0002449) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of water quality parameters were taken by Windward Community College faculty and students at eight sites in the Heeia Stream and adjacent Kaneohe Bay...

  4. Drainage Basins Used for Assessing Trends in Concentration of Pesticides in Streams of the United States, 1992-2010 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of drainage basin boundaries for 212 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream sites sampled in the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA)...

  5. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa. (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra


    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin


    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  7. The response of stream fish to local and reach-scale variation in the occurrence of a benthic aquatic macrophyte (United States)

    Argentina, J.E.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.


    The aquatic macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum has been shown to increase stream productivity, abundance and biomass of benthic invertebrates, and local occurrences of some stream fishes. However, experimental evidence that fishes preferentially associate with Podostemum is lacking, and the value of Podostemum as a predictor of stream fish assemblage composition has not been studied. We conducted two short-term (2 week), small-scale (36 m2) experimental manipulations of Podostemum cover in the Conasauga River (Georgia and Tennessee, U.S.), and found higher abundances of benthic insectivorous fishes in patches with augmented (>80%) compared to reduced (7%) Podostemum cover. In an observational study, we quantified associations among percent cover of Podostemum, fish species richness, land cover, shoal length and base-flow turbidity at 20 randomly selected shoals from a 39-km reach that spanned a gradient of decreasing forest land cover.Richness of all fish species and of lotic fishes peaked in the centre of the study reach, and richness was weakly correlated with predictor variables. Occupancy models for individual species also indicated that longitudinal position was a strong covariate for 13 of 19 species examined, with little support that Podostemum cover influenced occupancy. Local associations may reflect choices by benthic fishes to utilise Podostemum, whereas downstream decline in fish species richness and Podostemum cover may reflect altered capacity of the system to support native species. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  9. A Survey of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Management and Safety Climate in Construction Sites


    A. Mobaraki; R. Mirzaei; H. Ansari


    The principles of health, safety and environment (HSE) in different development activities, including construction, are constantly gaining in significance. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HSE management and safety climate in construction sites. In this descriptive-analytic study, 111 male employees are randomly selected. To determine HSE condition and management and safety climate condition, the NOSACQ questionnaire was used. The collected data are analyzed using SPSS. Based on d...

  10. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...

  11. Sources of fine sediment stored in agricultural lowland streams, Midwest, USA (United States)

    Lamba, Jasmeet; Thompson, Anita M.; Karthikeyan, K.G.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.


    Agricultural activities can accelerate the offsite transport of productive soil from fields leading to stream water quality degradation. Identification of the nature and relative contribution of different sources to fine-grained sediment (e.g., silts, clays) in streams is important to effectively focus agricultural best management practices in watersheds. Sediment fingerprinting techniques through the use of geochemical tracers are commonly used to differentiate relative contribution from various sources. Research was conducted in lowland streams in the Pleasant Valley watershed in South Central Wisconsin (USA) to identify provenance of fine-grained sediment deposits and evaluate the impact of land use on relative contributions from the following potential sources: cropland, pasture, woodland, and eroding stream banks. Results show that both agriculture (croplands and pastures) and eroding stream banks are primary sources to fine sediment deposits on the stream bed with contributions ranging from 19 to 100% and 0 to 81%, respectively. The increase in area under agricultural land use within a subwatershed results in greater contribution from agriculture (R2 = 0.846, p = 0.0034). Relative contributions from eroding stream banks increased with increasing area under grasslands and woodlands within a subwatershed (R2 = 0.814, p = 0.0055). Subwatersheds with greater mass of fine sediment deposited on the stream bed per unit area should be prioritized for best management practices. The conservation practices should be targeted to stream banks or croplands depending on the dominant source of fine sediment within a subwatershed. Site specific changes in relative contributions from different sources to fine-grained sediment in this watershed highlights the complexities involved in sediment transport dynamics. The nested sampling sites helped determine that sediment dynamics at the subwatershed scale need to be considered for application of targeted conservation

  12. Site Features (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  13. Advanced separations at Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.C. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (poly-chlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], cyanide, metal ions). This task provides testbeds for ESP-developed materials and technology using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams: high-level waste (HLW) solutions currently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, groundwater and other aqueous streams contaminated with metal ions and radionuclides, and reactor basin water in excess facilities. Another part of this task is to provide a report on materials for Cs removal from aqueous solutions for use as a reference.

  14. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.


    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  15. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira


    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to Atlantic Forest streams and by some physical and chemical parameters. Of the 19 streams sampled, six were classified as reference, six streams as intermediate (moderate anthropic impact and seven streams as poor (strong anthropic impact. In each site, a multi-habitat sampling was taken with a kick sampler net. The sample was composed by 20 units, each one corresponded to 1 m2 of collected substrate, corresponding 20 m2 of sampling area. The material was placed in a plastic container (500 µm of mesh, washed, homogenized and sub-sampled. For each stream, 6 subsamples were randomly sorted. Results Were collected 2,113 caddisfly larvae, belonging to 12 families and 28 genera. Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae were the most abundant families, and Smicridea was the most abundant genus. Sorensen’s index results showed that the streams studied were grouped according to environmental integrity. The Indicator Species Analysis showed only characteristic taxa to reference streams. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that caddisfly assemblage was strongly influenced by nitrate concentration, pH and condition of riparian vegetation. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant correlations to five genera with some environmental parameters, besides total abundance of Trichoptera. Conclusions Ours results showed that degree of environmental impact, mainly the nitrate concentration, pH, and condition of cover vegetation acted as a major factor in determining the

  16. Field methods for determining point source pollution impacts in rivers: A case study of the Grindsted stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann


    an increasingly important activity for the hydrogeological investigations of rivers and streams. In cases where groundwater contaminant plumes are discharging to streams, determination of flow paths and groundwater fluxes are essential for evaluating the transport, fate and potential impact of the plume...... by two major polluting point sources, Grindsted factory and Grindsted landfill, representing two of the 43 large-scale contaminated sites in Denmark. Our overall aim was therefore to (i) test the applicability of different methods for mapping groundwater pollution as it enters streams at a complex site...

  17. StreamStats: A water resources web application (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Guthrie, John G.; Rea, Alan H.; Steeves, Peter A.; Stewart, David W.


    Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (the flow that is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of being exceeded in any year, sometimes referred to as the 100-year flood) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; water-use appropriations and permitting; wastewater and industrial discharge permitting; hydropower facility design and regulation; and the setting of minimum required streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. In addition, researchers, planners, regulators, and others often need to know the physical and climatic characteristics of the drainage basins (basin characteristics) and the influence of human activities, such as dams and water withdrawals, on streamflow upstream from locations of interest to understand the mechanisms that control water availability and quality at those locations. Knowledge of the streamflow network and downstream human activities also is necessary to adequately determine whether an upstream activity, such as a water withdrawal, can be allowed without adversely affecting downstream activities.Streamflow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to compute the statistics. At U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow data-collection stations, which include streamgaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous-measurement stations, streamflow statistics can be computed from available data for the stations. Streamflow data are collected continuously at streamgaging stations

  18. Conserving Critical Sites for Biodiversity Provides Disproportionate Benefits to People (United States)

    Larsen, Frank W.; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.


    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits – in terms of a) climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO2 emissions from deforestation; b) freshwater services to downstream human populations; c) retention of option value; and d) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity – significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being. PMID:22666337

  19. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Larsen

    Full Text Available Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites identified as top priorities for the conservation of threatened species. Conserving these sites would yield benefits--in terms of a climate change mitigation through avoidance of CO(2 emissions from deforestation; b freshwater services to downstream human populations; c retention of option value; and d benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity--significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being.

  20. Potential for 4-n-nonylphenol biodegradation in stream sediments (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.


    The potential for in situ biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was investigated in three hydrologically distinct streams impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the United States. Microcosms were prepared with sediments from each site and amended with [U-ring-14C]4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) as a model test substrate. Microcosms prepared with sediment collected upstream of the WWTP outfalls and incubated under oxic conditions showed rapid and complete mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4- n-NP to 14CO2 in all three systems. In contrast, no mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP was observed in these sediments under anoxic (methanogenic) conditions. The initial linear rate of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP mineralization in sediments from upstream and downstream of the respective WWTP outfalls was inversely correlated with the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the streambed sediments. These results suggest that the net supply of dissolved oxygen to streambed sediments is a key determinant of the rate and extent of 4-NP biodegradation in stream systems. In the stream systems considered by the present study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the overlying water column (8–10 mg/L) and in the bed sediment pore water (1–3 mg/L at a depth of 10 cm below the sediment–water interface) were consistent with active in situ 4-NP biodegradation. These results suggest WWTP procedures that maximize the delivery of dissolved oxygen while minimizing the release of BOD to stream receptors favor efficient biodegradation of 4-NP contaminants in wastewater-impacted stream environments.

  1. Spatial patterns of stream temperatures and electric conductivity in a mesoscale catchment (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa


    Stream temperature and electric conductivity (EC) are both relatively easily measured and can provide valuable information on runoff generation processes and catchment storage.This study investigates the spatial variability of stream temperature and EC in a mesoscale basin. We focus on the mesoscale (sub-catchments and reach scale), and long term (seasonal / annual) stream temperature and EC patterns. Our study basin is the Attert catchment in Luxembourg (288km2), which contains multiple sub-catchments of different geology, topography and land use patterns. We installed 90 stream temperature and EC sensors at sites across the basin in summer 2015. The collected data is complemented by land use and discharge data and an extensive climate data set. Thermal sensitivity was calculated as the slope of daily air temperature-water-temperature regression line and describes the sensitivity of stream temperature to long term environmental change. Amplitude sensitivity was calculated as slope of the daily air and water temperature amplitude regression and describes the short term warming capacity of the stream. We found that groups with similar long term thermal and EC patterns are strongly related to different geological units. The sandstone reaches show the coldest temperatures and lowest annual thermal sensitivity to air temperature. The slate reaches are characterized by comparably low EC and high daily temperature amplitudes and amplitude sensitivity. Furthermore, mean annual temperatures and thermal sensitivities increase exponentially with drainage area, which can be attributed to the accumulation of heat throughout the system. On the reach scale, daily stream temperature fluctuations or sensitivities were strongly influenced by land cover distribution, stream shading and runoff volume. Daily thermal sensitivities were low for headwater streams; peaked for intermediate reaches in the middle of the catchment and then decreased again further downstream with increasing

  2. Chemical Abundances in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream (United States)

    Fox, Andrew; Barger, Kat; Wakker, Bart; Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Richter, Philipp; Casetti, Dana; Howk, Chris; Lehner, Nicolas; D'Onghia, Elena; Crowther, Paul


    A vast debris field connects the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. Known as the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream, this network of gas clouds represents an active site of gas accretion onto the Milky Way. Previously only one chemical abundance measurement had been made in the Leading Arm, toward the AGN NGC 3783. Here we present new chemical abundance measurements along seven Leading Arm sightlines using Hubble/COS spectra of background AGN. We focus on the O/H and S/H abundances, which have small dust depletion and ionization corrections. These measurements provide important constraints on the origin of the Leading Arm and its relationship to the trailing Stream, and can be used to constrain numerical simulations of Leading Arm formation.

  3. Macroinvertebrate assemblage recovery following a catastrophic flood and debris flows in an Appalachian mountain stream (United States)

    Snyder, C.D.; Johnson, Z.B.


