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Sample records for randomly varying elevation

  1. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; Lee, Christopher James; Chen, Juequan; Chen, J.; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  2. Ellipsometry with random varying polarization state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; van Albada, B.; Lee, c; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  3. Social structure varies with elevation in an Alpine ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Pellissier, Loïc; Chapuisat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Insect societies vary greatly in social organization, yet the relative roles of ecological and genetic factors in driving this variation remain poorly understood. Identifying how social structure varies along environmental gradients can provide insights into the ecological conditions favouring alternative social organizations. Here, we investigate how queen number variation is distributed along elevation gradients within a socially polymorphic ant, the Alpine silver ant Formica selysi. We sampled low- and high-elevation populations in multiple Alpine valleys. We show that populations belonging to different drainage basins are genetically differentiated. In contrast, there is little genetic divergence between low- and high-elevation populations within the same drainage basin. Thus, elevation gradients in each of the drainage basins represent independent contrasts. Whatever the elevation, all well-sampled populations are socially polymorphic, containing both monogynous (= one queen) and polygynous (= multiple queen) colonies. However, the proportion of monogynous colonies per population increases at higher elevation, while the effective number of queens in polygynous colonies decreases, and this pattern is replicated in each drainage basin. The increased prevalence of colonies with a single queen at high elevation is correlated with summer and winter average temperature, but not with precipitation. The colder, unpredictable and patchy environment encountered at higher elevations may favour larger queens with the ability to disperse and establish incipient monogynous colonies independently, while the stable and continuous habitat in the lowlands may favour large, fast-growing polygynous colonies. By highlighting differences in the environmental conditions favouring monogynous or polygynous colonies, this study sheds light on the ecological factors influencing the distribution and maintenance of social polymorphism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Varied growth response of cogongrass ecotypes to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brett Runion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L. P. Beauv] is an invasive C4 perennial grass which is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world and is a major problem in the Southeast US. Five cogongrass ecotypes (Florida, Hybrid, Louisiana, Mobile, and North Alabama collected across the Southeast and a red-tip ornamental variety were container grown for six months in open top chambers under ambient and elevated (ambient plus 200 ppm atmospheric CO2. Elevated CO2 increased average dry weight (13% which is typical for grasses. Elevated CO2 increased height growth and both nitrogen and water use efficiencies, but lowered tissue nitrogen concentration; again, these are typical plant responses to elevated CO2. The hybrid ecotype tended to exhibit the greatest growth (followed by Louisiana, North Alabama, and Florida ecotypes while the red-tip and Mobile ecotypes were smallest. Interactions of CO2 with ecotype generally showed that the hybrid, Louisiana, Florida, and/or North Alabama ecotypes showed a positive response to CO2 while the Mobile and red-tip ecotypes did not. Cogongrass is a problematic invasive weed in the southeastern U.S. and some ecotypes may become more so as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise.

  5. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  6. Skin bacterial microbiome of a generalist Puerto Rican frog varies along elevation and land use gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra C. Hughey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Host-associated microbial communities are ubiquitous among animals, and serve important functions. For example, the bacterial skin microbiome of amphibians can play a role in preventing or reducing infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Evidence suggests that environmental bacteria likely serve as a source pool for at least some of the members of the amphibian skin bacterial community, underscoring the potential for local environmental changes to disrupt microbial community source pools that could be critical to the health of host organisms. However, few studies have assessed variation in the amphibian skin microbiome along clear environmental gradients, and so we know relatively little about how local environmental conditions influence microbiome diversity. We sampled the skin bacterial communities of Coqui frogs, Eleutherodactylus coqui (N = 77, along an elevational gradient in eastern Puerto Rico (0–875 m, with transects in two land use types: intact forest (N = 4 sites and disturbed (N = 3 sites forest. We found that alpha diversity (as assessed by Shannon, Simpson, and Phylogenetic Diversity indices varied across sites, but this variation was not correlated with elevation or land use. Beta diversity (community structure, on the other hand, varied with site, elevation and land use, primarily due to changes in the relative abundance of certain bacterial OTUs (∼species within these communities. Importantly, although microbiome diversity varied, E. coqui maintained a common core microbiota across all sites. Thus, our findings suggest that environmental conditions can influence the composition of the skin microbiome of terrestrial amphibians, but that some aspects of the microbiome remain consistent despite environmental variation.

  7. Signal processing in a randomly time varying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G.

    1972-01-01

    Stochastic operators are applied to an analysis of some deterministic systems of signal transformation. The distribution of a random process at the output of a system is given through its distribution at the input and through a stochastic Green's function. A two-point correlation function is derived to obtain a solution to differential equations which contain coefficients, boundary conditions, or right-hand terms representing random processes.

  8. Time-varying output performances of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting under nonstationary random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.

  9. H∞ Control of Four-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Random Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The random time-varying delays would reduce control performance and even deteriorate the EV system. To deal with random time-varying delays and achieve a real-time steady-state response, considering randomness of delay and a rapid response, an H∞-based delay-tolerant linear quadratic regulator (LQR control method based on Taylor series expansion is proposed in this paper. The results of cosimulations with Simulink and CarSim demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller through the control performance of yaw rate, sideslip angle, and the running track. Moreover, the results of comparison with the other controller illustrate the strength of explicitly.

  10. The composition of phyllosphere fungal assemblages of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) varies significantly along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Tristan; Robin, Cécile; Capdevielle, Xavier; Fabreguettes, Olivier; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Vacher, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the potential effect of climate warming on phyllosphere fungi, despite their important impact on the dynamics and diversity of plant communities. The structure of phyllosphere fungal assemblages along elevation gradients may provide information about this potential effect, because elevation gradients correspond to temperature gradients over short geographic distances. We thus investigated variations in the composition of fungal assemblages inhabiting the phyllosphere of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) at four sites over a gradient of 1000 m of elevation in the French Pyrénées Mountains, by using tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing. Our results show that the composition of fungal assemblages varied significantly between elevation sites, in terms of both the relative abundance and the presence-absence of species, and that the variations in assemblage composition were well correlated with variations in the average temperatures. Our results therefore suggest that climate warming might alter both the incidence and the abundance of phyllosphere fungal species, including potential pathogens. For example, Mycosphaerella punctiformis, a causal agent of leaf spots, showed decreasing abundance with elevation and might therefore shift to higher elevations in response to warming. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  12. Freezing resistance varies within the growing season and with elevation in high-Andean species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Almeida, Angela; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Bravo, León A

    2009-01-01

    Predicted increases in the length of the growing season as a result of climate change may more frequently expose high-elevation plants to severe frosts. Understanding the ability of these species to resist frosts during the growing season is essential for predicting how species may respond to changes in temperature regimes. Here, we assessed the freezing resistance of 24 species from the central Chilean Andes by determining their low temperature damage (LT(50)), ice nucleation temperature (NT), freezing point (FP) and freezing resistance mechanism (i.e. avoidance or tolerance). The Andean species were found to resist frosts from -8.2 to -19.5 degrees C during the growing season, and freezing tolerance was the most common resistance mechanism. Freezing resistance (LT(50)) varied within the growing season, decreasing towards the end of this period in most of the studied species. However, the FP showed the opposite trend. LT(50) increased with elevation, whilst FP was lower in plants from lower elevations, especially late in the growing season. Andean species have the potential to withstand severe freezing conditions during the growing season, and the aridity of this high-elevation environment seems to play an important role in determining this high freezing resistance.

  13. MMPI-A validity scale uses and limitations in detecting varying levels of random responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Robert P; Handel, Richard W; Lynch, Kathleen D; Elkins, David E

    2002-06-01

    Although there is a substantial research literature on the effects of random responding on the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), there are very few studies available on this topic with the MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 1992). Archer and Elkins (1999) found that MMPI-A validity scales F and VRIN were particularly useful in detecting entirely random profiles from those derived standardly in clinical settings but noted that "all random" protocols could not be used to evaluate the usefulness of the T-score difference between the first half (F1) and the second half (F2) of the MMPI-A test booklet. Following up on this issue, this study extended the methodology of previous research by examining the hit rate, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, sensitivity, and specificity of VRIN, F, F1, F2 and the absolute value of the T-score difference between F1 and F2 (denoted as IF1-F21) in 5 samples varying in the degree of protocol randomness. One of the samples consisted of 100 adolescent inpatients administered the MMPI-A under standard instructions, and another sample consisted of 100 protocols randomly generated by computer. The additional 3 samples of 100 protocols each contained varying degrees of computer-generated randomness introduced in the latter half of the MMPI-A item pool. Over- all, the results generally indicate that several MMPI-A validity scales are useful in detecting protocols that are largely random, but all of these validity scales are more limited in detecting partially random responding that involves less than half the total item pool located in the second half of the test booklet. Clinicians should be particularly cautious concerning validity inferences based on the observed T-score difference that occurs for the F1 and F2 subscales and current findings do not support the clinical usefulness of this index.

  14. Randomized gradient-free method for multiagent optimization over time-varying networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Deming; Ho, Daniel W C

    2015-06-01

    In this brief, we consider the multiagent optimization over a network where multiple agents try to minimize a sum of nonsmooth but Lipschitz continuous functions, subject to a convex state constraint set. The underlying network topology is modeled as time varying. We propose a randomized derivative-free method, where in each update, the random gradient-free oracles are utilized instead of the subgradients (SGs). In contrast to the existing work, we do not require that agents are able to compute the SGs of their objective functions. We establish the convergence of the method to an approximate solution of the multiagent optimization problem within the error level depending on the smoothing parameter and the Lipschitz constant of each agent's objective function. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  15. On random walk de Lévy aplicado aos mapas de variâncias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    Uma pergunta que surge ao nos confrontarmos com os mapas de variâncias, ou s-Maps [Klafke, J. C. "Estudo da Difusão Caótica em Ressonâncias Asteroidais", Tese de Doutorado, IAG/USP, 2002] diz respeito ao conteúdo físico de tais representações do espaço de fase. Ou seja, o que representa as variâncias das ações obtidas para uma determinada condição inicial e como relacioná-las com o tempo de difusão das órbitas, supondo-se que estas de fato estejam envolvidas em um processo difusivo? Para discutirmos essa questão, lançamos mão da modelagem dos processos estocásticos subjacentes às variâncias determinadas e implementamos uma série de simulações do tipo Monte Carlo a partir das informações registradas nos s-Maps calculados para algumas ressonâncias asteroidais bem estudadas (p.ex. 3: 1, 2: 1 e 3: 2). Para tanto, temos usado uma função de densidade de probabilidade gaussiana ao definir os n passos que permitirão estabelecer uma relação direta entre o Mapa de Difusão e o Mapa de Variâncias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos até agora tem subestimado o tempo de difusão esperado para os fenômenos conhecidos. Tal se deve ao fato de que, no processo difusivo real, é possível existirem passos de comprimento consideravelmente maiores que a média estabelecida pelas distribuições gaussiana ou normal, sobretudo quando se cruza uma região caótica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados comparativos de simulações de Monte Carlo com base no random walk de Lévy [Klafter, J. et al. 2002. "Beyond Brownian motion", Phys. Today, Feb, 33-39.], o qual possibilita passos esporádicos de comprimento acima do valor médio (saltos) permitindo estabelecer uma escala de tempo mais próxima da esperada para a difusão.

  16. Plant growth response to direct and indirect temperature effects varies by vegetation type and elevation in a subarctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Long, Jonathan R.; Kardol, P.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Veen, G. F.; Wardle, David A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing recent use of elevational gradients as tools for assessing effects of temperature changes on vegetation properties, because these gradients enable temperature effects to be considered over larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional experiments.

  17. Chemistry and decomposition of litter from Populus tremuloides Michaux grown at elevated atmospheric CO2and varying N availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. King; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Donald R. Zak; Mark E. Kubiske; Jennifer A. Ashby; William E. Holmes

    2001-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that greater production of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in foliage grown under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will result in higher concentrations of defensive compounds in tree leaf litter, possibly leading to reduced rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems of the future....

  18. Multiple-step fault estimation for interval type-II T-S fuzzy system of hypersonic vehicle with time-varying elevator faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a multiple-step fault estimation algorithm for hypersonic flight vehicles that uses an interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. An interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model is developed to approximate the nonlinear dynamic system and handle the parameter uncertainties of hypersonic firstly. Then, a multiple-step time-varying additive fault estimation algorithm is designed to estimate time-varying additive elevator fault of hypersonic flight vehicles. Finally, the simulation is conducted in both aspects of modeling and fault estimation; the validity and availability of such method are verified by a series of the comparison of numerical simulation results.

  19. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage.

  20. Efficient rare-event simulation for multiple jump events in regularly varying random walks and compound Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Chen (Bohan); J. Blanchet; C.H. Rhee (Chang-Han); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a class of strongly efficient rare event simulation estimators for random walks and compound Poisson processes with a regularly varying increment/jump-size distribution in a general large deviations regime. Our estimator is based on an importance sampling strategy that hinges

  1. Head elevation by 3 vs. 6?cm in ProSeal laryngeal mask airway insertion: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Mi-Jung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Hyo-Ju; Jeon, Young-Tae; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The sniffing position (neck flexion by head elevation and head extension) is commonly used for insertion of a laryngeal mask airway. However, the appropriate degrees of head elevation and head extension are unclear. In the present study, the success rate of ProSeal? laryngeal mask airway (LMA ProSeal) insertion using two degrees of head elevation was evaluated. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 80 adult patients aged 18 to 90?years. In the 3?cm (n?=?40)...

  2. On the time varying horizontal water velocity of single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.

    1964-01-01

    In this dissertation some characteristics of the horizontal water velocity for single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains are studied. This work consists of two parts, an analogue study and hydraulic measurements. An important aspect in this work is to suggest the horizontal water velocity

  3. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with regularly varying jump size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rackauskas, Alfredas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the asymptotic distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with a regularly varying jump size distribution. This problem is motivated by a long-standing problem on change point detection for epidemic alternatives. It turns out that the limit distribution...... of the maximum increment of the random walk is one of the classical extreme value distributions, the Fréchet distribution. We prove the results in the general framework of point processes and for jump sizes taking values in a separable Banach space...

  4. Changes in fungal community composition in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization varies with soil horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F Weber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 and rates of nitrogen (N-deposition to forest ecosystems are predicted to alter the structure and function of soil fungal communities, but the spatially heterogeneous distribution of soil fungi has hampered investigations aimed at understanding such impacts. We hypothesized that soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community composition would be differentially impacted by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 and N-fertilization in spatially separated field samples, in the forest floor, 0-2 cm, 2-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth intervals in a loblolly pine Free-Air-Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE experiment. In all soils, quantitative PCR-based estimates of fungal biomass were highest in the forest floor. Fungal richness, based on pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal large subunit gene, increased in response to N-fertilization in 0-2 cm and forest floor intervals. Composition shifted in forest floor, 0-2 cm and 2-5 cm intervals in response to N-fertilization, but the shift was most distinct in the 0-2 cm interval, in which the largest number of statistically significant changes in soil chemical parameters (i.e phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, pH was also observed. In the 0-2 cm interval, increased recovery of sequences from the Thelephoraceae, Tricholomataceae, Hypocreaceae, Clavicipitaceae, and Herpotrichiellaceae families and decreased recovery of sequences from the Amanitaceae correlated with N-fertilization. In this same depth interval, Amanitaceae, Tricholomataceae and Herpotriciellaceae sequences were recovered less frequently from soils exposed to eCO2 relative to ambient conditions. These results demonstrated that vertical stratification should be taken into consideration in future efforts to elucidate environmental impacts on fungal communities and their feedbacks on ecosystem processes.

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the course of aminotransferase elevation during prolonged acetaminophen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in subjects administered 4 g/day of acetaminophen for at least 16 days. Methods A randomized, placebo controlled trial of acetaminophen (4 g/day) vs placebo. Subjects were healthy volunteers with normal liver enzymes. The primary outcome was the course of ALT during acetaminophen administration. All subjects were treated for a minimum of 16 days. Subjects with ALT elevation at day 16 were continued on treatment until these elevations resolved up to a maximum of 40 days. Subjects were also evaluated for elevation of INR or serum bilirubin as evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Results 157/205 (77%) completed acetaminophen subjects had no ALT elevation or transient elevations that resolved by day 16. Of the 48 subjects who had ALT elevations at study day 16, 47 continued on acetaminophen and had resolution by study day 40. One acetaminophen subject did not have resolution by study day 40, and the course of aminotransferase elevation suggests an alternative cause. One placebo subject had an ALT elevation at day 16 that resolved by day 22. The highest observed ALT among all acetaminophen subjects was 191 IU/L. The mean ALT at day 16 was 4.4 IU/L higher for the acetaminophen than for the placebo group. No subject developed liver dysfunction. Conclusions A minority of subjects treated with 4 g/day of acetaminophen for 16 days will have low-grade aminotransferase elevations that are not accompanied by liver dysfunction and resolve if administration is continued. Trials registration Clintrials.gov NCT00743093 registered August 26, 2008 PMID:25047090

  6. Routine invasive management after fibrinolysis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with fibrinolysis are increasingly, and ever earlier, referred for routine coronary angiography and where feasible, undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to examine the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on which this approach is based. Methods We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline, and references of relevant studies. All contemporary RCTs (published since 1995) that compared systematic invasive management of STEMI patients after fibrinolysis with standard care were included. Relevant study design and clinical outcome data were extracted. Results Nine RCTs that randomized a total of 3320 patients were identified. All suggested a benefit from routine early invasive management. They were individually reviewed but important design variations precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis. Importantly, several trials did not compare a routine practice of invasive management after fibrinolysis with a more selective 'ischemia-guided' approach but rather compared an early versus later routine invasive strategy. In the other studies, recourse to subsequent invasive management in the usual care group varied widely. Comparison of the effectiveness of a routine invasive approach to usual care was also limited by asymmetric use of a second anti-platelet agent, differing enzyme definitions of reinfarction occurring spontaneously versus as a complication of PCI, a preponderance of the 'soft' outcome of recurrent ischemia in the combined primary endpoint, and an interpretative bias when invasive procedures on follow-up were tallied as an endpoint without considering initial invasive procedures performed in the routine invasive arm. Conclusions Due to important methodological limitations, definitive RCT evidence in favor of routine invasive management following fibrinolysis in patients with STEMI is presently lacking. PMID:21689449

  7. Mendelian randomization analysis of a time-varying exposure for binary disease outcomes using functional data analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Rajan, Suja S; Wei, Peng

    2016-12-01

    A Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is performed to analyze the causal effect of an exposure variable on a disease outcome in observational studies, by using genetic variants that affect the disease outcome only through the exposure variable. This method has recently gained popularity among epidemiologists given the success of genetic association studies. Many exposure variables of interest in epidemiological studies are time varying, for example, body mass index (BMI). Although longitudinal data have been collected in many cohort studies, current MR studies only use one measurement of a time-varying exposure variable, which cannot adequately capture the long-term time-varying information. We propose using the functional principal component analysis method to recover the underlying individual trajectory of the time-varying exposure from the sparsely and irregularly observed longitudinal data, and then conduct MR analysis using the recovered curves. We further propose two MR analysis methods. The first assumes a cumulative effect of the time-varying exposure variable on the disease risk, while the second assumes a time-varying genetic effect and employs functional regression models. We focus on statistical testing for a causal effect. Our simulation studies mimicking the real data show that the proposed functional data analysis based methods incorporating longitudinal data have substantial power gains compared to standard MR analysis using only one measurement. We used the Framingham Heart Study data to demonstrate the promising performance of the new methods as well as inconsistent results produced by the standard MR analysis that relies on a single measurement of the exposure at some arbitrary time point. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  8. Stage-matched nutrition guidance for patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease: A randomized intervention study in family practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der J.E.; Bakx, J.C.; Hoogen, van den H.; Verheijden, M.W.; Bosch, van den W.; Weel, van C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine stage-matched nutrition counseling by family physicians and its effect on dietary intake, anthropometry, and serum lipid levels in patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS In this controlled trial, patients randomized to intervention practices received

  9. Comparison between conventional and piezoelectric surgical tools for maxillary sinus floor elevation : a randomized controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Daniela; Vissink, Arjan; Huddleston Slater, James; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of conventional rotative instruments and a piezoelectric device for maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery, and to assess whether application of a resorbable membrane reduces resorption of an augmented site in a randomized clinical trial.

  10. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  11. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  12. Elevated remnant cholesterol in 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in the general population: Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Esther M; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-10-01

    Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with high cardiovascular risk. This may be because that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with high levels of atherogenic lipoproteins, but whether these 2 risk factors are genetically associated is unknown. We tested this hypothesis. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, potential genetic associations between plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and 25(OH)D were examined in ≤85,868 white, Danish individuals in whom we genotyped for variants affecting plasma levels of 25(OH)D, nonfasting remnant cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Lipoprotein levels were measured in all and 25(OH)D levels in 31,435. A doubling in nonfasting remnant cholesterol levels was observationally and genetically associated with -6.0%(95% confidence interval [CI], -6.5% to -5.5%) and -8.9% (95% CI, -15% to -2.3%) lower plasma 25(OH)D levels. For low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, corresponding values were -4.6% (95% CI, -5.4% to -3.7%) observationally and -11% (95% CI, -29% to +6.9%) genetically. In contrast, a halving in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels was observationally associated with -1.5% (95% CI, -2.2% to -0.7%) lower but genetically associated with +20% (95% CI, +7.4% to +34%) higher plasma 25(OH)D levels. Plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) and 25(OH)D did not associate. Finally, low 25(OH)D levels did not associate genetically with levels of remnant and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Genetically elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is associated with low 25(OH)D levels, whereas genetically reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is not associated with low 25(OH)D levels. These findings suggest that low 25(OH)D levels observationally is simply a marker for elevated atherogenic lipoproteins and question a role for vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting...... on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....

  14. Mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects for longitudinal-competing risks data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Wang, Min; Liu, Guangying; Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Feng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that there is strong relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in AIDS studies. However, the relationship between them changes during the course of treatment and may vary among individuals. During treatments, some individuals may experience terminal events such as death. Because the terminal event may be related to the individual's viral load measurements, the terminal mechanism is non-ignorable. Furthermore, there exists competing risks from multiple types of events, such as AIDS-related death and other death. Most joint models for the analysis of longitudinal-survival data developed in literatures have focused on constant coefficients and assume symmetric distribution for the endpoints, which does not meet the needs for investigating the nature of varying relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts in practice. We develop a mixed-effects varying-coefficient model with skewed distribution coupled with cause-specific varying-coefficient hazard model with random-effects to deal with varying relationship between the two endpoints for longitudinal-competing risks survival data. A fully Bayesian inference procedure is established to estimate parameters in the joint model. The proposed method is applied to a multicenter AIDS cohort study. Various scenarios-based potential models that account for partial data features are compared. Some interesting findings are presented.

  15. Correlation of foliage and litter chemistry of sugar maple, Acer saccharum, as affected by elevated CO2 and varying N availability, and effects on decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. S. King; K. S. Pregitzer; D. R. Zak; M. E. Kubiske; W. E. Holmes

    2001-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide has the potential to alter leaf litter chemistry, potentially affecting decomposition and rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine whether growth under elevated atmospheric CO2 altered the quality and microbial decomposition of leaf litter of a widely...

  16. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Moffatt, Miriam F; Farrall, Martin; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Strachan, David P; Demenais, Florence; Lathrop, Mark; Cookson, William O C M; Richards, J Brent

    2017-05-01

    Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  17. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Manousaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE. These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable.We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761, childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008, atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835, and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853 and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2. The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63 for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76 for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27 for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54. These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  18. Fine root chemistry and decomposition in model communities of north-temperate tree species show little response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying soil resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Pregitzer, K S; Zak, D R; Holmes, W E; Schmidt, K

    2005-12-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2] has the potential to alter soil carbon (C) cycling by increasing the content of recalcitrant constituents in plant litter, thereby decreasing rates of decomposition. Because fine root turnover constitutes a large fraction of annual NPP, changes in fine root decomposition are especially important. These responses will likely be affected by soil resource availability and the life history characteristics of the dominant tree species. We evaluated the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] and soil resource availability on the production and chemistry, mycorrhizal colonization, and decomposition of fine roots in an early- and late-successional tree species that are economically and ecologically important in north temperate forests. Open-top chambers were used to expose young trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees to ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (56 Pa) atmospheric CO2. Soil resource availability was composed of two treatments that bracketed the range found in the Upper Lake States, USA. After 2.5 years of growth, sugar maple had greater fine root standing crop due to relatively greater allocation to fine roots (30% of total root biomass) relative to aspen (7% total root biomass). Relative to the low soil resources treatment, aspen fine root biomass increased 76% with increased soil resource availability, but only under elevated [CO2]. Sugar maple fine root biomass increased 26% with increased soil resource availability (relative to the low soil resources treatment), and showed little response to elevated [CO2]. Concentrations of N and soluble phenolics, and C/N ratio in roots were similar for the two species, but aspen had slightly higher lignin and lower condensed tannins contents compared to sugar maple. As predicted by source-sink models of carbon allocation, pooled constituents (C/N ratio, soluble phenolics) increased in response to increased relative carbon availability (elevated [CO2]/low soil resource

  19. High-concentration versus titrated oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchord, Anil M; Argyle, Rachel; Beynon, Rhys; Perrin, Kyle; Sharma, Vishal; Weatherall, Mark; Simmonds, Mark; Heatlie, Grant; Brooks, Nicholas; Beasley, Richard

    2012-02-01

    The optimal approach to oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in which 136 patients presenting with their first STEMI uncomplicated by cardiogenic shock or marked hypoxia were randomized to receive high-concentration (6 L/min via medium concentration mask) or titrated oxygen (to achieve oxygen saturation 93%-96%) for 6 hours after presentation. The main outcome variables were 30-day mortality and infarct size assessed by troponin T level at 72 hours. Secondary outcomes included a meta-analysis of mortality data from this study and previous randomized controlled trials, and infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 4 to 6 weeks. There were 1 of 68 and 2 of 68 deaths in the high-concentration and titrated oxygen groups, respectively; a meta-analysis including these data with those from the 2 previous studies showed an odds ratio for mortality of high-concentration oxygen compared with room air or titrated oxygen of 2.2 (95% CI 0.8-6.0). There was no significant difference between high-concentration versus titrated oxygen in troponin T (ratio of mean levels 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.1, P = .14), infarct mass (mean difference -0.8 g, 95% CI -7.6 to 6.1, P = .82), or percent infarct mass (mean difference -0.6%, 95% CI -5.6 to 4.5, P = .83). This study found no evidence of benefit or harm from high-concentration compared with titrated oxygen in initially uncomplicated STEMI. However, our estimates have wide CIs, and as a result, large randomized controlled trials are required to resolve the clinical uncertainty. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leg elevation decreases the incidence of post-spinal hypotension in cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanin, Ahmed; Aiyad, Ahmed; Elsakka, Ahmed; Kamel, Atef; Fouad, Reham; Osman, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Ali; Refaat, Sherin; Hassabelnaby, Yasmin

    2017-04-24

    Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section (CS). In this study we investigated the role of leg elevation (LE) as a method for prevention of post-spinal hypotension (PSH) for cesarean section. One hundred and fifty full term parturients scheduled for CS were included in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group LE (leg elevation group, n = 75) and group C (Control group, n = 75). Spinal block was performed in sitting position after administration of 10 mL/Kg Ringer's lactate as fluid preload. After successful intrathecal injection of local anesthetic, Patients were positioned in the supine position. Leg elevation was performed for LE group directly after spinal anesthesia and maintained till skin incision. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters (Arterial blood pressure and heart rate), intra-operative ephedrine consumption, incidence of PSH, and incidence of nausea and vomiting were reported. LE group showed lower incidence of PSH (34.7% Vs 58.7%, P = 0.005) compared to the control group. Arterial blood pressure was higher in the LE group compared to the control group in the first two readings after spinal block. Other readings showed comparable arterial blood pressure and heart rate values between both study groups; however, LE showed less ephedrine consumption (4.9 ± 7.8 mg Vs 10 ± 11 mg, P = 0.001). LE performed immediately after spinal block reduced the incidence of PSH in parturients undergoing CS. The study was registered at Pan African Clinical Trials Registry system on 5/10/2015 with trial number PACTR201510001295348 .

