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Sample records for randomly selected teachers

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  4. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  5. Parent oriented teacher selection causes language diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimentepe, Ibrahim; Bingol, Haluk O

    2017-09-21

    An evolutionary model for emergence of diversity in language is developed. We investigated the effects of two real life observations, namely, people prefer people that they communicate with well, and people interact with people that are physically close to each other. Clearly these groups are relatively small compared to the entire population. We restrict selection of the teachers from such small groups, called imitation sets, around parents. Then the child learns language from a teacher selected within the imitation set of her parent. As a result, there are subcommunities with their own languages developed. Within subcommunity comprehension is found to be high. The number of languages is related to the relative size of imitation set by a power law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  8. Elementary Teachers' Selection and Use of Visual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Gail Jones, M.

    2018-02-01

    As science grows in complexity, science teachers face an increasing challenge of helping students interpret models that represent complex science systems. Little is known about how teachers select and use models when planning lessons. This mixed methods study investigated the pedagogical approaches and visual models used by elementary in-service and preservice teachers in the development of a science lesson about a complex system (e.g., water cycle). Sixty-seven elementary in-service and 69 elementary preservice teachers completed a card sort task designed to document the types of visual models (e.g., images) that teachers choose when planning science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to analyze the card sort task. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a subsample of teachers to elicit the rationale for image selection. Results from this study showed that both experienced in-service teachers and novice preservice teachers tended to select similar models and use similar rationales for images to be used in lessons. Teachers tended to select models that were aesthetically pleasing and simple in design and illustrated specific elements of the water cycle. The results also showed that teachers were not likely to select images that represented the less obvious dimensions of the water cycle. Furthermore, teachers selected visual models more as a pedagogical tool to illustrate specific elements of the water cycle and less often as a tool to promote student learning related to complex systems.

  9. Elementary Teachers' Selection and Use of Visual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Gail Jones, M.

    2017-07-01

    As science grows in complexity, science teachers face an increasing challenge of helping students interpret models that represent complex science systems. Little is known about how teachers select and use models when planning lessons. This mixed methods study investigated the pedagogical approaches and visual models used by elementary in-service and preservice teachers in the development of a science lesson about a complex system (e.g., water cycle). Sixty-seven elementary in-service and 69 elementary preservice teachers completed a card sort task designed to document the types of visual models (e.g., images) that teachers choose when planning science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to analyze the card sort task. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a subsample of teachers to elicit the rationale for image selection. Results from this study showed that both experienced in-service teachers and novice preservice teachers tended to select similar models and use similar rationales for images to be used in lessons. Teachers tended to select models that were aesthetically pleasing and simple in design and illustrated specific elements of the water cycle. The results also showed that teachers were not likely to select images that represented the less obvious dimensions of the water cycle. Furthermore, teachers selected visual models more as a pedagogical tool to illustrate specific elements of the water cycle and less often as a tool to promote student learning related to complex systems.

  10. Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

  11. Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Manny

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

  12. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  13. Teachers' Attitude Toward School Library Services in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' Attitude Toward School Library Services in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Oyo State. ... Data for the study were collected by use of questionnaire administered to teachers of the selected schools. Interviews were conducted and records were examined to support the data gathered. The study revealed that ...

  14. Elementary Teachers' Selection and Use of Visual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tammy D.; Jones, M. Gail

    2018-01-01

    As science grows in complexity, science teachers face an increasing challenge of helping students interpret models that represent complex science systems. Little is known about how teachers select and use models when planning lessons. This mixed methods study investigated the pedagogical approaches and visual models used by elementary in-service…

  15. Tips for Teachers Selecting Toys to Facilitate Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee

    2011-01-01

    Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.

  16. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  17. Comparisons of Selected Student and Teacher Variables in All-Girls and Coeducational Physical Education Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Julie A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate selected student and teacher variables and compare the differences between these variables for female students and female teachers in coeducation and single-sex physical education classes. Eighteen female teachers and intact classes were selected; 9 teachers from coeducation and 9 teachers from…

  18. Selecting Competency Outcomes for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodl, Norman R.

    1973-01-01

    This article develops three interrelated themes: a) that there is a relation by definition of competencies to teaching function; b) that selection of competencies is a political process and a scholar's choice; c) that several major competency selection issues and problems exist. (JA)

  19. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  20. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  1. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  2. Exploring Mechanisms of Effective Teacher Coaching: A Tale of Two Cohorts From a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, David; Kraft, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that teacher coaching can improve teaching practices and student achievement, little is known about specific features of effective coaching programs. We estimate the impact of MATCH Teacher Coaching (MTC) on a range of teacher practices using a blocked randomized trial and explore how changes in the coaching…

  3. Incentive Pay Programs Do Not Affect Teacher Motivation or Reported Practices: Results from Three Randomized Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Le, Vi-Nhuan; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Marsh, Julie A.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    This study drew on teacher survey responses from randomized experiments exploring three different pay-for-performance programs to examine the extent to which these programs motivated teachers to improve student achievement and the impact of such programs on teachers' instruction, number of hours worked, job stress, and collegiality. Results showed…

  4. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Yektatalab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01, verbal (P=0.02 and physical (P=0.01 aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09 and impulsive anger (P=0.08 subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers.