    In June 1995, heavy rains caused severe flooding and massive debris flows on the Staunton River, a 3rd-order stream in the Blue Ridge Mountains (Virginia, USA). Scouring caused the loss of the riparian zone and repositioned the stream channel of the lower 2.1 km of the stream. Between 1998 and 2001, we conducted seasonal macroinvertebrate surveys at sites on the Staunton River and on White Oak Canyon Run, a reference stream of similar size and geology that was relatively unaffected by the flood. Our study was designed to determine the extent to which flood-induced changes to the stream channel and riparian habitats caused long-term changes to macroinvertebrate community structure and composition. Sites within the impacted zone of the Staunton River supported diverse stable benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages 3 y after the flood despite dramatic and persistent changes in environmental factors known to be important controls on stream ecosystem function. However, significant differences in total macroinvertebrate density and trophic structure could be attributed to the flood. In autumn, densities of most feeding guilds, including shredders, were higher at impacted-zone sites than at all other sites, suggesting higher overall productivity in the impacted zone. Higher shredder density in the impacted zone was surprising in light of expected decreases in leaf-litter inputs because of removal of riparian forests. In contrast, in spring, we observed density differences in only one feeding guild, scrapers, which showed higher densities at impacted-zone sites than at all other sites. This result conformed to a priori expectations that reduced shading in the impacted zone would lead to increased light and higher instream primary production. We attribute the seasonal differences in trophic structure to the effects of increased temperatures on food quality and to the relationship between the timing of our sampling and the emergence patterns of important taxa. ?? 2006 by The

  4. Mental health resources for LGBT collegians: a content analysis of college counseling center Web sites. (United States)

    Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J


    This study content analyzed a randomly selected stratified national sample of 203 four-year United States colleges' counseling center Web sites to assess the degree to which such sites feature information and reference services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) collegians. Results revealed that LGBT-targeted communications were infrequent. For instance, fewer than one third of counseling center Web sites described individual counseling opportunities for LGBT students, fewer than 11% mentioned group counseling opportunities, and fewer than 6% offered a university crafted pamphlet with information about LGBT issues and resources. Findings are interpreted within the context of prior LGBT student health research.

  5. Site Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    This Site Calibration report is describing the results of a measured site calibration for a site in Denmark. The calibration is carried out by DTU Wind Energy in accordance with Ref.[3] and Ref.[4]. The measurement period is given. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance...... measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment...

  6. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer (United States)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Binning, Philip J.


    Groundwater discharge to streams depends on stream morphology and groundwater flow direction, but are not always well understood. Here a 3-D groundwater flow model is employed to investigate the impact of meandering stream geometries on groundwater discharge to streams in an unconfined and homogenous sandy aquifer at the reach scale (10-200 m). The effect of meander geometry was examined by considering three scenarios with varying stream sinuosity. The interaction with regional groundwater flow was examined for each scenario by considering three groundwater flow directions. The sensitivity of stream morphology and flow direction to other parameters was quantified by varying the stream width, the meander amplitude, the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic conductivity, and the aquifer thickness. Implications for a real stream were then investigated by simulating groundwater flow to a stream at a field site located in Grindsted, Denmark. The simulation of multiple scenarios was made possible by the employment of a computationally efficient coordinate transform numerical method. Comparison of the scenarios showed that the geometry of meanders greatly affect the spatial distribution of groundwater flow to streams. The shallow part of the aquifer discharges to the outward pointing meanders, while deeper groundwater flows beneath the stream and enters from the opposite side. The balance between these two types of flow depends on the aquifer thickness and meander geometry. Regional groundwater flow can combine with the effect of stream meanders and can either enhance or smooth the effect of a meander bend, depending on the regional flow direction. Results from the Grindsted site model showed that real meander geometries had similar effects to those observed for the simpler sinuous streams, and showed that despite large temporal variations in stream discharge, the spatial pattern of flow is almost constant in time for a gaining stream.

  7. Hierarchical photo stream segmentation using context (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Jain, Ramesh


    Photo stream segmentation is to segment photo streams into groups, each of which corresponds to an event. Photo stream segmentation can be done with or without prior knowledge of event structure. In this paper, we study the problem by assuming that there is no a priori event model available. Although both context and content information are important for photo stream segmentation, we focus on investigating the usage of context information in this work. We consider different information components of context such as time, location, and optical setting for inexpensive segmentation of photo streams from common users of modern digital camera. As events are hierarchical, we propose to segment photo stream using hierarchical mixture model. We compare the generated hierarchy with that created by users to see how well results can be obtained without knowing the prior event model. We experimented with about 3000 photos from amateur photographers to study the efficacy of the approach for these context information components.

  8. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  9. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert


    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  10. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.


    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  11. A review on data stream classification approaches


    Sajad Homayoun; Marzieh Ahmadzadeh


    Stream data is usually in vast volume, changing dynamically, possibly infinite, and containing multi-dimensional features. The attention towards data stream mining is increasing as regards to its presence in wide range of real-world applications, such as e-commerce, banking, sensor data and telecommunication records. Similar to data mining, data stream mining includes classification, clustering, frequent pattern mining etc. techniques; the special focus of this paper is on classification meth...

  12. Apples to Oranges: Comparing Streaming Video Platforms


    Milewski, Steven; Threatt, Monique


    Librarians rely on an ever-increasing variety of platforms to deliver streaming video content to our patrons. These two presentations will examine different aspects of video streaming platforms to gain guidance from the comparison of platforms. The first will examine the accessibility compliance of the various video streaming platforms for users with disabilities by examining accessibility features of the platforms. The second will be a comparison of subject usage of two of the larger video s...

  13. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services


    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming


    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  14. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping


    S. S. Abuthakeer; P.V. Mohanram; Kumar, G.M.


    This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM) with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative ...

  15. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services


    Scheibe, Katrin; Fietkiewicz, Kaja J.; Wolfgang G. Stock


    In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs) has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs). Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting) as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them). We conducted two quantitative inv...

  16. Protecting and Enhancing River and Stream Continuity


    Jackson, Scott D.; Bowden, Alison; Graber, Brian


    As long linear ecosystems, rivers and streams are particularly vulnerable to fragmentation. There is growing concern about the role of road crossings – and especially culverts – in altering habitats and disrupting river and stream continuity. The River and Stream Continuity Project began in the year 2000 with a startup grant from the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative. The University of Massachusetts took the lead in convening a group of people from a variety of agencies and organizations who...

  17. Is diatom richness responding to catchment glaciation? A case study from Cana+9dian headwater streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rott


    Full Text Available Due to global change affecting glaciers worldwide, glacial streams are seen as threatened environments deserving specific scientific interest. Glacial streams from the Coast Range and Rocky Mountains in British Columbia and at the border to Alberta were investigated. In particular glacial streams and downstream sites in the Joffré Lakes Provincial Park, a near by mountain river and two large glacial streams in the Rocky Mountains (Kootenay Range, Jasper National Park were studied. Regardless of a high variability of catchment glaciation (1 to 99% thin organic biofilms with firmly attached diatom frustules of the genera Achnanthidium, Psammothidium, Encyonema, Gomphonema and fragilaroid taxa were found in all cases. In spite of fundamentally different geological conditions between the Coast Range sites and the Rocky Mountain sites, the pioneer taxon Achnanthidium minutissimum (with a slimy long ecomorph was dominating quantitatively in most of the glacier stream samples together with the rheobiontic Hannaea arcus. Individual glacier stream samples were characterized by the dominance of Achnanthidium petersenii and Gomphonema calcifugum/Encyonema latens. The diatom community analysis (cluster analysis revealed the expected separation of glacier stream sites and sites of the lower segments of the river continuum (e.g., dominance of Diatoma ehrenbergii in the mountain river. In the Joffré area, the total species richness of turbid glacial streams close to the glacier mouth was significantly lower than in the more distant sites. The two largest glacial streams in the Rocky Mountains showed divergent results with a remarkable high species richness (43 taxa at the Athabasca River origin (Columbia Icefield and low diversity in Illecillewaet river (9 km downstream the glacier mouth. From the biogeographical point of view the dominant taxa comprised mainly widespread pioneer species coping best with the unstable conditions, while the subdominant taxa

  18. Relationship between structural features and water chemistry in boreal headwater streams--evaluation based on results from two water management survey tools suggested for Swedish forestry. (United States)

    Lestander, Ragna; Löfgren, Stefan; Henrikson, Lennart; Ågren, Anneli M


    Forestry may cause adverse impacts on water quality, and the forestry planning process is a key factor for the outcome of forest operation effects on stream water. To optimise environmental considerations and to identify actions needed to improve or maintain the stream biodiversity, two silvicultural water management tools, BIS+ (biodiversity, impact, sensitivity and added values) and Blue targeting, have been developed. In this study, we evaluate the links between survey variables, based on BIS+ and Blue targeting data, and water chemistry in 173 randomly selected headwater streams in the hemiboreal zone. While BIS+ and Blue targeting cannot replace more sophisticated monitoring methods necessary for classifying water quality in streams according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC), our results lend support to the idea that the BIS+ protocol can be used to prioritise the protection of riparian forests. The relationship between BIS+ and water quality indicators (concentrations of nutrients and organic matter) together with data from fish studies suggests that this field protocol can be used to give reaches with higher biodiversity and conservation values a better protection. The tools indicate an ability to mitigate forestry impacts on water quality if the operations are adjusted to this knowledge in located areas.

  19. Dispersal Constraints for Stream Invertebrates: Setting Realistic Timescales for Biodiversity Restoration (United States)

    Parkyn, Stephanie M.; Smith, Brian J.


    Biodiversity goals are becoming increasingly important in stream restoration. Typical models of stream restoration are based on the assumption that if habitat is restored then species will return and ecological processes will re-establish. However, a range of constraints at different scales can affect restoration success. Much of the research in stream restoration ecology has focused on habitat constraints, namely the in-stream and riparian conditions required to restore biota. Dispersal constraints are also integral to determining the timescales, trajectory and potential endpoints of a restored ecosystem. Dispersal is both a means of organism recolonization of restored sites and a vital ecological process that maintains viable populations. We review knowledge of dispersal pathways and explore the factors influencing stream invertebrate dispersal. From empirical and modeling studies of restoration in warm-temperate zones of New Zealand, we make predictions about the timescales of stream ecological restoration under differing levels of dispersal constraints. This process of constraints identification and timescale prediction is proposed as a practical step for resource managers to prioritize and appropriately monitor restoration sites and highlights that in some instances, natural recolonization and achievement of biodiversity goals may not occur.

  20. New Jersey StreamStats: A web application for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Janowicz, Jon A.


    StreamStats is an interactive, map-based web application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics and watershed characteristics for both gaged and ungaged sites on streams throughout New Jersey. Users can determine flood magnitude and frequency, monthly flow-duration, monthly low-flow frequency statistics, and watershed characteristics for ungaged sites by selecting a point along a stream, or they can obtain this information for streamgages by selecting a streamgage location on the map. StreamStats provides several additional tools useful for water-resources planning and management, as well as for engineering purposes. StreamStats is available for most states and some river basins through a single web portal.Streamflow statistics for water resources professionals include the 1-percent annual chance flood flow (100-year peak flow) used to define flood plain areas and the monthly 7-day, 10-year low flow (M7D10Y) used in water supply management and studies of recreation, wildlife conservation, and wastewater dilution. Additionally, watershed or basin characteristics, including drainage area, percent area forested, and average percent of impervious areas, are commonly used in land-use planning and environmental assessments. These characteristics are easily derived through StreamStats.