  1. Modeling Latin-American stock markets volatility: Varying probabilities and mean reversion in a random level shift model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Xu and Perron (2014, I applied the extended RLS model to the daily stock market returns of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. This model replaces the constant probability of level shifts for the entire sample with varying probabilities that record periods with extremely negative returns. Furthermore, it incorporates a mean reversion mechanism with which the magnitude and the sign of the level shift component vary in accordance with past level shifts that deviate from the long-term mean. Therefore, four RLS models are estimated: the Basic RLS, the RLS with varying probabilities, the RLS with mean reversion, and a combined RLS model with mean reversion and varying probabilities. The results show that the estimated parameters are highly significant, especially that of the mean reversion model. An analysis of ARFIMA and GARCH models is also performed in the presence of level shifts, which shows that once these shifts are taken into account in the modeling, the long memory characteristics and GARCH effects disappear. Also, I find that the performance prediction of the RLS models is superior to the classic models involving long memory as the ARFIMA(p,d,q models, the GARCH and the FIGARCH models. The evidence indicates that except in rare exceptions, the RLS models (in all its variants are showing the best performance or belong to the 10% of the Model Confidence Set (MCS. On rare occasions the GARCH and the ARFIMA models appear to dominate but they are rare exceptions. When the volatility is measured by the squared returns, the great exception is Argentina where a dominance of GARCH and FIGARCH models is appreciated.

  2. Mapping CORINE Land Cover from Sentinel-1A SAR and SRTM Digital Elevation Model Data using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European CORINE land cover mapping scheme is a standardized classification system with 44 land cover and land use classes. It is used by the European Environment Agency to report large-scale land cover change with a minimum mapping unit of 5 ha every six years and operationally mapped by its member states. The most commonly applied method to map CORINE land cover change is by visual interpretation of optical/near-infrared satellite imagery. The Sentinel-1A satellite carries a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and was launched in 2014 by the European Space Agency as the first operational Copernicus mission. This study is the first investigation of Sentinel-1A for CORINE land cover mapping. Two of the first Sentinel-1A images acquired during its ramp-up phase in May and December 2014 over Thuringia in Germany are analysed. 27 hybrid level 2/3 CORINE classes are defined. 17 of these were present at the study site and classified based on a stratified random sample of training pixels from the polygon-eroded CORINE 2006 map. Sentinel-1A logarithmic radar backscatter at HH and HV polarisation (May acquisition, VV and VH polarisation (December acquisition, and the HH image texture are used as input bands to the classification. In addition, a Digital Terrain Model (DTM, a Canopy Height Model (CHM and slope and aspect maps from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM are used as input bands to account for geomorphological features of the landscape. In future, elevation data will be delivered for areas with sufficiently high coherence from the Sentinel-1A Interferometric Wide-Swath Mode itself. When augmented by elevation data from radar interferometry, Sentinel-1A is able to discriminate several CORINE land cover classes, making it useful for monitoring of cloud-covered regions. A bistatic Sentinel-1 Convoy mission would enable single-pass interferometric acquisitions without temporal decorrelation.

  3. One-Year Outcomes After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Varying Quantities of Coronary Artery Calcium (from a 13-Year Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Kornowski, Ran; Qamar, Arman; Greenberg, Gabriel; Bental, Tamir; Rechavia, Eldad; Lev, Eli I; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Assali, Abid R

    2016-10-15

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with poor angiographic results and higher rates of complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Limited data are available regarding the impact of angiographically evident CAC on long-term outcomes after primary PCI in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this single-center, registry-based retrospective cohort analysis, we analyzed 2,143 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI who underwent primary PCI within 12 hours of symptom onset. Patients were divided based on degree of CAC (determined by visual inspection of angiograms) as follows: (1) moderate-to-severe CAC (n = 306; 14.3%) and (2) minimal-to-none CAC (n = 1,837; 85.7%). The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 1-year after PCI. Patients with moderate-to-severe CAC were older, women, and had higher rates of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate-to-severe CAC was associated with higher rates of anterior myocardial infarction, advanced Killip class, and poor final angiographic results. At 1-year follow-up, rates of all-cause mortality were higher in the moderate-to-severe CAC cohort than those in the minimal-to-none CAC cohort (8.5% vs 4.7%; p = 0.008). However, after accounting for major clinical and angiographic characteristics, moderate-to-severe CAC on presenting STEMI angiogram was no longer predictive of 1-year all-cause mortality. In conclusion, advanced CAC burden occurs in ∼15% of patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI and reflects a marker of adverse prognosis late into follow-up after PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Resonance frequency analysis of dental implants placed at the posterior maxilla varying the surface treatment only: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Marcelo M; Sesma, Newton; Zanardi, Piero R; Laganá, Dalva C

    2017-10-01

    Chemical modifications of the dental implant surface that improve the wettability result in a faster and better osseointegration. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the implant stability quotient (ISQ) of implants with similar designs, treated with 2 surfaces, sandblasted acid-etched (SAE) and hydrophilic SAE, within the initial 16 weeks of healing. A total of 64 implants (32 SAE-control group and 32 modified SAE-test group) with the same design, length, and diameter (conical and compressive, 4.3 × 10 mm) were inserted into the posterior maxillae of 21 patients partially edentulous. The ISQ values were collected at post-surgery (T0), 1 week (T1), 2 weeks (T2), 3 weeks (T3), 5 weeks (T4), 8 weeks (T5), 12 weeks (T6), and 16 weeks (T7). None of the implants failed. Test group presented ISQ values higher than the control group (ANOVA-P < .01) from T5 to T7. When comparing groups regarding the amount of time required to achieve ISQ ≥ 70 as a reference, there was a statistically significant difference (cox regression-P < .01), and a hazard ratio of 2.24 (CI 1.62-3.11). At the 1-year follow-up, there was a drop out of 1 patient, and 2 implants were no longer evaluated. Survival rate for both groups was 100% at the 1-year follow-up. The current study suggests that implants with hydrophilic surface (modified SAE) integrate faster than implants with SAE surface. The stability gain of the test group was 2.24 times faster than the control group after 5 weeks of evaluation at the posterior region of the edentulous maxillae. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  6. Crushed Versus Integral Tablets of Ticagrelor in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Randomized Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Gkizas, Vasileios; Vogiatzi, Chrysoula; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Koutsogiannis, Nikolaos; Davlouros, Periklis; Hahalis, George; Nylander, Sven; Parodi, Guido; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of ticagrelor administered either as crushed (in the semi-upright sitting position) or as integral (in the supine position) tablets in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We randomized 20 patients to ticagrelor 180 mg either as 2 integral tablets administered in the supine position (standard administration) or as 2 tablets crushed and dispersed, administered in the semi-upright sitting position. Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment at randomization (0 h) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. At 1 h, ticagrelor plasma exposure and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 1 h (AUC1) (co-primary endpoints) were higher in the crushed versus integral tablets group (median 586 vs. 70.1 ng/mL and 234 vs. 24.4 ng·h/mL, respectively), with a ratio of adjusted geometric means (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 12.67 (2.34-68.51) [p = 0.005] and 19.28 (3.51-106.06) [p = 0.002], respectively. Time to maximum plasma concentration was shorter in the crushed versus integral tablets group (median 2 vs. 4 h), with a ratio of adjusted geometric means (95% CI) of 0.69 (0.49-0.97) [p = 0.035]. Parallel findings were observed with AR-C124910XX (active metabolite). Platelet reactivity (VerifyNow(®)) at 1 h was lower with crushed versus standard administration with least squares estimates mean difference (95% CI) of 92 (-158.4 to 26.6) P2Y12 reaction units (p = 0.009). In patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, ticagrelor crushed tablets administered in the semi-upright sitting position seems to lead to a faster-compared with standard administration-absorption, with stronger antiplatelet activity within the first hour. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02046486.

  7. Value of first day angiography/angioplasty in evolving Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: an open multicenter randomized trial. The VINO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, R; Widimský, P; Straka, Z; Jiresová, E; Dvorák, J; Polásek, R; Karel, I; Jirmár, R; Lisa, L; Budesínský, T; Málek, F; Stanka, P

    2002-02-01

    Direct angioplasty is an effective treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The role of very early angioplasty in non-ST-elevation infarction is not known. Thus, a randomized study of first day angiography/angioplasty vs early conservative therapy of evolving myocardial infarction without persistent ST-elevation was conducted. One hundred and thirty-one patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevations were randomized within 24 h of last rest chest pain: 64 in the first day angiography/angioplasty group and 67 in the early conservative group (coronary angiography only after recurrent or stress induced myocardial ischaemia). All patients in the invasive group underwent coronary angiography on the day of admission (mean randomization-angiography time 6.2 h). First day angioplasty of the infarct related artery was performed in 47% of the patients and bypass surgery in 35%. In the conservative group, 55% underwent coronary angiography, 10% angioplasty and 30% bypass surgery within 6 months. The primary end-point (death/reinfarction) at 6 months occurred in 6.2% vs 22.3% (P<0.001). Six month mortality in the first day angiography/angioplasty group was 3.1% vs 13.4% in the conservative group (P<0.03). Non-fatal reinfarction occurred in 3.1% vs. 14.9% (P<0.02). First day coronary angiography followed by angioplasty whenever possible reduces mortality and reinfarction in evolving myocardial infarction without persistent ST-elevation, in comparison with an early conservative treatment strategy. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Delay-Optimal Scheduling for Two-Hop Relay Networks with Randomly Varying Connectivity: Join the Shortest Queue-Longest Connected Queue Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jun Baek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a scheduling problem for a two-hop queueing network where the queues have randomly varying connectivity. Customers arrive at the source queue and are later routed to multiple relay queues. A relay queue can be served only if it is in connected state, and the state changes randomly over time. The source queue and relay queues are served in a time-sharing manner; that is, only one customer can be served at any instant. We propose Join the Shortest Queue-Longest Connected Queue (JSQ-LCQ policy as follows: (1 if there exist nonempty relay queues in connected state, serve the longest queue among them; (2 if there are no relay queues to serve, route a customer from the source queue to the shortest relay queue. For symmetric systems in which the connectivity has symmetric statistics across the relay queues, we show that JSQ-LCQ is strongly optimal, that is, minimizes the delay in the stochastic ordering sense. We use stochastic coupling and show that the systems under coupling exist in two distinct phases, due to dynamic interactions among source and relay queues. By careful construction of coupling in both phases, we establish the stochastic dominance in delay between JSQ-LCQ and any arbitrary policy.

  9. Time-varying Markov regression random-effect model with Bayesian estimation procedures: Application to dynamics of functional recovery in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shin-Liang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2010-09-01

    The rates of functional recovery after stroke tend to decrease with time. Time-varying Markov processes (TVMP) may be more biologically plausible than time-invariant Markov process for modeling such data. However, analysis of such stochastic processes, particularly tackling reversible transitions and the incorporation of random effects into models, can be analytically intractable. We make use of ordinary differential equations to solve continuous-time TVMP with reversible transitions. The proportional hazard form was used to assess the effects of an individual's covariates on multi-state transitions with the incorporation of random effects that capture the residual variation after being explained by measured covariates under the concept of generalized linear model. We further built up Bayesian directed acyclic graphic model to obtain full joint posterior distribution. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with Gibbs sampling was applied to estimate parameters based on posterior marginal distributions with multiple integrands. The proposed method was illustrated with empirical data from a study on the functional recovery after stroke. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction and prevention of thromboembolic events with enoxaparin in cancer patients with elevated tissue factor-bearing microparticles: a randomized-controlled phase II trial (the Microtec study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Liebman, Howard A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Caughey, Thomas; Campigotto, Federico; Rosovsky, Rachel; Mantha, Simon; Kessler, Craig M; Eneman, Jonathan; Raghavan, Vidya; Lenz, Heinz-Joseph; Bullock, Andrea; Buchbinder, Elizabeth; Neuberg, Donna; Furie, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Elevated levels of circulating tissue factor-bearing microparticles (TFMP) have been associated with an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. We performed a randomized phase II study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of VTE in advanced cancer patients with lower levels of TFMP not receiving thromboprophylaxis and those with higher levels of circulating TFMP randomized to enoxaparin or observation. The cumulative incidence of VTE at 2 months in the higher TFMP group randomized to enoxaparin (N = 23) was 5·6% while the higher TFMP group observation arm (N = 11) was 27·3% (Gray test P = 0·06). The cumulative incidence of VTE in the low TFMP was 7·2% (N = 32). No major haemorrhages were observed in the enoxaparin arm. The median survival for patients with higher levels of TFMP followed by observation was 11·8 months compared with 17·8 months on enoxaparin (P = 0·58). In a prospective randomized trial, increased numbers of circulating TFMP detected by impedance flow cytometry identified cancer patients with a high incidence of VTE. Enoxaparin demonstrated a clear trend towards reducing the rate of VTE in patients with elevated levels of TFMP, with an overall rate of VTE similar in magnitude to the lower TFMP group. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to everolimus-based therapy following kidney transplantation : Results of the randomized ELEVATE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Holdaas, Hallvard; Øyen, Ole; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Sundar, Sankaran; Bemelman, Frederike J; Sommerer, Claudia; Pascual, Julio; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Pongskul, Cholatip; Oppenheimer, Frederic; Toselli, Lorenzo; Russ, Graeme; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Cruzado, Josep M; van der Giet, Markus

    In a 24-month, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, 715 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized at 10-14 weeks to convert to everolimus (n=359) or remain on standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy (n=356; 231 tacrolimus; 125 cyclosporine), all with mycophenolic acid and

  12. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePaul Vincent G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP, a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. Methods/Design A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1 using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that

  13. Head elevation by 3 vs. 6 cm in ProSeal laryngeal mask airway insertion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Mi-Jung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Hyo-Ju; Jeon, Young-Tae; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2016-08-05

    The sniffing position (neck flexion by head elevation and head extension) is commonly used for insertion of a laryngeal mask airway. However, the appropriate degrees of head elevation and head extension are unclear. In the present study, the success rate of ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (LMA ProSeal) insertion using two degrees of head elevation was evaluated. This prospective randomized, controlled study included 80 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. In the 3 cm (n = 40) and 6 cm (n = 40) groups, the LMA ProSeal was inserted while the head was elevated 3 cm and 6 cm, respectively, using a pillow of the corresponding height. The success rate, and incidence of blood staining on cuff, sore throat and hoarseness were assessed. The alignments of laryngeal and oral axes were also evaluated. The first attempt success rate was higher in the 3 cm than the 6 cm group (87 % vs. 60 %, P = 0.014). In 86 % of patients in the 6 cm group and 50 % of patients in the 3 cm group in whom the second attempt failed, the third insertion attempt was successful by using a pillow height of the opposite group. The alignments of the two axes were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05). The first attempt success rate of ProSeal laryngeal mask insertion was higher with 3 cm than 6 cm head elevation in adult patients. Identifiers: NCT02058030 (08/05/2015), Unique Protocol ID: phdkim1.

  14. Randomized trial of a phone- and web-based weight loss program for women at elevated breast cancer risk: the HELP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa; Nelson, Sandahl H; Hartman, Sheri; Patterson, Ruth E; Parker, Barbara A; Pierce, John P

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight and physical inactivity are modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Behavioral intervention is particularly important among women with an elevated risk profile. This trial tested an intervention that trained women to use a self-monitoring website to increase activity and lose weight. Women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2) at elevated breast cancer risk were randomized to the intervention (N = 71) or usual care (N = 34). The intervention group received telephone-based coaching and used web-based self-monitoring tools. At 6 months, significant weight loss was observed in the intervention group (4.7 % loss from starting weight; SD = 4.7 %) relative to usual care (0.4 % gain; SD = 3.0 %) (p lost 3.7 % of weight (SD = 5.4 %), compared to 1.3 % (SD = 4.2) for usual care (p = 0.003). At 12 months, accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased by 12 min/day (SD = 24) compared to no change in usual care (p = 0.04. In summary, this web- and phone-based approach produced modest but significant improvements in weight and physical activity for women at elevated breast cancer risk.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of elevation of the fetal head with a fetal pillow during cesarean delivery at full cervical dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Subrata L; Dey, Alok; Barman, Sannyashi C; Kamilya, Gourisankar; Mukherji, Joydev; Onwude, Joseph L

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether use of the Fetal Pillow (Safe Obstetric Systems, Shenfield, UK) affects maternal and fetal morbidity in cesarean delivery at full cervical dilatation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at two teaching hospitals in West Bengal, India, between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Women undergoing cesarean delivery at full dilatation were enrolled and randomly assigned with computer-generated random numbers (block size 10) to undergo delivery with or without the Fetal Pillow. Group assignment was not masked. The primary outcome was the incidence of major uterine wound extensions (grade 2-3). Overall, 120 women were assigned to each group. Major uterine wound extensions occurred in 6 (5.0%) women in the Fetal Pillow group and 39 (32.5%) in the control group (relative risk 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.48). Use of the Fetal Pillow in second-stage cesarean delivery significantly reduces the risk of a major extension of the uterine incision. CTRI registration number: CTRI/2015/03/005651. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  17. Rehospitalizations Following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From a Multi-Center Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Ernest; Frei, Martina; Zaugg, Serge; Hadorn, Susanne; Kelbaek, Henning; Ostojic, Miodrag; Baumbach, Andreas; Tüller, David; Roffi, Marco; Engstrom, Thomas; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Vukcevic, Vladan; Magro, Michael; Kornowski, Ran; Lüscher, Thomas F; von Birgelen, Clemens; Heg, Dik; Windecker, Stephan; Räber, Lorenz

    2017-08-05

    Rehospitalizations (RHs) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction carry a high economic burden and may deteriorate quality of life. Characterizing patients at higher risk may allow the design of preventive measures. We studied the frequency, reasons, and predictors for unplanned cardiac and noncardiac RHs in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. In this post-hoc analysis of the COMFORTABLE AMI (Comparison of Biolimus Eluted From an Erodible Stent Coating With Bare Metal Stents in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction; NCT00962416) trial including 1137 patients, unplanned cardiac and noncardiac RHs occurred in 133 (11.7%) and in 79 patients (6.9%), respectively, at 1 year. The most frequent reasons for unplanned cardiac RHs were recurrent chest pain without evidence of ischemia (20.4%), recurrent chest pain with ischemia and coronary intervention (16.9%), and ischemic events (16.9%). Unplanned noncardiac RHs occurred most frequently attributed to bleeding (24.5%), infections (14.3%), and cancer (9.1%). On multivariate analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction (22% increase in the rate of RHs per 10% decrease; P=0.03) and angiographic myocardial infarction Syntax score (34% increase per 10-point increase; P=0.01) were independent predictors of unplanned cardiac RHs. Age emerged as the only independent predictor of unplanned noncardiac RHs. Regional differences for unplanned cardiac RHs were observed. Among ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of a randomized, clinical trial, unplanned cardiac RHs occurred in 12% with recurrent chest pain being the foremost reason. Unplanned noncardiac RHs occurred in 7% with bleeding as the leading cause. Left ventricular ejection fraction and Syntax score were independent predictors of unplanned cardiac RHs and identified patient subgroups in need for improved secondary prevention. URL: http

  18. The beneficial influence on the effectiveness of automated peritoneal dialysis of varying the dwell time (short/long) and fill volume (small/large): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Michel; Issad, Belkacem; Dubois, Vincent; Taamma, Redouane

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the efficiency of peritoneal dialysis (PD) varies with the duration of the dwell and with the prescribed fill volume. Automated PD (APD) is classically given as a series of recurrent exchanges, each having the same dwell time and fill volume-that is, conventional APD (APD-C). We propose a new way of giving PD, using a modified version of APD-C. This method first uses a short dwell time with a small fill volume to promote ultrafiltration (UF) and subsequently uses a longer dwell time and a larger fill volume to promote removal of uremic toxins from the blood. We use the term "adapted APD" (APD-A) to describe this modified form of PD. We designed a multicenter prospective randomized crossover trial to assess the impact of APD-A in comparison with APD-C on the efficacy of dialysis. The parameters investigated were overnight UF; weekly peritoneal Kt/V(urea); weekly peritoneal creatinine clearance corrected to 1.73 m(2) body surface area (K(creat)); and phosphate (PDR) and sodium dialytic removal (SDR) in millimoles per session, corrected for glucose absorption, which provides an estimate of metabolic cost. Blood pressure was also regularly monitored. Initially, 25 patients were identified for inclusion in the study. There were 6 withdrawals in total: 2 at enrolment, 1 at day 75 (transplantation), 2 at day 30 (catheter dysfunction), and 1 for drainage alarms. All patients received the same duration of overnight APD, using the same total volume of dialysate, with the same 1.5% glucose, lactate-buffered dialysate (Balance: Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Tolerance was good. Compared with APD-C, APD-A resulted in a significant enhancement of Kt/V(urea), K(creat), and PDR. The metabolic cost, in terms of glucose absorption, required to achieve dialytic capacity for urea, creatinine, and phosphate blood purification was significantly lower for APD-A than for APD-C, and UF increased during APD-A. With APD-A, each gram of glucose absorbed

  19. Safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for Acute ST elevation MI: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman P Michael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials comparing thrombectomy devices with conventional percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI have produced conflicting results. The objective of our study was to systematically evaluate currently available data comparing thrombectomy followed by PCI with conventional PCI alone in patients with acute STEMI. Methods Seventeen randomized trials (n = 3,909 patients of thrombectomy versus PCI were included in this meta-analysis. We calculated the summary odds ratios for mortality, stroke, post procedural myocardial blush grade (MBG, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI grade flow, and post procedural ST segment resolution (STR using random-effects and fixed-effects models. Results There was no difference in risk of 30-day mortality (44/1914 vs. 50/1907, OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.54-1.29, P = 0.42 among patients randomized to thrombectomy, compared with conventional PCI. Thrombectomy was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of TIMI 3 flow (1616/1826 vs. 1533/1806, OR 1.41, P = 0.007, MBG 3 (730/1526 vs. 486/1513, OR 2.42, P Conclusions Thrombectomy devices appear to improve markers of myocardial perfusion in patients undergoing primary PCI, with no difference in overall 30-day mortality but an increased likelihood of stroke. The clinical benefits of thrombectomy appear to be influenced by the device type with a trend towards survival benefit with MAT and worsening outcome with mechanical devices.

  20. Tirofiban use with clopidogrel and aspirin decreases adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankur; Bahekar, Amol; Doshi, Hardik; Bhuriya, Rohit; Bedi, Updesh; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khosla, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines deemed usefulness of routine early glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) administration in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with dual antiplatelet therapy as uncertain. We aimed to examine the current evidence for the use of tirofiban, a nonpeptide glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, in STEMI patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. We performed systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of tirofiban use in STEMI patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel which reported clinical and/or angiographic outcomes after primary PCI. Data were combined using random effect and fixed effect models for heterogeneous and homogeneous outcomes respectively using Review Manager 5 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008). Six randomized controlled trials were eligible for the inclusion; involving 708 patients in tirofiban group and 721 control subjects. Routine tirofiban use decreased the major adverse cardiovascular events (odds ratio [OR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.94). Corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count was also reduced with tirofiban (mean difference -8.48 [95% CI, -12.62 to -4.34]). There were no significant differences in the rates of postprocedure TIMI flow grade 3 and TIMI myocardial perfusion/blush grade 3, major bleeding by TIMI criteria, or mortality in the 2 groups. Current analysis of available studies suggests that routine and early tirofiban use before primary PCI may decrease the major cardiovascular events in STEMI patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel without any significant increase in major bleeding. An adequately powered randomized trial is urgently needed to confirm the above findings and estimate the effect size. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remote ischemic conditioning in ST-elevation myocardial infarction as adjuvant to primary angioplasty (RIC-STEMI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, António; Pereira, Miguel Álvares; Azevedo, Pedro; Lourenço, André; Marques, Jorge; Leite-Moreira, Adelino

    2015-09-08

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) accounts for nearly one third of acute coronary syndromes. Despite improved STEMI patient care, mortality remains high, contributing significantly to the ischemic heart disease burden. This may partly be related to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), through short cycles of ischemia-reperfusion applied to a limb, has been shown to reduce IRI in various clinical settings. Our primary hypothesis is that RIC will reduce adverse events related to STEMI when applied as adjunctive therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). "Remote ischemic conditioning in ST-elevation myocardial infarction as adjuvant to primary angioplasty" (RIC-STEMI) is an ongoing prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial to assess whether RIC as an adjunctive therapy during primary PCI in patients presenting with STEMI can improve clinical outcomes. After enrollment, participants are randomized according to a computer-generated randomization schedule, in a ratio of 1:1 to RIC or no intervention, in blocks of four individuals. RIC is begun at least 10 min before the estimated time of the first balloon inflation and its duration is 30 min. Ischemia is induced by three cycles of inflation of a blood pressure cuff placed on the left lower limb to 200 mmHg and then deflation to 0 mmHg for another 5 min. Primary endpoint is a combined endpoint of death from cardiac cause or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) on follow-up (including device implantation: implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization and left ventricular assist device). Secondary endpoints are myocardial infarction (MI) size (estimated by the 48 h area under the curve of serum troponin I levels), development of Q-wave MI, left ventricular function (assessed by echocardiography within the first 3 days after admission), contrast-induced nephropathy, in-hospital mortality, all-cause mortality and

  2. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by semi-randomly varying routing policies for different packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-11-23

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Nodes vary a choice of routing policy for routing data in the network in a semi-random manner, so that similarly situated packets are not always routed along the same path. Semi-random variation of the routing policy tends to avoid certain local hot spots of network activity, which might otherwise arise using more consistent routing determinations. Preferably, the originating node chooses a routing policy for a packet, and all intermediate nodes in the path route the packet according to that policy. Policies may be rotated on a round-robin basis, selected by generating a random number, or otherwise varied.

  3. Intracoronary versus Intravenous eptifibatide during percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati, Hamid Reza; Zahedmehr, Ali; Firouzi, Ata; Farrashi, Melody; Amin, Kamyar; Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Shakerian, Farshad; Kiani, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Although aspirin and clopidogrel seem to be quite enough during low risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the combination may need some reinforcement in complex situations such as primary PCI. By modifying the route and also the duration of administration, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors might be a viable option. The aim of this study is to compare the benefits and disadvantages of three different methods of administration of eptifibatide in primary PCI population. Primary PCI candidates were randomized in three groups on which three different methods of administration of eptifibitide were tested: intravenous bolus injection followed by 12-h infusion (IV-IV), intracoronary bolus injection followed by intravenous infusion (IC-IV) and, only intracoronary bolus injection (IC). 99 patients were included in the present study. There was no significant difference among the three groups regarding all cause in hospital and one month mortality (p value = 0.99), re-myocardial infarction (p value = 0.89), post-PCI TIMI flow grade 3 (p value = 0.97), ST segment resolution (p value = 0.77) and peak troponin levels (p value = 0.82). The comparison of vascular access and major bleeding complications were not possible due to low events rate. By modifying the route of administration of eptifibitide, the clinical effect might be preserved without increasing the short-term mortality and procedural failure.