  5. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  6. Does clinical teacher training always improve teaching effectiveness as opposed to no teacher training? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Jan; Svensson, Jörg; Lingemann, Christian; Gruber, Hans

    2014-01-08

    Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students' practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains 'alarm call' (p teachers (p = 0.05). At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation.

  7. Efficacy of teachers in a number of selected schools in the KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    survey of teacher efficacy in a number of selected schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa revealed that teachers perceived school context effects as ... city to affect student performance. •. The extent to which teachers believe ... staying power, teachers' stress, implementation of innovation, student achievement ...

  8. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  9. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  10. The Selective Tradition in Teachers' Choice of Children's Literature: Does It Exist in the Elementary Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipson, Janice; Paley, Nicholas

    1991-01-01

    Surveys 55 elementary teachers to determine whether experienced teachers exhibit the same attitudes in book selection for classroom use as those with less experience. Finds that teachers' selection of literature is a complicated, dense-layered activity which involves a multiplicity of factors. Finds an unconscious gender and racial bias in…

  11. The Effect of Hidden Curriculum on the Criteria Parents Use to Select Schools and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Hasan Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    A framework of school and teacher qualities has been established by research. The need to identify families' school and teacher selection criteria, in particular, is the main motive behind the present study. It mainly aims to identify the criteria parents use when selecting schools and teachers, or the influence of hidden curriculum on school and…

  12. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  14. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  15. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  16. The Effect of Teacher-Family Communication on Student Engagement: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Dougherty, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of teacher communication with parents and students as a means of increasing student engagement. We estimate the causal effect of teacher communication by conducting a randomized field experiment in which sixth- and ninth-grade students were assigned to receive a daily phone call home and a text/written…

  17. Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

  18. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Does clinical teacher training always improve teaching effectiveness as opposed to no teacher training? A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students’ practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. Methods The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Results Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains ‘alarm call’ (p teaching quality was rated significantly better by students of untrained teachers (p = 0.05). Conclusions At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation. PMID:24400838

  20. When teacher clusters work: selected experiences of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent scholarship on teacher professional development has shown renewed interest in collaborative forms of teacher learning. Networks, communities of practice and clusters are related concepts that describe forms of collaboration between schools and/or teachers that encourage such learning. In South Africa, teacher ...

  1. Developmental Stages of Preschool Teachers in Selected Arab Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mounla, Najwa

    1996-01-01

    The current study focused on examining the developmental stages of preschool teachers in the Arab Gulf region. Specifically, the needs and concerns of teachers were investigated using a pretest/posttest (12-month interval) design. Participants included two greoups of preschool teachers, trained (n= 35) and untrained (n=122) Contrary to expectations, the sequential nature of development stages of teachers did not emerge. Instead, the results showed that teachers become less concerned abo...

  2. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Wyckoff, James

    2015-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  5. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  6. How Education Affects Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge: Unpacking Selected Aspects of Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Mika; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Viholainen, Antti; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2017-01-01

    It is no surprise that all mathematics teacher education programs attempt to increase future teachers' knowledge, since teachers' knowledge has an effect not only on their teaching but also on their students' achievements. However, measuring the relationship between teachers' knowledge and their education is overly demanding. In this study we…

  7. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  8. An Investigation on Teacher Retention and Teachers' Perceptions of Cultural Leadership in Selected North Carolina Year Round and Traditional Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Ve-Lecia Selene

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher retention and teachers' perceptions of cultural leadership in select North Carolina elementary year round and traditional elementary schools. The participants in this study were North Carolina elementary teachers that participated in the 2008 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey…

  9. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  10. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  11. Improving Young English Learners' Language and Literacy Skills through Teacher Professional Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Leslie M.; Amendum, Steven J.; Knotek, Steven E.; Sánchez, Marta; Malone, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested a new teacher professional development program for increasing the language and literacy skills of young Latino English learners with 45 teachers and 105 students in 12 elementary schools. School-based teams randomly assigned to the intervention received professional development focused on cultural…

  12. General Music Teachers' Backgrounds and Multicultural Repertoire Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teachers' backgrounds could contribute to their decisions to include music from diverse cultures. Analysis of interviews with three general music teachers indicated that their music training and experiences, ethnic backgrounds, and years of teaching experience may have influenced their…

  13. Cultivating teacher mindfulness: Effects of a randomized controlled trial on work, home, and sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Roeser, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    The effects of randomization to a workplace mindfulness training (WMT) or a waitlist control condition on teachers' well-being (moods and satisfaction at work and home), quantity of sleep, quality of sleep, and sleepiness during the day were examined in 2 randomized, waitlist controlled trials (RCTs). The combined sample of the 2 RCTs, conducted in Canada and the United States, included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female). Measures were collected at baseline, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up; teachers were randomly assigned to condition after baseline assessment. Results showed that teachers randomized to WMT reported less frequent bad moods at work and home, greater satisfaction at work and home, more sleep on weekday nights, better quality sleep, and decreased insomnia symptoms and daytime sleepiness. Training-related group differences in mindfulness and rumination on work at home at postprogram partially mediated the reductions in negative moods at home and increases in sleep quality at follow-up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-06-24

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.