  1. Impact of potash mining in streams: the Llobregat basin (northeast Spain as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ladrera


    Full Text Available Potash mining is significantly increasing the salt concentration of rivers and streams due to lixiviates coming from the mine tailings. In the present study, we have focused on the middle Llobregat basin (northeast Spain, where an important potash mining activity exists from the beginning of the XX century. Up to 50 million tonnes of saline waste have been disposed in the area, mainly composed of sodium chloride. We assessed the ecological status of streams adjacent to the mines by studying different physicochemical and hydromorphological variables, as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. We found extraordinary high values of salinity in the studied streams, reaching conductivities up to 132.4 mS/cm. Salt-polluted streams were characterized by a deterioration of the riparian vegetation and the fluvial habitat. Both macroinvertebrate richness and abundance decreased with increasing salinity. In the most polluted stream only two families of macroinvertebrates were found: Ephydridae and Ceratopogonidae. According to the biotic indices IBMWP and IMMi-T, none of the sites met the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD; i.e., good ecological status. Overall, we can conclude that potash-mining activities have the potential to cause severe ecological damage to their surrounding streams. This is mainly related to an inadequate management of the mine tailings, leading to highly saline runoff and percolates entering surface waters. Thus, we urge water managers and policy makers to take action to prevent, detect and remediate salt pollution of rivers and streams in potash mining areas.

  2. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design. (United States)

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes


    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region.

  3. Concentrations of glyphosate and atrazine compounds in 100 Midwest United States streams in 2013 (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Burley, Thomas E.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Nowell, Lisa H.


    Temporal patterns in glyphosate and atrazine concentrations were measured weekly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the 2013 growing season in 100 small streams in the Midwestern United States. Concentrations also were measured every 2 days at a subset of 8 of the sites, all located in Missouri. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in urban streams than in agricultural streams, and at concentrations similar to those in streams with high agricultural land use in the watershed. In contrast, atrazine was detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in agricultural streams than in urban streams. This data release provides watershed characteristics and 2013 glyphosate and atrazine compound concentrations used in the analysis presented in the journal article “Similarities and differences in temporal fluctuations in glyphosate and atrazine in small Midwestern streams (USA) during the 2013 growing season,” by BJ Mahler, PC Van Metre, TE Burley, KA Loftin, MT Meyer, and LH Nowell,

  4. Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Rice, Karen C.


    Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. Forecasted climate and landscape changes may lead to significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperatures in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three national parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, DC. We investigated relationships among water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). With the use of a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream-water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.

  5. Hyporheic zone influences on concentration-discharge relationships in a headwater sandstone stream (United States)

    Hoagland, Beth; Russo, Tess A.; Gu, Xin; Hill, Lillian; Kaye, Jason; Forsythe, Brandon; Brantley, Susan L.


    Complex subsurface flow dynamics impact the storage, routing, and transport of water and solutes to streams in headwater catchments. Many of these hydrogeologic processes are indirectly reflected in observations of stream chemistry responses to rain events, also known as concentration-discharge (CQ) relations. Identifying the relative importance of subsurface flows to stream CQ relationships is often challenging in headwater environments due to spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, this study combines a diverse set of methods, including tracer injection tests, cation exchange experiments, geochemical analyses, and numerical modeling, to map groundwater-surface water interactions along a first-order, sandstone stream (Garner Run) in the Appalachian Mountains of central Pennsylvania. The primary flow paths to the stream include preferential flow through the unsaturated zone ("interflow"), flow discharging from a spring, and groundwater discharge. Garner Run stream inherits geochemical signatures from geochemical reactions occurring along each of these flow paths. In addition to end-member mixing effects on CQ, we find that the exchange of solutes, nutrients, and water between the hyporheic zone and the main stream channel is a relevant control on the chemistry of Garner Run. CQ relationships for Garner Run were compared to prior results from a nearby headwater catchment overlying shale bedrock (Shale Hills). At the sandstone site, solutes associated with organo-mineral associations in the hyporheic zone influence CQ, while CQ trends in the shale catchment are affected by preferential flow through hillslope swales. The difference in CQ trends document how the lithology and catchment hydrology control CQ relationships.

  6. Stream Nitrogen Inputs Reflect Groundwater Across a Snowmelt-Dominated Montane to Urban Watershed. (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Weintraub, Samantha R; Eiriksson, David; Brooks, Paul D; Baker, Michelle A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Bowling, David R


    Snowmelt dominates the hydrograph of many temperate montane streams, yet little work has characterized how streamwater sources and nitrogen (N) dynamics vary across wildland to urban land use gradients in these watersheds. Across a third-order catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, we asked where and when groundwater vs shallow surface water inputs controlled stream discharge and N dynamics. Stream water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) reflected a consistent snowmelt water source during baseflow. Near-chemostatic relationships between conservative ions and discharge implied that groundwater dominated discharge year-round across the montane and urban sites, challenging the conceptual emphasis on direct stormwater inputs to urban streams. Stream and groundwater NO3(-) concentrations remained consistently low during snowmelt and baseflow in most montane and urban stream reaches, indicating effective subsurface N retention or denitrification and minimal impact of fertilizer or deposition N sources. Rather, NO3(-) concentrations increased 50-fold following urban groundwater inputs, showing that subsurface flow paths potentially impact nutrient loading more than surficial land use. Isotopic composition of H2O and NO3(-) suggested that snowmelt-derived urban groundwater intercepted NO3(-) from leaking sewers. Sewer maintenance could potentially mitigate hotspots of stream N inputs at mountain/valley transitions, which have been largely overlooked in semiarid urban ecosystems.

  7. Stream hydrology: an introduction for ecologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The updated chapters in this book provide information on sampling, field techniques, stream analysis, the hydrodynamics of moving water, channel form, sediment transport and commonly used statistical...

  8. Building a dynamic value stream mapping


    Shafiq, Umer


    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a visualization tool helps to understand processes by using of stream lined work process. The importance of this process is to decrease the activity that does not add value to the final product and in order to increase the efficiency and production.   The purpose of this thesis is to create dynamic value stream maps of a process by using simulation. By creating dynamic value stream maps makes it possible to analyze more complex systems than traditional VSM. Simul...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes a description of a device developed to harden a filter cake on a filter element so that the element and cake can subsequently be encapsulated in epoxy and studied in detail. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data base of ash and char characteristics. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), encapsulation of an intact filter cake from the PSDF, and completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of hoop tensile and axial compressive stress-strain responses of McDermott ceramic composite and hoop tensile testing of Techniweave candle filters as-manufactured and after exposure to the gasification environment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  13. Towards a protocol for stream macroinvertebrate sampling in China. (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Lusan; Hughes, Robert M; Cao, Yong; Wang, Xing


    Standard protocols are critical for maximizing data comparability and aggregation in national monitoring programs, and taxa richness is a common indicator of site condition and biological diversity. There are two general approaches for sampling stream macroinvertebrate assemblages: targeted richest habitat and site wide. At seven sites, we compared three methods: Ontario Benthic Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP). The OBBN method produced a biased sample at a site with a single small riffle, the RBP method produced the most total taxa, and the EMAP method produced the most taxa at four sites and the most individuals at six sites. The RBP method produced asymptotes for percent tolerant individuals, percent chironomid individuals, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index score after five to ten stations. The EMAP method produced asymptotes for those metrics after 10 to 20 stations per site. The EMAP method typically required half the number of stations as the RBP method to obtain 70-90% of true taxa richness as estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. We conclude that the EMAP method is preferable because of its greater precision in taxa richness estimates.

  14. Evaluation of stream ecological integrity using litter decomposition and benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castela, Jose [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail:; Ferreira, Veronica [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail:; Graca, Manuel A.S. [Departamento de Zoologia and IMAR-CIC, Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail:


    Biomonitoring programs to access the ecological integrity of freshwaters tend to rely exclusively on structural parameters. Here we evaluated stream ecological integrity using (a) benthic macroinvertebrate derived metrics and a biotic index as measures of structural integrity and (b) oak litter decomposition and associated fungal sporulation rates as measures of functional integrity. The study was done at four sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) along a downstream increasing phosphorus and habitat degradation gradient in a small stream. The biotic index, invertebrate metrics, invertebrate and fungal communities' structure and sporulation rates discriminated upstream and downstream sites. Decomposition rates classified sites S4 and S2 as having a compromised ecosystem functioning. Although both functional and structural approaches gave the same results for the most impacted site (S4), they were complementary for moderately impacted sites (S2 and S3), and we therefore support the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity. - This study supports the need for incorporating functional measures in evaluations of stream ecological integrity.

  15. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson


    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  16. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster


    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  17. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander


    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  18. The Effects of Forest Disturbance on Macroinvertebrates in Western Oregon Headwater Streams - Patterns in Existing Databases (United States)

    Herlihy, A. T.; Li, J.; Gerth, B.; Banks, J.


    As part of a research project investigating the effects of forest harvest practices on stream macroinvertebrates, we compiled existing data for Western Oregon headwater forest streams. The compiled database consists of 168 sites with watershed areas less than 10 square km that had measurements of stream macroinvertebrates, fish, physical habitat, water chemistry, and watershed land cover. The source of the data is from surveys conducted for EPA's EMAP program, the state of Oregon's Salmon Plan monitoring, and our own sampling efforts between 1994 and 2000. Almost all sites in the database were selected using the randomized EMAP survey design so they constitute a representative sample of all streams in this population. The streams in our dataset typically had mean wetted widths of 1-5 m, mean thalweg depths of 8-34 cm, and channel slopes of 1-15%. Watersheds for these sites were delineated and data on forest condition and logging history were clipped from available GIS layers. There were 189 macroinvertebrate taxa at the 168 sites with richness at individual sites ranging from 7 to 71 taxa. Ordination of the macroinvertebrate assemblages using NMS resulted in a 3 dimensional solution which accounted for 78% of the variation in the similarity among sites and demonstrated clear patterns in taxonomic composition with Baetis, Epeorus and Chironominae having the highest correlations with the ordination axes. Axes 1 and 2 each explained about 30% of the variation and were strongly correlated with substrate size, site slope and elevation. The third axis explained 17% of the variation and was correlated most strongly with watershed indices of forest logging history.

  19. The effects of human land use on flow regime and water chemistry of headwater streams in the highlands of Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo M.M.


    Full Text Available We studied the effects of land use changes on flow regime and water chemistry of headwater streams in the highlands of Chiapas, a region in southern Mexico that has experienced high rates of deforestation in the last decades. Samples for water chemistry were collected and discharge was measured between September 2007 and August 2008 at eight streams that differed in the land uses of their riparian and catchment areas, including streams draining protected forested areas. Streams with high forest cover (>70% in their catchments maintained flow through the year. Streams draining more disturbed catchments exhibited reduced or no flow for 4 − 6 months during the dry season. Nitrate concentrations were lower at streams draining forested catchments while highest concentrations were measured where conventional agriculture covered a high proportion of the catchment and riparian zone. Highest phosphorus concentrations occurred at the catchment where poultry manure was applied as fertilizer. Differences between forest streams and those draining disturbed areas were correlated with the proportion of forest and agriculture in the riparian zone. Variation in stream variables among sampling dates was lower at the forest sites than at the more disturbed study streams. Conversion of forest into agriculture and urban areas is affecting flow regime and increasing nutrient concentrations, although the magnitude of the impacts are influenced by the type of agricultural practices and the alteration of the riparian zone.

  20. Advantages of geographically weighted regression for modeling benthic substrate in two Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem streams (United States)

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Strager, Michael P.; Welsh, Stuart A.


    Stream habitat assessments are commonplace in fish management, and often involve nonspatial analysis methods for quantifying or predicting habitat, such as ordinary least squares regression (OLS). Spatial relationships, however, often exist among stream habitat variables. For example, water depth, water velocity, and benthic substrate sizes within streams are often spatially correlated and may exhibit spatial nonstationarity or inconsistency in geographic space. Thus, analysis methods should address spatial relationships within habitat datasets. In this study, OLS and a recently developed method, geographically weighted regression (GWR), were used to model benthic substrate from water depth and water velocity data at two stream sites within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. For data collection, each site was represented by a grid of 0.1 m2 cells, where actual values of water depth, water velocity, and benthic substrate class were measured for each cell. Accuracies of regressed substrate class data by OLS and GWR methods were calculated by comparing maps, parameter estimates, and determination coefficient r 2. For analysis of data from both sites, Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for sample size indicated the best approximating model for the data resulted from GWR and not from OLS. Adjusted r 2 values also supported GWR as a better approach than OLS for prediction of substrate. This study supports GWR (a spatial analysis approach) over nonspatial OLS methods for prediction of habitat for stream habitat assessments.