  4. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum α-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Aspiration Thrombectomy for Treatment of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a Meta-analysis of 26 Randomized Trials in 11,943 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Ernest; Heg, Dik; Stefanini, Giulio G; Stortecky, Stefan; Rutjes, Anne W S; Räber, Lorenz; Blöchlinger, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    There is continued debate about the routine use of aspiration thrombectomy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and procedural outcomes of aspiration thrombectomy-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention compared with conventional primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We performed a meta-analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials with a total of 11 943 patients. Clinical outcomes were extracted up to maximum follow-up and random effect models were used to assess differences in outcomes. We observed no difference in the risk of all-cause death (pooled risk ratio = 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.04; P = .124), reinfarction (pooled risk ratio = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.08; P = .176), target vessel revascularization (pooled risk ratio = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.00; P = .052), or definite stent thrombosis (pooled risk ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.16; P = .202) between the 2 groups at a mean weighted follow-up time of 10.4 months. There were significant reductions in failure to reach Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow (pooled risk ratio = 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.81; P < .001) or myocardial blush grade 3 (pooled risk ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.89; P = .001), incomplete ST-segment resolution (pooled risk ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.84; P < .001), and evidence of distal embolization (pooled risk ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.81; P = .001) with aspiration thrombectomy but estimates were heterogeneous between trials. Among unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, aspiration thrombectomy-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention does not improve clinical outcomes, despite improved epicardial and myocardial parameters of reperfusion. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiolog

  6. Cardioprotective Effects of Intracoronary Morphine in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Prospective, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwag, Hye Bin; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Park, Taek Kyu; Lee, Joo Myung; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Choi, Jin-Ho; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Chang, Sung-A; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo; Jang, Woo Jin; Lee, Mirae; Chun, Woo Jung; Oh, Ju Hyeon; Park, Yong Hwan; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Joo-Yong

    2017-04-03

    A cardioprotective role of morphine acting via opioid receptors has been demonstrated, and previous preclinical studies have reported that morphine could reduce reperfusion injury and myocardial infarct size in a way similar to that of ischemic periconditioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intracoronary morphine on myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This study was designed as a 2-center, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial. A total of 91 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade of 0 to 1 undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to a morphine or control group at a 1:1 ratio. The morphine group received 3 mg of morphine sulfate diluted with 3 mL of normal saline, and the control group received 3 mL of normal saline into a coronary artery immediately after restoration of coronary flow. The primary end point was myocardial infarct size assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging The cardiac magnetic resonance images were evaluated for 42 and 38 patients in the morphine and control groups, respectively. Myocardial infarct size was not different between the 2 groups (25.6±11.2% versus 24.6±10.5%, P=0.77), nor was the extent of microvascular obstruction or myocardial salvage index (6.0±6.3% versus 5.1±4.6%, P=0.91; 31.1±15.2% versus 30.3±10.9%, P=0.75, respectively). There was no difference in peak creatine kinase-MB level, final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow, myocardial brush grade, or complete resolution of ST-segment. Intracoronary morphine administration could not reduce myocardial infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01738100. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  7. Varying Treatment Intensity in a Home-Based Parent and Child Therapy Program for Families Living in Poverty: A Randomized Clinic Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Fox, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether increasing the intensity of a parent and child therapy program would improve results for young children with significant behavior problems from families living in poverty. Children were randomly assigned to either a standard condition or an intensity condition that provided 50% more treatment over a…

  8. Psychometric Functioning of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r Scales with Varying Degrees of Randomness, Acquiescence, and Counter-Acquiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Richard W.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Tellegen, Auke; Archer, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the effects of increasing degrees of simulated non-content-based (random or fixed) responding on scores on the newly developed Variable Response Inconsistency-Revised (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency-Revised (TRIN-r) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form…

  9. The optimal strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with multivessel disease: an updated meta-analysis of 9 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong G; Gao, Xiao F; Li, Xiao B; Mao, Wen X; Chen, Li W; Tian, Nai L

    2017-04-01

    The optimal strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) still remains controversial. This study sought to explore the optimal PCI strategy for those patients. Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were searched for relevant studies. We analyzed the comparison of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) as the primary end point between the preventive PCI strategy and the culprit only PCI strategy (CV-PCI). The further analysis of two subgroups described as the complete multivessel PCI strategy during primary procedure (CMV-PCI) and the staged PCI strategy (S-PCI) was also performed. Nine randomized trials were identified. The risk of MACEs was reduced significantly regarding to preventive PCI strategy (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.31-0.53, Pstrategy. There were lower risks of long-term mortality, reinfarction and repeat revascularization in the preventive PCI group compared to the CV-PCI group (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.27-0.62, Pstrategy reduced the incidence of long-term mortality versus CMV-PCI strategy. The preventive PCI is associated with the lower risk of MACEs in STEMI patients with MVD compared to the CV-PCI strategy, and the S-PCI strategy seems to be an optimal choice for these patients rather than the CMV-PCI.

  10. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  11. Adaptation to random and systematic errors: Comparison of amputee and non-amputee control interfaces with varying levels of process noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva E Johnson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand how people adapt to errors when using a myoelectric control interface. We compared adaptation across 1 non-amputee subjects using joint angle, joint torque, and myoelectric control interfaces, and 2 amputee subjects using myoelectric control interfaces with residual and intact limbs (five total control interface conditions. We measured trial-by-trial adaptation to self-generated errors and random perturbations during a virtual, single degree-of-freedom task with two levels of feedback uncertainty, and evaluated adaptation by fitting a hierarchical Kalman filter model. We have two main results. First, adaptation to random perturbations was similar across all control interfaces, whereas adaptation to self-generated errors differed. These patterns matched predictions of our model, which was fit to each control interface by changing the process noise parameter that represented system variability. Second, in amputee subjects, we found similar adaptation rates and error levels between residual and intact limbs. These results link prosthesis control to broader areas of motor learning and adaptation and provide a useful model of adaptation with myoelectric control. The model of adaptation will help us understand and solve prosthesis control challenges, such as providing additional sensory feedback.

  12. Adaptation to random and systematic errors: Comparison of amputee and non-amputee control interfaces with varying levels of process noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reva E; Kording, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how people adapt to errors when using a myoelectric control interface. We compared adaptation across 1) non-amputee subjects using joint angle, joint torque, and myoelectric control interfaces, and 2) amputee subjects using myoelectric control interfaces with residual and intact limbs (five total control interface conditions). We measured trial-by-trial adaptation to self-generated errors and random perturbations during a virtual, single degree-of-freedom task with two levels of feedback uncertainty, and evaluated adaptation by fitting a hierarchical Kalman filter model. We have two main results. First, adaptation to random perturbations was similar across all control interfaces, whereas adaptation to self-generated errors differed. These patterns matched predictions of our model, which was fit to each control interface by changing the process noise parameter that represented system variability. Second, in amputee subjects, we found similar adaptation rates and error levels between residual and intact limbs. These results link prosthesis control to broader areas of motor learning and adaptation and provide a useful model of adaptation with myoelectric control. The model of adaptation will help us understand and solve prosthesis control challenges, such as providing additional sensory feedback.

  13. Randomized controlled trial for clinical effects of varying types of insoles combined with specialized shoes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Soon; Hwang, Ji Hye; Chang, Hyun Jung; Koh, Eun Mi; Park, Hae Soo

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effects of specialized shoes with insoles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the differences in terms of type of insole and anatomical location of foot pathology. Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Outpatients of physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic at university hospital. Forty-two patients with rheumatoid foot lesions were randomly assigned to two different orthotic intervention groups. The anatomical locations of the foot lesions were recorded (hindfoot or forefoot). Participants were provided with an extra deep forefoot-rockered shoe and either a custom-made semi-rigid insole or a ready-made simple soft insole. They wore the provided footwear for at least 3 hours a day over six months. Primary outcome measures were foot pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Foot Function Index (FFI). Secondary outcome measures were erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels in blood, amounts of medications and active joint counts. These were checked at baseline and post intervention. Eight patients dropped out at follow-up after six months of treatment. At six-month follow-ups, VAS scores and total Foot Function Index scores had decreased significantly in both groups versus baseline but intergroup comparison showed no significant differences in view of type of insoles and anatomical locations of foot pathology. We were unable to identify differences between the types of insoles in terms of their clinical effects or between anatomical locations of foot lesions in the two groups, but both groups improved. Therapeutic shoes plus soft insoles might be effective enough in terms of foot pain and foot function for specific patients with rheumatoid foot problems regardless of the location of foot pathology.

  14. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by radial or femoral approach in a multicenter randomized clinical trial: the STEMI-RADIAL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Ivo; Horak, David; Stasek, Josef; Mates, Martin; Pesek, Jan; Ostadal, Petr; Hrabos, Vlado; Dusek, Jaroslav; Koza, Jiri; Sembera, Zdenek; Brtko, Miroslav; Aschermann, Ondrej; Smid, Michal; Polansky, Pavel; Al Mawiri, Abdul; Vojacek, Jan; Bis, Josef; Costerousse, Olivier; Bertrand, Olivier F; Rokyta, Richard

    2014-03-18

    This study sought to compare radial and femoral approaches in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by high-volume operators experienced in both access sites. The exact clinical benefit of the radial compared to the femoral approach remains controversial. STEMI-RADIAL (ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction treated by RADIAL or femoral approach) was a randomized, multicenter trial. A total of 707 patients referred for STEMI clinical events (NACE) was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding/vascular complications. Access site crossover, contrast volume, duration of intensive care stay, and death at 6 months were secondary endpoints. The primary endpoint occurred in 1.4% of the radial group (n = 348) and 7.2% of the femoral group (n = 359; p = 0.0001). The NACE rate was 4.6% versus 11.0% (p = 0.0028), respectively. Crossover from radial to femoral approach was 3.7%. Intensive care stay (2.5 ± 1.7 days vs. 3.0 ± 2.9 days, p = 0.0038) as well as contrast utilization (170 ± 71 ml vs. 182 ± 60 ml, p = 0.01) were significantly reduced in the radial group. Mortality in the radial and femoral groups was 2.3% versus 3.1% (p = 0.64) at 30 days and 2.3% versus 3.6% (p = 0.31) at 6 months, respectively. In patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI by operators experienced in both access sites, the radial approach was associated with significantly lower incidence of major bleeding and access site complications and superior net clinical benefit. These findings support the use of the radial approach in primary PCI as first choice after proper training. (Trial Comparing Radial and Femoral Approach in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] [STEMI-RADIAL]; NCT01136187). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) response to animal source foods varies among healthy young men and is influenced by their gut microbiota composition: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Clara E; Taesuwan, Siraphat; Malysheva, Olga V; Bender, Erica; Tulchinsky, Nathan F; Yan, Jian; Sutter, Jessica L; Caudill, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite linked to the gut microbiota, is associated with excess risk of heart disease. We hypothesized that (i) TMAO response to animal source foods would vary among healthy men and (ii) this response would be modified by their gut microbiome. A crossover feeding trial in healthy young men (n = 40) was conducted with meals containing TMAO (fish), its dietary precursors, choline (eggs) and carnitine (beef), and a fruit control. Fish yielded higher circulating and urinary concentrations of TMAO (46-62 times; p gut microbes. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that high-TMAO producers (≥20% increase in urinary TMAO in response to eggs and beef) had more Firmicutes than Bacteroidetes (p = 0.04) and less gut microbiota diversity (p = 0.03). Consumption of fish yielded substantially greater increases in circulating TMAO than eggs or beef. The higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes enrichment among men exhibiting a greater response to dietary TMAO precursor intake indicates that TMAO production is a function of individual differences in the gut microbiome. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Erythropoietin prevention trial of coronary restenosis and cardiac remodeling after ST-elevated acute myocardial infarction (EPOC-AMI): a pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Nakamura, Takeshi; Sawada, Takahisa; Matsubara, Kinya; Furukawa, Keizo; Hadase, Mitsuyoshi; Nakahara, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) enhances re-endothelialization and anti-apoptotic action. Larger clinical studies to examine the effects of high-dose EPO are in progress in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this multi-center pilot study was to investigate the effect of `low-dose EPO' (6,000 IU during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 24 h and 48 h) in 35 patients with a first ST-elevated AMI undergoing PCI who was randomly assigned to EPO or placebo (saline) treatment. Neointimal volume, cardiac function and infarct size were examined in the acute phase and 6 months later (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00423020). No significant regression in in-stent neointimal volume was observed, whereas left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was significantly improved (49.2% to 55.7%, P=0.003) and LV end-systolic volume was decreased in the EPO group (47.7 ml to 39.0 ml, P=0.036). LV end-diastolic volume tended to be reduced from 90.2% to 84.5% (P=0.159), whereas in the control group it was inversely increased (91.7% to 93.7%, P=0.385). Infarction sizes were significantly reduced by 38.5% (P=0.003) but not in the control group (23.7%, P=0.051). Hemoglobin, peak creatine kinase values, and CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CD45(dim) endothelial progenitors showed no significant changes. No adverse events were observed during study periods. This is a first study demonstrating that short-term `low-dose' EPO to PCI-treated AMI patients did not prevent neointimal hyperplasia but rather improved cardiac function and infarct size without any clinical adverse effects.

  17. Intracoronary Eptifibatide During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Early Versus Late Presenters with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadawi, Ayman; Gasioch, Gerald; Elgendy, Islam Y; Mahmoud, Ahmed N; Ha, Le Dung; Ashry, Haitham Al; Shahin, Hend; Hamza, Mohamed A; Abuzaid, Ahmed S; Saad, Marwan

    2016-12-01

    The role of intracoronary (IC) eptifibatide in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and whether time of patient presentation affects this role are unclear. We sought to evaluate the benefit of IC eptifibatide use during primary PCI in early STEMI presenters compared to late STEMI presenters. We included 70 patients who presented with STEMI and were eligible for PPCI. On the basis of symptom-to-door time, patients were classified into two arms: early (eptifibatide infusion vs standard care (control group). The primary end point was post-PCI myocardial blush grade (MBG) in the culprit vessel. Other end points included corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC), ST segment resolution (STR) ≥70%, and peak CKMB. In the early presenters arm, no difference was observed in MBG results ≥2 in the IC eptifibatide and control groups (100% vs 82%; p = 0.23). In the late presenters arm, the eptifibatide subgroup was associated with improved MBG ≥2 (100% vs 50%; p = 0.001). IC eptifibatide in both early and late presenters was associated with less cTFC (early presenters 19 vs. 25.6, p = 0.001; late presenters 20 vs. 31.5, p eptifibatide might improve the reperfusion markers during PPCI for STEMI patients presenting after 3 h from onset of symptoms. A large randomized study is recommended to ascertain the benefits of IC eptifibatide in late presenters on clinical outcomes.

  18. Culprit-lesion only versus complete multivessel percutaneous intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Briceno, David F; Massera, Daniele; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lombardo, Marissa; Bortnick, Anna E; Menegus, Mark A; Pyo, Robert T; Garcia, Mario J; Mookadam, Farouk; Ramakrishna, Harish; Wiley, Jose; Faggioni, Michela; Dangas, George D

    2016-10-01

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with concomitant multivessel (MV) coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with poor outcomes. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit-lesion only (CLO) as compared with a MV PCI approach to revascularization remains uncertain. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of the efficacy and safety of CLO as compared with MV PCI in patients with STEMI by conducting an updated meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register, the ClinicalTrials.gov Website, and Google Scholar databases of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. Seven RCTs were included, enrolling a total of 2006 patients. We found that there was a significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90), cardiovascular mortality (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.80), and repeat revascularization (RRV) (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.30-0.51) favoring MV over the CLO approach for patients undergoing primary PCI. The number needed to treat in order to prevent one CV mortality, RRV, or MACE event is 47, 11, and 16 patients, respectively. No differences were observed between MV vs. CLO PCI for subsequent myocardial infarction (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.40-1.39), all-cause mortality (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53-1.15), non-cardiovascular mortality (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.74-2.48), all-bleeding events (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.40-1.65), contrast-induced nephropathy (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.33-1.54), and stroke (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.47-3.46). MV PCI significantly reduces the rate of MACE, CV mortality, and RRV without significant harm as compared to CLO PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Varying cognitive targets and response rates to enhance the question-behaviour effect: An 8-arm Randomized Controlled Trial on influenza vaccination uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Nekitsing, Chandani; Hutter, Russell; Wood, Chantelle; Jackson, Cath; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-05-01

    The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that survey questions about a behaviour can change that behaviour. However, little research has tested how the QBE can be maximized in behavioural medicine settings. The present research tested manipulations of cognitive targets (questions about anticipated regret or beneficence) and survey return rates (presence vs. absence of a sticky note requesting completion of the questionnaire) on the magnitude of the QBE for influenza vaccination in older adults. Participants (N = 13,803) were recruited from general practice and randomly allocated to one of eight conditions: control 1 (no questionnaire); control 2 (demographics questionnaire); intention and attitude questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus anticipated regret questionnaire (with or without a sticky note); intention and attitude plus beneficence questionnaire (with or without a sticky note). Objective records of subsequent influenza vaccination from general practice records formed the dependent variable. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated that receiving an influenza vaccination questionnaire significantly increased vaccination rates compared to the no questionnaire, OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.36 and combined control conditions, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.25. Including the sticky note significantly increased questionnaire return rates, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50. However, there were no differences in vaccination rates between questionnaires containing different cognitive targets, a sticky note or not, and no interactions. There were no significant differences in the per-protocol analyses, i.e. among respondents who completed and returned the questionnaires. The QBE is a simple, low-cost intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates. Increasing questionnaire return rates or asking anticipated regret or beneficence questions in addition to intention and attitude questions did not enhance the

  20. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: meta-analysis of results of randomized trials at varying lengths of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Taslimi, Shervin; Badhiwala, Jetan H; Witiw, Christopher D; Nassiri, Farshad; Odekerken, Vincent J J; De Bie, Rob M A; Kalia, Suneil K; Hodaie, Mojgan; Munhoz, Renato P; Fasano, Alfonso; Lozano, Andres M

    2017-06-30

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in the management of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). While both the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are accepted targets, their relative efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has not been established beyond 12 months. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of RCTs to compare outcomes among adults with PD undergoing DBS of GPi or STN at various time points, including 36 months of follow-up. METHODS The MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched. Registries for clinical trials, selected conference proceedings, and the table of contents for selected journals were also searched. Screens were conducted independently and in duplicate. Among the 623 studies initially identified (615 through database search, 7 through manual review of bibliographies, and 1 through a repeat screen of literature prior to submission), 19 underwent full-text review; 13 of these were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias. The GRADE evidence profile tool was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Motor scores, medication dosage reduction, activities of daily living, depression, dyskinesias, and adverse events were compared. The influence of disease duration (a priori) and the proportion of male patients within a study (post hoc) were explored as potential subgroups. RESULTS Thirteen studies (6 original cohorts) were identified. No difference in motor scores or activities of daily living was identified at 36 months. Medications were significantly reduced with STN stimulation (5 studies, weighted mean difference [WMD] -365.46, 95% CI -599.48 to -131.44, p = 0.002). Beck Depression Inventory scores were significantly better with GPi stimulation (3 studies; WMD 2.53, 95% CI 0.99-4.06 p = 0.001). The

  1. Maxillary sinus floor elevation with bovine bone mineral combined with either autogenous bone or autogenous stem cells : a prospective randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Sauerbier, S.; Nagursky, H.; Menne, D.; Vissink, A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    Aim To assess whether differences occur in bone formation after maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone or autogenous stem cells. The primary endpoint was the percentage of new bone three months after the elevation procedure. Material

  2. Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable stent vs. durable polymer everolimus-eluting metallic stent in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Results of the randomized ABSORB ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction-TROFI II trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sabate (Manel); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); A. Iiguez (Andres); Okkels-Jensen, L. (Lisette); A. Cequier; S. Brugaletta (Salvatore); S.H. Hofma (Sjoerd); L. Räber (Lorenz); Christiansen, E.H. (Evald Høi); M.J. Suttorp (Maarten); T. Pilgrim (Thomas); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); Y. Sotomi (Yohei); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims: Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) feature thrombus-rich lesions with large necrotic core, which are usually associated with delayed arterial healing and impaired stent-related outcomes. The use of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (Absorb) has the

  3. Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable stent vs. durable polymer everolimus-eluting metallic stent in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the randomized ABSORB ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction-TROFI II trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabaté, Manel; Windecker, Stephan; Iñiguez, Andres; Okkels-Jensen, Lisette; Cequier, Angel; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Hofma, Sjoerd H.; Räber, Lorenz; Christiansen, Evald Høi; Suttorp, Maarten; Pilgrim, Thomas; Anne van Es, Gerrit; Sotomi, Yohei; García-García, Hector M.; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) feature thrombus-rich lesions with large necrotic core, which are usually associated with delayed arterial healing and impaired stent-related outcomes. The use of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (Absorb) has the potential to overcome

  4. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  5. Rationale and design of EXPLORE: a randomized, prospective, multicenter trial investigating the impact of recanalization of a chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function in patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery were recently identified as a high-risk subgroup. It is unclear whether ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery should undergo additional percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion on top of optimal medical therapy shortly after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Possible beneficial effects include reduction in adverse left ventricular remodeling and preservation of global left ventricular function and improved clinical outcome during future coronary events. Methods/Design The Evaluating Xience V and left ventricular function in Percutaneous coronary intervention on occLusiOns afteR ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (EXPLORE) trial is a randomized, prospective, multicenter, two-arm trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints. Three hundred patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery are randomized to either elective percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion within seven days or standard medical treatment. When assigned to the invasive arm, an everolimus-eluting coronary stent is used. Primary endpoints are left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic volume assessed by cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging at four months. Clinical follow-up will continue until five years. Discussion The ongoing EXPLORE trial is the first randomized clinical trial powered to investigate whether recanalization of a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction results in a better preserved residual left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced end-diastolic volume and enhanced clinical

  6. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years...... or older. Design: Secondary analysis of JUPITER ( Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: 1315 sites in 26 countries randomly assigned participants in JUPITER. Participants: Among...... assigned in a 1: 1 ratio to receive 20 mg of rosuvastatin daily or placebo. Measurements: The primary end point was the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event ( myocardial infarction, stroke, arterial revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina, or death from cardiovascular causes). Results...

  7. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years...... or older. Design: Secondary analysis of JUPITER ( Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: 1315 sites in 26 countries randomly assigned participants in JUPITER. Participants: Among......: The 32% of trial participants 70 years or older accrued 49% (n = 194) of the 393 confirmed primary end points. The rates of the primary end point in this age group were 1.22 and 1.99 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively ( hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0...

  8. Modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual para descrever o tamanho da leitegada Random regression models with different residual variance structures for describing litter size in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Cavalcante-Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual, a fim de se buscar a melhor modelagem para a característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer (TLN. Utilizaram-se 1.701 registros de TLN, que foram analisados por meio de modelo animal, unicaracterística, de regressão aleatória. As regressões fixa e aleatórias foram representadas por funções contínuas sobre a ordem de parto, ajustadas por polinômios ortogonais de Legendre de ordem 3. Para averiguar a melhor modelagem para a variância residual, considerou-se a heterogeneidade de variância por meio de 1 a 7 classes de variância residual. O modelo geral de análise incluiu grupo de contemporâneo como efeito fixo; os coeficientes de regressão fixa para modelar a trajetória média da população; os coeficientes de regressão aleatória do efeito genético aditivo-direto, do comum-de-leitegada e do de ambiente permanente de animal; e o efeito aleatório residual. O teste da razão de verossimilhança, o critério de informação de Akaike e o critério de informação bayesiano de Schwarz apontaram o modelo que considerou homogeneidade de variância como o que proporcionou melhor ajuste aos dados utilizados. As herdabilidades obtidas foram próximas a zero (0,002 a 0,006. O efeito de ambiente permanente foi crescente da 1ª (0,06 à 5ª (0,28 ordem, mas decrescente desse ponto até a 7ª ordem (0,18. O comum-de-leitegada apresentou valores baixos (0,01 a 0,02. A utilização de homogeneidade de variância residual foi mais adequada para modelar as variâncias associadas à característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer nesse conjunto de dado.The objective of this work was to compare random regression models with different residual variance structures, so as to obtain the best modeling for the trait litter size at birth (LSB in swine. One thousand, seven hundred and one records of LSB were analyzed. LSB was analyzed by means of a

  9. Effects of Compression Stockings on Elevation of Leg Lymph Pumping Pressure and Improvement of Quality of Life in Healthy Female Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Ryota; Unno, Naoki; Saito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sano, Masaki; Katahashi, Kazuto; Uranaka, Hironori; Marumo, Tomohiko; Konno, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Lymph is pumped through the collecting lymphatic vessels by both intrinsic and extrinsic forces. The intrinsic pump relies on spontaneous lymphatic contraction, which generates the pumping lymph pressure (Plp). Among healthy people with daily leg edema, a considerable number of cases are accompanied with low leg Plp. Herein, a double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in healthy female volunteers with reduced leg Plp to compare the effectiveness of a 15-29 mmHg compression stocking (Stocking A) and a 8-16 mmHg stocking (Stocking B) on elevating Plp. Among 219 healthy female volunteers who underwent measurement of leg Plp, 80 participants (36.5%) had unilateral or bilateral legs with Plp measured using indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and an occlusion cuff technique while sitting. At 16 weeks, both Stockings A and B resulted in significantly elevated leg Plp, with the effect on elevating Plp being superior for Stocking A. Only Stocking A resulted in decreased prevalence of leg edema and improved Short Form-36 scores. Compression stockings may represent a therapeutic option to elevate leg Plp and ameliorate leg edema, thereby leading to improved quality of life in healthy females with low leg Plp.

  10. Prehospital fibrinolysis with dual antiplatelet therapy in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: a substudy of the randomized double blind CLARITY-TIMI 28 trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Montalescot, G.; Sabatine, M.S.; Soulat, L.; Lambert, Y.; Lapostolle, F.; Adgey, J.; Cannon, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrinolytic therapy for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is frequently limited by delays in administration and by incomplete reperfusion or reocclusion of the infarct-related artery. Intensified prehospital management of STEMI may shorten time to treatment and improve

  11. Rehospitalizations Following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results From a Multi-Center Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Spitzer (Ernest); Frei, M. (Martina); S. Zaugg (Serge); Hadorn, S. (Susanne); H. Kelbaek (Henning); M. Ostojić (Miodrag); A. Baumbach (Andreas); D. Tüller (David); M. Roffi (Marco); T. Engstrøm (Thomas); G. Pedrazzini (Giovanni); Vukcevic, V. (Vladan); M. Magro (Michael); R. Kornowski (Ran); T.F. Lüscher; C. von Birgelen (Clemens); D. Heg (Dik); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); L. Räber (Lorenz)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground--Rehospitalizations (RHs) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction carry a high economic burden and may deteriorate quality of life. Characterizing patients at higher risk may allow the design of preventive measures. We studied the frequency, reasons, and predictors for

  12. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L.; Kelbæk, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before...... a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups....

  13. Elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained increased productivity of trees growing in elevated CO2 depends in part on their stoichiometric flexibility, i.e., increasing their nutrient use efficiency, or on increased nutrient uptake from the soil. Phosphorus (P) may be a nutrient as limiting as nitrogen (N) in

  14. A prospective, randomized, open-label trial of 6-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of the "DAPT-STEMI trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedhi, Elvin; Fabris, Enrico; van der Ent, Martin; Kennedy, Mark W; Buszman, Pawel; von Birgelen, Clemens; Cook, Stéphane; Wedel, Hans; Zijlstra, Felix

    2017-06-01

    The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug eluting stents (DESs) is unclear. Because prolonged DAPT is associated with higher bleeding risk and health care costs, establishing optimal DAPT duration is of paramount importance. No other randomized controlled trials have evaluated the safety of shorter DAPT duration in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with second-generation DESs and latest P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors. Six months of DAPT after Resolute Integrity stent implantation in STEMI patients is not inferior to 12 months of DAPT in clinical outcomes. The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation In ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (DAPT-STEMI) trial is a randomized, multicenter, international, open-label trial designed to examine the safety (noninferiority) of 6-month DAPT after Resolute Integrity stent implantation in STEMI patients compared with 12-month DAPT. Event-free patients on DAPT at 6month will be randomized (1:1 fashion) between single (aspirin only) versus DAPT for an additional 6 months and followed until 2 years after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point is a patient-oriented composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, any myocardial infarction, any revascularization, stroke, and major bleeding (net adverse clinical events [NACE]) at 18 months after randomization. To achieve a power of 85% for a noninferiority limit of 1.66, a total of 1100 enrolled patients are required. The DAPT-STEMI trial aims to assess in STEMI patients treated with second-generation DESs whether discontinuation of DAPT after 6 months of event-free survival is noninferior to routine 12-month DAPT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Kelsey D J

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children\\'s PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

  16. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögebakan, Ozlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A; van Baak, Marleen A; Jebb, Susan A; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Weickert, Martin O; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2011-12-20

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 weeks. The diets were either high or low protein or high or low glycemic index in 4 combinations or control. Weight loss (-11.23 kg; 95% confidence interval, -11.54 to -10.92; Pdiets than in those on high-glycemic-index diets (Pdiets achieved a -0.25 mg/L greater reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.17) than those on high-protein diets (Peffects. Low-glycemic-index carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, low-protein intake may specifically reduce low-grade inflammation and associated comorbidities in overweight/obese adults. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00390637.