  15. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381

  16. Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C; Reinke, Wendy M

    2017-03-01

    For children with the most serious and persistent academic and behavior problems, parent involvement in education, particularly teacher perceptions of involvement, is essential to avert their expected long-term negative outcomes. Despite the widespread interest in and perceived importance of parent involvement in education, however, few experimental studies have evaluated programs and practices to promote it. In this group randomized trial, we examined the effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program (IY TCM) on teacher perceptions of contact and comfort with parents. One hundred five classrooms with 1818 students were randomly assigned to an IY TCM or to a control, business as usual condition. Measures of key constructs included teacher ratings of parent and student behaviors, direct observations in the classroom, and a standardized academic achievement test. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to identify patterns of involvement over time and to determine if intervention condition predicted postintervention patterns and transitions. Four patterns of involvement were identified at baseline and at follow-up; parents of students with academic and behavior problems were most likely to be in classes with the least adaptive involvement patterns. Intervention status predicted group membership at follow-up. Specifically, intervention classroom parents were significantly more likely to transition to more adaptive teacher-rated parenting profiles at follow-up compared to control classroom parents. This is the first randomized trial we are aware of that has found that teacher training can alter teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns. Clinical implications for students with behavior and academic problems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Qualitative Study of Taiwanese College English Teachers' Criteria and Rationales for Freshman English Textbook Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-shan

    2009-01-01

    Textbooks play an important role in English teaching and learning. The researcher administrated qualitative interviews with ten English teachers from a college in central Taiwan to explore Taiwanese college English teachers' Freshman English textbook selection criteria, and the rationales underlying these criteria. There are four research…

  18. Curriculum Decisions--The Challenges of Teacher Autonomy over Knowledge Selection for History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Barbara Mary

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges for teachers in positioning them as independent curriculum makers. History teachers in New Zealand have recently entered uncharted territory with the abandonment of prescribed topics for history and a new-found authority to determine the selection of historical knowledge taught to their senior secondary students.…

  19. Voice amplification for primary school teachers with voice disorders: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bovo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of voice disorders in teachers, together with the personal, professional and economical consequences of the problem. Good primary prevention should be based on 3 aspects: 1 amelioration of classroom acoustics, 2 voice care programs for future professional voice users, including teachers and 3 classroom or portable amplification systems. The aim of the study was to assess the benefit obtained from the use of portable amplification systems by female primary school teachers in their occupational setting. Materials and Methods: Forty female primary school teachers attended a course about professional voice care, which comprised two theoretical lectures, each 60 min long. Thereafter, they were randomized into 2 groups: the teachers of the first group were asked to use a portable vocal amplifier for 3 months, till the end of school-year. The other 20 teachers were part of the control group, matched for age and years of employment. All subjects had a grade 1 of dysphonia with no significant organic lesion of the vocal folds. Results: Most teachers of the experimental group used the amplifier consistently for the whole duration of the experiment and found it very useful in reducing the symptoms of vocal fatigue. In fact, after 3 months, Voice Handicap Index (VHI scores in "course + amplifier" group demonstrated a significant amelioration (p = 0.003. The perceptual grade of dysphonia also improved significantly (p = 0.0005. The same parameters changed favourably also in the "course only" group, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.4 for VHI and p = 0.03 for perceptual grade. Conclusions: In teachers, and particularly in those with a constitutional weak voice and/or those who are prone to vocal fold pathology, vocal amplifiers may be an effective and low-cost intervention to decrease potentially damaging vocal loads and may represent a necessary form of prevention.

  20. selected experiences of South African teachers with the cluster

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand the teachers' experiences of successful clustering and the benefits there- of, the discussion is arranged around four major themes. The first theme describes the benefits relating to content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge. (PCK) - these are what we call the “product benefits” of clustering.

  1. Skills among Teachers in Selected Public Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the availability of ICT facilities and skills of secondary school teachers in Zaria Metropolis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Two objectives were developed to guide the study. Five schools were surveyed. Two separate questionnaires was developed, one for ICT facilities and are administered to head of ICTs in ...

  2. Work related musculoskeletal pain among teachers in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged standing, walking and sitting were activities that predispose respondents to WRSP. It can be concluded from the study that more than average public secondary school teachers had WRMSP and shoulder joints, neck and wrist joints are majorly affected. Education programmes on prevention and coping strategies ...