  1. Networked telepresence system using web browsers and omni-directional video streams (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoya; Yamazawa, Kazumasa; Sato, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Sei; Nakamura, Yutaka; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki; Yokoya, Naokazu


    In this paper, we describe a new telepresence system which enables a user to look around a virtualized real world easily in network environments. The proposed system includes omni-directional video viewers on web browsers and allows the user to look around the omni-directional video contents on the web browsers. The omni-directional video viewer is implemented as an Active-X program so that the user can install the viewer automatically only by opening the web site which contains the omni-directional video contents. The system allows many users at different sites to look around the scene just like an interactive TV using a multi-cast protocol without increasing the network traffic. This paper describes the implemented system and the experiments using live and stored video streams. In the experiment with stored video streams, the system uses an omni-directional multi-camera system for video capturing. We can look around high resolution and high quality video contents. In the experiment with live video streams, a car-mounted omni-directional camera acquires omni-directional video streams surrounding the car, running in an outdoor environment. The acquired video streams are transferred to the remote site through the wireless and wired network using multi-cast protocol. We can see the live video contents freely in arbitrary direction. In the both experiments, we have implemented a view-dependent presentation with a head-mounted display (HMD) and a gyro sensor for realizing more rich presence.

  2. Effects of floods on fish assemblages in an intermittent prairie stream (United States)

    Franssen, N.R.; Gido, K.B.; Guy, C.S.; Tripe, J.A.; Shrank, S.J.; Strakosh, T.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Franssen, C.M.; Pitts, K.L.; Paukert, C.P.


    1. Floods are major disturbances to stream ecosystems that can kill or displace organisms and modify habitats. Many studies have reported changes in fish assemblages after a single flood, but few studies have evaluated the importance of timing and intensity of floods on long-term fish assemblage dynamics. 2. We used a 10-year dataset to evaluate the effects of floods on fishes in Kings Creek, an intermittent prairie stream in north-eastern, Kansas, U.S.A. Samples were collected seasonally at two perennial headwater sites (1995-2005) and one perennial downstream flowing site (1997-2005) allowing us to evaluate the effects of floods at different locations within a watershed. In addition, four surveys during 2003 and 2004 sampled 3-5 km of stream between the long-term study sites to evaluate the use of intermittent reaches of this stream. 3. Because of higher discharge and bed scouring at the downstream site, we predicted that the fish assemblage would have lowered species richness and abundance following floods. In contrast, we expected increased species richness and abundance at headwater sites because floods increase stream connectivity and create the potential for colonisation from downstream reaches. 4. Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) was used to select among candidate regression models that predicted species richness and abundance based on Julian date, time since floods, season and physical habitat at each site. At the downstream site, AIC weightings suggested Julian date was the best predictor of fish assemblage structure, but no model explained >16% of the variation in species richness or community structure. Variation explained by Julian date was primarily attributed to a long-term pattern of declining abundance of common species. At the headwater sites, there was not a single candidate model selected to predict total species abundance and assemblage structure. AIC weightings suggested variation in assemblage structure was associated with either Julian date

  3. Arsenic in stream waters is bioaccumulated but neither biomagnified through food webs nor biodispersed to land. (United States)

    Hepp, Luiz U; Pratas, João A M S; Graça, Manuel A S


    Human activities such as mining have contributed substantially to the increase of metals in aquatic environments worldwide. These metals are bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and can be biomagnified along trophic webs. The dispersal of contaminants from water to land has been little investigated, even though most aquatic invertebrates in streams have aerial stages. We used field and laboratory approaches to investigate the effects of arsenic pollution on stream invertebrate assemblages, and its bioaccumulation, biomagnification and trophic transfer from aquatic to terrestrial environments by emergent insects. We conducted the study in an arsenic-impacted stream (40μgL-1 As at the most polluted site) and a reference stream (0.3μgL-1 As). Invertebrate abundance and richness were lowest at the most impacted site. Arsenic in biofilm and in invertebrates increased with the arsenic content in the water. The highest arsenic accumulators were bryophytes (1760μgg-1), followed by the biofilm (449μgg-1) and shredder invertebrates (313μgg-1); predators had the lowest arsenic concentration. Insects emerging from water and spiders along streambanks sampled from the reference and the impacted stream did not differ in their body arsenic concentrations. In the laboratory, the shredder Sericostoma vittatum had reduced feeding rates when exposed to water from the impacted stream in comparison with the reference stream (15.6 vs. 19.0mg leaves mg body mass-1 day-1; parsenic from food, not through contact with water. We concluded that although arsenic is bioaccumulated, mainly by food ingestion, it is not biomagnified through food webs and is not transported from the aquatic to terrestrial environment when insects leave the stream water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas? (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.


    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  5. Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). STP reference document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Section 3021(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct), to prepare a plan describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste (hazardous/radioactive waste). DOE decided to prepare its site treatment plan in a three phased approach. The first phase, called the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP), was issued in October 1993. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the CSTP described mixed waste streams generated at SRS and listed treatment scenarios for each waste stream utilizing an onsite, offsite DOE, and offsite or onsite commercial or vendor treatment option. The CSTP is followed by the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), due to be issued in August 1994. The DSTP, the current activity., will narrow the options discussed in the CSTP to a preferred treatment option, if possible, and will include waste streams proposed to be shipped to SRS from other DOE facilities as well as waste streams SRS may send offsite for treatment. The SRS DSTP process has been designed to address treatment options for each of the site`s mixed waste streams. The SRS Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP) is due to be issued in February 1995. The compliance order would be derived from the PSTP.

  6. Incremental learning from stream data. (United States)

    He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Li, Kang; Xu, Xin


    Recent years have witnessed an incredibly increasing interest in the topic of incremental learning. Unlike conventional machine learning situations, data flow targeted by incremental learning becomes available continuously over time. Accordingly, it is desirable to be able to abandon the traditional assumption of the availability of representative training data during the training period to develop decision boundaries. Under scenarios of continuous data flow, the challenge is how to transform the vast amount of stream raw data into information and knowledge representation, and accumulate experience over time to support future decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a general adaptive incremental learning framework named ADAIN that is capable of learning from continuous raw data, accumulating experience over time, and using such knowledge to improve future learning and prediction performance. Detailed system level architecture and design strategies are presented in this paper. Simulation results over several real-world data sets are used to validate the effectiveness of this method.

  7. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák


    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  8. StreamStats in North Carolina: a water-resources Web application (United States)

    Weaver, J. Curtis; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.; Wagner, Chad R.


    A statewide StreamStats application for North Carolina was developed in cooperation with the North Carolina Department of Transportation following completion of a pilot application for the upper French Broad River basin in western North Carolina (Wagner and others, 2009). StreamStats for North Carolina, available at, is a Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in consultation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (Esri) to provide access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management (Ries and others, 2008). The StreamStats application provides an accurate and consistent process that allows users to easily obtain streamflow statistics, basin characteristics, and descriptive information for USGS data-collection sites and user-selected ungaged sites. In the North Carolina application, users can compute 47 basin characteristics and peak-flow frequency statistics (Weaver and others, 2009; Robbins and Pope, 1996) for a delineated drainage basin. Selected streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for data-collection sites have been compiled from published reports and also are immediately accessible by querying individual sites from the web interface. Examples of basin characteristics that can be computed in StreamStats include drainage area, stream slope, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forested area (Ries and others, 2008). Examples of streamflow statistics that were previously available only through published documents include peak-flow frequency, flow-duration, and precipitation data. These data are valuable for making decisions related to bridge design, floodplain delineation, water-supply permitting, and sustainable stream quality and ecology. The StreamStats application also allows users to identify stream reaches upstream and downstream from user-selected sites

  9. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  10. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed...

  11. Climate-induced glacier and snow loss imperils alpine stream insects (United States)

    Giersch, J. Joseph; Hotaling, Scott; Kovach, Ryan; Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.


    Climate warming is causing rapid loss of glaciers and snowpack in mountainous regions worldwide. These changes are predicted to negatively impact the habitats of many range-restricted species, particularly endemic, mountaintop species dependent on the unique thermal and hydrologic conditions found only in glacier-fed and snowmelt-driven alpine streams. Though progress has been made, existing understanding of the status, distribution, and ecology of alpine aquatic species, particularly in North America, is lacking, thereby hindering conservation and management programs. Two aquatic insects – the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana and the glacier stonefly Zapada glacier – were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act due to climate-change-induced habitat loss. Using a large dataset (272 streams, 482 total sites) with high-resolution climate and habitat information, we describe the distribution, status, and key environmental features that limit L. tumana and Z. glacier across the northern Rocky Mountains. Lednia tumana was detected in 113 streams (175 sites) within Glacier National Park (GNP) and surrounding areas. The probability of L. tumana occurrence increased with cold stream temperatures and close proximity to glaciers and permanent snowfields. Similarly, densities of L. tumana declined with increasing distance from stream source. Zapada glacier was only detected in 10 streams (20 sites), six in GNP and four in mountain ranges up to ~600 km southwest. Our results show that both L. tumana and Z. glacier inhabit an extremely narrow distribution, restricted to short sections of cold, alpine streams often below glaciers predicted to disappear over the next two decades. Climate warming-induced glacier and snow loss clearly imperils the persistence of L. tumana and Z. glacier throughout their ranges, highlighting the role of mountaintop aquatic invertebrates as sentinels of climate change in mid-latitude regions.

  12. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leschik


    Full Text Available Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany. Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3 showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream−1 d−1, respectively, while Cl (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream−1 d−1 and SO42− (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream−1 d−1 revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  13. Effects of coal strip mining on stream water quality and biology, southwestern Washington (United States)

    Fuste, L.A.; Meyer, D.F.


    Strip mining for coal in southwestern Washington may be affecting the water quality of streams. To investigate these possible effects, five streams were selected for study of water quality in each of the two coal bearing areas: the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, and Kelso-Castle Rock coal area. In the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, three of the streams have drainage basins in which mines are active. Water in streams that drain unmined basins is typical of western Washington streams and is characterized as a mixed water because calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions predominate. A change in anionic composition from bicarbonate to sulfate in streams draining mined areas was not sufficient to change the general water composition and thus make the streams acidic. The largest downstream changes in water quality in both mined and unmined drainage basins were observed during summer low-flow conditions, when minimal dilution, increased water temperatures, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations occurred. High dissolved solids were found in the mined drainage basins during this period. High concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were present in the bottom sediments of the mined basins. Moderate concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, and zinc were also found in the bottom sediments of a few unmined basins. Streams with substrates of gravel-cobble or gravel-coarse sand had the most diverse benthic fauna and a higher number of ubiquitous taxa than streams with sand-silt substrates, which had the most dissimilar fauna. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were rare at the site most affected by mining. The erosion potential of a basin appears to be related to the average basin slope and the amount of forested areas. Strip mining for coal in steep basins may lead to massive movements of unconsolidated spoils after vegetal cover is removed if the land disturbed is graded to pre-mining slopes. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams. (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús


    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  15. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Aqueous Stream Carbon from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starace, Anne K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Black, Brenna A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Lee, David D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Palmiotti, Elizabeth C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Orton, Kellene A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Michener, William E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; ten Dam, Jeroen [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, P.O. Box 1, Belasis Avenue, Billingham, Cleveland TS23 1LB, United Kingdom; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, P.O. Box 1, Belasis Avenue, Billingham, Cleveland TS23 1LB, United Kingdom; Beckham, Gregg T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Magrini, Kimberly A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Mukarakate, Calvin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States