  17. Randomized comparison of eptifibatide versus abciximab in primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the EVA-AMI Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeymer, Uwe; Margenet, Alain; Haude, Michael; Bode, Christoph; Lablanche, Jean-Marc; Heuer, Hubertus; Schröder, Rolf; Kropff, Stefan; Bourkaib, Ryad; Banik, Norbert; Zahn, Ralf; Teiger, Emmanuel

    2010-08-03

    The aim of this study was to compare eptifibatide and abciximab as adjuncts to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor abciximab as adjunct to primary PCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions has been shown to reduce ischemic complications and improve clinical outcomes. So far, no trial has been performed to compare the efficacy of another GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, eptifibatide, and abciximab in primary PCI. A total of 427 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions eptifibatide (n = 226) followed by a 24-h infusion or single-bolus abciximab (n = 201) followed by a 12-h infusion. In this noninferiority trial, the primary end point was the incidence of complete (> or =70%) ST-segment resolution (STR) 60 min after PCI, a measure of myocardial reperfusion. The assumption was a 60% complete STR rate in the abciximab group. The noninferiority margin was set to 15%. The incidence of complete STR at 60 min after PCI in the intention-to-treat analysis was 62.6% after eptifibatide and 56.3% after abciximab (adjusted difference: 7.1%; 95% confidence interval: 2.7% to 17.0%). All-cause mortality 6.2% versus 4.5% (p = 0.50); reinfarction 0.4% versus 3.5% (p = 0.03); target vessel revascularization 4.4% versus 6.5% (p = 0.40); the combined end point of death, nonfatal reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization 10.6% versus 10.9% (p = 0.90); stroke 0.5% versus 0.5% (p = 1.00) after 6 months; and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding complications 4.0% versus 2.0% (p = 0.20) after 30 days were observed after eptifibatide and abciximab, respectively. Eptifibatide as an adjunct to primary PCI is equally as effective as abciximab with respect to STR. (Efficacy of Eptifibatide Compared to Abciximab in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] for Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [STEMI]; NCT00426751). Copyright (c) 2010 American College of

  18. Computational investigation of longitudinal diffusion, eddy dispersion, and trans-particle mass transfer in bulk, random packings of core-shell particles with varied shell thickness and shell diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneyko, Anton; Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Baranau, Vasili; Khirevich, Siarhei; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2015-08-14

    In recent years, chromatographic columns packed with core-shell particles have been widely used for efficient and fast separations at comparatively low operating pressure. However, the influence of the porous shell properties on the mass transfer kinetics in core-shell packings is still not fully understood. We report on results obtained with a modeling approach to simulate three-dimensional advective-diffusive transport in bulk random packings of monosized core-shell particles, covering a range of reduced mobile phase flow velocities from 0.5 up to 1000. The impact of the effective diffusivity of analyte molecules in the porous shell and the shell thickness on the resulting plate height was investigated. An extension of Giddings' theory of coupled eddy dispersion to account for retention of analyte molecules due to stagnant regions in porous shells with zero mobile phase flow velocity is presented. The plate height equation involving a modified eddy dispersion term excellently describes simulated data obtained for particle-packings with varied shell thickness and shell diffusion coefficient. It is confirmed that the model of trans-particle mass transfer resistance of core-shell particles by Kaczmarski and Guiochon [42] is applicable up to a constant factor. We analyze individual contributions to the plate height from different mass transfer mechanisms in dependence of the shell parameters. The simulations demonstrate that a reduction of plate height in packings of core-shell relative to fully porous particles arises mainly due to reduced trans-particle mass transfer resistance and transchannel eddy dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander

    2015-07-07

    Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .

  20. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Jose A; Ross, Judith L; Taboada, Martha V; Sikes, Kaitlin M; Damaso, Ligeia C; Hossain, Jobayer; Caulfield, Michael P; Gidding, Samuel S; Mauras, Nelly

    2015-03-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and elevated LDL-C have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a process that can begin in childhood. To assess the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin improving lipid profiles in children with T1D and elevated LDL-C. Sixty children (31M/29F) with T1D, mean age: 15 ± 0.3 yr, mean diabetes duration: 6.8 ± 0.5 yr, HbA(1c) : 8.8 ± 0.2%, with mean LDL-C 124 ± 4.0mg/dl were recruited. After a 3-month run-in period, subjects were randomized double-blindly to atorvastatin or placebo for 6 months. Lipoprotein subfractions were measured by ion mobility and glucose control by HbA1C; continuous glucose monitors were worn quarterly. After a run-in period, 42 subjects were randomized. There were decreases in total cholesterol (-21%), LDL-C (-32%), non-HDL-C (-31%) and apoB (-26%) in the atorvastatin group versus placebo (p < 0.001). Lipoprotein subparticles (LDL-large 1 and 2A, IDL-large and small, VLDL- medium and small) decreased with statins (p < 0.03 all). Insulin sensitivity scores remained constant in both groups and correlated inversely with apoB (r = -0.312 p = 0.039) and small LDL 3A (r = -0.404 p = 0.007). One subject had asymptomatic elevation of creatinine kinase which normalized after atorvastatin discontinuation. Atorvastatin lowered LDL-C, apoB, and atherogenic lipoprotein subparticles in children with T1D and elevated LDL-C without worsening insulin resistance. The drug was well tolerated and safe. Long-term studies would provide better insight on the impact of these interventions in the development of cardiovascular disease in children with diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of a culturally-adapted lifestyle intervention to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk of Latino adults in primary care (Vida Sana): A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Lewis, Megan A; Zavella, Patricia; Kramer, M Kaye; Luna, Veronica; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Latinos bear a disproportionate burden of the dual pandemic of obesity and diabetes. However, successful interventions addressing this disparity through primary care are lacking. To address this gap, the 5-year Vida Sana (Healthy Life) study tests a culturally adapted and technology-enhanced group-based Diabetes Prevention Program intervention in a randomized controlled trial with overweight/obese Latino adults who have metabolic syndrome and/or pre-diabetes. Eligible, consenting patients (n=186) from a large community-based multispecialty group practice in Northern California will be randomly assigned to receive the culturally-adapted intervention or usual care. The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework guided the planned evaluations. The primary aim is to determine the effectiveness of the intervention (the "E" in RE-AIM). We hypothesize that the intervention will lead to a greater mean reduction in weight at 24months (primary endpoint) vs. usual care. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., blood pressure), psychosocial well-being (e.g., health-related quality of life), and behavior change (e.g., physical activity). The secondary aim is to evaluate the other RE-AIM dimensions using mixed methods: reach (e.g., participation rate of the target population), adoption (e.g., participating clinic and provider characteristics), implementation (e.g., intervention fidelity), and maintenance (e.g., sustainability in the practice setting). These findings have real word applicability with value to clinicians, patients, and other decision makers considering effective diabetes prevention programs for primary care that would support the millions of Latino adults who experience a disproportionate burden of diabetes. NCT02459691. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems.......Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...

  3. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L; Kelbæk, H; Vejlstrup, N; Engstrøm, T; Lønborg, J

    2017-07-01

    The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before acute CMR assessment compared to CMR-participants in a previously published double-blinded, placebo-controlled all-comer trial with CMR outcome as the primary endpoint. Baseline characteristics and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, heart failure and re-infarction after 30 days and 5 years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry. The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile upon admission as evaluated by the TIMI-risk score (3.7 (± 2.1) vs 4.0 (± 2.6), p = 0.043) and by left ventricular ejection fraction (43 (± 9) vs. 47 (± 10), p = 0.029). CMR drop-outs had a higher incidence of known hypertension (39% vs. 35%, p = 0.043), known diabetes (14% vs. 7%, p = 0.025), known cardiac disease (11% vs. 3%, p = 0.013) and known renal function disease (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.007). However, the 30-day and 5-years composite endpoint rate was not significantly higher among the CMR drop-out ((HR 1.43 (95%-CI 0.5; 3.97) (p = 0.5)) and (HR 1.31 (95%-CI 0.84; 2.05) (p = 0.24)). CMR-drop-outs had a higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline, a worse clinical risk profile upon admission. However, no significant difference was observed in the clinical endpoints between the groups.

  4. 5-year clinical outcomes in the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial a randomized comparison of an early invasive versus selective invasive management in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Peter; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2010-03-02

    We present the 5-year clinical outcomes according to treatment strategy with additional risk stratification of the ICTUS (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes) trial. Long-term outcomes may be relevant to decide treatment strategy for patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and elevated troponin T. We randomly assigned 1,200 patients to an early invasive or selective invasive strategy. The outcomes were the composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and its individual components. Risk stratification was performed with the FRISC (Fast Revascularization in InStability in Coronary artery disease) risk score. At 5-year follow-up, revascularization rates were 81% in the early invasive and 60% in the selective invasive group. Cumulative death or MI rates were 22.3% and 18.1%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.66, p = 0.053). No difference was observed in mortality (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.60, p = 0.49) or MI (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.70, p = 0.20). After risk stratification, no benefit of an early invasive strategy was observed in reducing death or spontaneous MI in any of the risk groups. In patients presenting with NSTE-ACS and elevated troponin T, we could not demonstrate a long-term benefit of an early invasive strategy in reducing death or MI. (Invasive versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable coronary Syndromes [ICTUS]; ISRCTN82153174). Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Ticagrelor Versus Prasugrel for Inflammation, Vascular Function, and Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Requiring Coronary Stenting: A Prospective, Randomized, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Cho, Sang-A; Kim, Jong-Ho; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2017-08-28

    This study compared adenosine-associated pleiotropic effects of the 2 P2Y12 receptor antagonists on vascular function, systemic inflammation, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Both ticagrelor and prasugrel have potent antiplatelet effects. However, only ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine. Using a randomized, crossover design with 10-week follow-up ticagrelor or prasugrel was administered to type 2 diabetic patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome requiring stent implantation. A total of 62 patients underwent randomization in a 1:1 ratio to receive ticagrelor or prasugrel for 5 weeks followed by a direct cross over to the alternative treatment for 5 additional weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, inflammatory markers, and number of circulating EPCs were compared. Improvement in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was greater in the ticagrelor group (0.15 ± 0.19 mm vs. -0.03 ± 0.18 mm; p ticagrelor compared with prasugrel decreased interleukin 6 (-0.58 ± 0.43 pg/ml vs. -0.05 ± 0.24 pg/ml; p Ticagrelor compared with prasugrel significantly increased absolute numbers of circulating EPCs CD34+/KDR+ (42.5 ± 37.8 per μl vs. -28.2 ± 23.7 per μl; p ticagrelor significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha and increased circulating EPCs, contributing to improved arterial endothelial function in diabetic non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, data support that pleiotropic effects of ticagrelor beyond its potent antiplatelet effects could contribute to additional clinical benefits. (Comparison of Ticagrelor vs. Prasugrel on Inflammation, Arterial Stiffness, Endothelial Function, and Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Patients With Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome [NSTE-ACS] Requiring Coronary Stenting; NCT02487732). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  6. FFR-guided multivessel stenting reduces urgent revascularization compared with infarct-related artery only stenting in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bajaj, Navkaranbir S; Arora, Pankaj; Arora, Garima; Qamar, Arman; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown fractional flow reserve-guided (FFR) multivessel stenting to be superior to infarct-related artery (IRA) only stenting in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. This effect was mainly driven by a reduction in overall repeat revascularization. However, the ability to assess the effect of this strategy on urgent revascularization or reinfarction was underpowered in individual trials. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science for RCTs of FFR-guided multivessel stenting versus IRA-only stenting in STEMI with multivessel disease. The outcomes of interest were death, reinfarction, urgent, and non-urgent repeat revascularization. Risk ratios (RR) were pooled using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. After review of 786 citations, 2 RCTs were included. The pooled results demonstrated a significant reduction in the composite of death, reinfarction, or revascularization in the FFR-guided multivessel stenting group versus IRA-only stenting group (RR [95%, Confidence Interval]: 0.49 [0.33-0.72], prevascularization, both urgent (0.41 [0.24-0.71], p=0.002) and non-urgent revascularization (0.31 [0.19-0.50], prevascularization but also urgent revascularization. The effect on reinfarction needs to be evaluated in larger trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of participation in randomized trials of reperfusion therapy on the time to reperfusion and hospital mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A single-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliard, Jean-Michel; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Feldman, Laurent J; Himbert, Dominique; Nejjari, Mohammed; Ducrocq, Gregory; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Garbarz, Eric; Aubry, Pierre; Duchatelle, Valérie; Vahanian, Alec; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    There is uncertainty as to whether consenting and randomizing patients in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) delays reperfusion and increases mortality. The aim of this study was to determine whether participation of patients with STEMI in RCTs is associated with delay in implementation of reperfusion therapy and increased hospital mortality. A consecutive sample of 2523 patients, admitted within 6 hours of symptom onset without cardiogenic shock, was recruited from a single tertiary academic centre. They were categorized according to participation (n=392, 15.5%) or nonparticipation (n=2131, 84.5%) in RCTs of reperfusion therapy. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. Additional outcome was time from symptom onset to receipt of reperfusion therapy. Trial participants were more likely to receive fibrinolysis with a 37 min delay in comparison with patients not included in RCTs. Time from symptom onset to reperfusion (minutes) was longer for trial participants than nonparticipants (246 ± 85 vs 233 ± 93, p=0.01). Hospital mortality was 3.61% for nonparticipants. Expected mortality (based on risk modeling) for trial participants was 2.74% (p=0.014 vs nonparticipants). Observed mortality was 1.53% (p=0.034 vs nonparticipants; p=0.16 vs expected mortality). In a multivariable analysis using logistic regression, participation in a RCT was not an independent correlate of hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.23-2.43, p=0.16). In this consecutive cohort, despite a longer delay to reperfusion, there was no indication that participation in a RCT, starting before initiation of reperfusion therapy, was associated with a detectable increase in risk of hospital mortality among patients with STEMI. These data suggest that it is possible to consent and randomize patients with STEMI into RCTs without jeopardizing their survival. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  8. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  9. Transcatheter Interatrial Shunt Device for the Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (REDUCE LAP-HF I [Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure]): A Phase 2, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ted; Mauri, Laura; Kahwash, Rami; Litwin, Sheldon; Ricciardi, Mark J; van der Harst, Pim; Penicka, Martin; Fail, Peter S; Kaye, David M; Petrie, Mark C; Basuray, Anupam; Hummel, Scott L; Forde-McLean, Rhondalyn; Nielsen, Christopher D; Lilly, Scott; Massaro, Joseph M; Burkhoff, Daniel; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2018-01-23

    In nonrandomized, open-label studies, a transcatheter interatrial shunt device (IASD, Corvia Medical) was associated with lower pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fewer symptoms, and greater quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (HF) and midrange or preserved ejection fraction (EF ≥40%). We conducted the first randomized sham-controlled trial to evaluate the IASD in HF with EF ≥40%. REDUCE LAP-HF I (Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure) was a phase 2, randomized, parallel-group, blinded multicenter trial in patients with New York Heart Association class III or ambulatory class IV HF, EF ≥40%, exercise PCWP ≥25 mm Hg, and PCWP-right atrial pressure gradient ≥5 mm Hg. Participants were randomized (1:1) to the IASD versus a sham procedure (femoral venous access with intracardiac echocardiography but no IASD placement). The participants and investigators assessing the participants during follow-up were blinded to treatment assignment. The primary effectiveness end point was exercise PCWP at 1 month. The primary safety end point was major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events at 1 month. PCWP during exercise was compared between treatment groups using a mixed-effects repeated measures model analysis of covariance that included data from all available stages of exercise. A total of 94 patients were enrolled, of whom 44 met inclusion/exclusion criteria and were randomized to the IASD (n=22) and control (n=22) groups. Mean age was 70±9 years, and 50% were female. At 1 month, the IASD resulted in a greater reduction in PCWP compared with sham control (P=0.028 accounting for all stages of exercise). Peak PCWP decreased by 3.5±6.4 mm Hg in the treatment group versus 0.5±5.0 mm Hg in the control group (P=0.14). There were no peri-procedural or 1-month major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events in the IASD group and 1 event (worsening renal function) in the

  10. The addition of vildagliptin to metformin prevents the elevation of interleukin 1ß in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: a prospective, randomized, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Arwa; Eskenazi, Dana; Goldkorn, Ronen; Leor, Jonathan; Naftali-Shani, Nili; Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klempfner, Robert

    2017-05-22

    Patients with type 2 diabetes present with an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Animal evidence indicates that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, yet clinical data are scarcely available. A prospective, randomized, open-label study was performed in 60 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes, who participated in a cardiac rehabilitation program. After a washout period of 3 weeks, patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive combined vildagliptin/metformin therapy (intervention group: n = 40) vs. metformin alone (control group: n = 20) for a total of 12 weeks. Blinded assessment of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß, the primary endpoint), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Mean age of study patients was 67 ± 9 years, 75% were males, and baseline HbA1c and inflammatory markers levels were similar between the two groups. At 12 weeks of follow up, levels of IL-1ß, hsCRP, and HbA1c were significantly lower in the intervention group as compared with the control group. There was a continuous elevation of IL-1ß among the control group, which was not observed in the intervention group (49 vs. 4%, respectively; p < 0.001). The hsCRP was lowered by 60% in the vildagliptin/metformin group vs. 23% in the metformin group (p < 0.01). Moreover, a significant relative reduction of the HbA1c was seen in the intervention group (7% reduction, p < 0.03). The addition of vildagliptin to metformin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD led to a significant suppression of the IL-1ß elevation during follow up. A significant relative reduction of hsCRP and HbA1c in the intervention group was also observed. Trial registration NCT01604213.

  11. Impact of Escalating Loading Dose Regimens of Ticagrelor in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results of a Prospective Randomized Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Cho, Jung Rae; Bhatti, Mona; DeGroat, Christopher; Ferrante, Elisabetta; Dunn, Elizabeth C; Nanavati, Amit; Carraway, Edward; Suryadevara, Siva; Zenni, Martin M; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of escalating ticagrelor loading dose (LD) regimens in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing PPCI frequently have suboptimal platelet inhibition in the early hours after ticagrelor LD. The use of high ticagrelor LD regimens has been hypothesized to optimize platelet inhibition in PPCI. This was a prospective, randomized study of escalating ticagrelor LD regimens (180 mg, 270 mg, or 360 mg) in PPCI (N = 52). PK/PD analyses were performed before and 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h post-LD. PK assessments included exposure to ticagrelor and its metabolite (AR-C124910XX). PD assessments included P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) measured by VerifyNow P2Y12 and platelet reactivity index (PRI) measured by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). Platelet reactivity was elevated during the first 2 h post-LD. There were no differences in PRU between groups during the study time course (p = 0.179). There were no significant differences in PRU levels across groups at all time points, except at 1 h (p = 0.017) where platelet reactivity was lowest with a 270-mg LD. No differences were found between the 180-mg and 360-mg groups (primary endpoint; p > 0.999). High on-treatment platelet reactivity rates were not different across groups, except at 1 hour (p = 0.038). Parallel PD findings were observed with VASP-PRI. PK analysis showed a delay in ticagrelor absorption and generation of AR-C124910XX, irrespective of dose. Although morphine was associated with a delay in ticagrelor PK/PD, it was not an independent predictor of high on-treatment platelet reactivity. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing PPCI frequently exhibit impaired response to ticagrelor in the early hours after drug administration, which cannot be overcome by increasing LD regimens. These PD findings are largely

  12. Randomized comparison of endothelial progenitor cells capture stent versus cobalt-chromium stent for treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Six-month clinical, angiographic, and IVUS follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystroň, Marian; Cervinka, Pavel; Spaček, Radim; Kvašňák, Martin; Jakabčin, Jozef; Cervinková, Michaela; Kala, Petr; Widimský, Petr

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of endothelial progenitor cells capture (EPC) stent in the treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when compared with cobalt-chromium stents (CoCr). Between July 2006 and May 2008, 100 patients with single vessel disease undergoing primary PCI for STEMI were randomly assigned to receive either EPC stent (N = 50) or CoCr stent (N = 50). High-pressure stent implantation was carried out in both groups. Dual antiplatelet treatment was administered for 30 days in both groups. All patients underwent 6-month clinical, angiographic, and IVUS follow-up. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 30 days was comparable in both groups. At 6-month follow-up, the rates of MACEs and TLR in the EPC stent group when compared with CoCr stent were 24% vs.10%; P = 0.06 and 14% vs. 4%; P = 0.08, respectively. There were three cases (6%) of stent thrombosis (ST) in the EPC stent group versus none in CoCr group. The use of EPC capture stents in the setting of STEMI is feasible and safe in terms of 30-days outcome. However, at the 6-month follow-up, we found a trend of higher rates of MACE and TLR in the EPC stent capture group compared to CoCr stents. The study does not support the use of EPC capture stents with short duration dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with STEMI. Future randomized studies with large sample sizes would be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such approach. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  14. Ramipril and Losartan Exert a Similar Long-Term Effect upon Markers of Heart Failure, Endogenous Fibrinolysis, and Platelet Aggregation in Survivors of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Single Centre Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinšek, Martin; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients prevents heart failure and recurrent thrombosis. Our aim was to compare the effects of ramipril and losartan upon the markers of heart failure, endogenous fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in STEMI patients over the long term. After primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), 28 STEMI patients were randomly assigned ramipril and 27 losartan, receiving therapy for six months with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We measured N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), ejection fraction (EF), plasminogen-activator-inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and platelet aggregation by closure times (CT) at the baseline and after six months. Baseline NT-proBNP ≥ 200 pmol/mL was observed in 48.1% of the patients, EF losartan resulted in a similar effect upon PAI-1, NT-proBNP, EF, and CT levels in survivors of STEMI, but in comparison to control group, receiving DAPT alone, ramipril or losartan treatment with DAPT significantly increased mean CT (226.7 ± 80.3 sec versus 158.1 ± 80.3 sec, p losartan exert a similar effect upon markers of heart failure and endogenous fibrinolysis, and, with DAPT, a more efficient antiplatelet effect in long term than DAPT alone.

  15. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  16. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  17. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  18. Randomized comparison of intracoronary tirofiban versus urokinase as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results of the ICTUS-AMI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-qi; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Feng-hua; Qiu, Jian-ping; Jin, Hui-geng; Jiang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Rui-yan; Hu, Jian; Yang, Zhen-kun; Shen, Ying; Shen, Wei-feng

    2013-08-01

    No randomized trial has been performed to compare the efficacy of an intracoronary bolus of tirofiban versus urokinase during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated whether the effects of adjunctive therapy with an intracoronary bolus of urokinase was noninferior to the effects of an intracoronary bolus of tirofiban in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI. A total of 490 patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were randomized to an intracoronary bolus of tirofiban (10 µg/kg; n = 247) or urokinase (250 kU/20 ml; n = 243). Serum levels of P-selectin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), CD40 ligand (CD40L), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in the coronary sinus were measured before and after intracoronary drug administration. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete ( ≥ 70%) ST-segment resolution (STR) at 90 minutes after intervention, and the noninferiority margin was set to 15%. In the intention-to-treat analysis, complete STR was achieved in 54.4% of patients treated with an intracoronary bolus of urokinase and in 60.6% of those treated with an intracoronary bolus of tirofiban (adjusted difference: -7.0%; 95% confidence interval: -15.7% to 1.8%). The corrected TIMI frame count of the infarct-related artery was lower, left ventricular ejection fraction was higher, and the 6-month major adverse cardiac event-free survival tended to be better in the intracoronary tirofiban group. An intracoronary bolus of tirofiban resulted in lower levels of P-selectin, vWF, CD40L, and SAA in the coronary sinus compared with an intracoronary bolus of urokinase after primary PCI (P < 0.05). An intracoronary bolus of urokinase as an adjunct to primary PCI for acute STEMI is not equally effective to an intracoronary bolus of tirofiban with respect to improvement in myocardial reperfusion assessed by STR. This may be caused by less reduction in coronary circulatory platelet activation and inflammation.

  19. Eptifibatide infusion versus placebo in high risk patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A prospective multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Mirosław; Wybraniec, Maciej T; Milewski, Krzysztof; Sanak, Marek; Wita, Krystian; Buldak, Łukasz; Kondys, Marek; Buszman, Paweł; Bochenek, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    This randomized prospective clinical trial aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of preoperative use of eptifibatide in high risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), requiring urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). A total of 140 patients with NSTE-ACS eligible for urgent surgical revascularization received either eptifibatide (bolus plus infusion) 12-48 hours prior to surgery (N.=72 patients) or placebo (normal saline; N.=68 patients) followed by routinely administered enoxaparin and aspirin. Patients were regarded as unsuitable for percutaneous coronary intervention by the heart team. CABG was performed 4 hours after discontinuation of eptifibatide or placebo infusion. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and the need for rehospitalization due to recurrent ischemia at 12-month follow-up. Secondary endpoints included MACCE rate at 1 month, bleeding complications, platelet inhibition efficacy and correlation of platelet activity with MACCE rate. Cumulative one year MACCE rate was 35% vs. 14% in the control and treated group respectively (P=0.012). Mortality rate at 30 days follow-up was 10% vs. 3% (P=0.021) and was not changed at 12-month follow-up. There was a significant difference between both groups regarding perioperative MI (22% vs. 8%, P=0.03). The rates of stroke, blood loss and blood transfusion were similar in both groups. Preoperative use of eptifibatide vs. placebo is linked to significantly reduced 12-month MACCE rate in patients with NSTE-ACS requiring urgent CABG, while it simultaneously seems not to confer a greater risk of postoperative bleeding.

  20. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  1. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  2. Continuous Transversus Abdominis Plane Nerve Blocks: Does Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method-Automatic Repeated Bolus Versus Continuous Basal Infusion-Influence the Extent of Sensation to Cold?: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Crossover Study in Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Bahareh; Said, Engy T; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Monahan, Amanda M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Furnish, Timothy J; Tran, Johnathan T; Donohue, Michael C; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2017-04-01

    It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours. The right side was randomly assigned to either a basal infusion (8 mL/h) or bolus doses (24 mL administered every 3 hours for a total of 2 bolus doses) in a double-masked manner. The left side received the alternate treatment. The primary end point was the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller along the axillary line at hour 6 (6 hours after the local anesthetic administration was initiated). Secondary end points included the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller and Von Frey filaments along the axillary line and along a transverse line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine at hours 0 to 6. Although there were statistically significant differences between treatments within the earlier part of the administration period, by hour 6 the difference in extent of sensory deficit to cold failed to reach statistical significance along the axillary line (mean = 0.9 cm; SD = 6.8; 95% confidence interval -2.0 to 3.8; P = .515) and transverse line (mean = 2.5 cm; SD = 10.1; 95% confidence interval -1.8 to 6.8; P = .244). Although the difference between treatments was statistically significant at various early time points for the horizontal, vertical, and estimated area measurements of both cold and mechanical pressure sensory deficits, no comparison remained statistically significant by hour 6. No evidence was found in this study involving healthy volunteers to support the hypothesis that changing the local anesthetic

  3. Elevational Shifts in the Topographic Position of Polylepis Forest Stands in the Andes of Southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Toivonen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of high-Andean treeline forests has provoked discussion about the relative importance of anthropogenic and climatic causes of this pattern, both of which vary with topography. We aimed to understand the topographic controls on the distribution of Polylepis subsericans treeline forests in the Andes of southern Peru, and the changes in these controls along an elevational gradient. We mapped Polylepis forests in the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, using high-resolution aerial images and related forest cover to topographic variables extracted from a digital terrain model (30-m resolution. The variables were selected based on their expected biological relevance for tree growth at high elevations. We constructed logistic regression models of forest cover, separately for each of five 100-m elevational belts. To deal with spatial autocorrelation, models were based on randomized 10% subsampling of the data with 1000 repetitions. The results suggest a consistent shift in topographic preference with elevation, with forests at lower elevations showing a preference for topographically protected sites near rivers and forests at higher elevations being increasingly restricted to north-facing and well-drained sites. Our study offers the first indication of the ability of Andean treeline forests to benefit from the topographic heterogeneity of the high-Andes. Providing that dispersal and establishment are possible, local relocation between microsites could help these forests to persist regionally in spite of changing climatic conditions.