  3. Voice Disorders in Teacher Students-A Prospective Study and a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Andersson, Eva M; Södersten, Maria; Simberg, Susanna; Claesson, Silwa; Barregård, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders, but longitudinal studies on voice problems among teachers are lacking. The aim of this randomized trial was to investigate long-term effects of voice education for teacher students with mild voice problems. In addition, vocal health was examined prospectively in a group of students without voice problems. First-semester students answered three questionnaires: one about background factors, one about voice symptoms (Screen6), and the Voice Handicap Index. Students with voice problems according to the questionnaire results were randomized to a voice training group or a control group. At follow-up in the sixth semester, all students answered Screen6 again together with four questions about factors that could have affected vocal health during their teacher education. The training group and the control group also answered the Voice Handicap Index a second time. At follow-up, 400 students remained in the study: 27 in the training group, 54 in the control group, and 319 without voice problems at baseline. Voice problems had decreased somewhat more in the training group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). However, subgroup analyses showed significantly larger improvement among the students in the group with complete participation in the training program compared with the group with incomplete participation. Of the 319 students without voice problems at baseline, 14% had developed voice problems. Voice problems often develop in teacher students. Despite extensive dropout, our results support the hypothesis that voice education for teacher students has a preventive effect. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  5. Factors that Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how demographics, school context, pedagogical approaches and professional development (PD) influenced the likelihood of a teacher using a tool via a multilevel cross-classification-ordered logit analysis (Goldstein 1995). The findings revealed that science teachers were more likely to use hardware than software; more specifically, this included instructional tools (i.e., SMARTboards, clickers) and laboratory tools (probeware). Differences in teachers' use of tools were largely due to differences in tools as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics. Use of a tool was more likely by teachers who taught physics, who taught via inquiry, or who had more PD with a tool. These findings have implications for how we conceptualize selection and usage of technologies that enter the science education pipeline; which tools become sustainable in the science classroom and how technological take-up differs across science disciplines.

  6. Selecting, training and assessing new general practice community teachers in UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydes, Ciaran; Ajjawi, Rola

    2015-09-01

    Standards for undergraduate medical education in the UK, published in Tomorrow's Doctors, include the criterion 'everyone involved in educating medical students will be appropriately selected, trained, supported and appraised'. To establish how new general practice (GP) community teachers of medical students are selected, initially trained and assessed by UK medical schools and establish the extent to which Tomorrow's Doctors standards are being met. A mixed-methods study with questionnaire data collected from 24 lead GPs at UK medical schools, 23 new GP teachers from two medical schools plus a semi-structured telephone interview with two GP leads. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed informed by framework analysis. GP teachers' selection is non-standardised. One hundred per cent of GP leads provide initial training courses for new GP teachers; 50% are mandatory. The content and length of courses varies. All GP leads use student feedback to assess teaching, but other required methods (peer review and patient feedback) are not universally used. To meet General Medical Council standards, medical schools need to include equality and diversity in initial training and use more than one method to assess new GP teachers. Wider debate about the selection, training and assessment of new GP teachers is needed to agree minimum standards.

  7. Analysis of Subordination Errors in Students' Writings: A Study of Selected Teacher Training Colleges in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Amma Abrafi

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining how students of selected Teacher Training Colleges handle one important aspect of sentence structure, i.e. "subordination". Data were collected from written scripts, and tests responded to by 150 participants from three selected colleges. These were analyzed by identifying both correct and incorrect uses…

  8. School Turnaround Teachers: Selection Toolkit. Part of the School Turnaround Collection from Public Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Impact, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit includes these separate sections: (1) Selection Preparation Guide; (2) Day-of-Interview Tools; (3) Candidate Rating Tools; and (4) Candidate Comparison and Decision Tools. Each of the sections is designed to be used at different stages of the selection process. The first section provides turnaround teacher competencies that are the…

  9. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  10. The Right "Fit": Exploring Science Teacher Candidates' Approaches to Natural Selection Within a Clinical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotger, Benjamin; Dotger, Sharon; Masingila, Joanna; Rozelle, Jeffrey; Bearkland, Mary; Binnert, Ashley

    2017-04-01

    Teachers and students struggle with the complexities surrounding the evolution of species and the process of natural selection. This article examines how science teacher candidates (STCs) engage in a clinical simulation that foregrounds two common challenges associated with natural selection—students' understanding of "survival of the fittest" and the variation of species over time. We outline the medical education pedagogy of clinical simulations and its recent diffusion to teacher education. Then, we outline the study that situates each STC in a one-to-one interaction with a standardized student who is struggling to accurately interpret natural selection concepts. In simulation with the standardized student, each STC is challenged to recognize content misconceptions and respond with appropriate instructional strategies and accurate explanations. Findings and implications center on the STCs' instructional practices in the simulation and the use of clinical learning environments to foster science teacher learning.

  11. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  12. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.

  13. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of problem-solving teaching in ... their actual practices in the classroom. Out of nine high schools found in Awi Zone, five of them were randomly selected. In ..... To foster critical thinking and creative mind in the students through ...

  14. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  15. Statistical Mechanics of On-line Ensemble Teacher Learning through a Novel Perceptron Learning Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Miyoshi, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble teacher learning, ensemble teachers have only uncertain information about the true teacher, and this information is given by an ensemble consisting of an infinite number of ensemble teachers whose variety is sufficiently rich. In this learning, a student learns from an ensemble teacher that is iteratively selected randomly from a pool of many ensemble teachers. An interesting point of ensemble teacher learning is the asymptotic behavior of the student to approach the true teacher ...