    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produces a liquid product consisting of organic and aqueous streams. The organic stream is typically slated for hydrotreating to produce hydrocarbon biofuels, while the aqueous stream is considered a waste stream, resulting in the loss of residual biogenic carbon. Here, we report the detailed characterization and catalytic conversion of a CFP wastewater stream with the ultimate aim to improve overall biomass utilization within a thermochemical biorefinery. An aqueous stream derived from CFP of beech wood was comprehensively characterized, quantifying 53 organic compounds to a total of 17% organics. The most abundant classes of compounds are acids, aldehydes, and alcohols. The most abundant components identified in the aqueous stream were C1-C2 organics, comprising 6.40% acetic acid, 2.16% methanol, and 1.84% formaldehyde on wet basis. The CFP aqueous stream was catalytically upgraded to olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons using a Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst at 500 degrees C. When the conversion yield of the upgraded products was measured with fresh, active catalyst, 33% of the carbon in the aqueous stream was recovered as aromatic hydrocarbons and 29% as olefins. The majority of the experiments were conducted using a molecular beam mass spectrometer and separate GC-MS/FID experiments were used to confirm the assignments and quantification of products with fresh excess catalyst. The recovered 62% carbon in the form of olefins and aromatics can be used to make coproducts and/or fuels potentially improving biorefinery economics and sustainability. Spent catalysts were collected after exposure to varying amounts of the feed, and were characterized using multipoint-Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to monitor deactivation of Ga/HZSM-5. These characterization data revealed that deactivation was caused by coke deposits, which blocked access to active

  16. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven


    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  17. Site calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...... between the wind speed at the center of the turbine hub and at the met mast. The wind speed at the turbine is measured by a temporary mast placed at the foundation for the turbine. The site and measurement equipment is detailed described in [2]. The possible measurement sector for power performance...... according to [1] is also described in [2] and no results from the site calibration have shown any necessary exclusion from this sector. All parts of the sensors and the measurement system have been installed by DTU....

  18. Design and methods of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA), 2013 (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Nowell, Lisa H.


    During 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Project (NAWQA), in collaboration with the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), and the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs assessed stream quality across the Midwestern United States. This Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The MSQA design focused on effects from the widespread agriculture in the region and urban development because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Midwest region resource managers.A combined random stratified selection and a targeted selection based on land-use data were used to identify and select sites representing gradients in agricultural intensity across the region. During a 14-week period from May through August 2013, 100 sites were selected and sampled 12 times for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. This 14-week water-quality “index” period culminated with an ecological survey of habitat, periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish at all sites. Sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing. Of the 100 sites, 50 were selected for the MSQA random stratified group from 154 NRSA sites planned for the region, and the other 50 MSQA sites were selected as targeted sites to more evenly cover agricultural and urban stressor gradients in the study area. Of the 50 targeted sites, 12 were in urbanized watersheds and 21 represented “good” biological conditions or “least disturbed” conditions. The remaining 17 targeted sites were selected to improve coverage of the agricultural intensity gradient or because of historical data collection to provide temporal context for the

  19. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide real...

  20. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  1. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen


    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  2. Acoustic streaming enhanced electrodeposition of nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Møller, Per


    surface was observed. A theory based on mechanical interaction between organic additives adhering to the cathode surface and ultrasonically induced streaming- phenomena is presented here to account for the observed uniform filling behaviour. The present study further indicates a correlation between fringe......-patterns on the surface of the deposit and near-boundary acoustic streaming....

  3. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8 (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell


    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  4. Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude


    The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

  5. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.


    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  6. Tidal Turbines’ Layout in a Stream with Asymmetry and Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillou


    Full Text Available A refined assessment of tidal currents variability is a prerequisite for successful turbine deployment in the marine environment. However, the numerical evaluation of the tidal kinetic energy resource relies, most of the time, on integrated parameters, such as the averaged or maximum stream powers. Predictions from a high resolution three-dimensional model are exploited here to characterize the asymmetry and misalignment between the flood and ebb tidal currents in the “Raz de Sein”, a strait off western Brittany (France with strong potential for array development. A series of parameters is considered to assess resource variability and refine the cartography of local potential tidal stream energy sites. The strait is characterized by strong tidal flow divergence with currents’ asymmetry liable to vary output power by 60% over a tidal cycle. Pronounced misalignments over 20 ∘ are furthermore identified in a great part of energetic locations, and this may account for a deficit of the monthly averaged extractable energy by more than 12%. As sea space is limited for turbines, it is finally suggested to aggregate flood and ebb-dominant stream powers on both parts of the strait to output energy with reduced asymmetry.

  7. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams. (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei


    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  8. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms. (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I


    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  9. Introduction to stream: An Extensible Framework for Data Stream Clustering Research with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler


    Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.

  10. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points. (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Yu, Han


    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heatmap. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  11. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers. (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe


    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  12. Photogrammetric Method and Software for Stream Planform Identification (United States)

    Stonedahl, S. H.; Stonedahl, F.; Lohberg, M. M.; Lusk, K.; Miller, D.


    Accurately characterizing the planform of a stream is important for many purposes, including recording measurement and sampling locations, monitoring change due to erosion or volumetric discharge, and spatial modeling of stream processes. While expensive surveying equipment or high resolution aerial photography can be used to obtain planform data, our research focused on developing a close-range photogrammetric method (and accompanying free/open-source software) to serve as a cost-effective alternative. This method involves securing and floating a wooden square frame on the stream surface at several locations, taking photographs from numerous angles at each location, and then post-processing and merging data from these photos using the corners of the square for reference points, unit scale, and perspective correction. For our test field site we chose a ~35m reach along Black Hawk Creek in Sunderbruch Park (Davenport, IA), a small, slow-moving stream with overhanging trees. To quantify error we measured 88 distances between 30 marked control points along the reach. We calculated error by comparing these 'ground truth' distances to the corresponding distances extracted from our photogrammetric method. We placed the square at three locations along our reach and photographed it from multiple angles. The square corners, visible control points, and visible stream outline were hand-marked in these photos using the GIMP (open-source image editor). We wrote an open-source GUI in Java (hosted on GitHub), which allows the user to load marked-up photos, designate square corners and label control points. The GUI also extracts the marked pixel coordinates from the images. We also wrote several scripts (currently in MATLAB) that correct the pixel coordinates for radial distortion using Brown's lens distortion model, correct for perspective by forcing the four square corner pixels to form a parallelogram in 3-space, and rotate the points in order to correctly orient all photos of

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in Ozark stream ecosystems (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Stricker, Craig A.; Brumbaugh, William G.


    Crayfish (Orconectes spp.), Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), northern hog sucker (hog sucker; Hypentelium nigricans), and smallmouth bass (smallmouth; Micropterus dolomieu) from streams in southeastern Missouri (USA) were analyzed for total mercury (HgT) and for stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and sulfur (δ34S) to discern Hg transfer pathways. HgT concentrations were generally lowest in crayfish (0.005–0.112 μg/g dw) and highest in smallmouth (0.093–4.041 μg/g dw), as was δ15N. HgT was also lower and δ15N was higher in all biota from a stream draining a more heavily populated historical lead–zinc mining area than from similar sites with mostly undeveloped forested watersheds. δ13C in biota was lowest at spring-influenced sites, reflecting CO2 inputs and temperature influences, and δ34S increased from south to north in all taxa. However, HgT was not strongly correlated with either δ13C or δ34S in biota. Trophic position (TP) computed from crayfish δ15N was lower in hog suckers (mean=2.8) than in smallmouth (mean=3.2), but not at all sites. HgT, δ13C, δ34S, and TP in hog suckers increased with total length (length) at some sites, indicating site-specific ontogenetic diet shifts. Changes with length were less evident in smallmouth. Length-adjusted HgT site means in both species were strongly correlated with HgT in crayfish (r2=0.97, PCorbicula (r2=0.02, P>0.05). ANCOVA and regression models incorporating only TP and, for hog suckers, length, accurately and precisely predicted HgT concentrations in both fish species from all locations. Although low compared to many areas of the USA, HgT (and therefore methylmercury) concentrations in smallmouth and hog suckers are sufficiently high to represent a threat to human health and wildlife. Our data indicate that in Ozark streams, Hg concentrations in crayfish are at least partly determined by their diet, with concentrations in hog suckers, smallmouth, and possibly other higher

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a subtropical small stream of the Huangshan Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhi YAN,Shan HE, Ling CHU, Xiuying XIANG, Yanju JIA, Juan TAO, Yifeng CHEN


    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages were investigated seasonally from May 2007 to February 2008 across 11 study sites in a subtropical small stream, the Puxi Stream, of the Huangshan Mountain. Along the longitudinal gradient from headwater to downstream, fish species richness and abundance increased gradually, but then decreased significantly at the lower reaches. The highest species richness and abundance were observed in August and the lowest in February. Based on analysis of similarities (ANOSIM, fish assemblages were significantly different in spatial variation but not in temporal variation. Although differences were observed both among sites and among stream orders, the lower R value in order-variation suggested stream order was not the optimal factor explaining the spatial variation of fish assemblages. In addition, dam construction did not significantly alter fish assemblages in the sites adjacent to and immediately downstream to dams. Using cluster analysis and non-metric Multi Dimensional Scaling analysis (NMS, assemblages were separated into three groups at a Bray-Curtis similarity value of 42%: the upper, middle and lower groups. Following analysis of similarity percentages of species contributions (SIMPER, shifts in occurrence or abundance of S. curriculus, Z. platypus, R. bitterling and A. fasciatus contributed most to the differences amongst the three groups. Standard Deviation Redundancy Analysis (RDA suggested that habitat structure (such as elevation, substrate, and flow velocity contributed to the spatial and temporal pattern of fish assemblages in the Puxi Stream. In conclusion, the fish assemblages in Puxi Stream presented significant spatial but not temporal variation. Human disturbance has perhaps induced the decrease in species diversity in the lower reaches. However, no significant change was observed for fish assemblages in sites far from and immediately downstream from low-head dams [Current Zoology 56 (6

  15. Urbanization reduces and homogenizes trait diversity in stream macroinvertebrate communities. (United States)

    Barnum, Thomas R; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan


    More than one-half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition. We considered three levels of trait organization: individual traits, unique combinations of traits, and community metrics (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) and three levels of impervious surface coverage (low [10%]). The prevalence of an individual trait differed very little between low impervious surface and high impervious surface sites. The arrangement of trait combinations in community trait space for each ecoregion differed when impervious surface coverage was low, but the arrangement became more similar among ecoregions as impervious surface coverage increased. Furthermore, trait combinations that occurred only at low or medium impervious surface coverage were clustered in a subset of the community trait space, indicating that impervious surface affected the presence of only a subset of trait combinations. Functional richness declined with increasing impervious surface, providing evidence for environmental filtering. Community metrics that include abundance were also sensitive to increasing impervious surface coverage: functional divergence decreased while functional evenness increased. These changes demonstrate that increasing impervious surface coverage homogenizes the trait diversity of macroinvertebrate communities in streams, despite differences in initial community composition and stream geomorphology among ecoregions. Community

  16. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird


    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  17. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes. (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy


    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  18. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  19. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus


    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  20. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  1. Superfund Sites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  2. An evaluation of light intensity functions for determination of shaded reference stream metabolism. (United States)

    Zell, Chris; Hubbart, Jason A


    The performance of three single-station whole stream metabolism models were evaluated within three shaded, seasonally hypoxic, Missouri reference streams using high resolution (15-minute) dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, and light intensity data collected during the summers (July-September) of 2006-2008. The model incorporating light intensity data consistently achieved a lower root mean square error (median RMSE = 0.20 mg L(-1)) relative to models assuming sinusoidal light intensity functions (median RMSE = 0.28 mg L(-1)) and constant diel temperature (median RMSE = 0.53 mg L(-1)). Incorporation of site-specific light intensity into metabolism models better predicted morning DO concentrations and exposure to hypoxic conditions in shaded study streams. Model choice significantly affected (p rate estimates for daily average photosynthesis. Low reaeration (pooled site mean 1.1 day(-1) at 20 °C) coupled with summer temperatures (pooled site mean = 25.8 °C) and low to moderate community respiration (site median 1.0-3.0 g O(2) m(-2) day(-1)) yielded diel dissolved oxygen concentrations near or below critical aquatic life thresholds in studied reference streams. Quantifying these process combinations in best-available or least-disturbed (i.e., reference) systems advances our understanding of regional dissolved oxygen expectations and informs environmental management policy. Additional research is warranted to better link landscape processes with distributed sources that contribute to community respiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of geomorphology on fish fauna of a small Mississippi bluffline stream (United States)

    Fish were collected from 39 sites on the main channel and major tributaries of a highly erosive stream, Hotophia Creek, which cuts through the loess hills of northern Mississippi. Collections were part of a study to document ecological and environmental conditions of the creek before and during con...