  4. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  5. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  6. Expected optimal feedback with Time-Varying Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucci, M.P.; Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070970777

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive the closed loop form of the Expected Optimal Feedback rule, sometimes called passive learning stochastic control, with time varying parameters. As such this paper extends the work of Kendrick (1981,2002, Chapter 6) where parameters are assumed to vary randomly around a known

  7. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  8. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    . Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based......, and medication. We provide an overview of the pathogenesis of lactate level elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical end point of resuscitation...

  9. Kas Euroopale oma "Elevant"? / Tiina Lokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lokk, Tiina, 1955-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka teistest võistlusprogrammi filmidest ja "Klassi" võrdlus Gus Van Santi filmiga "Elevant"

  10. Utilização de modelos de regressão aleatória para produção de leite no dia do controle, com diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais Random regression test-day models for milk yield records, with different structure of residual variances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira El Faro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados quatorze modelos de regressão aleatória, para ajustar 86.598 dados de produção de leite no dia do controle de 2.155 primeiras lactações de vacas Caracu, truncadas aos 305 dias. Os modelos incluíram os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo e a covariável idade da vaca ao parto. Uma regressão ortogonal de ordem cúbica foi usada para modelar a trajetória média da população. Os efeitos genéticos aditivos e de ambiente permanente foram modelados por meio de regressões aleatórias, usando polinômios ortogonais de Legendre, de ordens cúbicas. Diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais foram testadas e consideradas por meio de classes contendo 1, 10, 15 e 43 variâncias residuais e de funções de variâncias (FV usando polinômios ordinários e ortogonais, cujas ordens variaram de quadrática até sêxtupla. Os modelos foram comparados usando o teste da razão de verossimilhança, o Critério de Informação de Akaike e o Critério de Informação Bayesiano de Schwar. Os testes indicaram que, quanto maior a ordem da função de variâncias, melhor o ajuste. Dos polinômios ordinários, a função de sexta ordem foi superior. Os modelos com classes de variâncias residuais foram aparentemente superiores àqueles com funções de variância. O modelo com homogeneidade de variâncias foi inadequado. O modelo com 15 classes heterogêneas foi o que melhor ajustou às variâncias residuais, entretanto, os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram muito próximos para os modelos com 10, 15 ou 43 classes de variâncias ou com FV de sexta ordem.Fourteen random regression models were used to adjust 86,595 test-day milk records of 2,155 first lactation of native Caracu cows. The models include fixed effects of contemporary group and age of cow as covariable. A cubic regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomial of days in milk was used to model the mean trend and the additive genetic and permanent environmental regressions

  11. Persistently elevated alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitin; Gorard, David A

    2012-08-24

    A 32-year-old overweight asymptomatic man was found to have a persistently raised serum alkaline phosphatase at 250-300 U/l (normal range liver function tests were unremarkable apart from an initial marginally elevated alanine transaminase, which normalised with weight reduction. Abdominal imaging revealed a fatty liver but an extensive serological search for significant hepatobiliary disease was negative. Subsequent isoenzyme electrophoresis revealed normal liver and bone fractions of alkaline phosphatase but a grossly elevated intestinal fraction. Elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase should be considered in the investigation of unexplained alkaline phosphatase, particularly when the usual associated hepatobiliary and bony pathologies are not present. Although an elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase can be linked to significant gastrointestinal pathology, this case report highlights that it can be a benign biochemical finding.

  12. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  13. Estimação de componentes de co-variância para pesos corporais do nascimento aos 365 dias de idade de bovinos Guzerá empregando-se modelos de regressão aleatória Estimates of covariance components for body weights from birth to 365 days of age in Guzera cattle, using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Cristina Pelicioni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 19.770 pesos corporais de bovinos Guzerá, do nascimento aos 365 dias de idade, pertencentes ao banco de dados da Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ foi analisado com os objetivos de comparar diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais, considerando 1, 18, 28 e 53 classes residuais e funções de variância de ordens quadrática a quíntica; e estimar funções de co-variância de diferentes ordens para os efeitos genético aditivo direto, genético materno, de ambiente permanente de animal e de mãe e parâmetros genéticos para os pesos corporais usando modelos de regressão aleatória. Os efeitos aleatórios foram modelados por regressões polinomiais em escala de Legendre com ordens variando de linear a quártica. Os modelos foram comparados pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança e pelos critérios de Informação de Akaike e de Informação Bayesiano de Schwarz. O modelo com 18 classes heterogêneas foi o que melhor se ajustou às variâncias residuais, de acordo com os testes estatísticos, porém, o modelo com função de variância de quinta ordem também mostrou-se apropriado. Os valores de herdabilidade direta estimados foram maiores que os encontrados na literatura, variando de 0,04 a 0,53, mas seguiram a mesma tendência dos estimados pelas análises unicaracterísticas. A seleção para peso em qualquer idade melhoraria o peso em todas as idades no intervalo estudado.A total of 19,770 body weight records of Guzera cattle, measured from birth to 365 days of age and supplied by the Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association, was analyzed with the following objectives of: 1 to compare different residual variances through step functions with 1, 18, 28 and 53 classes and through variance functions with orders ranging from two to five using ordinary polynomials and 2 to estimate covariance functions considering different orders for direct additive genetic effects, animal permanent environmental and maternal

  14. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Men With Primary Elevations of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels of 190 mg/dL or Above: Analyses From the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) 5-Year Randomized Trial and 20-Year Observational Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Robertson, Michele; Catapano, Alberico L; Watts, Gerald F; Kastelein, John J; Packard, Chris J; Ford, Ian; Ray, Kausik K

    2017-11-14

    Patients with primary elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dL are at a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as a result of long-term exposure to markedly elevated LDL-C levels. Therefore, initiation of statin therapy is recommended for these individuals. However, there is a lack of randomized trial evidence supporting these recommendations in primary prevention. In the present analysis, we provide hitherto unpublished data on the cardiovascular effects of LDL-C lowering among a primary prevention population with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL. We aimed to assess the benefits of LDL-C lowering on cardiovascular outcomes among individuals with primary elevations of LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL without preexisting vascular disease at baseline. We performed post hoc analyses from the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) randomized, placebo-controlled trial, and observational posttrial long-term follow-up, after excluding individuals with evidence of vascular disease at baseline. WOSCOPS enrolled 6595 men aged 45 to 64 years, who were randomly assigned to pravastatin 40 mg/d or placebo. In the present analyses, 5529 participants without evidence of vascular disease were included, stratified by LDL-C levels into those with LDL-C 0.9). Among individuals with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL, pravastatin reduced the risk of coronary heart disease by 27% (P=0.033) and major adverse cardiovascular events by 25% (P=0.037) during the initial trial phase and the risk of coronary heart disease death, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality by 28% (P=0.020), 25% (P=0.009), and 18% (P=0.004), respectively, over a total of 20 years of follow-up. The present analyses provide robust novel evidence for the short- and long-term benefits of lowering LDL-C for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among individuals with primary elevations of LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER AND VARYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of the study on the influence of superplasticizer and varying aggregate size on the drying shrinkage and compressive strength of laterised concrete. Four different samples of laterised concrete were made from prescribed mix ratio of 1:1:2 which include; two control specimens made with ...

  17. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  18. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  19. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  20. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  1. Design and rationale of the treatment of acute coronary syndromes with otamixaban trial: a double-blind triple-dummy 2-stage randomized trial comparing otamixaban to unfractionated heparin and eptifibatide in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes with a planned early invasive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Mehta, Shamir R; Pollack, Charles V; Bode, Christoph; Gaudin, Christophe; Fanouillere, Karen; Moryusef, Angele; Wiviott, Stephen D; Sabatine, Marc S

    2012-12-01

    Otamixaban is a synthetic intravenous direct factor Xa inhibitor, with rapid onset/offset, linear kinetics, and no significant renal elimination. A phase II trial in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) showed a marked reduction in the combined end point of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and similar bleeding rates with otamixaban at midrange doses, compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and eptifibatide. The TAO trial is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy controlled trial testing the efficacy of otamixaban over UFH plus eptifibatide in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS to be treated with dual oral antiplatelet therapy and an invasive strategy. Approximately 13,220 patients in 55 countries will be randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive UFH plus downstream eptifibatide (started pre-percutaneous coronary intervention and continued per label) or otamixaban (0.08 mg/kg intravenous bolus at randomization then 0.100 or 0.140 mg/kg per hour intravenous infusion). An interim analysis was performed after ≥1,969 patients per arm completed 7 days of follow-up and the Data Monitoring Committee selected 1 otamixaban dose (blinded to investigators) to be carried forward using a prespecified algorithm. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause mortality or new MI through day 7. The primary safety outcome is thrombolysis in MI major or minor bleeding through day 7. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, recurrent ischemia/infarction resulting in prolonged/recurrent hospitalization, periprocedural angiographic complications, and pharmacokinetic data in 6,000 patients. The TAO trial will assess the clinical efficacy and safety of otamixaban in non-ST-segment elevation ACS with planned invasive strategy. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong

    2006-01-01

    hours after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg of body weight) or placebo for 6 days. The primary end point was change in systolic wall thickening from baseline to 6 months determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An independent core...... laboratory analyzed all MRI examinations. Systolic wall thickening improved 17% in the infarct area in the G-CSF group and 17% in the placebo group (P=1.0). Comparable results were found in infarct border and noninfarcted myocardium. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved similarly in the 2 groups...

  3. Elevated Production of Nociceptive CC-chemokines and sE-selectin in Patients with Low Back Pain and the Effects of Spinal Manipulation: A Non-randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan, Julita A; McGregor, Marion; Triano, John J; Injeyan, H Stephen

    2017-04-19

    The involvement of inflammatory components in the pathophysiology of low back pain is poorly understood. It has been suggested that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) may exert anti-inflammatory effects. To determine the involvement of inflammation-associated chemokines (CC series) in the pathogenesis of non-specific low back pain and to evaluate the effect of SMT on that process. Patients presenting with non-radicular, non-specific low back pain (minimum pain score 3 on 10 point visual analogue scale, VAS) were recruited according to stringent inclusion criteria. They were evaluated for appropriateness to treat using a high velocity low amplitude manipulative thrust (HVLT) in the lumbar-lumbosacral region. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and following the administration of a series of 6 HVLTs on alternate days over the period of two weeks. The in vitro levels of CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4) production and plasma levels of an inflammatory biomarker, soluble E-selectin, were determined at baseline and at the termination of treatments two weeks later. Compared with asymptomatic controls baseline production of all chemokines was significantly elevated in acute (P=0.004 - <0.0001), and that of CCL2 and CCL4 in chronic LBP patients (P<0.0001). Furthermore, CCL4 production was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in the acute versus chronic LBP group. sE-selectin levels were significantly higher (P=0.003) in chronic but not in acute LBP patients. Following SMT, patient reported outcomes showed significant (P<0.0001) improvements in VAS and ODI scores. This was accompanied by a significant decline in CCL 3 production (P<0.0001) in both groups of patients. Change scores for CCL4 production differed significantly (P<0.0001) only for the acute LBP cohort, and no effect on the production of CCL2 or plasma sE-selectin levels was noted in either group. The production of chemotactic cytokines is significantly and protractedly elevated in LBP patients. Changes in

  4. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  5. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  6. Stereoscopic depth perception varies with hues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of color information to stereopsis is controversial, and whether the stereoscopic depth perception varies with chromaticity is ambiguous. This study examined the changes in depth perception caused by hue variations. Based on the fact that a greater disparity range indicates more efficient stereoscopic perception, the effect of hue variations on depth perception was evaluated through the disparity range with random-dot stereogram stimuli. The disparity range was obtained by constant-stimulus method for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Eight sample points include four main color hues: red, yellow, green, and blue at two levels of chroma. The results show that the disparity range for the yellow hue is greater than the red hue, the latter being greater than the blue hue and the disparity range for green hue is smallest. We conclude that the perceived depth is not the same for different hues for a given size of disparity. We suggest that the stereoscopic depth perception can vary with chromaticity.

  7. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  8. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  11. Randomized controlled multicenter study comparing short dental implants (6 mm) versus longer dental implants (11-15 mm) in combination with sinus floor elevation procedures. Part 2: clinical and radiographic outcomes at 1 year of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schincaglia, Gian Pietro; Thoma, Daniel S; Haas, Robert; Tutak, Marcin; Garcia, Abel; Taylor, Thomas D; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2015-11-01

    To compare, clinically and radiographically, short dental implants (6 mm) to long implants (11-15 mm) placed with sinus grafting. Participants with 5-7 mm of bone height in the posterior maxilla were randomly allocated to receive short implants (GS) or long implants with sinus grafting (GG). Implants were loaded with single crowns 6 months after placement (PR). Patients were re-evaluated 12 months after loading (FU-1). Outcome variables included: Implant survival rate (CSR), marginal bone level alteration (MBL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), plaque control record (PCR) and crown-to-implant ratios (C/I). Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests. In 97 subjects, 132 implants were re-evaluated at FU-1. The CSR was 100%. The MBL from implant placement (IP) to (PR) was -0.22 ± 0.4 mm for GG and -0.3 ± 0.45 mm for GS (p 0.05), PPD (p = 1) and PCR (p = 0.09). BoP was higher in the GS (p = 0.04). The C/I was 0.99 ± 0.17 for GG and 1.86 ± 0.23 for GS (p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between C/I and MBL, (GG: p = 0.13; GS: p = 0.38). Both treatment modalities provided similar outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Response of Japanese Breeder Quails to Varying Dietary Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three months feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein on productive performance, egg quality characteristics and hatchability using 930 six weeks breeders quails. The birds were randomly divided into five dietary treatment groups of 186 birds, and were further replicated ...

  13. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep to sugarcane (Sacccharum officinarum) tops supplemented with varying levels of Leucaena leucocephala foliage. Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed ...

  14. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leaf meal diets. Rabbits were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% CLM replaced with LLM for ...

  15. Peer influence on school learning among students of varying socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State.

  16. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  17. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  18. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.

    2016-12-01

    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  19. Assessing Accuracy in Varying LIDAR Data Point Densities in Digital Elevation Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    ... (Laser or Light Detection And Ranging) collection. Additionally, this thesis contains information on the multiple space missions that use laser altimetry or Lidar to gather data about planet earth, the moon, asteroids, Mars and Mercury...

  20. Influence of postnatal glucocorticoids on hippocampal-dependent learning varies with elevation patterns and administration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483...Bender, B.G., Lerner, J.A., & Kollasch, P.A.-C. (1988). Mood and memory in asthmatic children receiving corticosteroids. Journal of the American... Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 29 Jun 2012 – 31 April 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House

  1. [Elevated liver enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Elevated liver enzymes are a frequent finding in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients necessitating further evaluation to clarify the underlying disease. Three different patterns of increased liver enzymes can be defined to allow for a more precise and rational further diagnostic approach. A predominant increase in transaminase activities reflects a disturbance of hepatocellular integrity which can be found in patients with viral hepatitis, genetic liver diseases like Wilson`s disease or hemochromatosis, and drug-induced liver diseases. A second pattern is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities indicating cholestatic liver diseases. The next important diagnostic measure in this group is an ultrasound study discerning intra- from extrahepatic cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestatic diseases include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, genetic disturbances of canalicular membrane transporters or drug-induced liver dieseases. Extrahepatic cholestasis involves obstruction of the large bile ducts by gall stones or tumors. The third enzym pattern is defined by a predominant rise in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase which is observed in alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and infiltrating liver diseases. A rise in liver enzymes is not necessarily indicative of a primary hepatic origin. Extrahepatic diseases often cause similarly increased serum activities. In addition even higher values can be observed under normal conditions during pregnancy or in adolescens. Lower values in asymptomatic patients should only be controlled since more than 30% of elevated transaminases spontaneously normalize during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Semiparametric Recurrent Events Model with Time-varying Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangsheng; Liu, Lei; Bravata, Dawn M.; Williams, Linda S.; Tepper, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We consider a recurrent events model with time-varying coefficients motivated by two clinical applications. A random effects (Gaussian frailty) model is used to describe the intensity of recurrent events. The model can accommodate both time-varying and time-constant coefficients. The penalized spline method is used to estimate the time-varying coefficients. Laplace approximation is used to evaluate the penalized likelihood without a closed form. The smoothing parameters are estimated in a similar way to variance components. We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of the estimates for both time-varying and time-independent coefficients. We apply this method to analyze two data sets: a stroke study and a child wheeze study. PMID:22903343

  4. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  5. Random matrices, random processes and integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the remarkable connections between two domains that, a priori, seem unrelated: Random matrices (together with associated random processes) and integrable systems. The relations between random matrix models and the theory of classical integrable systems have long been studied. These appear mainly in the deformation theory, when parameters characterizing the measures or the domain of localization of the eigenvalues are varied. The resulting differential equations determining the partition function and correlation functions are, remarkably, of the same type as certain equations appearing in the theory of integrable systems. They may be analyzed effectively through methods based upon the Riemann-Hilbert problem of analytic function theory and by related approaches to the study of nonlinear asymptotics in the large N limit. Associated with studies of matrix models are certain stochastic processes, the "Dyson processes", and their continuum diffusion limits, which govern the spectrum in random ma...

  6. Elevation leads to altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2010-03-01

    Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism.

  7. Elevated temperature deformation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. M.

    The paper demonstrates a novel nondestructive test and data analysis technique for quantitative measurement of circumferentially varying flexural moduli of 2D involute carbon-carbon tag rings containing localized wrinkles and dry plies at room and rocket nozzle operating temperatures. Room temperature computed tomography (CT) deformation tests were performed on 11 carbon-carbon rings selected from the cylinders and cones fabricated under the NDE data application program and two plexiglass rings fabricated under this program. This testing and analysis technique is found to have primary application in validation of analytical models for carbon-carbon performance modeling. Both effects of defects assumptions, the effects of high temperature environments, and failure-related models can be validated effectively. The testing and analysis process can be interwoven in a manner that increases the engineering understanding of the material behavior and permits rapid resolution of analysis questions. Specific recommendations for the development and implementation of this technique are provided.

  8. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  9. Does allochthony in lakes change across an elevation gradient?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C; Williamson, Craig E; Kissman, Carrie E H; Saros, Jasmine E

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystems are subsidized with inputs of mass and energy from their surroundings. These allochthonous inputs regulate many ecosystem characteristics. In inland waters, terrestrial inputs of organic matter regulate food-web structure, ecosystem metabolism, water clarity, and thermal stratification. Future changes in allochthony may be especially pronounced in high-elevation ecosystems due to increases in vegetation and precipitation associated with climate change. Several techniques exist to characterize the degree of allochthony of organic matter in aquatic systems, including metrics such as ΔH, the net isotopic discrimination between water and particulate organic matter (POM) of deuterium stable isotopes, and the fluorescence index (FI), which characterizes the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Despite the importance of allochthonous organic carbon inputs, little is known about either how allochthony varies across elevation gradients or whether different metrics are similarly related to allochthony. We measured AH, FI, and a suite of related water-quality characteristics in 30 lakes across a montane to alpine elevation gradient (2340 to 3205 m) in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, USA, to understand how FI and AH varied with elevation, with one another, and with other allochthony-related water-quality characteristics. We hypothesized that allochthony of POM and DOM would decrease at higher elevations, with alpine lakes above treeline being more autochthonous compared with low-elevation lakes below treeline. We observed a significant inverse linear relationship between AH and Fl, with both metrics indicating a decrease in allochthony at higher elevations. Characteristics including the natural log of the ratio of concentrations of dissolved organic carbon to chlorophyll a (ln(DOC: Chl)), the spectral slope ratio between different spectra of two wavebands (SR, ratio of spectra at 275-295 to 350-400 nm), and a ratio of diffuse attenuation

  10. Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Field, R.; Grytnes, John-Arvid

    2016-01-01

    with elevation, globally. This was independent of richness–elevation relationships, which had varying shapes but decreased with elevation at high elevations. The endemism-elevation relationships were consistent with isolation-related predictions, but inconsistent with hypotheses related to area, richness...... and temperature. Main conclusions: Higher per-species speciation rates caused by increasing isolation with elevation are the most plausible and parsimonious explanation for the globally consistent pattern of higher endemism at higher elevations that we identify. We suggest that topography-driven isolation...... hypotheses invoking higher speciation with area, temperature and species richness. Location: 32 insular and 18 continental elevational gradients from around the world. Methods: We compiled entire floras with elevation-specific occurrence information, and calculated the proportion of native species...

  11. An eight-week, multicentric, randomized, interventional, open-label, phase 4, parallel comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5%/brimonidine tartrate 0.2% versus fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5%/dorzolamide 2% in patients with elevated intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Marcelo; Grigera, Daniel E; Barbosa, Wilma L; Jordao, Marcelo; Susanna, Remo

    2008-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5%/brimonidine tartrate 0.2% versus fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5%/dorzolamide 2% in patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) over 8 weeks. This 8-week, multicentric, interventional, randomized, open-label, parallel group study was conducted at 4 centers in Brazil and 1 center in Argentina. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to receive bilaterally fixed combination of brimonidine/timolol maleate 0.5% or fixed combination of dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily at 8:00 AM and 8:00 PM. A modified diurnal tension curve (8:00 AM, 10:30 AM, 02:00 PM, and 4:00 PM) followed by the water drinking test (WDT), which estimates IOP peak of diurnal tension curve, were performed in the baseline and week-8 visits. Adverse events data were recorded at each visit. A total of 210 patients were randomized (brimonidine/timolol, n=111; dorzolamide/timolol, n=99). Mean baseline IOP was 23.43+/-3.22 mm Hg and 23.43+/-4.06 mm Hg in the patients treated with brimonidine/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol, respectively (P=0.993). Mean diurnal IOP reduction after 8 weeks were 7.02+/-3.06 mm Hg and 6.91+/-3.67 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.811). The adjusted difference between groups (analysis of covariance) at week 8 was not statistically significant (P=0.847). Mean baseline WDT peak was 27.79+/-4.29 mm Hg in the brimonidine/timolol group and 27.68+/-5.46 mm Hg in the dorzolamide/timolol group. After 8 weeks of treatment, mean WDT peaks were 20.94+/-3.76 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 20.98+/-4.19 (P<0.001), respectively. The adjusted difference between groups (analysis of covariance) was not statistically significant (P=0.469). No statistical difference in terms of adverse events was found between groups. Both fixed combinations were capable of significantly reducing the mean diurnal IOP, mean diurnal peak, and mean WDT peak after 8 weeks of treatment. Also, both

  12. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business bas...

  13. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determi...

  14. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år.......Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år....

  15. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  16. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  17. Biomarkers in relation to the effects of ticagrelor in comparison with clopidogrel in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients managed with or without in-hospital revascularization: a substudy from the Prospective Randomized Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Lars; Lindholm, Daniel; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wernroth, Lisa; Becker, Richard C; Cannon, Christopher P; Cornel, Jan H; Himmelmann, Anders; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Harrington, Robert A; Held, Claes; Husted, Steen; Katus, Hugo A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; James, Stefan K

    2014-01-21

    Risk stratification and the use of specific biomarkers have been proposed for tailoring treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We investigated the prognostic importance of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in relation to randomized treatment (ticagrelor versus clopidogrel) and management strategy (with or without revascularization) in the NSTE-ACS subgroup of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Of 18 624 patients in the PLATO trial, 9946 had an entry diagnosis of NSTE-ACS and baseline blood samples available. During index hospitalization, 5357 were revascularized, and 4589 were managed without revascularization. Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 were determined and assessed according to predefined cutoff levels. Median follow-up was 9.1 months. Increasing levels of hs-TnT were associated with increasing risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in medically managed patients (P<0.001), but not in those managed invasively. NT-proBNP and GDF-15 levels were associated with the same events independent of management strategy. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced the rate of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS and hs-TnT ≥14.0 ng/L in both invasively and noninvasively managed patients; in patients with hs-TnT <14.0 ng/L, there was no difference between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the noninvasive group Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 are predictors of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS managed noninvasively, and NT-proBNP and GDF-15 also in those managed invasively. Elevated hs-TnT predicts substantial benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel both in invasively and noninvasively managed patients, but no apparent benefit was seen at normal hs-TnT. URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  18. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  19. A Randomized Comparison between Everolimus-Eluting Stent and Cobalt Chromium Stent in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Routine Intravenous Eptifibatide: The X-MAN (Xience vs. Multi-Link Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Trial, A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, Surya; Wardeh, Alexander J; Soerianata, Sunarya; Firdaus, Isman; Jukema, J Wouter

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of an everolimus-eluting stent (EES/Xience; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) compared with a cobalt chromium stent (CoCr/Multi-Link Vision; Abbott Vascular) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with routine administration of eptifibatide infusion. This is a prospective, single center, randomized trial comparing EES (n = 75) and CoCr stent (n = 75) implantation in patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Intravenous eptifibatide administration was mandatory by protocol in this pilot study. The primary efficacy endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days, defined as the composite of death, reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization. Secondary safety endpoints were stent thrombosis at 30 days and in-hospital bleeding event. Acute reperfusion parameters were also assessed. One-month MACE rate did not differ between EES and CoCr group (1.3 vs. 1.3%, p = 1.0). No stent thrombosis cases were observed in the EES group. The groups did not differ with respect to in-hospital bleeding events (5 vs. 9%, p = 0.37), achievement of final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 2 or 3 (p = 0.21), achievement of myocardial blush grade 2 or 3 (p = 0.45), creatine kinase-MB level at 8 to 12 hours after stenting (p = 0.29), and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.21). This pilot study demonstrates that after one-month follow-up, the use of EES is as safe and effective as the use of CoCr stents in patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI with routine administration of intravenous eptifibatide.

  20. The Effects of Constant versus Varied Reinforcers on Preference and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Jessie-Sue; Mace, F. Charles; Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that factors such as reinforcer frequency, amount, and delay have similar effects on resistance to change and preference. In the present study, 4 boys with autism made choices between a constant reinforcer (one that was the same food item every trial) and a varied food reinforcer (one that varied randomly between…

  1. Theory of random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Molchanov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, offers the latest research on random sets. It has been extended to include substantial developments achieved since 2005, some of them motivated by applications of random sets to econometrics and finance. The present volume builds on the foundations laid by Matheron and others, including the vast advances in stochastic geometry, probability theory, set-valued analysis, and statistical inference. It shows the various interdisciplinary relationships of random set theory within other parts of mathematics, and at the same time fixes terminology and notation that often vary in the literature, establishing it as a natural part of modern probability theory and providing a platform for future development. It is completely self-contained, systematic and exhaustive, with the full proofs that are necessary to gain insight. Aimed at research level, Theory of Random Sets will be an invaluable reference for probabilists; mathematicians working in convex and integ...

  2. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  3. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  4. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C; Krauss, Ken W; Kennedy, Hilary A; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M; Githaiga, Michael N; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-09-20

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other 'blue carbon' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  5. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  6. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  7. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  9. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  10. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  11. The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness. REL 2015-096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…

  12. Robust topology optimization accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a robust approach for the design of macro-, micro-, or nano-structures by means of topology optimization, accounting for spatially varying manufacturing errors. The focus is on structures produced by milling or etching; in this case over- or under-etching may cause parts...... of the structure to become thinner or thicker than intended. This type of error is modeled by means of a projection technique: a density filter is applied, followed by a Heaviside projection, using a low projection threshold to simulate under-etching and a high projection threshold to simulate over......-etching. In order to simulate the spatial variation of the manufacturing error, the projection threshold is represented by a (non-Gaussian) random field. The random field is obtained as a memoryless transformation of an underlying Gaussian field, which is discretized by means of an EOLE expansion. The robust...

  13. Integrodifference models for persistence in temporally varying river environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jon; Jin, Yu; Lewis, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    To fully understand population persistence in river ecosystems, it is necessary to consider the effect of the water flow, which varies tremendously with seasonal fluctuations of water runoff and snow melt. In this paper, we study integrodifference models for growth and dispersal in the presence of advective flow with both periodic (alternating) and random kernel parameters. For the alternating kernel model, we obtain the principal eigenvalue of the linearization operator to determine population persistence and derive a boundary value problem to calculate it. For the random model, we establish two persistence metrics: a generalized spectral radius and the asymptotic growth rate, which are mathematically equivalent but can be understood differently, to determine population persistence or extinction. The theoretical framework and methods for calculations are provided, and the framework is applied to calculating persistence in highly variable river environments.