  16. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  17. Engagement with Toys in Two-Year-Old Children with Autism: Teacher Selection versus Child Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhartsen, Debra B.; Garfinkle, Ann N.; Wolery, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Three two-year-old boys with autism participated in a study comparing effects on time engaged when a toy was selected by either teacher or child. The data suggest the child-choice condition resulted in more engaged time for each participant and less problematic behaviors for two of the children. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  18. The Case for Using Student Voice in Teacher Selection and Recruitment: Reflections from a School Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this piece Peter Kent, headteacher of Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby in the UK, reflects upon the role of the student voice in selecting and recruiting new teaching staff. Contextualised by some recent unsympathetic reporting in the UK media, Peter explains why for their school community, using the student voice to inform teacher recruitment…

  19. Applicant Reactions to a Situational Judgment Test Used for Selection into Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Durksen, Tracy L.; Rowett, Emma; Patterson, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We considered applicants' perceptions of the use of a pilot situational judgment test (SJT) designed for selection into primary and secondary teacher training programs in the UK. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 304 applicants (73% female) to two postgraduate (PGCE) training programs in the 2013-2014 application cycle.…

  20. Perceptions of the Selection Criteria of Omani English Language Teachers: Implications for Policy Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali; Al-Bulushi, Ali; Al-Zadjali, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Proficiency in the English language has been described as central for determining Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (N-NESTs) selection for joining the profession. The Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman decided to set the score of Band 6 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for accepting the English Language…

  1. Instructional Technologies and Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Selection of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Ahmet Oguz

    2017-01-01

    There are many available technologies that can assist future teachers to deliver instruction. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of literature identifying available technology tools in mathematics education and which technologies are selected by PSTs to design mathematics lesson activities. The most commonly used and available…

  2. Efficacy of teachers in a number of selected schools in the KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of teachers in a number of selected schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. I Rangraje, A van der Merwe, G Urbani, JL van der Walt. Abstract. No Abstract Available South African Journal of Education Vol.25(1) 2005: 38-43. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  3. Investigating Teachers' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Abidin; Baysal, Nigah

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the life satisfaction perceptions of teachers working at public primary schools according to some variables. In this study, descriptive survey model was used. A random sample of 200 teachers from 25 public primary schools in Diyarbakir/Turkey during 2013-2014 academic year were selected to represent the…

  4. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  5. Factors That Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how…

  6. Studying Teacher Selection of Resources in an Ultra-Large Scale Interactive System: Does Metadata Guide the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Samuel; Schunn, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-large-scale interactive systems on the Internet have begun to change how teachers prepare for instruction, particularly in regards to resource selection. Consequently, it is important to look at how teachers are currently selecting resources beyond content or keyword search. We conducted a two-part observational study of an existing popular…

  7. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  8. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  9. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  10. Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.

  11. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  12. Classroom-based Interventions and Teachers' Perceived Job Stressors and Confidence: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Head Start Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job demands, and confidence in behavior management. Using a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the CSRP provided multifaceted services to the treatment group, including teacher training and mental health consultation, which were accompanied by stress-reduction services and workshops. Overall, 90 teachers in 35 classrooms at 18 Head Start sites participated in the study. After adjusting for teacher and classroom factors and site fixed effects, we found that the CSRP had significant effects on the improvement of teachers' perceived job control and work-related resources. We also found that the CSRP decreased teachers' confidence in behavior management and had no statistically significant effects on job demands. Overall, we did not find significant moderation effects of teacher race/ethnicity, education, teaching experience, or teacher type. The implications for research and policy are discussed.

  13. Training secondary school teachers in instructional language modification techniques to support adolescents with language impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a collaborative intervention where a speech-language pathologist (SLP) trained mainstream secondary school teachers to make modifications to their oral and written instructional language. The trained teachers' uptake of techniques in their whole-class teaching practices and the impact this had on the language abilities of students with language impairment (LI) were evaluated. Two secondary schools were randomly assigned to either a trained or a control condition. A cohort of 13 teachers (7 trained and 6 control) and 43 Year 8 students with LI (21 trained and 22 control) were tested at pre, post, and follow-up times-teachers by structured interview and students by standardized spoken and written language assessments. Significantly increased use of the language modification techniques by the trained teachers was observed when compared to the control group of untrained teachers, with this increased use maintained over time. Results from the trained group of students showed a significant improvement in written expression and listening comprehension relative to the control group of students. This randomized controlled trial is one of the first investigations to evaluate a collaborative intervention that links changes in mainstream secondary teachers' instructional language practices with improvements in the language abilities of adolescents with LI.