  4. Fertility Status of Soils under Irrigation along the Jakara Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted on the irrigated lands along the banks of the Jakara Stream in metropolitan Kano, with the aim of assessing its fertility level. Two sites (Hajj Camp and Magami) were selected based on concentration of irrigation activity and irrigation water source. Grid sampling was employed in which 100m2 of ...


    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) as part of collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal wei...

  6. Medical Students' Perceptions of Video-Linked Lectures and Video-Streaming (United States)

    Wang, RuoLan; Mattick, Karen; Dunne, Elisabeth


    Video-linked lectures allow healthcare students across multiple sites, and between university and hospital bases, to come together for the purposes of shared teaching. Recording and streaming video-linked lectures allows students to view them at a later date and provides an additional resource to support student learning. As part of a UK Higher…

  7. The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 30, 2014 ... broken sewage pipes finds its way into the stream. All of the sites were ... variances (Levene`s test, p < 0.05) and normality of distribution. (Shapiro-Wilk test, p ...... Water Board network In: Whitton BA and Rott E (eds.) Use of.

  8. Riparian microclimate and stream temperature: thinning and buffer-width influences (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson


    Th inning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands in Washington and Oregon west of the Cascade Range crest. Decreases in forest cover lead to alterations of site energy balances resulting in changes to understory and stream channel microclimates. Uncut vegetative...

  9. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert


    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  10. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression


    Bechqito, Yassine


    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  11. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices. (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias


    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  12. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge. (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish


    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit


    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  14. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  15. Visual analysis of stream data (United States)

    Cheng, Michael; Livny, Miron; Ramakrishnan, Raghu


    We present the DEVise (data exploration via visualization environment) toolkit designed for visual exploration of stream data. Data of this type are collected continuously from sources such as remote sensors, program traces, and the stock market. A typical application involves looking for correlations, which may not be precisely defined, by experimenting with graphical representations. This includes selectively comparing data from multiple sources, selective viewing by zooming and scrolling at various resolutions, and querying the underlying data from the graphics. DEVise is designed to provide greater support than packages such as AVS or Khoros for this type of application. First, by abandoning the network flow model of AVS and Khoros in favor of a database query model, we are able to incorporate many performance improvements for visualizing large amounts of data. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to eliminate data size limitations in a visualization package. Second, by structuring the stand-alone graphics module of most existing tools into user accessible components, users can quickly create, destroy, or interconnect the components to generate new visualizations. This flexibility greatly increases the ease with which users can browse their data. Finally, through limited programming, users can query the underlying data through the graphical representation for more information about the records used to generate the graphical representation.

  16. Epilithic diatom assemblages and their relationships with environmental variables in the Nilüfer Stream Basin, Bursa, Turkey. (United States)

    Karacaoğlu, Didem; Dalkıran, Nurhayat


    Patterns of epilithic diatom species distribution in relation to environmental variables from 12 sampling sites on the main stream and some of its tributaries in the Nilüfer Stream Basin were determined using multivariate statistical techniques. The stream basin has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic effects. The upper part of the basin that is distant from pollution sources mostly has a spring water quality, while the lower part where the stream flows through the urban area and receives domestic and industrial wastewater has a quite low quality. Ordination techniques using both diatom taxa and 21 environmental variables revealed non- to slightly polluted upper basin sites and highly polluted lower basin sites along the stream. The results showed that the stream catchment is polluted gradually from upstream to downstream and that most of the downstream sites have very low water quality especially in summer months. A total of 134 epilithic diatom taxa belonging to 50 genera were recorded for 12 sample sites. Partial CCA results indicated that water temperature (T), discharge (Q), and total phosphorus (TP) were the most important variables affecting the distribution of diatom species. Unpolluted or slightly polluted upper basin sites were dominated by Achnanthidium minutissimum, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Gomphonema olivaceum, and Navicula tripunctata. Highly polluted lower basin sites were characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic matters and low dissolved oxygen (DO) values. Species widespread in the highly polluted lower basin sites such as Nitzschia umbonata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia capitellata, Nitzschia palea, Nitzschia paleacea, Luticola mutica, and Stephanodiscus niagarae were mostly related to pollution indicator variables such as ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), sodium (Na+), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic matter (TOM).

  17. Value Stream Mapping of Rope Manufacturing: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuvamitra, Korakot; Lee, Jim; Dong, Kanjicai


    .... One way of achieving constant process improvement is through value stream mapping. Value stream mapping is used to visualize the current processes for easier understanding and problem identification...

  18. Spatial variation in the power of mountain streams in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico (United States)

    Fonstad, Mark A.


    The principle indicator of river energy expenditure, stream power, has a significant influence on many forms and process attributes of the fluvial system, yet few basin-wide analyses of stream power variations have ever been conducted. Recent studies hypothesize a peak in the mean stream power distribution in small (10 km 2)- to intermediate (100 km 2)-sized basins. To test hypothetical stream power profiles in a high mountain setting, 129 cross-sections of stream networks within the Costilla basin of northern New Mexico and southern Colorado were measured for channel form, local sediment conditions, and basin characteristics. Geomorphic and hydrologic analysis of these river sites throughout the Costilla basin yielded evidence of abundant local control over fluvial processes and forms. Within the basin, the spatial deviations of stream power from the hypothetical patterns derived from hydraulic geometry, in some cases >200% deviation, match areas of specific geologic and hydrogeologic control. As an alternative to traditional hydraulic descriptions of downstream channel form, a probabilistic process-response model can incorporate local and basin-scale variables and allow more realistic feedback mechanisms than in traditional regime theory. The probabilistic nature of this type of model also allows prediction of multiple modes of channel adjustment, an ever-present challenge to extremal and physically based simulations.

  19. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change in Wisconsin (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.


    Expected climatic changes in air temperature and precipitation patterns across the State of Wisconsin may alter future stream temperature and flow regimes. As a consequence of flow and temperature changes, the composition and distribution of fish species assemblages are expected to change. In an effort to gain a better understanding of how climatic changes may affect stream temperature, an approach was developed to predict and project daily summertime stream temperature under current and future climate conditions for 94,341 stream kilometers across Wisconsin. The approach uses a combination of static landscape characteristics and dynamic time-series climatic variables as input for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model integrated with a Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) Model. Future climate scenarios are based on output from downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs). The SWB model provided a means to estimate the temporal variability in groundwater recharge and provided a mechanism to evaluate the effect of changing air temperature and precipitation on groundwater recharge and soil moisture. The Integrated Soil-Water-Balance and Artificial Neural Network version 1 (SWB-ANNv1) Model was used to simulate daily summertime stream temperature under current (1990–2008) climate and explained 76 percent of the variation in the daily mean based on validation at 67 independent sites. Results were summarized as July mean water temperature, and individual stream segments were classified by thermal class (cold, cold transition, warm transition, and warm) for comparison of current (1990–2008) with future climate conditions.

  20. Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beth A. Plale


    Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

  1. Characterizing changing stream water quality in a glacierized tropical watershed (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Eddy, A. M.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Walsh, E.; Fernandez, A.; Wigmore, O.; Battista, R.; Guittard, A.


    Glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has been causing downstream hydrologic transformations, altering the amount, timing and chemical quality of stream water. Increased demand from multiple water resource users, particularly industrial-scale agricultural irrigation along the desert coast, underscores the need for accurate source attribution and treatment of pollutants. Water quality assessment is challenging given natural geologic controls on water chemistry concentrations, and a lack of consistent historical monitoring. Here we present results from an analytical characterization of spatial and temporal variability in the dissolved loads of major ions, isotopes and select trace metals in the Pacific-draining Santa River and tributaries. Our approach incorporates multi-year synoptic sampling of water chemistry and stream discharge along the river course and at tributary pour points, along with weekly sampling at single point along the upper Santa. Samples were taken predominately during the austral winter months of June, July, and August in 2004 - 2009 and 2011 - 2013 at 20-30 stream localities. Digitized maps of geology, land use and hydrography permit geographic visualization and exploratory GIS-based data analysis. Results indicate that the dominant hydrochemical processes throughout the Santa watershed include silicate weathering, coupled pyrite oxidation with silicate weathering, and to a lesser extent, carbonate weathering. Low pH and high concentrations of sulfate are found in the presence of high-silica granitic and metamorphic surface lithology in some sites proximal to receding glaciers, reflecting an environment that is driven by coupled sulfide-oxidation and silicate dissolution. Numerous sites had elevated concentrations of trace metals (such as As, Cd, and Pb) indicating potential local sources of contamination, some in excess of World Health Organization. Weekly sampling show dilution of certain trace metals during the wet season, and

  2. Events and Trends in Text Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Whitney, Paul D.; Cramer, Nicholas O.


    "Text streams--collections of documents or messages that are generated and observed over time--are ubiquitous. Our research and development are targeted at developing algorithms to find and characterize changes in topic within text streams. To date, this research has demonstrated the ability to detect and describe 1) short duration, atypical events and 2) the emergence of longer-term shifts in topical content. This technology has been applied to predefined temporally ordered document collections but is also suitable for application to near-real-time textual data streams."

  3. Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Son, S


    The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A regime, where the plasma waves with the frequency larger than 1.5 times of the Langmuir wave frequency become unstable to the two-stream instabilities, is identified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner AYDINLI


    Full Text Available A total of 1838 nymph samples from 7 localities in Sultansuyu Stream (Malatya were collectedbetween July-2006 and August-2007 and investigated to determine Ephemeroptera (Insectalimnofauna of the stream. 10 taxa in the species level and 4 taxa in the genus level belonging to 10genera in 6 families were determined (Baetis buceratus, B. lutheri, B. rhodani, B. vernus, Caenismacrura, Cloeon dipterum, C. simile, Ecdyonurus sp., Electrogena sp., Epeorus sp., Ephemera vulgata,Ephemerella ignita, Potamanthus luteus and Rhitrogena sp.. All determined taxa in the genus andspecies level has been new record for Sultansuyu Stream.

  5. Video streaming in the Wild West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gail Prosser


    Full Text Available Northern Lakes College in north-central Alberta is the first post-secondary institution in Canada to use the Media on Demand digital video system to stream large video files between dispersed locations (Karlsen. Staff and students at distant locations of Northern Lakes College are now viewing more than 350 videos using video streaming technology. This has been made possible by SuperNet, a high capacity broadband network that connects schools, hospitals, libraries and government offices throughout the province of Alberta (Alberta SuperNet. This article describes the technical process of implementing video streaming at Northern Lakes College from March 2005 until March 2006.