  14. Non-coherent Network Coding: An Arbitrarily Varying Channel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari Siavoshani, Mahdi; Yang, Shenghao; Yeung, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an “arbitrarily varying channel” (AVC) approach to study the capacity of non-coherent transmission in a network that employs randomized linear network coding. The network operation is modeled by a matrix channel over a finite field where the transfer matrix changes arbitrarily from time-slot to time-slot but up to a known distribution over its rank. By extending the AVC results to this setup, we characterize the capacity of such a non-coherent transmission scheme and s...

  15. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote

  16. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Gese

    Full Text Available Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep, radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13% for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m. Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced

  17. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  18. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  19. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung

    2017-01-01

      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  20. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  1. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  2. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  3. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  4. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of {sup 3}H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion.

  5. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-10-26

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes.

  6. Ice sheet growth with laterally varying bedrock relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Vizcaino Rubio, Pablo; De Boer, Bas; van de Wal, Roderik

    2017-04-01

    Isostatic response of the bedrock, or glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in included in most ice sheet models. This is important because the surface elevation determines the mass balance and thereby implicitly also the strength of the mass balance feedback where higher surface elevation yields lower temperatures implying less melt and vice versa. Usually a single relaxation time or a set of relaxation times is used to model the response everywhere on Earth or at least for an entire ice sheet. In reality the viscosity in the Earth's mantle, and hence the relaxation time experienced by the ice, varies with location. Seismic studies indicate that several regions that were covered by ice during the last glacial cycle are underlain by mantle in which viscosity varies with orders of magnitude, such as Antarctica and North America. The question is whether such a variation of viscosity influences ice evolution. Several GIA models exist that can deal with 3D viscosity, but their large computation times make it nearly impossible to couple them to ice sheet models. Here we use the ANICE ice-sheet model (de Boer et al. 2013) with a simple bedrock-relaxation model in which a different relaxation time is used for separate regions. A temperature anomaly is applied to grow a schematic ice sheet on a flat earth, with other forcing mechanisms neglected. It is shown that in locations with a fast relaxation time of 300 years the equilibrium ice sheet is significantly thinner and narrower but also ice thickness in neighbouring regions (with the more standard relaxation time of 3000 years) is affected.

  7. Two-Level Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for a Sequence of Problems with Slowly Varying Random Coefficients [Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for Sequence of Problems with Slowly Varying Random Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ketelsen, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, P. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Our paper proposes an adaptive strategy for reusing a previously constructed coarse space by algebraic multigrid to construct a two-level solver for a problem with nearby characteristics. Furthermore, a main target application is the solution of the linear problems that appear throughout a sequence of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of subsurface flow with uncertain permeability field. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method with extensive set of numerical experiments.

  8. Elevational speciation in action? Restricted gene flow associated with adaptive divergence across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W. C.; Murphy, M.A.; Hoke, K. L.; Muths, Erin L.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Lemmon, Emily M.; Lemmon, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that divergent selection pressures across elevational gradients could cause adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation in the process of ecological speciation. Although there is substantial evidence for adaptive divergence across elevation, there is less evidence that this restricts gene flow. Previous work in the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) has demonstrated adaptive divergence in morphological, life history and physiological traits across an elevational gradient from approximately 1500–3000 m in the Colorado Front Range, USA. We tested whether this adaptive divergence is associated with restricted gene flow across elevation – as would be expected if incipient speciation were occurring – and, if so, whether behavioural isolation contributes to reproductive isolation. Our analysis of 12 microsatellite loci in 797 frogs from 53 populations revealed restricted gene flow across elevation, even after controlling for geographic distance and topography. Calls also varied significantly across elevation in dominant frequency, pulse number and pulse duration, which was partly, but not entirely, due to variation in body size and temperature across elevation. However, call variation did not result in strong behavioural isolation: in phonotaxis experiments, low-elevation females tended to prefer an average low-elevation call over a high-elevation call, and vice versa for high-elevation females, but this trend was not statistically significant. In summary, our results show that adaptive divergence across elevation restricts gene flow in P. maculata, but the mechanisms for this potential incipient speciation remain open.

  9. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  10. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  11. Relationship of hyperactivity to moderately elevated lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, O.J.; Hoffman, S.P.; Clark, J.; Grad, G.; Sverd, J.

    Controversy exists with respect to whether moderately elevated lead levels are toxic in certain children with various central nervous system dysfunctions. One way of addressing this controversy is to remove the lead; if the condition is ameliorated a presumption of toxicity becomes reasonable. Such a strategy is reported herein. Children with an operationally defined central nervous system dysfunction (hyperactivity) and moderately elevated lead levels were treated with a lead chelating agent in a random allocation double blind treatment regimen. The finding of statistically significant and obvious behavioral improvement reported by three separate evaluators (i.e., parent, teacher, and treating physician) of the child suggests that the presumption of a toxic relationship between moderately elevated lead levels and hyperactivity is supported. 26 references, 3 tables.

  12. Airborne observations reveal elevational gradient in tropical forest isoprene emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Dasa; Guenther, Alex B.; Shilling, John E.; Yu, Haofei; Huang, Maoyi; Zhao, Chun; Yang, Qing; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Kim, Saewung; Seco, Roger; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Longo, Karla M.; Tóta, Julio; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Vega, Oscar; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, Manish; Alves, Eliane G.; Santos, Fernando C.; Leng, Guoyong; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2017-05-23

    Isoprene dominates global non-methane volatile organic compound emissions, and impacts tropospheric chemistry by influencing oxidants and aerosols. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plants, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft eddy covariance measurements over the Amazonian forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are three times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions. The results reveal strong correlations between observed isoprene emission rates and terrain elevations, which are confirmed by similar correlations between satellite-derived isoprene emissions and terrain elevations. We propose that the elevational gradient in the Amazonian forest isoprene emission capacity is determined by plant species distributions and can substantially explain isoprene emission variability in tropical forests, and use a model to demonstrate the resulting impacts on regional air quality.

  13. Airborne observations reveal elevational gradient in tropical forest isoprene emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dasa; Guenther, Alex B.; Shilling, John E.; Yu, Haofei; Huang, Maoyi; Zhao, Chun; Yang, Qing; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Kim, Saewung; Seco, Roger; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Longo, Karla M.; Tóta, Julio; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Vega, Oscar; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, Manish; Alves, Eliane G.; Santos, Fernando C.; Leng, Guoyong; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2017-05-01

    Isoprene dominates global non-methane volatile organic compound emissions, and impacts tropospheric chemistry by influencing oxidants and aerosols. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plants, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft eddy covariance measurements over the Amazonian forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are three times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions. The results reveal strong correlations between observed isoprene emission rates and terrain elevations, which are confirmed by similar correlations between satellite-derived isoprene emissions and terrain elevations. We propose that the elevational gradient in the Amazonian forest isoprene emission capacity is determined by plant species distributions and can substantially explain isoprene emission variability in tropical forests, and use a model to demonstrate the resulting impacts on regional air quality.

  14. Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-02-01

    Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations

  15. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  16. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...

  17. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  18. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. ...

  19. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  20. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  1. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  2. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  3. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  5. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  6. Design and rationale for the Influenza vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial. A registry-based randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fröbert, Ole; Götberg, Matthias; Angerås, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Registry studies and case-control studies have demonstrated that the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increased following influenza infection. Small randomized trials, underpowered for clinical end points, indicate that future cardiovascular events can be reduced following...... influenza vaccination in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Influenza vaccination is recommended by international guidelines for patients with cardiovascular disease, but uptake is varying and vaccination is rarely prioritized during hospitalization for AMI. METHODS/DESIGN: The Influenza...... vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial is a double-blind, multicenter, prospective, registry-based, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. A total of 4,400 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI undergoing coronary angiography will randomly...

  7. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  8. Components in time-varying graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  9. Vector Autoregressions with Parsimoniously Time Varying Parameters and an Application to Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    This paper studies vector autoregressive models with parsimoniously time-varying parameters. The parameters are assumed to follow parsimonious random walks, where parsimony stems from the assumption that increments to the parameters have a non-zero probability of being exactly equal to zero......, or parameters varying randomly.We characterize the finite sample properties of the Lasso by deriving upper bounds on the estimation and prediction errors that are valid with high probability, and provide asymptotic conditions under which these bounds tend to zero with probability tending to one.We also provide...

  10. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  11. Varied Search Protocols Lead to Clinically Relevant Results. A review of: Patel, Manesh R., Connie M. Schardt, Linda L. Sanders, and Sheri A. Keitz. “Randomized Trial for Answers to Clinical Questions: Evaluating a Pre‐Appraised Versus a MEDLINE Search Protocol.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.4 (2006: 382‐6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the success rate of electronic resources for answering clinical questions by comparing speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the medical literature.Design – Randomized trial with results judged by blinded panel.Setting – Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, United States ofAmerica.Subjects – Thirty‐two 2nd and 3rd year internal medicine residents on an eight week general medicine rotation at the Duke University Medical Center.Methods – Two search protocols were developed:Protocol A: Participants searched MEDLINE first, and then searched pre‐appraised resources if needed.Protocol B: Participants searched pre‐appraised resources first, which included UpToDate, ACP JournalClub, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE. The residents then searched MEDLINE if an answer could not be found in the 66 initial group of pre‐appraised resources. Residents were randomised by computer-assisted block order into four blocks of eight residents each. Two blocks were assigned to Protocol A, and two to Protocol B. Each day, residents developed at least one clinical question related to caring for patients. The questions were transcribed onto pocket-sized cards, with the answer sought later using the assigned protocol. If answers weren’t found using either protocol, searches were permitted in other available resources. When an article that answered a question was found, the resident recorded basic information about the question and the answer as well as the time required to find the answer (less than five minutes; between five and ten minutes; or more than ten minutes. Residents were to select answers that were “methodologically sound and clinically important” (384. Ten faculty members formally trained in evidence‐based medicine (EBM reviewed a subset of therapy‐related questions and answers. The reviewers, who were blinded to the search protocols

  12. Network Coded Cooperation Over Time-Varying Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Barros, joao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal design of cooperative network-coded strategies for a three-node wireless network with time-varying, half-duplex erasure channels. To this end, we formulate the problem of minimizing the total cost of transmitting M packets from source to two receivers...... that are suitable for practical systems. We use two wireless channel models to analyse the performance of the proposed heuristics in practical wireless networks, namely, (a) an infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communication in a highway scenario considering Rayleigh fading, and (b) real packet loss measurements...... for WiFi using Aalborg University’s Raspberry Pi testbed. We compare our results with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcasting schemes showing that our heuristics can provide up to 2x gains in completion time and up to 4x gains in terms of reliably serviced data packets....

  13. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  14. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N

    2011-04-01

    Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.

  15. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  17. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-08-01

    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  18. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  19. Elevated levels of total and dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin E in patients with varying disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, Penelopie; Murgue, Bernadette; Deparis, Xavier; Setiati, Tatty E.; Suharti, Catarina; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Hack, C. E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Groen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of total and dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) were studied in serial serum samples obtained from 168 patients, 41 of whom suffered from primary dengue virus infection and 127 suffered from secondary dengue virus infection. Seventy-one patients were classified as dengue

  20. Elevation of soluble VCAM-1 plasma levels in children with acute dengue virus infection of varying severity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koraka, P.; Murgue, B.; Deparis, X.; Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Groen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 million infections with dengue viruses are estimated to occur annually. The majority of the cases develop mild disease, whereas only small proportion of the infected individuals develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations at the end of the acute phase of illness. In this study, the

  1. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  2. Tracking Time-Varying Coefficient-Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    1999-01-01

    of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. However, it is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal shich is argument of the coeffieient-functions.The properties of the modified method are sutdied...... by simulation. A particular feature is that this effectiv forgetting factor will adapt to the bandwidth used so that the effective number of observtions behind the estimates will be almost independent of the actual bandwidth or of the type of bandwidth selection used (fixed or nearest neighbour). The choice...

  3. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  4. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  5. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  6. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  7. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  8. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  9. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  10. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  11. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  12. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Ritson-Williams

    Full Text Available As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  13. How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, R A; Nuñez, R; Buettner, J; Howland, H C

    1995-11-01

    Surface topography, as opposed to dioptric topography, defines the corneal surface in simple terms without assumptions. Accordingly, it is important to know how well surface topography can be measured with current videokeratometric machines. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the accuracy with which the TMS-1 Corneal Modeling System can measure the surface topography of calibrated spherical, elliptical, and bicurve surfaces. The Computed Anatomy TMS-1 videokeratometer was used to measure three spherical, three elliptical, and two bicurve surfaces with known characteristics. Surface characteristics were either back-calculated from the dioptric files or directly obtained from the TMS-1 elevation file for each of 6400 points (256 points in each of 25 rings). The accuracy with which each method determined the true surface was quantified by calculating the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the 6400 measured surface elevations from the known surface elevation at each sampling point. (1) For spherical and elliptical surfaces, back-calculation of surface elevation from the dioptric file can be made with RMSE of 5 mu or less. (2) For spheres but not elliptical surfaces the TMS-1 elevation file defines the surface with RMSE 5 mu or less. (3) The surface area measured by placido-based videokeratometers varies with surface curvature. (4) RMSE in measured surface elevation increase as the distance from the videokeratometric axis increases. (5) For bicurves, the dioptric maps are smoothed by the TMS-1 over abrupt transitions and for large transitions never recover. Additionally, our back-calculation methods further smooth abrupt transitions, making the RMSE of the bicurve surface that is back-calculated from the dioptric file larger than the RMSE of the surface generated from the TMS-1 elevation file. Surface elevations can be back-calculated from dioptric files with RMSE of 5 microns or less for spheres and elliptical surfaces as long as there are no areas of abrupt

  14. Multi Car Elevator Control by using Learning Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kazuaki; Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori

    We study an adaptive control technique for multi car elevators (MCEs) by adopting learning automatons (LAs.) The MCE is a high performance and a near-future elevator system with multi shafts and multi cars. A strong point of the system is that realizing a large carrying capacity in small shaft area. However, since the operation is too complicated, realizing an efficient MCE control is difficult for top-down approaches. For example, “bunching up together" is one of the typical phenomenon in a simple traffic environment like the MCE. Furthermore, an adapting to varying environment in configuration requirement is a serious issue in a real elevator service. In order to resolve these issues, having an autonomous behavior is required to the control system of each car in MCE system, so that the learning automaton, as the solutions for this requirement, is supposed to be appropriate for the simple traffic control. First, we assign a stochastic automaton (SA) to each car control system. Then, each SA varies its stochastic behavior distributions for adapting to environment in which its policy is evaluated with each passenger waiting times. That is LA which learns the environment autonomously. Using the LA based control technique, the MCE operation efficiency is evaluated through simulation experiments. Results show the technique enables reducing waiting times efficiently, and we confirm the system can adapt to the dynamic environment.

  15. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

    2011-11-01

    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  16. Adaptive time-varying detrended fluctuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthouze, Luc; Farmer, Simon F

    2012-07-30

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a technique commonly used to assess and quantify the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in neurophysiological time series. Convergence of the method is asymptotic only and therefore its application assumes a constant scaling exponent. However, most neurophysiological data are likely to involve either spontaneous or experimentally induced scaling exponent changes. We present a novel extension of the DFA method that permits the characterisation of time-varying scaling exponents. The effectiveness of the methodology in recovering known changes in scaling exponents is demonstrated through its application to synthetic data. The dependence of the method on its free parameters is systematically explored. Finally, application of the methodology to neurophysiological data demonstrates that it provides experimenters with a way to identify previously un-recognised changes in the scaling exponent in the data. We suggest that this methodology will make it possible to go beyond a simple demonstration of the presence of scaling to an appreciation of how it may vary in response to either intrinsic changes or experimental perturbations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 15900 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... County, Hawaii, the headings are corrected to read as set forth below: * Elevation in feet (NGVD... Communities affected Elevation in feet (LTD) Effective Modified Maui County, Hawaii * * * * * BILLING CODE...

  18. Elever med adfærdsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    Artikel i særnummer om folkeskolens urolige elever, hvor der redegøres for den viden der aktuelt er i Danmark på området samt vanskelighederne med at skelne mellem de elever i skolen, der reagerer "sundt" på omgivelsernes pres og de elever som har alvorligere problemer. De kan se ens ud på...

  19. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  20. Effect of Varying Levels of Inclusion of Shea Nut ( Vitellaria paradoxa )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) rabbit does aged between 4 – 5 months with average body weight of 1. 75 kg, were used to study the effect of feeding varying level of inclusion of shea nut meal (SNM) on the reproductive performance of doe rabbits. The does were randomly assigned into five groups comprising four rabbits each and were fed ...

  1. A comparison of time-varying covariates in two smoking cessation interventions for cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Bolman, Catherine; Ruitenbeek-Wiggers, L.; de Vries, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the time-varying contribution of social cognitive determinants of smoking cessation following an intervention on cessation. Secondary analyses were performed on data from two comparable randomized controlled trials on brief smoking cessation interventions for

  2. Effect of varying rates of Palm Bunch Ash on maize yield in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying rates of palm bunch ash on the grain yield of maize (Zea mays). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated three times. The treatments were 0, 100, 200 and 300kg Palm bunch ash/ha.

  3. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Feng, Jianmeng

    2015-01-01

    This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC) was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE), were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the differential

  4. Biogeographical Interpretation of Elevational Patterns of Genus Diversity of Seed Plants in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Li

    Full Text Available This study tests if the biogeographical affinities of genera are relevant for explaining elevational plant diversity patterns in Nepal. We used simultaneous autoregressive (SAR models to investigate the explanatory power of several predictors in explaining the diversity-elevation relationships shown in genera with different biogeographical affinities. Delta akaike information criterion (ΔAIC was used for multi-model inferences and selections. Our results showed that both the total and tropical genus diversity peaked below the mid-point of the elevational gradient, whereas that of temperate genera had a nearly symmetrical, unimodal relationship with elevation. The proportion of temperate genera increased markedly with elevation, while that of tropical genera declined. Compared to tropical genera, temperate genera had wider elevational ranges and were observed at higher elevations. Water-related variables, rather than mid-domain effects (MDE, were the most significant predictors of elevational patterns of tropical genus diversity. The temperate genus diversity was influenced by energy availability, but only in quadratic terms of the models. Though climatic factors and mid-domain effects jointly explained most of the variation in the diversity of temperate genera with elevation, the former played stronger roles. Total genus diversity was most strongly influenced by climate and the floristic overlap of tropical and temperate floras, while the influences of mid-domain effects were relatively weak. The influences of water-related and energy-related variables may vary with biogeographical affinities. The elevational patterns may be most closely related to climatic factors, while MDE may somewhat modify the patterns. Caution is needed when investigating the causal factors underlying diversity patterns for large taxonomic groups composed of taxa of different biogeographical affinities. Right-skewed diversity-elevation patterns may be produced by the

  5. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  6. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily…

  7. The 3D Elevation Program national indexing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Stoker, Jason M.; Eldridge, Diane F.

    2017-11-02

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquires high-resolution elevation data for the Nation. This program has been operating under an opportunity-oriented approach, acquiring light detection and ranging (lidar) projects of varying sizes scattered across the United States. As a result, the national 3DEP elevation layer is subject to data gaps or unnecessary overlap between adjacent collections. To mitigate this problem, 3DEP is adopting a strategic, systematic approach to national data acquisition that will create efficiencies in efforts to achieve nationwide elevation data coverage and help capture additional Federal and non-Federal investments resulting from advance awareness of proposed acquisitions and partnership opportunities. The 3DEP Working Group, an interagency group managed by the USGS, has agreed that all future 3DEP collections within the lower 48 States should be coordinated by using a 1-kilometer by 1-kilometer tiling scheme for the conterminous United States. Fiscal Year 2018 is being considered a transition year, and in Fiscal Year 2019 the national indexing scheme will be fully implemented, so that all 3DEP-supported projects will be acquired and delivered in the national indexing scheme and projected into the Albers Equal Area projection. 

  8. Climate dynamics: Why does climate vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a major focus of public and political discussion. Ongoing scientific inquiry, revolving predominantly around understanding the anthropogenic effects of rising greenhouse gas levels, coupled with how successfully findings are communicated to the public, has made climate science both contentious and exigent. In the AGU monograph Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?, editors De-Zheng Sun and Frank Bryan reinforce the importance of investigating the complex dynamics that underlie the natural variability of the climate system. Understanding this complexity—particularly how the natural variability of climate may enhance or mask anthropogenic warming—could have important consequences for the future. In this interview, Eos talks to De-Zheng Sun.

  9. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  10. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across......We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... the trading day. Consequently, the test is based on comparing the empirical characteristic function of the studentized returns across the trading day. The limit distribution of the test depends on the error in recovering volatility from discrete return data and the empirical process error associated...

  11. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  12. Supernumerary teeth vary depending on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Calvano Küchler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of supernumerary teeth (ST is a dental developmental anomaly of patterning and morphogenesis. Its variability of morphology, location and developmental timing can shed light on its etiology. In this work we report ST patterns. Orthopantomograms of 1,166 pediatric subjects were examined and the morphology, location and timing of the formation of ST were determined. The frequency of supernumerary teeth in the studied population was 2.3% (n = 27. Twenty-five subjects presented one ST. Maxilla midline was the most commonly affected region (nine cases. We noted high incidence of conical morphology in the midline region. Only teeth with tuberculate morphology presented delayed formation. ST in the midline region occurred more often in males whereas ST in the incisor region were more common in females. In conclusion, ST patterns vary depending on gender.

  13. Quantum random walks with history dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Flitney, Adrian P.; Abbott, Derek; Johnson, Neil F.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a multi-coin discrete quantum random walk where the amplitude for a coin flip depends upon previous tosses. Although the corresponding classical random walk is unbiased, a bias can be introduced into the quantum walk by varying the history dependence. By mixing the biased random walk with an unbiased one, the direction of the bias can be reversed leading to a new quantum version of Parrondo's paradox.

  14. Radial access in patients with acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST-segment elevation: Systematic review, collaborative meta-analysis, and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Giuseppe; Porto, Italo; Montalescot, Gilles; Bolognese, Leonardo; Trani, Carlo; Oreto, Giuseppe; Harrington, Robert A; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2016-11-01

    Consistent evidence of benefit exists for radial access (RA) in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) have a more varied ischemic and bleeding profile. No randomized trial of vascular access ever focused on NSTE-ACS and landmark studies did not provide conclusive results in this heterogeneous subset of patients. We assessed in a meta-analysis whether RA is associated with improved outcomes in NSTE-ACS patients. Included studies had to meet the following criteria: 1) enrolling patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing invasive management; 2) reporting outcomes with respect to RA as compared with femoral access (FA); 3) reporting short-term (procedural, in-hospital and up to 30-day) or long-term clinical outcomes. Studies were pooled with fixed and random effects models and heterogeneity was investigated by weighted meta-regression. Eleven studies were included encompassing 131.339 patients, 46.451 receiving RA and 84.888 receiving FA. Thirty-day mortality and MACE were lower with RA (p<0.001 with fixed effects, p=NS with random effects model), but these results depended on one large observational database. Major bleeding was consistently reduced by RA (p<0.001), albeit an inverse relationship with the proportion of patients in each study receiving FA and experiencing major bleeding was evident. The association of RA with reduced long-term mortality was of borderline significance (p=0.054 with random-effects, p=0.001 with fixed-effect model) and also depended on major bleeding in FA patients. RA is associated with better outcomes as compared with FA in NSTE-ACS, although this observation is influenced by nonrandomized comparisons. Large heterogeneity exists among studies. This study is registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42015029459). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interpolating atmospheric water vapor delay by incorporating terrain elevation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. B.; Li, Z. W.; Ding, X. L.; Zhu, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In radio signal-based observing systems, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), the water vapor in the atmosphere will cause delays during the signal transmission. Such delays vary significantly with terrain elevation. In the case when atmospheric delays are to be eliminated from the measured raw signals, spatial interpolators may be needed. By taking advantage of available terrain elevation information during spatial interpolation process, the accuracy of the atmospheric delay mapping can be considerably improved. This paper first reviews three elevation-dependent water vapor interpolation models, i.e., the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator in combination with the water vapor Height Scaling Model (BLUE + HSM), the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator coupled with the Elevation-dependent Covariance Model (BLUE + ECM), and the Simple Kriging with varying local means based on the Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Baby for short). A revision to the SKlm + Baby model is then presented, where the Onn water vapor delay model is adopted to substitute the inaccurate Baby semi-empirical model (SKlm + Onn for short). Experiments with the zenith wet delays obtained through the GPS observations from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) demonstrate that the SKlm + Onn model outperforms the other three. The RMS of SKlm + Onn is only 0.55 cm, while those of BLUE + HSM, BLUE + ECM and SKlm + Baby amount to 1.11, 1.49 and 0.77 cm, respectively. The proposed SKlm + Onn model therefore represents an improvement of 29-63% over the other known models.

  16. Association between elevated aminotransferase levels and the metabolic syndrome in Northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Beytullah; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Sahin, Semsettin; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Atis, Omer; Akbas, Ali; Akturk, Yeliz; Ozdemir, Metin; Sahin, Idris; Bulut, Yunus; Etikan, Ylker; Firat, M Murat

    2010-01-01

    Elevated aminotransferase levels(ATLs) are alert the physicians for liver-affecting disease and may reflect liver injury. We aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated ATLs and the association of elevated ATLs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a northern province of Turkey. Elevated ATLs were evaluated among 1,095 individuals of the Tokat Prevalence Study which have been described in detail elsewhere. 1,095 participants had been selected by a simple random sampling method among 530,000 inhabitants in 70 (12 urban and 58 rural) areas in the province of Tokat which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The prevalence of elevated serum ALT, AST, and ALT and/or AST were found as 11%, 7.2%, and 13.3%, respectively. Increased BMI, fatty liver, and MetS were higher in our general population with elevated ATLs. After exclusion of individuals with hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection, 132 individuals with elevated ATLs (91 male and 41 female) were evaluated. MetS was found in 59 participants and its prevalence was markedly higher in females with elevated ATLs (p ATLs were evaluated, the ALT levels of the persons who have no risk of MetS (p =0.007) and the persons who have one risk of MetS (p = 0.001) were lower than the persons with MetS. Elevated ATLs are common and it's an important cause is MetS in Northern Turkey.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  18. Physiological Limits along an Elevational Gradient in a Radiation of Montane Ground Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Slatyer

    Full Text Available A central challenge in ecology and biogeography is to determine the extent to which physiological constraints govern the geographic ranges of species along environmental gradients. This study tests the hypothesis that temperature and desiccation tolerance are associated with the elevational ranges of 12 ground beetle species (genus Nebria occurring on Mt. Rainier, Washington, U.S.A. Species from higher elevations did not have greater cold tolerance limits than lower-elevation species (all species ranged from -3.5 to -4.1°C, despite a steep decline in minimum temperature with elevation. Although heat tolerance limits varied among species (from 32.0 to 37.0°C, this variation was not generally associated with the relative elevational range of a species. Temperature gradients and acute thermal tolerance do not support the hypothesis that physiological constraints drive species turnover with elevation. Measurements of intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance limits were not significant for individuals taken at different elevations on Mt. Rainier, or from other mountains in Washington and Oregon. Desiccation resistance was also not associated with a species' elevational distribution. Our combined results contrast with previously-detected latitudinal gradients in acute physiological limits among insects and suggest that other processes such as chronic thermal stress or biotic interactions might be more important in constraining elevational distributions in this system.