  14. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  15. The teacher's role in selecting a methodological approach to the interpretation of a literary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Mirjana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the teacher's role in selecting a methodological approach to the interpretation of a literary work. The choice of methodological approach is dependent on: 1 the semiotic structure of the literary text; 2 the specific educational goals of interpretation; 3 the students' age, psychophysical abilities and knowledge, and 4 the planned circumstances of instruction. In selecting a method of interpretation, the teacher should take into consideration not only these factors, but also contemporary literary theory and its methodological apparatus. This can be a challenging task whose fulfillment does not guarantee that the interpretation will be successful, since the validity and functionality of the methodological approach cannot be established in theory but rather through teaching practice. It is up to the teacher to be creative, because a literary work cannot be interpreted by means of a single method but always through a combination of methods, certain of which have their origins in literary theory. There is a widespread belief among teachers that these methods, which have the status of technical/special methods in literary methodology, cannot be used in the first four grades of elementary school. This paper offers an example illustrating that the interpretive model can be used as early as first grade. A teacher's knowledge, as well as their creativity in selecting a method and their openness to creative methodological combinations and skill in applying them, directly affect the effectiveness of interpretation, either succeeding in developing a fondness for books and reading, or, failing that, resulting in a permanent loss of interest in the world of literature.

  16. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable

  17. Teacher Professional Development by Selected Teacher and School Characteristics: 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2017-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotermund, Susan; DeRoche, John; Ottem, Randolph

    2017-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief provides a snapshot of the state of teacher professional development activities among U.S. public school teachers using data collected through the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) Public School Teacher Questionnaire. This report relies on data provided by public school teachers about their professional…

  18. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  19. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  20. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  1. Efficacy of an internet-based problem-solving training for teachers: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, D.D.; Lehr, D.; BoB, L.; Riper, H.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.; Thiart, H.; Heber, E.; Berking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based problem-solving training (iPST) for employees in the educational sector (teachers) with depressive symptoms. The results of training were compared to those of a waitlist control

  2. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  3. Influence of Leadership Styles on Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Songea and Morogoro Districts, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Haruni J.; Kaitila, Mafwimbo M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the kind of school leadership style that best suits for promoting teachers' job satisfaction in primary schools in Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design with samples of 200 teachers from 20 selected primary schools in Songea and Morogoro districts. Interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires…

  4. A Grounded Theory of Behavior Management Strategy Selection, Implementation, and Perceived Effectiveness Reported by First-Year Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie B.; Igo, L. Brent

    2010-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. When confronting mild student…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Selected Grade 3-12 Teachers' Perceived Assessment Literacy and Their Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported understandings of selected 3rd to 12th grade teachers had of assessment and the assessment practices they reported implementing in their classrooms along with evidence extracted from written lesson plans. The literature on classroom assessment supports the idea that teachers who create meaningful assessments,…

  6. When teacher clusters work: selected experiences of South African teachers with the cluster approach to professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyiso C Jita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship on teacher professional development has shown renewed interest in collaborative forms of teacher learning. Networks, communities of practice and clusters are related concepts that describe forms of collaboration between schools and/or teachers that encourage such learning. In South Africa, teacher clusters represent a relatively recent and popular experiment in teacher professional development. However, there is no verdict yet about their effectiveness. While the utility of such collaborative structures for teacher learning is fairly well established in many developed countries, we still know very little about how the intended beneficiaries (the teachers experience these non-traditional structures of professional development. Using qualitative data from a large-scale research project, we explore teachers' perspectives on what constitutes a successful clustering experience, and the kinds of professional development benefits they derive from their participation therein. Our major findings are twofold: First, clusters seem to enhance teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Second, and somewhat unexpectedly, the teachers identified another set of benefits, the so-called "process benefits" that include collaboration, instructional guidance and teacher leadership. In a context where teachers have tended to work solo and insulated their classroom practices from influence, the presence of the "process benefits" represents a significant finding. We conclude the paper by exploring several possible directions for further research on these process benefits of clusters for teachers in South Africa and elsewhere.

  7. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  8. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  9. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  10. Impact of Free Glasses and a Teacher Incentive on Children's Use of Eyeglasses: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Haiqing; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhang, Linxiu; Wang, Xiuqin; Jin, Ling; Naidoo, Kovin; Minto, Hasan; Zou, Haidong; Lu, Lina; Rozelle, Scott; Congdon, Nathan

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect of free glasses combined with teacher incentives on in-school glasses wear among Chinese urban migrant children. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Children with visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 in either eye owing to refractive error in 94 randomly chosen primary schools underwent randomization by school to receive free glasses, education on their use, and a teacher incentive (Intervention), or glasses prescriptions only (Control). Intervention group teachers received a tablet computer if ≥80% of children given glasses wore them during unannounced visits 6 weeks and 6 months (main outcome) after intervention. Among 4376 children, 728 (16.7%, mean age 10.9 years, 51.0% boys) met enrollment criteria and were randomly allocated, 358 (49.2%, 47 schools) to Intervention and 370 (50.8%, 47 schools) to Control. Among these, 693 children (95.2%) completed the study and underwent analysis. Spectacle wear was significantly higher at 6 months among Intervention children (Observed [main outcome]: 68.3% vs 23.9%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.91-22.5, P spectacle wear (P spectacle wear (P = .02). The 6-month observed wear rate was only 41% among similar-aged children provided free glasses in our previous trial without teacher incentives. Free spectacles and teacher incentives maintain classroom wear in the large majority of children needing glasses over a school year. Low wear among Control children demonstrates the need for interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  12. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  13. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  14. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  15. Teacher-Led Math Inquiry in Belize: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinerman, Krystal M.; Hull, Darrell M.; Chen, Qi; Booker, Dana D.; Naslund-Hadley, Emma I.