  6. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the thirteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task I research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of additional ash samples from Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facilities to the HGCU data base. Task I plans for the next quarter include characterization of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Further work on the HGCU data base is also planned. Task 2 work during the past quarter included creep testing of a Coors P- I OOA- I specimen machined from Candle FC- 007 after 1166 hours in-service at the Karhula Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility. Samples are currently in preparation for microstructural evaluations of Coors P-IOOA-I.Sixteen cordierite rings manufactured by Specific Surfaces were received for testing. Three of the specimens were exposed to the PFBC environment at the PSDF. These specimens are currently being machined for testing.

  7. Using Remote Sensing, Geomorphology, and Soils to Map Episodic Streams in Drylands (United States)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N. S.


    Millions of acres of public land in the California deserts are currently being evaluated and permitted for the construction of large-scale renewable energy projects. The absence of a standard method for identifying episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is a source of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for conserving natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective dryland stream delineation protocol that accurately reflects the extent and distribution of active watercourses. This thesis evaluates the stream delineation method and results used by the developer for the proposed Ridgecrest Solar Power Project on the El Paso Fan, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with results achieved using remote sensing, geomorphology, soils, and GIS analysis to identify stream presence on the site. This study's results identified 105 acres of watercourse, a value 10 times greater than that originally identified by the project developer. In addition, the applied methods provide an ecohydrologic base map to better inform project siting and potential project impact mitigation opportunities. This study concludes that remote sensing, geomorphology, and dryland soils can be used to accurately and efficiently identify episodic stream activity and the extent of watercourses in dryland environments.

  8. Temperature sensitivity of stream gross primary production and respiration from the tropics to the arctic (United States)

    Song, C.; Argerich, A.; Baker, C.; Bowden, W. B.; Dodds, W. K.; Douglas, M.; Farrell, K.; Flinn, M. B.; Garcia, E.; Gido, K. B.; Harms, T.; Jones, J.; Koenig, L.; Kominoski, J. S.; McDonald, K. S.; McDowell, W. H.; McMaster, D.; Parker, S.; Rosemond, A.; Rüegg, J.; Sheehan, K.; Trentman, M. T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Ballantyne, F.


    Understanding the temperature dependence of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) in streams is critical to predict the carbon balance in stream ecosystems under global warming. We collected dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), channel hydrology and geomorphology, and temperature from multiple locations throughout stream networks in seven sites across six biomes, specifically tropical forest, temperate deciduous forest, temperate coniferous forest, tallgrass prairie, boreal forest, and arctic tundra. We estimated the activation energy (Ea) of GPP and ER from diel changes in DO, temperature and PAR for each stream reach. We showed the relationship between Ea and environmental variables, such as temperature, light availability and discharge. In addition, we found that Ea of GPP and ER were highly variable from reach to reach within each biome. The estimated Ea of GPP and ER was generally higher than predicted by metabolic theory. Ea of GPP ranges from 20 to 140 KJ/mol and Ea of ER ranges from 50 to 150 KJ/mol. There was no consistent trend of larger Ea for GPP or ER. This suggests that the changes in carbon balance in streams caused directly by warming is likely to be site specific.

  9. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie


    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  10. Contrasting chemical response to artificial acidification of three acid-sensitive streams in Maine, USA. (United States)

    Goss, Heather V; Norton, Stephen A


    We experimentally acidified three low alkalinity first-order streams in forested catchments in Maine, USA. We evaluated water samples from a reference site above the point of hydrochloric acid addition and from two or three sites located 16 to 94 m downstream. Neutralization included protonation of weak acids, adsorption of sulfate, and ion exchange of base cations and aluminum (Al) for protons (H(+)). Protonation of bicarbonate was significant in the relatively high pH Hadlock Brook. Protonation of weak organic acids dominated in the high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Mud Pond Inlet. The response in low DOC, low pH East Bear Brook was dominated by stream substrate release of cations. East Bear Brook had the strongest acid neutralization response per unit catchment area. In all streams, exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were mobilized, with Ca>Mg. Al was also mobilized. During initial stages of acidification, Ca desorbed preferentially, whereas Al mobilization dominated later. Early in the recovery, adsorption of Ca to the streambed sediments was kinetically favored over adsorption of Al. Though pH increased downstream of acid addition, the streams remained undersaturated with respect to amorphous Al(OH)(3), so Al did not precipitate. In East Bear Brook, however, Al left solution further downstream through adsorption. This process was likely kinetically controlled, because it occurred in East Bear Brook (3-4 L/s) but did not occur in Hadlock Brook (ca. 40 L/s) or Mud Pond Inlet (ca. 60 L/s). During experimental acidification, the initial Al:Ca ratio of a stream's response may indicate the acidification status of the catchment. Short-term stream acidification experiments illuminate processes characteristic of episodic stream acidification and of long-term catchment acidification. East Bear Brook and Hadlock Brook catchments are in early to intermediate stages of acidification. The Mud Pond Inlet catchment (high Al:Ca ratio) is in a later stage of

  11. Stream power framework for predicting geomorphic change: The 2013 Colorado Front Range flood (United States)

    Yochum, Steven E.; Sholtes, Joel S.; Scott, Julian A.; Bledsoe, Brian P.


    The Colorado Front Range flood of September 2013 induced a diverse range of geomorphic changes along numerous stream corridors, providing an opportunity to assess responses to a large flood in a semiarid landscape. We defined six classes of geomorphic change related to peak unit stream power and valley confinement for 531 stream reaches over 226 km, spanning a gradient of channel scales and slope. Geomorphic change was generally driven by erosion of channel margins in confined reaches and by a combination of deposition and erosion in unconfined reaches. The magnitude of geomorphic change typically increased with unit stream power (ω), with greater responses observed in unconfined channels. Cumulative logit modeling indicated that total stream power or unit stream power, unit stream power gradient, and valley confinement are significant predictors of geomorphic response for this flood event. Based on this dataset, thresholds for geomorphic adjustment were defined. For channel slopes 230 W/m2 (16 lb/ft-s; at least 10% of the investigated sites experienced substantial channel widening) and a credible potential for avulsions, braiding, and loss of adjacent road embankments associated with ω > 480 W/m2 (33 lb/ft-s; at least 10% of the investigated sites experienced such geomorphic change). Infrequent to numerous eroded banks were very likely with ω > 700 W/m2 (48 lb/ft-s), with substantial channel widening or major geomorphic change shifting from credible to likely. Importantly, in reaches where there were large reductions in ω as the valley form shifted from confined to relatively unconfined, large amounts of deposition-induced, reach-scale geomorphic change occurred in some locations at relatively low ω. Additionally, alluvial channels with slopes > 3% had greater resistance to geomorphic change, likely caused by armoring by larger bed material and increased flow resistance from enhanced bedforms. Finally, we describe how these results can potentially be used by

  12. Sites internet (United States)


    2000-07-01 ou la biologie medicale sur internet. Ce site est concu comme un portail sur la biologie clinique. Accueil d'internautes sur une page comportant, entre autres, les rubriques : actualite, evenements, revue des connaissances, rubrique juridique et petites annonces. Biotribune propose regulierement des dossiers rediges par des specialistes comportant une mise a jour des connaissances orientee sur l'interet diagnostique des tests de biologie clinique. Le site propose egalement une revue de presse scientifique avec des resumes courts d'articles parus dans les grands journaux internationaux tels que The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Science, etc. Vous pouvez aussi y tester vos connaissances grace a des cas cliniques et des QCM. Ce site propose egalement des petites annonces pratiques pour les laboratoires de ville (remplacement, materiel d'occasion, etc.). Les problemes touchant l'assurance qualite, les RMO et la nomenclature font egalement l'objet d'information et de commentaires. Enfin, vous pourrez vous inscrire a l'un des forums proposes : discussion biomedicale ou opinion et reaction sur les sujets touchant au professionnel de la biologie medicale. En conclusion, un site complet et agreable que l'on souhaite voir s'enrichir et se renouveler regulierement. Site du Comite francais de coordination de recherche sur l'atherosclerose et le cholesterol (Arcol). Ce site s'adresse a la fois aux cliniciens, aux biologistes et aux non-specialistes interesses par la pathologie cardio-vasculaire et ses traitements. On y trouve des rubriques tres didactiques sur la physiopathologie et les facteurs de risque de l'atherosclerose, la prise en charge nutritionnelle et medicamenteuse des patients. On peut tester ses connaissances a l'aide des nombreux cas cliniques richement commentes. Ce site regulierement mis a jour contient egalement les recommandations nationales et internationales sur la prise en charge du

  13. Ecohydrological and subsurface controls on drought-induced contraction and disconnection of stream networks (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.; Whiting, J. A.


    Temporary headwater streams - both intermittent and ephemeral waterways - supply water to approximately 1/3 of the US population, and 60% of streams used for drinking water are temporary. Stream ecologists increasingly recognize that a gradient of processes across the drying continuum affect ecosystems at dynamic terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. Understanding the hydrological controls across that gradient of drying may improve management of these sensitive systems. One possible control on surface flows includes transpiration losses from either the riparian zone or the entire watershed. We mapped several stream networks under extreme low flow conditions brought on by severe drought in central Idaho and California in 2015. Compared to previous low-flow stream length estimates, the active drainage network had generally decreased by a very small amount across these sites, perhaps because stored water buffered the precipitation decrease, or because flowing channel heads are fixed by focused groundwater flow emerging at springs. We also examined the apparent sources of water for both riparian and hillslope trees using isotopic techniques. During drought conditions, we hypothesized that riparian trees - but not those far from flowing streams - would be sustained by streamflow recharging riparian aquifers, and thus would transpire water that was isotopically similar to streamflow because little soil water would remain available below the wilting point and stream water would be sustain those trees. We found a more complex pattern, but in most places stream water and water transpired by trees were isotopically distinct regardless of flow intermittency or tree location. We also found that hillslope trees outside of the riparian zone appeared to be using different waters from those used by riparian trees. Finally, we explore subsurface controls on network extent, showing that bedrock characteristics can influence network stability and contraction patterns.

  14. Investigating Lithologic Controls on the Morphology and Evolution of Bedrock Streams, Ouachita Mountains, Central Arkansas. (United States)

    Swanson, C. D., II; Gasparini, N. M.


    The incision of bedrock streams largely controls the topographic evolution of mountainous areas, and patterns of incision into bedrock hold information critical to unraveling past climate and tectonic uplift patterns. A popular tool in studying patterns of incision in bedrock streams is the channel steepness index, or channel gradient normalized by drainage area. The three main factors that are thought to affect channel steepness index are uplift rate, climate, and lithology. The Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas provide a study site with currently uniform uplift (essentially zero) and climate, allowing us to explore how changes in lithology affect local channel steepness values. The Ouachita Mountains are an intensely folded and faulted highland region, structurally related to the Appalachian Mountains to the east. Folding and faulting of this region occurred during the Paleozoic, and is no longer active. The trellised morphology of the stream network is controlled by past folding, as stream channels in the region generally flow along fold hinges. Bedrock in the area consists of Arkansas Novaculite, a massive chert that is highly resistant to erosion, and less resistant shale and sandstone members of the Bigfork and Mississippi Mountain Formation. Sense of bedding of geologic units is generally steep, although local folding causes high variation in bedding orientation.Where bedrock channels transition from novaculite to shale, knickpoints and high channel steepness index values are observed in some streams, while others seem unaffected by this lithologic boundary. We explore 5 bedrock streams that flow over the novaculite/shale boundary to determine what lithologic factors have the largest impact on incision of bedrock channels. Analysis consists of measurements of channel morphology, detailed local geologic mapping of bedding and fold orientation, and measurements of rock strength along stream channels. Understanding how lithologic differences affect local

  15. Atrazine Concentrations in Stream Water and Streambed Sediment Pore Water in the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins, Michigan and Indiana, May 2001 - September 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duris, Joseph W; Reeves, Howard W; Kiesler, James L


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled multiple stream sites across the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins to detect and quantify the herbicide atrazine using a field enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) triazine test...