  19. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and Sand-Amended Marsh Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wigand

    Full Text Available Climate change is altering sea level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88 in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA. Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations. High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. At the end of the experiment the lowest elevations generally had the highest measures of pore water ammonium. Soil carbon dioxide emissions were greatest in the sand-amended mesocosms and at higher elevations. Differences in coarse root and rhizome abundances and volumes among the sediment treatments were detected with CT imaging, but by 20 weeks the natural and sand-amended treatments showed similar total belowground biomass at the intermediate and high elevations. Although differences in

  20. Rotigotine's effect on PLM-associated blood pressure elevations in restless legs syndrome: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Axel; Cassel, Werner; Benes, Heike; Kesper, Karl; Rye, David; Sica, Domenic; Winkelman, John W; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Joeres, Lars; Moran, Kimberly; Schollmayer, Erwin; Whitesides, John; Carney, Hannah C; Walters, Arthur S; Oertel, Wolfgang; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2016-05-10

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled, interventional trial was conducted to investigate the effects of rotigotine patch on periodic limb movement (PLM)-associated nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) elevations. Patients with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) were randomized to rotigotine (optimal dose [1-3 mg/24 h]) or placebo. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) assessments were performed during polysomnography at baseline and at the end of 4-week maintenance. Primary outcome was change in number of PLM-associated SBP elevations (defined as slope of linear regression ≥2.5 mm Hg/beat-to-beat interval over 5 consecutive heartbeats [≥10 mm Hg]). Additional outcomes were total SBP elevations, PLM-associated and total diastolic BP (DBP) elevations, periodic limb movements index (PLMI), and PLM in sleep arousal index (PLMSAI). Of 81 randomized patients, 66 (37 rotigotine, 29 placebo) were included in efficacy assessments. PLM-associated SBP elevations were significantly reduced with rotigotine vs placebo (least squares mean treatment difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] -160.34 [-213.23 to -107.45]; p PLM-associated elevations (-88.45 [-126.12 to -50.78]; p PLM-associated nocturnal SBP elevations. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Surviving at high elevations: an inter- and intra-specific analysis in a mountain bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, G; Tavecchia, G; Meléndez, L; Seoane, J; Obeso, J R; Laiolo, P

    2017-06-01

    Elevation represents an important selection agent on self-maintenance traits and correlated life histories in birds, but no study has analysed whether life-history variation along this environmental cline is consistent among and within species. In a sympatric community of passerines, we analysed how the average adult survival of 25 open-habitat species varied with their elevational distribution and how adult survival varied with elevation at the intra-specific level. For such purpose, we estimated intra-specific variation in adult survival in two mountainous species, the Water pipit (Anthus spinoletta) and the Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) in NW Spain, by means of capture-recapture analyses. At the inter-specific level, high-elevation species showed higher survival values than low elevation ones, likely because a greater allocation to self-maintenance permits species to persist in alpine environments. At the intra-specific level, the magnitude of survival variation was lower by far. Nevertheless, Water pipit survival slightly decreased at high elevations, while the proportion of transient birds increased. In contrast, no such relationships were found in the Northern wheatear. Intra-specific analyses suggest that living at high elevation may be costly, such as for the Water pipit in our case study. Therefore, it seems that a species can persist with viable populations in uplands, where extrinsic mortality is high, by increasing the investment in self-maintenance and prospecting behaviours.

  2. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  3. Time Varying Parameterization of Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardossy, A.; Singh, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrological models are frequently used for forecasting, water management or design to provide information for decision making. Due to the simplification of the complex natural processes and the limited availability of observations the parameters of these models cannot be identified perfectly. Usually the parameters of the models are assumed to be time independent. However some properties of the catchments might change in from one event to another in an unpredictable manner. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate selected model parameters as random variables changing in time. The distribution of the model parameter is assessed in calibration phase using different assumptions. During the application of the model these distributions are used to estimate the expected hydrological behavior and the uncertainty too. The methodology will be demonstrated on mezo-scale catchments in the Neckar basin in South-West Germany. The systematic differences between model behavior and observations are demonstrated using a set of selected events. Calibration and uncertainty estimation are demonstrated by an example application to a distributed HBV model. The model residual distributions are presented and compared to a standard calibration method. Further, it is shown that the new methodology leads to more realistic confidence intervals for model simulations.

  4. Applications of hydrologic information automatically extracted from digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Susan K.

    1991-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to derive a wealth of information about the morphology of a land surface. Traditional raster analysis methods can be used to derive slope, aspect, and shaded relief information; recently-developed computer programs can be used to delineate depressions, overland flow paths, and watershed boundaries. These methods were used to delineate watershed boundaries for a geochemical stream sediment survey, to compare the results of extracting slope and flow paths from DEMs of varying resolutions, and to examine the geomorphology of a Martian DEM. -Author

  5. Varying Collimation for Dark-Field Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although x-ray imaging is widely used in biomedical applications, biological soft tissues have small density changes, leading to low contrast resolution for attenuation-based x-ray imaging. Over the past years, x-ray small-angle scattering was studied as a new contrast mechanism to enhance subtle structural variation within the soft tissue. In this paper, we present a detection method to extract this type of x-ray scattering data, which are also referred to as dark-field signals. The key idea is to acquire an x-ray projection multiple times with varying collimation before an x-ray detector array. The projection data acquired with a collimator of a sufficiently high collimation aspect ratio contain mainly the primary beam with little scattering, while the data acquired with an appropriately reduced collimation aspect ratio include both the primary beam and small-angle scattering signals. Then, analysis of these corresponding datasets will produce desirable dark-field signals; for example, via digitally subtraction. In the numerical experiments, the feasibility of our dark-field detection technology is demonstrated in Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the acquired dark field signals can clearly reveal the structural information of tissues in terms of Rayleigh scattering characteristics.

  6. Varied acceptance of clinical trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1989-12-01

    The subject of varied acceptance of clinical trial results is discussed in the context of review of trials with which I have been involved and my subjective evaluation of their impact on the practice of clinical medicine. My experience goes back to 1949 and a World Health Organization trial of hyperimmune gamma globulin against rabies. This was followed by a large trial of secondary prevention of poliomyelitis. I participated in the planning and initiation of the first chronic disease trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP). The latter lasted for 15 years and its ramifications continue to this day. My next trial was the Coronary Drug Project (CDP), a complex trial with more than 8,000 patients. The trials of aspirin and aspirin combined with persantine (the CDPA, AMIS, PARIS I, and PARIS II) followed. My last three trials were a trial of photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy (DRS), a six-country trial of the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (IMPACT), and a study involving two diagnostic procedures for pulmonary embolism (PIOPED). When one considers, in retrospect, the plethora of trials one is struck by the uniform absence of a priori considerations of the impact on medical practice, or likely lack thereof, of possible outcomes.

  7. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  8. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowrey, Justin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McIntyre, Justin I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prichard, Andrew W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression

  10. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  11. An introduction to random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T

    2006-01-01

    The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped.An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today''s technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random s...

  12. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I binary, PMN-PT; (II ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III doped ternary, Mn

  13. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  14. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaochun; Qiu, Zhen; Jiang, Tingyi; Sadiq, Muhammad R; Huang, Zhihong; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy

    2015-12-02

    Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0-60 MPa, temperature 20-200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I) binary, PMN-PT; (II) ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III) doped ternary, Mn:PIN-PMN-PT. Utilising

  15. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, T.M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  16. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  17. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  18. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  19. Global multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2011-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a global topographic elevation model designated as GTOPO30 at a horizontal resolution of 30 arc-seconds for the entire Earth. Because no single source of topographic information covered the entire land surface, GTOPO30 was derived from eight raster and vector sources that included a substantial amount of U.S. Defense Mapping Agency data. The quality of the elevation data in GTOPO30 varies widely; there are no spatially-referenced metadata, and the major topographic features such as ridgelines and valleys are not well represented. Despite its coarse resolution and limited attributes, GTOPO30 has been widely used for a variety of hydrological, climatological, and geomorphological applications as well as military applications, where a regional, continental, or global scale topographic model is required. These applications have ranged from delineating drainage networks and watersheds to using digital elevation data for the extraction of topographic structure and three-dimensional (3D) visualization exercises (Jenson and Domingue, 1988; Verdin and Greenlee, 1996; Lehner and others, 2008). Many of the fundamental geophysical processes active at the Earth's surface are controlled or strongly influenced by topography, thus the critical need for high-quality terrain data (Gesch, 1994). U.S. Department of Defense requirements for mission planning, geographic registration of remotely sensed imagery, terrain visualization, and map production are similarly dependent on global topographic data. Since the time GTOPO30 was completed, the availability of higher-quality elevation data over large geographic areas has improved markedly. New data sources include global Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTEDRegistered) from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Canadian elevation data, and data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). Given the widespread use of GTOPO30 and the equivalent 30-arc

  20. Varying influence of environmental gradients on vegetation patterns across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Mascaro, J.; Taylor, P.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental gradients, like elevation, slope, aspect, and soil properties, filter vegetation types at the local scale. These `environmental filters' create conditions that are conducive to the success or failure of different plant types, influencing landscape-scale heterogeneity in taxonomic diversity, functional diversity, biomass accumulation, greenness, and more. Niche-based models implicitly assume that environmental filtering is the dominant process controlling plant distributions. While environmental filtering is a well understood process, its importance relative to other drivers of heterogeneity, like disturbance, human impacts, and plant-animal interactions, remains unknown and likely varies between biomes. Here we synthesize results from several studies using data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory - a fused LiDAR and imaging spectroscopy system - that mapped a vegetation patterns in multiple biomes and associated these with environmental gradients. The study sites range from Panama to California, and the patterns range from aboveground carbon to foliar chemistry. We show that at fine spatial scales environmental filtering is a strong predictor of aboveground biomass in a dry system (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, California - Dahlin et al 2012) but a weak predictor of plant functional traits in that same system (Dahlin et al 2014), a weak predictor of aboveground carbon in the tropics (Barro Colorado Island, Panama - Mascaro et al 2011; Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica - Taylor et al 2015), and a weak predictor of greenness (NDVI) in a disturbed dry system (Santa Cruz Island, California - Dahlin et al 2014). Collectively, these results suggest that while environmental filtering is an important driver of landscape-scale heterogeneity, it is not the only, or often even the most important, driver for many of these systems and patterns.

  1. Time-varying multiplex network: Intralayer and interlayer synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-12-01

    A large class of engineered and natural systems, ranging from transportation networks to neuronal networks, are best represented by multiplex network architectures, namely a network composed of two or more different layers where the mutual interaction in each layer may differ from other layers. Here we consider a multiplex network where the intralayer coupling interactions are switched stochastically with a characteristic frequency. We explore the intralayer and interlayer synchronization of such a time-varying multiplex network. We find that the analytically derived necessary condition for intralayer and interlayer synchronization, obtained by the master stability function approach, is in excellent agreement with our numerical results. Interestingly, we clearly find that the higher frequency of switching links in the layers enhances both intralayer and interlayer synchrony, yielding larger windows of synchronization. Further, we quantify the resilience of synchronous states against random perturbations, using a global stability measure based on the concept of basin stability, and this reveals that intralayer coupling strength is most crucial for determining both intralayer and interlayer synchrony. Lastly, we investigate the robustness of interlayer synchronization against a progressive demultiplexing of the multiplex structure, and we find that for rapid switching of intralayer links, the interlayer synchronization persists even when a large number of interlayer nodes are disconnected.

  2. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  3. Patterns of oribatid mite species diversity: testing the effects of elevation, area and sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, Levan; Murvanidze, Maka; Maraun, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Elevational gradients in species diversity and species area relationships are two well established patterns that are not mutually exclusive in space and time. Elevation and area are both considered as good proxies to detect and characterize the patterns of species diversity distribution. However, such studies are hampered by the incomplete biodiversity data available for ecologists, which may affect the pattern perceptions. Using the large dataset of oribatid mite communities sampled in Georgia, we tested the effects of altitude and area on species distribution using various approaches, while explicitly considering the biases from sampling effort. Our results showed that elevation and area are strongly correlated (with increasing absolute elevation, land area decreases) and both have strong linear effects on species diversity distribution when studied separately. Approaches based on multiple regression and direct removal of co-varied factors, indicated that the effect of area can actually override the effect of elevation in describing the oribatid species diversity distribution along with elevation. On the other hand, the bias of sampling proved significant in perception of elevational species richness pattern with less effect on elevational species area relationship. We suggest that the sampling alone may be responsible for patterns observed and thus should be considered in ecological studies when eligible.

  4. Acclimation of nitrogen uptake capacity of rice to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Bunce, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen (N) is a major factor affecting yield gain of crops under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. It is well established that elevated [CO2] increases root mass, but there are inconsistent reports on the effects on N uptake capacity per root mass. In the present study, it was hypothesized that the responses of N uptake capacity would change with the duration of exposure to elevated [CO2]. Methods The hypothesis was tested by measuring N uptake capacity in rice plants exposed to long-term and short-term [CO2] treatments at different growth stages in plants grown under non-limiting N conditions in hydroponic culture. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate were also measured. Key Results In the long-term [CO2] study, leaf photosynthetic responses to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were not affected by elevated [CO2] before the heading stage, but the initial slope in this response was decreased by elevated [CO2] at the grain-filling stage. Nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities per root dry weight were not affected by elevated [CO2] at panicle initiation, but thereafter they were reduced by elevated [CO2] by 31–41 % at the full heading and mid-ripening growth stages. In the short-term study (24 h exposures), elevated [CO2] enhanced nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities at the early vegetative growth stage, but elevated [CO2] decreased the uptake capacities at the mid-reproductive stage. Conclusions This study showed that N uptake capacity was downregulated under long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] and its response to elevated [CO2] varied greatly with growth stage. PMID:18952623

  5. A randomized trial Examining The Impact Of Communicating Genetic And Lifestyle Risks For Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Gordon, Erynn S; Norkunas, Tricia; Wawak, Lisa; Liu, Ching-Ti; Winter, Michael; Kasper, Rachel S; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Bowen, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Genetic testing for obesity is available directly to consumers, yet little is understood about its behavioral impact and its added value to nongenetic risk communication efforts based on lifestyle factors. A randomized trial examined the short-term impact of providing personalized obesity risk information, using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants were recruited from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) and randomized to receive (1) no risk information (control), (2) genetic risk, (3) lifestyle risk, or (4) combined genetic/lifestyle risks. Baseline and 3-month follow-up survey data were collected. Analyses examined the impact of risk feedback on intentions to lose weight and self-reported weight. A total of 696 participants completed the study. A significant interaction effect was observed for genetic and lifestyle information on intent to lose weight (P = 0.0150). Those who received genetic risk alone had greater intentions at follow-up, compared with controls (P = 0.0034). The impact of receiving elevated risk information on intentions varied by source and combination of risks presented. Non-elevated genetic risk did not lower intentions. No group differences were observed for self-reported weight. Genetic risk information for obesity may add value to lifestyle risk information depending on the context in which it is presented. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. 77 FR 76916 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) modified Cobb... Mountain Creek confluence. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in... At the Hurricane Creek +975 Unincorporated Areas of confluence. Douglas County. Approximately 1,200...

  7. 75 FR 19328 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) elevation ground... upstream of the confluence with Gray Creek. Hurricane Creek (Backwater effects From the confluence None... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level...

  8. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... are amended as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) # Depth Flooding source...-1207 Hurricane Creek Approximately 500 feet +125 Town of Clarks, Village downstream of the of Grayson. railroad. Approximately 0.66 mile +160 upstream of State Highway 126. Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  9. 78 FR 29652 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified... Smalling +85 Road. Hurricane Creek Just downstream of I-20.. +79 Unincorporated Areas of Richland Parish... downstream of Jaggers Lane. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in...

  10. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Incorporated Areas * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s... Cass upstream of U.S. Route County. 59. Hurricane Creek Approximately 250 feet None +237 Unincorporated... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the...

  11. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the... Areas of Caldwell Parish, Louisiana Louisiana Unincorporated Areas of Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  12. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet Flooding source(s.... Approximately 1,390 feet +510 upstream of Berry Lane. Hurricane Creek (backwater effects from Approximately 0.75... County. ] Approximately 0.8 mile +381 upstream of County Road 13. Hurricane Creek I (backwater effects...

  13. 76 FR 21695 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above... +608 of Williams Avenue Southwest. Hurricane Creek Approximately 0.9 mile None +612 Town of Gurley... Meadow Road Northwest. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet...

  14. Vibration analysis of an elevated railway track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courage, W.M.G.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Ruiter, B. de

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study are described with respect to the vibration analysis of an elevated railway track. In this study a numerical model was developed. This model is validated and tuned by means of measurements. For a new elevated railway track in design stage, the model is used for calculating the

  15. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Road. Waiakea Stream/Waiakea Flood Control Approximately 460 feet 53 54 Hawaii County. Channel... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  16. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Tulare County, California California Unincorporated Areas of Lake Kaweah Entire shoreline None +722 Tulare County. California Unincorporated Areas of Middle Fork Kaweah River Approximately 1.0 mile... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county...

  17. 75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    .... West Clarks Run. At the northern county None +941 boundary. Ohio River Approximately 60 feet None +690... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  18. 77 FR 76420 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... County, West Virginia, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1229 Big Sandy River At the Ohio River... Agency 44 CFR Part 67 [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations...

  19. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Boulevard, Louisa, KY 41230. Meade County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Ohio River Approximately 2.8... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  20. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... from ly 1.0 mile of Chariton Missouri River). downstream County. of Ohio Road to approximate ly 825... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  1. 76 FR 10253 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Areas of Lockwood Ditch. Vanderburgh County. At State Road 66 +389 Ohio River Approximately 7.3 miles... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003 Final Flood Elevation...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The...

  2. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Elevated Troponin Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    becomes debatable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no such reported cases in the medical literature of acute pancreatitis with non ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction. The most common cause of elevated troponin levels in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the myocyte‑necrosis, mainly.

  3. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  4. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  5. Gossip in Random Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, K.; Szvetelszky, Z.; Szekf, B.; Kulakowski, K.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the average probability X of being informed on a gossip in a given social network. The network is modeled within the random graph theory of Erd{õ}s and Rényi. In this theory, a network is characterized by two parameters: the size N and the link probability p. Our experimental data suggest three levels of social inclusion of friendship. The critical value pc, for which half of agents are informed, scales with the system size as N-gamma with gamma approx 0.68. Computer simulations show that the probability X varies with p as a sigmoidal curve. Influence of the correlations between neighbors is also evaluated: with increasing clustering coefficient C, X decreases.

  6. Self-Reported Barriers to Professional Help Seeking among College Students at Elevated Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Horwitz, Adam G.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kramer, Anne; King, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants: Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a Web-based treatment linkage…

  7. Usefulness of preprocedure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein to predict death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis according to stent type in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction randomized to bare metal or drug-eluting stenting during primary percutaneous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Kelbæk, Henning; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2011-01-01

    interval 1.3 to 5.6, p = 0.007) and the combined variable of hs-CRP >2 mg/L and BMS (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.5, p = 0.006) independently predicted the composite end point of death and MI at 36-month follow-up. There was a significant interaction (p = 0.006) for hs-CRP and stent......PCI. These findings need confirmation in larger randomized clinical trials....

  8. Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects

    KAUST Repository

    Kleiber, William

    2012-11-29

    We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.

  9. Elevational trends in defense chemistry, vegetation, and reproduction in Sanguinaria canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmore, A K; Hunter, M D

    2001-09-01

    Evaluation of biotic interactions along geographic gradients reveals that pressure on plant populations by herbivores and pathogens increases as latitude decreases, and is accompanied by a parallel increase in the number and toxicity of alkaloid-bearing plants. We compared rhizome alkaloid content with plant reproductive and vegetative characters in Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) along an elevational gradient over two growing seasons to ascertain 1) if alkaloid production in bloodroot varies among populations and systematically with elevation, and 2) if there exists a correlation between isoquinoline alkaloid, vegetative and reproductive production. In general, alkaloid content in bloodroot rhizomes declines with elevation, increases with rhizome water content, varies by site, and fluctuates seasonally with plant growth and reproduction. Alkaloid content was positively correlated with vegetative and reproductive effort with few exceptions. Analysis of total protopine and benzophenanthridine alkaloid concentrations revealed generally similar patterns as those of individual alkaloid concentrations, although significant differences did appear between individual alkaloid concentrations.

  10. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  11. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  12. Elevation modulates how Arctic arthropod communities are structured along local environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds

    2017-01-01

    clearly demonstrated. By replicating studies along shrub and moisture gradients at multiple elevations and using space-for-time substitution, it is possible to examine how arthropod communities may respond to future environmental change. We collected and identified 4640 adult specimens of spiders...... composition was significantly related to shrub height and soil moisture, and that this relationship varied between low and high elevation. Among the 46 species we found, more species were unique to the high elevation plots than to the low elevation plots, a finding that was most pronounced for spiders...... in plots along soil moisture gradients. Indicator species analysis corroborated earlier findings of the indicator value of specific species in Greenland and suggested that beetles may serve as better indicators of specific habitats than spiders. The location of plots along local environmental gradients...

  13. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  14. Gradually-varied flow profiles in open channels analytical solutions by using Gaussian hypergeometric function

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2014-01-01

    Gradually-varied flow (GVF) is a steady non-uniform flow in an open channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation. The evaluation of GVF profiles under a specific flow discharge is very important in hydraulic engineering. This book proposes a novel approach to analytically solve the GVF profiles by using the direct integration and Gaussian hypergeometric function. Both normal-depth- and critical-depth-based dimensionless GVF profiles are presented. The novel approach has laid the foundation to compute at one sweep the GVF profiles in a series of sustaining and adverse channels, w

  15. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ze Zhu

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  16. The Effect of Elevation on Volumetric Measurements of the Lower Extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordial M. Gillette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The empirical evidence for the use of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation has been questioned regarding its   clinical effectiveness. The component of RICE that has the least literature regarding its effectiveness is elevation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if various positions of elevation result in volumetric changes of the lower extremity. Methodology: A randomized crossover design was used to determine the effects of the four following conditions on volumetric changes of the lower extremity: seated at the end of a table (seated, lying supine (flat, lying supine with the foot elevated 12 inches off the table (elevated, and lying prone with the knees bent to 90 degrees (prone. The conditions were randomized using a Latin Square. Each subject completed all conditions with at least 24 hours between each session. Pre and post volumetric measurements were taken using a volumetric tank. The subject was placed in one of the four described testing positions for 30 minutes. The change in weight of the displaced water was the main outcome measure. The data was analyzed using an ANOVA of the pre and post measurements with a Bonferroni post hoc analysis. The level of significance was set at P<.05 for all analyses. Results: The only statistically significant difference was between the gravity dependent position (seated and all other positions (p <.001. There was no significant difference between lying supine (flat, on a bolster (elevated, or prone with the knees flexed to 90 degrees (prone. Conclusions: From these results, the extent of elevation does not appear to have an effect on changes in low leg volume. Elevation above the heart did not significantly improve reduction in limb volume, but removing the limb from a gravity dependent position might be beneficial.

  17. Normalization of vibration signals generated under highly varying speed and load with application to signal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Jacek; Barszcz, Tomasz; Strączkiewicz, Marcin; Jablonski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a normalization dedicated to transform non-stationary vibration signals into signals characterized by purely stationary properties. For this purpose, a novel class of generalized periodic signals is defined followed by a proposition of a normalization technique, which takes advantage of available, instantaneous values of operational parameters. Within the paper, a well-known discrete-random separation (DRS) technique is recalled as an exemplary technique, which has been restricted to stationary signals so far. The authors present a step-by-step adoption of the DRS to non-stationary signals. The method is applied to simulated signal, test rig signal, and a vibration signal from industrial object. Additionally, for the purpose of synthesis of simulated signal, a new model of multi-component vibrations generated under varying regime is proposed. The presented method aims to expand existing solutions dealing with varying frequency to a more general solution dealing with independent, simultaneous varying frequency and amplitude of signal components.

  18. Administrative database code accuracy did not vary notably with changes in disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; English, Shane; Austin, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    Previous mathematical analyses of diagnostic tests based on the categorization of a continuous measure have found that test sensitivity and specificity varies significantly by disease prevalence. This study determined if the accuracy of diagnostic codes varied by disease prevalence. We used data from two previous studies in which the true status of renal disease and primary subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively, had been determined. In multiple stratified random samples from the two previous studies having varying disease prevalence, we measured the accuracy of diagnostic codes for each disease using sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value. Diagnostic code sensitivity and specificity did not change notably within clinically sensible disease prevalence. In contrast, positive and negative predictive values changed significantly with disease prevalence. Disease prevalence had no important influence on the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic codes in administrative databases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Survey on Gain-Scheduled Control and Filtering for Parameter-Varying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in the gain-scheduled control and filtering problems for the parameter-varying systems. First of all, we recall several important algorithms suitable for gain-scheduling method including gain-scheduled proportional-integral derivative (PID control, H2, H∞ and mixed H2/H∞ gain-scheduling methods as well as fuzzy gain-scheduling techniques. Secondly, various important parameter-varying system models are reviewed, for which gain-scheduled control and filtering issues are usually dealt with. In particular, in view of the randomly occurring phenomena with time-varying probability distributions, some results of our recent work based on the probability-dependent gain-scheduling methods are reviewed. Furthermore, some latest progress in this area is discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and several potential future research directions are outlined.

  20. Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Pacek, Lauren R; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Vandrey, Ryan; Nardone, Natalie; Drobes, David J; Benowitz, Neal L; Dermody, Sarah S; Lemieux, Andrine; Denlinger, Rachel L; Cassidy, Rachel; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2017-01-01

    The FDA recently acquired regulatory authority over tobacco products, leading to renewed interest in whether reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes would reduce tobacco dependence in the United States. Given the association between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking, it is important to consider whether smokers with elevated depressive symptoms experience unique benefits or negative consequences of nicotine reduction. In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial that examined the effects of cigarettes varying in nicotine content over a 6-week period in non-treatment-seeking smokers, we used linear regression to examine whether baseline depressive symptom severity (scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) moderated the effects of reduced-nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes, relative to normal-nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes, on smoking rates, depressive symptom severity, and related subjective and physiological measures. Of the 717 participants included in this analysis, 109 (15.2%) had CES-D scores ≥ 16, indicative of possible clinical depression. Relative to NNC cigarettes, RNC cigarettes reduced smoking rates, nicotine dependence, and cigarette craving, and these effects were not significantly moderated by baseline CES-D score. A significant interaction between baseline CES-D score and cigarette condition on week 6 CES-D score was observed (p nicotine content conditions, biochemically confirmed compliance with the RNC cigarettes was associated with an increase in CES-D score for those with baseline CES-D scores nicotine standard for cigarettes may reduce smoking, without worsening depressive symptoms, among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms. This secondary analysis of a recent clinical trial examined whether depressive symptom severity moderated the effects of reduced-nicotine cigarettes on smoking and depressive symptoms. Results indicate that, regardless of baseline depressive symptoms

  1. Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Hutchinson, Tara C; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P; Restrepo, José I; Hoehler, Matthew S; Ribeiro, Waldir

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design.

  2. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  3. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  4. Biophysical controls on accretion and elevation change in Caribbean mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat stability of coastal ecosystems, such as marshes and mangroves, depends on maintenance of soil elevations relative to sea level. Many such systems are characterized by limited mineral sedimentation and/or rapid subsidence and are consequently dependent upon accumulation of organic matter to maintain elevations. However, little field information exists regarding the contribution of specific biological processes to vertical accretion and elevation change. This study used biogenic mangrove systems in carbonate settings in Belize (BZ) and southwest Florida (FL) to examine biophysical controls on elevation change. Rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, benthic mat formation, and belowground root accumulation were measured in fringe, basin, scrub, and dwarf forest types plus a restored forest. Elevation change rates (mm yr-1) measured with Surface Elevation Tables varied widely: BZ-Dwarf (-3.7), BZ-Scrub (-1.1), FL-Fringe (0.6), FL-Basin (2.1), BZ-Fringe (4.1), and FL-Restored (9.9). Root mass accumulation varied across sites (82-739 g m-2 yr-1) and was positively correlated with elevation change. Root volumetric contribution to vertical change (mm yr-1) was lowest in BZ-Dwarf (1.2) and FL-Fringe (2.4), intermediate in FL-Basin (4.1) and BZ-Scrub (4.3), and highest in BZ-Fringe (8.8) and FL-Restored (11.8) sites. Surface growth of turf-forming algae, microbial mats, or accumulation of leaf litter and detritus also made significant contributions to vertical accretion. Turf algal mats in fringe and scrub forests accreted faster (2.7 mm yr-1) than leaf litter mats in basin forests (1.9 mm yr-1), but similarly to microbial mats in dwarf forests (2.1 mm yr-1). Surface accretion of mineral material accounted for only 0.2-3.3% of total vertical change. Those sites with high root contributions and/or rapid growth of living mats exhibited an elevation surplus (+2 to +8 mm yr-1), whereas those with low root inputs and low (or non-living) mat accumulation showed an

  5. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  11. Akutan, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  12. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  17. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Crescent City, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Santa Monica, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Fort Bragg, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  7. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Central California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  11. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  13. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  18. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  1. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Sitka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  5. Hoonah, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  6. Yakutat, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  7. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Tatitlek, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  9. Key West, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Elevation Data for Jefferson County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  11. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  17. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Unalaska, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  2. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Whittier, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  4. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  6. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  7. Vegetation Composition and Marsh Surface Elevation, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data table contains plant composition and marsh surface elevation data for 64 plots where Salicornia pacifica litter was buried at 7 sites in 2015. These data...