    2014-01-01

    In Belize, the percentage of untrained teachers (i.e. teachers with the equivalent of a high school education or less) is one of the highest in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean. In response to growing student cohorts, the increased demand for more classroom teachers has led to significant decrease in the proportion of trained teachers…

  16. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  17. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  18. A play and joint attention intervention for teachers of young children with autism: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Connie S

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test a classroom-based intervention focused on facilitating play and joint attention for young children with autism in self-contained special education classrooms. Thirty-three children with autism between the ages of 3 and 6 years participated in the study with their classroom teachers (n = 14). The 14 preschool special education teachers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) symbolic play then joint attention intervention, (2) joint attention then symbolic intervention, and (3) wait-list control period then further randomized to either group 1 or group 2. In the intervention, teachers participated in eight weekly individualized 1-h sessions with a researcher that emphasized embedding strategies targeting symbolic play and joint attention into their everyday classroom routines and activities. The main child outcome variables of interest were collected through direct classroom observations. Findings indicate that teachers can implement an intervention to significantly improve joint engagement of young children with autism in their classrooms. Furthermore, multilevel analyses showed significant increases in joint attention and symbolic play skills. Thus, these pilot data emphasize the need for further research and implementation of classroom-based interventions targeting play and joint attention skills for young children with autism.

  19. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  20. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  1. The Evolution of a Mathematics Lead Teacher Program: Teacher Leaders' Perspective on the Selection and Adaptation of Their Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Nivan

    2012-01-01

    I examine a unique Elementary Mathematics Lead Teacher program entering its second decade of operation. The program is based in a large, urban, Midwestern school district, with the vision of developing a cadre of teacher leaders to support mathematics education. The district's professional development content was conventional, including both…

  2. EFL Primary School Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge and Skills in Alternative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Abdul-Kareem, Muneera M.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated female EFL primary school teachers' attitudes as well as teachers' knowledge and skills in alternative assessment. Data was collected via a questionnaire from 335 EFL primary school teachers randomly selected from six educational zones. An interview with principals and head teachers and a focus group interview with EFL…

  3. Using Multiple Lenses to Examine the Development of Beginning Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Natural Selection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection simulations. We observed three early-career biology teachers as they taught natural selection in their respective school contexts over two consecutive years. Data consisted of six interviews with each participant. Using the PCK model developed by Magnusson et al. (1999), we examined topic-specific PCK development utilizing three different lenses: (1) expansion of knowledge within an individual knowledge base, (2) integration of knowledge across knowledge bases, and (3) knowledge that explicitly addressed core concepts of natural selection. We found commonalities across the participants, yet each lens was also useful to understand the influence of different factors (e.g., orientation, subject matter preparation, and the idiosyncratic nature of teacher knowledge) on PCK development. This multi-angle approach provides implications for considering the quality of beginning science teachers' knowledge and future research on PCK development. We conclude with an argument that explicitly communicating lenses used to understand PCK development will help the research community compare analytic approaches and better understand the nature of science teacher learning.

  4. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  5. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  6. The influence of fidelity of implementation on teacher-student interaction quality in the context of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Larsen, Ross A; Brewer, Alexis J

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect effects between training in the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, teachers' uptake of RC practices, and teacher-student interaction quality, using a structural equation modeling framework. A total of 24 schools were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Third- and fourth-grade teachers in treatment schools (n=132) received training in the RC approach, whereas teachers in control schools (n=107) continued "business as usual." Observers rated teachers' fidelity of implementation (FOI) of RC practices 5 times throughout the year using the Classroom Practices Observation Measure. In addition, teachers completed self-report measures of FOI, the Classroom Practices Teacher Survey and Classroom Practices Frequency Survey, at the end of the school year. Teacher-student interactions were rated during classroom observations using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Controlling for teachers' grade level and teacher-student interaction quality at pretest, RC training was expected to predict posttest teacher-student interaction quality directly and indirectly through FOI. Results supported only a significant indirect effect, β=0.85, p=.002. Specifically, RC teachers had higher levels of FOI of RC practices, β=1.62, pteacher-student interaction quality, β=0.52, p=.001, R2=.32. Discussion highlights factors contributing to variability in FOI and school administrators roles in supporting FOI. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of lifestyle and mental health among physical training teachers and other teachers in Birjand city

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Siyami; Atefeh Salari; Hadi Samadieh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the lifestyle and mental health of male and female physical training and non-physical training teachers in Birjand city. Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative study. The statistical population consisted of all physical training and the other teachers of Birjand city in the academic year of 2014-2015. So, 198 cases (99 physical training teachers and 99 non-physical training teachers) were selected by randomized cluster sampling. They r...