  16. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  17. Carbon-14 as a tracer of groundwater discharge to streams (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah; Harrington, Glenn; Cook, Peter; Post, Vincent; Dogramaci, Shawan


    The provenance of groundwater discharge to a stream can be determined by measuring the response of multiple groundwater age tracers within the stream across the discharge zone. The sampling interval required to detect groundwater discharge is limited by the rate of equilibration with the atmosphere downstream of the discharge zone, which is determined by the gas transfer velocity. Carbon-14 (14C) equilibration is driven by CO2 exchange, which is a small component of the dissolved inorganic carbon in most stream systems, and therefore the rate of equilibration is slower than for other gaseous age tracers. In this paper we use a step-wise approach to develop and demonstrate the use of 14C as a tracer in streams receiving groundwater discharge. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) in the emerging groundwater degasses until equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is reached; increasing pH and enriching the residual 14C by fractionation. In addition, the 14C gradient between groundwater and the atmosphere drives a slower process of isotopic equilibration. We have measured the rates of this chemical and isotopic equilibration experimentally by exposing 250 L of old groundwater to the atmosphere in an evaporation pan. Chemical equilibrium was achieved within 2 days, during which the 14C increased from 6 to 16 pMC. The influence of fractionation during the initial CO2 degassing on isotopic equilibrium rates was negligible. Isotopic equilibrium took over 2 months, with 14C in the evaporation pan increasing to 108 pMC over 71 days. This increase in 14C was simulated using a mass balance model with an effective 14C gas transfer velocity of 0.013 m d-1. Field testing of the method was conducted at two sites. Firstly, we measured the evolution of 14C in dewatering discharge as it flows along an ephemeral creek channel in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Measured 14C increased from 11 to 31 pMC along the 10km reach, which corresponds to a travel time of about 2 days. The measured increase was

  18. Influence of infrastructure on water quality and greenhouse gas dynamics in urban streams (United States)

    Smith, Rose M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Beaulieu, Jake J.; Pennino, Michael J.; Welty, Claire


    Streams and rivers are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) globally, and watershed management can alter greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from streams. We hypothesized that urban infrastructure significantly alters downstream water quality and contributes to variability in GHG saturation and emissions. We measured gas saturation and estimated emission rates in headwaters of two urban stream networks (Red Run and Dead Run) of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research project. We identified four combinations of stormwater and sanitary infrastructure present in these watersheds, including: (1) stream burial, (2) inline stormwater wetlands, (3) riparian/floodplain preservation, and (4) septic systems. We selected two first-order catchments in each of these categories and measured GHG concentrations, emissions, and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) and nutrient concentrations biweekly for 1 year. From a water quality perspective, the DOC : NO3- ratio of streamwater was significantly different across infrastructure categories. Multiple linear regressions including DOC : NO3- and other variables (dissolved oxygen, DO; total dissolved nitrogen, TDN; and temperature) explained much of the statistical variation in nitrous oxide (N2O, r2 = 0.78), carbon dioxide (CO2, r2 = 0.78), and methane (CH4, r2 = 0.50) saturation in stream water. We measured N2O saturation ratios, which were among the highest reported in the literature for streams, ranging from 1.1 to 47 across all sites and dates. N2O saturation ratios were highest in streams draining watersheds with septic systems and strongly correlated with TDN. The CO2 saturation ratio was highly correlated with the N2O saturation ratio across all sites and dates, and the CO2 saturation ratio ranged from 1.1 to 73. CH4 was always supersaturated, with saturation ratios ranging from 3.0 to 2157. Longitudinal surveys extending form headwaters to third

  19. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah


    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  20. Investigation of stream temperature response to non-uniform groundwater discharge in a Danish lowland stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Kastrup Blemmer, Morten; Thorn, P.


    Non-uniform groundwater discharge into streams influences temperature, a vital stream physical property recognized for its dominant controls on biological processes in lotic habitats at multiple scales. Understanding such spatially heterogeneous processes and their effects is difficult on the basis...... of stream temperature models often calibrated with discrete temperature measurements. This study focused on examining the effect of groundwater discharge on stream temperature using a physically based stream temperature model calibrated on spatially rich high-resolution temperature measurements....... A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system with a 1.8-km fibre optic cable was used to collect temperature measurements for every 1m of the reach length at 3-min temporal resolution in the stream Elverdamsåen. The groundwater inflow locations identified using DTS data and 24-h temperature measurements (14...

  1. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  2. Active learning with drifting streaming data. (United States)

    Zliobaite, Indre; Bifet, Albert; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey


    In learning to classify streaming data, obtaining true labels may require major effort and may incur excessive cost. Active learning focuses on carefully selecting as few labeled instances as possible for learning an accurate predictive model. Streaming data poses additional challenges for active learning, since the data distribution may change over time (concept drift) and models need to adapt. Conventional active learning strategies concentrate on querying the most uncertain instances, which are typically concentrated around the decision boundary. Changes occurring further from the boundary may be missed, and models may fail to adapt. This paper presents a theoretically supported framework for active learning from drifting data streams and develops three active learning strategies for streaming data that explicitly handle concept drift. They are based on uncertainty, dynamic allocation of labeling efforts over time, and randomization of the search space. We empirically demonstrate that these strategies react well to changes that can occur anywhere in the instance space and unexpectedly.

  3. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.


    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  4. TARDEC 30-Year Strategy Value Stream Analysis (United States)


    Management Framework( RMF ) documentation for PMs d. Field Service Reps both CONUS and OCONUS e. Perform Army Interoperability Test Certification...Test Engineers# - Product & Process Quality Assessment and Authorization/Risk Management Framework ( RMF ) TARDEC 30-YEAR STRATEGY VALUE STREAM

  5. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.


    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and th...

  6. He'eia Stream Contaminants Study (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Potential risk to ecological receptors in He’eia Stream and Wetland was characterized through the use of a food-web model to predict effects to the Hawaiian stilt,...

  7. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An application was developed that could enforce two-factor authentication for NASA access to the Propulsion Test Streaming Video System.  To gain access to the...

  8. Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators (United States)

    Patroumpas, Kostas; Sellis, Timos

    Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving -yet restricted- set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence of monotonic-related semantics in windowing constructs towards a more efficient maintenance of their changing contents. We investigate update patterns observed in common window variants as well as their impact on windowed adaptations of typical operators (like selection, join or aggregation), offering more insight towards design and implementation of stream processing mechanisms. Finally, to demonstrate its significance, this framework is validated for several windowed operations against streaming datasets with simulations at diverse arrival rates and window sizes.

  9. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, Daniel F.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Chon, Tae Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Robinson, Wayne A.; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M.


    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the

  10. Invertebrate and fish assemblage relations to dissolved Oxygen minima in lowland streams of southwestern Louisiana (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Mize, Scott V.; Kroes, Daniel; Wallace, James E.


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in lowland streams are naturally lower than those in upland streams; however, in some regions where monitoring data are lacking, DO criteria originally established for upland streams have been applied to lowland streams. This study investigated the DO concentrations at which fish and invertebrate assemblages at 35 sites located on lowland streams in southwestern Louisiana began to demonstrate biological thresholds.Average threshold values for taxa richness, diversity and abundance metrics were 2.6 and 2.3 mg/L for the invertebrate and fish assemblages, respectively. These thresholds are approximately twice the DO concentration that some native fish species are capable of tolerating and are comparable with DO criteria that have been recently applied to some coastal streams in Louisiana and Texas. DO minima >2.5 mg/L were favoured for all but extremely tolerant taxa. Extremely tolerant taxa had respiratory adaptations that gave them a competitive advantage, and their success when DO minima were <2 mg/L could be related more to reductions in competition or predation than to DO concentration directly.DO generally had an inverse relation to the amount of agriculture in the buffer area; however, DO concentrations at sites with both low and high amounts of agriculture (including three least-disturbed sites) declined to <2.5 mg/L. Thus, although DO fell below a concentration that was identified as an approximate biological threshold, sources of this condition were sometimes natural (allochthonous material) and had little relation to anthropogenic activity.

  11. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian


    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  12. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration (United States)


    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  13. Brugeroplevelse af streaming-tjenesten Netflix


    Leifer, Anders; Frydendahl, Erik Pouret; Nedergaard, Mads Kresten


    This paper aims to describe and understand the use of the video streaming service Netflix among younger single females, with the further aim to understand the success of streaming in general and Netflix’s offer as an experience economy based offering in particular. After introducing Netflix through a review of its history and its competitive environment, and establishing the epistemological and methodological framework, the paper presents its empiric part, a qualitative semi-structured int...

  14. Streaming Gibbs Sampling for LDA Model


    Gao, Yang; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun


    Streaming variational Bayes (SVB) is successful in learning LDA models in an online manner. However previous attempts toward developing online Monte-Carlo methods for LDA have little success, often by having much worse perplexity than their batch counterparts. We present a streaming Gibbs sampling (SGS) method, an online extension of the collapsed Gibbs sampling (CGS). Our empirical study shows that SGS can reach similar perplexity as CGS, much better than SVB. Our distributed version of SGS,...

  15. LOFS: Library of Online Streaming Feature Selection


    Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wu, Xindong


    As an emerging research direction, online streaming feature selection deals with sequentially added dimensions in a feature space while the number of data instances is fixed. Online streaming feature selection provides a new, complementary algorithmic methodology to enrich online feature selection, especially targets to high dimensionality in big data analytics. This paper introduces the first comprehensive open-source library for use in MATLAB that implements the state-of-the-art algorithms ...

  16. From multimedia stream models to GUI generation (United States)

    Bescos, Jesus; Martinez, Jose M.; Cisneros, Guillermo


    This paper is centered on the description of a model that generalizes multimedia data flows handling including complete behavior and interaction mechanisms, hence allowing full integration of GUIs generation -- GUI components are upgraded to interactive media items -- into the same unified model. It aims to reinforce portability, reusability, and quick development of multimedia applications. A picture of previous and of current state-of-art in multimedia application development clearly shows the need for standard abstractions in this field. Current work in this direction leads to a discussion on generic application structure (objects, semantics, etc.) and on different approaches to reach platform independence and efficient object sharing (formal representation languages, interpreted programming languages, distributed environments, etc.). At this point, we present a basic model based on several stream-based models and implementations on multimedia data flows, and built on the basis of the source-stream-sink paradigm. It follows with a detailed explanation of the unified (common to all media) abstract basic stream from which all monomedia flows (including GUI elements) are derived: stream setting- up (source-sink adaptation, and negotiation), flow control procedure, stream sensibility, behavior pattern, etc. The model presentation ends up with the introduction of the multimedia stream that performs synchronization and inter- stream communication tasks, and channels all sensibility, from/towards its managed streams, and allows for the design of an application generator. Then it deeps into the definition of the abstract class hierarchy that guides the model implementation. Finally, several implementation issues are addressed and some practical achievements are described.

  17. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam


    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  18. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations


    Stamatelatos Ion E.; Vasilopoulou Theodora; Batistoni Paola; Obryk Barbara; Popovichev Sergey; Naish Jonathan


    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The ...

  19. Video Streaming in the Wild West


    Helen Gail Prosser


    Northern Lakes College in north-central Alberta is the first post-secondary institution in Canada to use the Media on Demand digital video system to stream large video files between dispersed locations (Karlsen). Staff and students at distant locations of Northern Lakes College are now viewing more than 350 videos using video streaming technology. This has been made possible by SuperNet, a high capacity broadband network that connects schools, hospitals, libraries and government offices thr...

  20. Effects of unsteady free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on stagnation point heat transfer (United States)

    Gorla, R. S. R.


    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.