  8. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Southeast Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  11. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Dion; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Nehme, Ziad; Stephenson, Michael; Bray, Janet E; Cameron, Peter; Barger, Bill; Ellims, Andris H; Taylor, Andrew J; Meredith, Ian T; Kaye, David M

    2015-06-16

    Oxygen is commonly administered to patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction despite previous studies suggesting a possible increase in myocardial injury as a result of coronary vasoconstriction and heightened oxidative stress. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing oxygen (8 L/min) with no supplemental oxygen in patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction diagnosed on paramedic 12-lead ECG. Of 638 patients randomized, 441 patients had confirmed ST-elevation-myocardial infarction and underwent primary end-point analysis. The primary end point was myocardial infarct size as assessed by cardiac enzymes, troponin I, and creatine kinase. Secondary end points included recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and myocardial infarct size assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months. Mean peak troponin was similar in the oxygen and no oxygen groups (57.4 versus 48.0 μg/L; ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.56; P=0.18). There was a significant increase in mean peak creatine kinase in the oxygen group compared with the no oxygen group (1948 versus 1543 U/L; means ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.52; P=0.01). There was an increase in the rate of recurrent myocardial infarction in the oxygen group compared with the no oxygen group (5.5% versus 0.9%; P=0.006) and an increase in frequency of cardiac arrhythmia (40.4% versus 31.4%; P=0.05). At 6 months, the oxygen group had an increase in myocardial infarct size on cardiac magnetic resonance (n=139; 20.3 versus 13.1 g; P=0.04). Supplemental oxygen therapy in patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction but without hypoxia may increase early myocardial injury and was associated with larger myocardial infarct size assessed at 6 months. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01272713. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  15. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase...

  16. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  17. Time Frequency Features of Rotor Systems with Slowly Varying Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the analytic method and numerical method respectively, the asymptotic solutions and finite element model of rotor system with single slowly varying mass is obtained to investigate the time frequency features of such rotor system; furthermore, with given model of slowly varying mass, the rotor system with dual slowly varying mass is studied. For the first order approximate solution is used, there exists difference between the results with analytic method and numerical method. On the base of common characteristics of rotor system with dual slowly varying mass, the general rules and formula describing the frequency distribution of rotor system with multiple slowly varying mass are proposed.

  18. Incidence and consequence of major bleeding in primary percutaneous intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the era of radial access: an analysis of the international randomized Acute myocardial infarction Treated with primary angioplasty and intravenous enoxaparin Or unfractionated heparin to Lower ischemic and bleeding events at short- and Long-term follow-up trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellaton, Cyril; Cayla, Guillaume; Silvain, Johanne; Zeymer, Uwe; Cohen, Marc; Goldstein, Patrick; Huber, Kurt; Pollack, Charles; Kerneis, Mathieu; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The aims of the study are to compare the outcome with and without major bleeding and to identify the independent correlates of major bleeding complications and mortality in patients described in the ATOLL study. The ATOLL study included 910 patients randomly assigned to either 0.5 mg/kg intravenous enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin before primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Incidence of major bleeding and ischemic end points was assessed at 1 month, and mortality, at 1 and 6 months. Patients with and without major bleeding complication were compared. A multivariate model of bleeding complications at 1 month and mortality at 6 months was realized. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. The most frequent bleeding site appears to be the gastrointestinal tract. Age >75 years, cardiac arrest, and the use of insulin or >1 heparin emerged as independent correlates of major bleeding at 1 month. Patients presenting with major bleeding had significantly higher rates of adverse ischemic complications. Mortality at 6 months was higher in bleeders. Major bleeding was found to be one of the independent correlates of 6-month mortality. The addition or mixing of several anticoagulant drugs was an independent factor of major bleeding despite the predominant use of radial access. This study shows that major bleeding is independently associated with poor outcome, increasing ischemic events, and mortality in primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed mostly with radial access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigations of Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames at Elevated Pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott A.

    2016-12-01

    sizes plateau. Particle size in the annulus is more sensitive to pressure. Next, the development of an alternative particle size measuring technique is studied. Time Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence (TiRe-LII) is a commonly used technique to measure soot concentrations and particle size at atmospheric pressure. However, Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) models suffer from an incomplete understanding of the effects of elevated pressures on the absorption, annealing, and cooling of soot. The present study focuses on what affect the laser temporal pulse shape and duration may have on particle sizing. TiRe-LII in flames at 1 and 15 bar is carried out, using laser pulses with tophat or Gaussian temporal profiles of varying duration. Mono-disperse equivalent primary particle diameters are calculated using the KAUST LII model. Little difference in particle sizing is found for different laser pulses. However, this data will be useful for validating the KAUST LII model when absorption and poly-dispersion are accounted for. In an effort to move one step closer to logistical fuel studies, the sooting tendencies of a number of liquid fuels are studied at pressures up to 10. Of parallel relevance, a sooting index for surrogate development is evaluated for elevated pressure applications. The Yield Sooting Index (YSI) methodology is applied to 11 normal, cyclic, and branched alkanes. When referencing to two n-alkane fuels, the YSI of n-alkanes determined at atmospheric pressures accurately reflects the relative sooting tendencies of these fuels at elevated pressures. The relative sooting tendencies of cyclo- and methyl-alkanes have a lower pressure sensitivity than n-alkanes.

  20. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L White

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data.

  2. Facilitating adaptation in montane plants to changing precipitation along an elevation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve; Leopold, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Montane plant communities throughout the world have responded to changes in precipitation and temperature regimes by shifting ranges upward in elevation. Continued warmer, drier climate conditions have been documented and are projected to increase in high-elevation areas in Hawai‘i, consistent with climate change effects reported in other environments throughout the world. Organisms that cannot disperse or adapt biologically to projected climate scenarios in situ may decrease in distributional range and abundance over time. Restoration efforts will need to accommodate future climate change and account for the interactive effects of existing invasive species to ensure long-term persistence. As part of a larger, ongoing restoration effort, we hypothesized that plants from a lower-elevation forest ecotype would have higher rates of survival and growth compared to high-elevation forest conspecifics when grown in common plots along an elevation gradient. We monitored climate conditions at planting sites to identify whether temperature or rainfall influenced survival and growth after 20 weeks. We found that origin significantly affected survival in only one of three native montane species, Dodonaea viscosa. Contrary to our hypothesis, 75.2% of seedlings from high-elevation origin survived in comparison to 58.7% of seedlings from low elevation across the entire elevation gradient. Origin also influenced survival in linearized mixed models that controlled for temperature, precipitation, and elevation in D. viscosa and Chenopodium oahuense. Only C. oahuense seedlings had similar predictors of growth and survival. There were no common patterns of growth or survival between species, indicating that responses to changing precipitation and emperature regimes varied between montane plant species. Results also suggest that locally sourced seed is important to ensure highest survival at restoration sites. Further experimentation on larger spatial and temporal scales is necessary

  3. Involvement of nitrogen and cytokinins in photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO₂ of spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Diego; Morcuende, Rosa; Del Pozo, Alejandro; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael; Pérez, Pilar

    2013-10-15

    Acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to elevated CO₂ involves a decrease of the leaf Rubisco content. In the present study, it was hypothesized that nitrogen uptake and partitioning within the leaf and among different aboveground organs affects the down-regulation of Rubisco. Given the interdependence of nitrogen and cytokinin signals at the whole plant level, it is also proposed that cytokinins affect the nitrogen economy of plants under elevated CO₂, and therefore the acclimatory responses. Spring wheat received varying levels of nitrogen and cytokinin in field chambers with ambient (370 μmol mol⁻¹) or elevated (700 μmol mol⁻¹) atmospheric CO₂. Gas exchange, Rubisco, soluble protein and nitrogen contents were determined in the top three leaves in the canopy, together with total nitrogen contents per shoot. Growth in elevated CO₂ induced decreases in photosynthetic capacity only when nitrogen supply was low. However, the leaf contents of Rubisco, soluble protein and total nitrogen on an area basis declined in elevated CO₂ regardless of nitrogen supply. Total nitrogen in the shoot was no lower in elevated than ambient CO₂, but the fraction of this nitrogen located in flag and penultimate leaves was lower in elevated CO₂. Decreased Rubisco: chlorophyll ratios accompanied losses of leaf Rubisco with CO₂ enrichment. Cytokinin applications increased nitrogen content in all leaves and nitrogen allocation to senescing leaves, but decreased Rubisco contents in flag leaves at anthesis and in all leaves 20 days later, together with the amount of Rubisco relative to soluble protein in all leaves at both growth stages. The results suggest that down regulation of Rubisco in leaves at elevated CO₂ is linked with decreased allocation of nitrogen to the younger leaves and that cytokinins cause a fractional decrease of Rubisco and therefore do not alleviate acclimation to elevated CO₂. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; West, Anders Sode

    2012-01-01

    AimsElevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates...... in frequency between the two extreme triglyceride groups (c.-1131T > C, S19W, and c.*31C > T; P-value: 0.06 to...

  5. Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during acculysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2017-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is effective in both thermal ablations and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects depend on the operating parameters and vary with the progress of therapy. Different types of lesions could be produced with the pulse duration of 5-30 ms, much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5 Hz. Meanwhile, bubble cavitation and temperature elevation in the focal region were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples, respectively. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Overall, it is suggested that appropriate synergy and monitoring of mechanical and thermal effects would broaden the HIFU application and enhance its efficiency as well as safety.

  6. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  7. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  8. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  9. Elevated mutation rate during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Alison; Santoyo, Gustavo; Shafer, Brenda; Strathern, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Mutations accumulate during all stages of growth, but only germ line mutations contribute to evolution. While meiosis contributes to evolution by reassortment of parental alleles, we show here that the process itself is inherently mutagenic. We have previously shown that the DNA synthesis associated with repair of a double-strand break is about 1000-fold less accurate than S-phase synthesis. Since the process of meiosis involves many programmed DSBs, we reasoned that this repair might also be mutagenic. Indeed, in the early 1960's Magni and Von Borstel observed elevated reversion of recessive alleles during meiosis, and found that the revertants were more likely to be associated with a crossover than non-revertants, a process that they called "the meiotic effect." Here we use a forward mutation reporter (CAN1 HIS3) placed at either a meiotic recombination coldspot or hotspot near the MAT locus on Chromosome III. We find that the increased mutation rate at CAN1 (6 to 21 -fold) correlates with the underlying recombination rate at the locus. Importantly, we show that the elevated mutation rate is fully dependent upon Spo11, the protein that introduces the meiosis specific DSBs. To examine associated recombination we selected for random spores with or without a mutation in CAN1. We find that the mutations isolated this way show an increased association with recombination (crossovers, loss of crossover interference and/or increased gene conversion tracts). Polζ appears to contribute about half of the mutations induced during meiosis, but is not the only source of mutations for the meiotic effect. We see no difference in either the spectrum or distribution of mutations between mitosis and meiosis. The correlation of hotspots with elevated mutagenesis provides a mechanism for organisms to control evolution rates in a gene specific manner.

  10. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  11. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Eubanks, T M

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  12. Measuring elevated intracranial pressure through noninvasive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Helena; Nissborg, Emelie; Bartek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    techniques available. Several methods for noninvasive measuring of elevated ICP have been proposed: radiologic methods including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, transcranial Doppler, electroencephalography power spectrum analysis, and the audiological and ophthalmological techniques......Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important cause of secondary brain injury, and a measurement of ICP is often of crucial value in neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for ICP monitoring is through an intraventricular catheter, but this invasive technique...... is associated with certain risks. Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring methods are considered to be a safer alternative but can, in certain conditions, be imprecise due to zero drift and still require an invasive procedure. An accurate noninvasive method to measure elevated ICP would therefore be desirable...

  13. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  14. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Methods for time-varying exposure related problems in pharmacoepidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, Laura; Linder, Marie; Zhang, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lack of control for time-varying exposures can lead to substantial bias in estimates of treatment effects. The aim of this study is to provide an overview and guidance on some of the available methodologies used to address problems related to time-varying exposure and confounding...... pharmacoepidemiological problems, construction of treatment episodes, time-varying confounders, cumulative exposure and latency, and treatment switching. RESULTS: A correct treatment episodes construction is fundamental to avoid bias in treatment effect estimates. Several methods exist to address time-varying covariates...

  16. Audio Effects Based on Biorthogonal Time-Varying Frequency Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cavaliere

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the mathematical background and musical use of a class of audio effects based on frequency warping. These effects alter the frequency content of a signal via spectral mapping. They can be implemented in dispersive tapped delay lines based on a chain of all-pass filters. In a homogeneous line with first-order all-pass sections, the signal formed by the output samples at a given time is related to the input via the Laguerre transform. However, most musical signals require a time-varying frequency modification in order to be properly processed. Vibrato in musical instruments or voice intonation in the case of vocal sounds may be modeled as small and slow pitch variations. Simulation of these effects requires techniques for time-varying pitch and/or brightness modification that are very useful for sound processing. The basis for time-varying frequency warping is a time-varying version of the Laguerre transformation. The corresponding implementation structure is obtained as a dispersive tapped delay line, where each of the frequency dependent delay element has its own phase response. Thus, time-varying warping results in a space-varying, inhomogeneous, propagation structure. We show that time-varying frequency warping is associated to an expansion over biorthogonal sets generalizing the discrete Laguerre basis. Slow time-varying characteristics lead to slowly varying parameter sequences. The corresponding sound transformation does not suffer from discontinuities typical of delay lines based on unit delays.

  17. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  18. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. It also...... of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles. There is an ongoing debate regarding the impact of premature progesterone rise on the IVF outcome. The objective of this review is to assess evidence of poorer ongoing pregnancy rate in IVF cycles with elevated serum progesterone at the end of follicular...... should document the cause and origin of premature progesterone in stimulated IVF cycles....

  19. Patterns and drivers of intraspecific variation in avian life history along elevational gradients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Boyle, W; Sandercock, Brett K; Martin, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    Elevational gradients provide powerful natural systems for testing hypotheses regarding the role of environmental variation in the evolution of life-history strategies. Case studies have revealed shifts towards slower life histories in organisms living at high elevations yet no synthetic analyses exist of elevational variation in life-history traits for major vertebrate clades. We examined (i) how life-history traits change with elevation in paired populations of bird species worldwide, and (ii) which biotic and abiotic factors drive elevational shifts in life history. Using three analytical methods, we found that fecundity declined at higher elevations due to smaller clutches and fewer reproductive attempts per year. By contrast, elevational differences in traits associated with parental investment or survival varied among studies. High-elevation populations had shorter and later breeding seasons, but longer developmental periods implying that temporal constraints contribute to reduced fecundity. Analyses of clutch size data, the trait for which we had the largest number of population comparisons, indicated no evidence that phylogenetic history constrained species-level plasticity in trait variation associated with elevational gradients. The magnitude of elevational shifts in life-history traits were largely unrelated to geographic (altitude, latitude), intrinsic (body mass, migratory status), or habitat covariates. Meta-population structure, methodological issues associated with estimating survival, or processes shaping range boundaries could potentially explain the nature of elevational shifts in life-history traits evident in this data set. We identify a new risk factor for montane populations in changing climates: low fecundity will result in lower reproductive potential to recover from perturbations, especially as fewer than half of the species experienced higher survival at higher elevations. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Asymmetric evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.

    2003-10-01

    We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.

  1. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  2. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  3. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on time- varying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural ...

  4. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Doubly Fed Induction Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. Nguyen; Scherer, Carsten W.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Müller, Volkmar

    This paper is concerned with the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly fed induction machines. The design is based on the framework of linear parameter-varying systems where the mechanical angular speed is considered to be a measurable time-varying parameter. The objective is to

  5. Surface sealing and hydraulic conductances under varying-intensity rains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez, D.; Dirksen, C.; Miedema, R.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.; Schoonderbeek, D.

    1992-01-01

    In the past, investigations on surface seals developing under simulated rains usually were performed with uniform rainfall intensities. Recent studies, however, showed that varying-intensity rains affect erosion and volumes of runoff. We conducted a study on surface sealing under varying-intensity

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  7. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  8. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monoamine neurotransmitters and depression of mood.7 A. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased vitamin. B12, folate, serotonin, lipids and lipoproteins in depressed patients. MO Ebesunun1, HU Eruvulobi1, T Olagunju1, OA Owoeye2. 1Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health ...

  9. Talentudvikling og differentiering af elever i talentklasser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Dansk uddannelsespolitik har gennem de senere år haft stigende fokus på at fremme talentudvikling gennem uddannelserne. Fokuseringen på talent har på grundskoleniveau blandt andet ført til oprettelse af forskellige former for talentklasser, hvor særligt talentfulde elever kan dyrke og få ekstra...... udfordringer inden for bestemte områder. Når det gælder talent for skolearbejde som sådan, de bogligt stærke elever, er det blevet en udbredt praksis inden for landets kommuner at tilbyde undervisning for disse elever i såkaldte talentklasser, som foregår efter almindelig skoletid, ofte i ungdomsskoleregi....... Denne artikel ser nærmere på, hvad der socialt og i relation til talent kendetegner de elever, som opsøger og følger en sådan talentklasseundervisning, og diskuterer dernæst talentklasser som en form for social differentiering legitimeret gennem uddannelsessystemet. Det empiriske grundlag for artiklens...

  10. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  11. 75 FR 32684 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... flexibility analysis is not required. Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review. This proposed...) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) Location of referenced ground Communities... upstream of Country Club Boulevard. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum...

  12. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  13. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  14. Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of Indigenous Languages in Zimbabwe. ... The study is informed by afrocentrism theory which calls for all African phenomena, activities and way of life to be looked at and be given meaning from the standpoint and worldview of Africans. Ife PsychologIA, 20(2), ...

  15. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9...

  16. Nurses' accuracy in estimating backrest elevation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-02

    Aug 2, 2007 ... study days as routine procedures such as endotracheal suctioning and dressings had usually been completed by this time. The backrest angle of purposively selected mechanically ventilated patients was measured at the breakpoint of the bed frame using an angle finder. Backrest elevation was defined as ...

  17. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    .... Coshocton County, Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1020 Muskingum River 170 feet upstream of... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  18. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... County, Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1192 Auglaize River Approximately 0.7 mile + 909... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  19. 75 FR 55480 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... upstream of the Jo Daviess County. confluence with the Ohio River (approximately 0.6 mile upstream of West Diggen Hill Road extended). Approximately 572.3 miles +608 upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  20. 76 FR 72627 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Illinois, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1134 Ohio River Approximately 1,666 feet +367... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  1. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Gulfport, (approximately 395 miles Village of Lomax. upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River... the Ohio River). * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  2. 76 FR 79098 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... downstream of Mt. Zion Road. Ohio Canal At the confluence with +825 City of Lancaster, the Hocking River... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  3. 75 FR 19895 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ..., confluence with the Ohio Unincorporated Areas of River (approximately 0.1 Mercer County. mile downstream of 50th Street extended). 437 miles upstream of the +550 confluence with the Ohio River (approximately 0.2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...

  4. 76 FR 39305 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ..., Ohio, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1120 Great Miami River Approximately 1.0 mile +854 City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood...

  5. Implementation of four layer automatic elevator controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K. V.; Kumar, P. Satish; Charles, B. S.; Srilakshmi, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this modern era, elevators have become an integral part of any commercial or public complex. It facilitates the faster movement of people and luggage between floors. The lift control system is one among the keenest aspects in electronics controlling module that are used in auto motive filed. Usually elevators are designed for a specific building taking into account the main factors like the measure of the building, the count of persons travelling to each floor and the expected periods of large usage. The lift system was designed with different control strategies. This implementation is based on FPGA, which could be used for any building with any number of floors, with the necessary inputs and outputs. This controller can be implemented based on the required number of floors by merely changing a control variable from the HDL code. This approach is based on an algorithm which reduces the number of computation necessary, on concentrating only on the relevant principles that improves the score and ability of the club of elevator structure. The elevator controller is developed using Verilog HDL and is perfectly executed on a Xilinx ISE 12.4 and Spartan -3E FPGA.

  6. 78 FR 45877 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Environmental Consideration. An environmental impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory Flexibility... communities listed below. Elevations at selected locations in each community are shown. National Environmental... mile 28 southeast of the intersection of Mill Street and Thane Road. Jordan Creek Approximately 1,080...

  7. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-04-13

    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  8. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  10. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  11. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  12. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  13. Self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students at elevated risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kramer, Anne; King, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to describe self-reported barriers to professional help seeking among college students who are at elevated suicide risk and determine if these barriers vary by demographic and clinical characteristics. Participants were 165 non-treatment seekers recruited as part of a Web-based treatment linkage intervention for college students at elevated suicide risk (from September 2010 through December 2011). Data were collected using Web-based questionnaires. Two coders coded students' responses to an open-ended question about reasons for not seeking professional help. The most commonly reported barriers included perception that treatment is not needed (66%), lack of time (26.8%), and preference for self-management (18%). Stigma was mentioned by only 12% of students. There were notable differences based on gender, race, and severity of depression and alcohol abuse. Efforts aimed at reaching students at elevated risk for suicidal behavior should be particularly sensitive to these commonly described barriers.

  14. Correction of elevation offsets in multiple co-located lidar datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2017-04-07

    IntroductionTopographic elevation data collected with airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) can be used to analyze short- and long-term changes to beach and dune systems. Analysis of multiple lidar datasets at Dauphin Island, Alabama, revealed systematic, island-wide elevation differences on the order of 10s of centimeters (cm) that were not attributable to real-world change and, therefore, were likely to represent systematic sampling offsets. These offsets vary between the datasets, but appear spatially consistent within a given survey. This report describes a method that was developed to identify and correct offsets between lidar datasets collected over the same site at different times so that true elevation changes over time, associated with sediment accumulation or erosion, can be analyzed.

  15. Effective ergodicity breaking in an exclusion process with varying system length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultens, Christoph; Schadschneider, Andreas; Arita, Chikashi

    2015-09-01

    Stochastic processes of interacting particles in systems with varying length are relevant e.g. for several biological applications. We try to explore what kind of new physical effects one can expect in such systems. As an example, we extend the exclusive queueing process that can be viewed as a one-dimensional exclusion process with varying length, by introducing Langmuir kinetics. This process can be interpreted as an effective model for a queue that interacts with other queues by allowing incoming and leaving of customers in the bulk. We find surprising indications for breaking of ergodicity in a certain parameter regime, where the asymptotic growth behavior depends on the initial length. We show that a random walk with site-dependent hopping probabilities exhibits qualitatively the same behavior.

  16. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Schlick, Konrad H; Padrick, Matthew M; Rinsky, Brenda; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jones, Heather; Mayer, Stephan A; Lyden, Patrick D

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral venous congestion can precipitate intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebral blood outflow. Conditions that increase right atrial pressure, such as hypervolemia, are thought to increase resistance to jugular venous outflow and contribute to cerebro-venous congestion. Cerebral pulsatility index (CPI) is considered a surrogate marker of distal cerebrovascular resistance and is elevated with intracranial hypertension. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that elevated right atrial pressure is associated with increased CPI compared to normal right atrial pressure. We retrospectively reviewed 61 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated CPI from transcranial Doppler studies and correlated these with echocardiographic measures of right atrial pressure. CPIs were compared from patients with elevated and normal right atrial pressure. There was a significant difference between CPI obtained from all patients with elevated right atrial pressure compared to those with normal right atrial pressure (P right and left hemispheric CPI from patients with both elevated and normal right atrial pressure. Patients with elevated right atrial pressure had significantly higher CPI compared to patients with normal right atrial pressure. These findings suggest that cerebro-venous congestion due to impaired jugular venous outflow may increase distal cerebrovascular resistance as measured by CPI. Since elevated CPI is associated with poor outcome in numerous neurological conditions, future studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these results in other populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  17. On H∞ Fault Estimator Design for Linear Discrete Time-Varying Systems under Unreliable Communication Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the H∞ fixed-lag fault estimator design for linear discrete time-varying (LDTV systems with intermittent measurements, which is described by a Bernoulli distributed random variable. Through constructing a novel partially equivalent dynamic system, the fault estimator design is converted into a deterministic quadratic minimization problem. By applying the innovation reorganization technique and the projection formula in Krein space, a necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for the existence of the estimator. The parameter matrices of the estimator are derived by recursively solving two standard Riccati equations. An illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  19. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and vegetation type on microbiota associated with decomposing straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Straw from wheat plants grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations was placed in litterbags in a grass fallow field and a wheat field. The CO2 treatment induced an increase in straw concentration of ash-free dry mass from 84% to 93% and a decrease in nitrogen concentration from ...... decomposition of wheat straw, but the effect is probably of minor importance compared to the effect of varying crops, agricultural practise or changing land use....

  20. Floral traits influence pollen vectors? choices in higher elevation communities in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. H.; Z.X. Ren; Lázaro, Amparo; Wang, H.; Bernhardt, P; H. D. Li; Li, D. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background How floral traits and community composition influence plant specialization is poorly understood and the existing evidence is restricted to regions where plant diversity is low. Here, we assessed whether plant specialization varied among four species-rich subalpine/alpine communities on the Yulong Mountain, SW China (elevation from 2725 to 3910?m). We analyzed two factors (floral traits and pollen vector community composition: richness and density) to determine the degree of plant s...

  1. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Random Walks in a Random Environment. S R S Varadhan. Invited Articles Volume 114 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S R S Varadhan1. Department of Mathematics, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012, USA ...

  2. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  3. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  4. Random walks on random Koch curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, S; Hoffmann, K H [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Essex, C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2009-06-05

    Diffusion processes in porous materials are often modeled as random walks on fractals. In order to capture the randomness of the materials random fractals are employed, which no longer show the deterministic self-similarity of regular fractals. Finding a continuum differential equation describing the diffusion on such fractals has been a long-standing goal, and we address the question of whether the concepts developed for regular fractals are still applicable. We use the random Koch curve as a convenient example as it provides certain technical advantages by its separation of time and space features. While some of the concepts developed for regular fractals can be used unaltered, others have to be modified. Based on the concept of fibers, we introduce ensemble-averaged density functions which produce a differentiable estimate of probability explicitly and compare it to random walk data.

  5. Rotating Space Elevators: Classical and Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Steven

    We investigate a novel and unique dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE). The RSE is a multiply rotating system of strings reaching beyond the Earth geo-synchronous satellite orbit. Objects sliding along the RSE string ("climbers") do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in the space elevator technology which is how to supply the energy to the climbers moving along the string. The RSE is a double rotating floppy string. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in the double rotating frame. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena studied in this thesis.

  6. Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

  7. Coastal National Elevation Dataset (CoNED) - Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Model (TBDEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate, high-resolution elevation information is vital to understanding highly dynamic U.S. coastal regions. The new dataset consists of a detailed and highly...

  8. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  9. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  10. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  11. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  12. Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H

    1987-01-01

    The urinary excretion of hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (O-cr) in man was measured in two studies of 7-h exposure to toluene in a climate chamber, either constant concentration of 100 ppm or varying concentrations containing peaks of 300 ppm but with a time-weighted average of 100 ppm....... In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... h, while O-cr was eliminated with a half life of about 3 h. Alveolar air concentration of toluene varied between 21 and 31 ppm during constant exposure and between 13 and 57 ppm during varying exposure, but no difference in mean alveolar toluene concentration or in metabolite excretion was seen...

  13. Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.

  14. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  15. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Gupta, Sourav Sen; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    .... Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status...

  16. Når "elever" bliver "talenter"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    er også vigtigt at holde sig for øje, hvad det er for forståelser af elev, læring, præstation m.m., der følger med, når begreber vandrer. Artiklen falder i to dele. I den første del om forskningstraditionen ridser jeg tre grundlæggende tilgange til studiet af sportsfolks vej fra talent til ekspert op...

  17. Field Induced Memory Effects in Random Nematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Ranjkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B,T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B=0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.

  18. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  19. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  20. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...