  8. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  9. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  10. Teachers' Perception of the Role of Media in Classroom Teaching in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Sunday

    2009-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of teachers' perception of the role of media in Oyo State of Nigeria. A total of 150 secondary school teachers of Oyo State participated in the study: 110 trained and 40 untrained teachers randomly selected from ten secondary schools at two gender level (70 females and 80 males). Two media roles were selected for the…

  11. Traumatic dental injuries--knowledge and awareness among present and prospective teachers in selected urban and rural areas of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Marit S; Audestad, Esther; Bårdsen, Asgeir

    2010-06-01

    to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in children and adolescents among present and prospective teachers in selected parts of Norway. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among present and prospective teachers. It was based on a questionnaire about TDI in children and adolescents (7-15 years of age). The participants originated from two areas, one rural and one urban. The teacher trainee students were from classes focusing on sport and physical education. Chi-square tests were used for comparisons of groups of responders and relevant variables. A total of 143 individuals responded to the questionnaire (response rate 73.7%). Few respondents were aware of the existence of information about managing TDI at their respective schools. Only one responder (rural area) had had any education about TDI, although more than one-third of all the teachers had encountered TDI in school settings. Knowledge related to handling avulsed teeth was lower compared with handling crown fractures. Generally, the teachers had a higher level of knowledge related to the correct handling of TDI compared with the student group and they were also more confident in their respective decisions than the younger group. The findings revealed poor knowledge and awareness of TDI among present and prospective teachers in selected parts of Norway.

  12. The effects of teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' EFL performance: a randomized-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cunha, Jennifer; Nunes, Tânia; Suárez, Natalia; Fuentes, Sonia; Moreira, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of five types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework completion; answering questions about homework; checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) used in class by 26 teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) using a randomized-group design. Once a week, for 6 weeks, the EFL teachers used a particular type of homework follow-up practice they had previously been assigned to. At the end of the 6 weeks students completed an EFL exam as an outcome measure. The results showed that three types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) had a positive impact on students' performance, thus highlighting the role of EFL teachers in the homework process. The effect of EFL teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' performance was affected by students' prior knowledge, but not by the number of homework follow-up sessions.

  13. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  14. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  15. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems...

  16. Literacy Text Selections in Secondary School Classrooms: Exploring the Practices of English Teachers as Agents of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Holloway

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how Ontario secondary school English teachers make choices about which literature to teach in their courses. This will be done in order to more deeply understand why many secondary school teachers may or may not encourage students to read contemporary, social issue texts. This paper uses a critical sociology of schooling theoretical perspective to critique the study's findings. We examine the relation between policies and practice, the issue of resources and structural barriers, and how decisions are made around literary text choices. Some themes that emerged out of the interviews focus on a range of views expressed about personal agency, literary canons, gender, sexual orientation, and racism as central issues that shape text selection. We conclude by arguing for the need for policy to support individual teachers to take risks in their professional ability to select and teach contemporary social issues texts to high school students in all disciplines.

  17. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  18. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Optimism, and Perceived Stress among Selected Teachers in Lutheran Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, Sudi Kate

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived stress, as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and a specific set of predictor variables among selected teachers in Lutheran schools in the United States. These variables were cognitive emotion regulation strategies (positive reappraisal and…

  20. Challenges in the Decentralization of Recruitment and Selection of Teachers in Kenyan Secondary Schools: A Case of Gucha District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraa, Samba Serah; Chepkoech, Koske Luciana; Simiyu, Mulongo Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Decentralization of teacher recruitment and selection in Kenya was as a result of World Bank/IMF policies, which support projects that guarantee direct net economic returns by productivity and indirect returns on externalities. The approach has been used as a way of improving service delivery. This strategy that has been successful elsewhere may…

  1. Selection and Training of Teachers of the Gifted in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Linda

    1983-01-01

    The author examines characteristics of effective teachers of gifted students in the United States by reviewing research on topics of mentorship, trait theory, behaviorism, creativity, change agents, and leadership; cites accepted teacher competencies; describes a model teacher education program; and notes federal, state, and local efforts to…

  2. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT. NBER Working Paper No. 19529

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  3. Investigating Novice Teacher Experiences of the Teaching Dynamics Operating in Selected School Communities in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Seija; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the lived experiences of five novice teachers during their first academic year of teaching. This article analyzes the experiences of new teachers based on long-term data collection throughout a school year as one means of bridging the gap between teacher preparation and actual teaching practice. The findings indicate that…

  4. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  5. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  6. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  7. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  8. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  9. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the impact of a teacher classroom management program on the classroom behavior of children with and without behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen

    2013-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  13. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Teacher Only Calls Her Pets": Teacher's Selective Attention and the Invisible Life of a Diverse Classroom in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Amankwa, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    Studies on classroom practices in Africa and the developing world tend to report on the visible general features, i.e. code switching, rote learning, memorisation and safe talk, with very little on the micro, invisible, classroom life. This article, based on the findings of a study involving classroom observations of teachers and pupils'…

  15. Teachers' Continuing Professional Development as Correlates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the correlates of teachers' continuing professionaldevelopment on universal basic education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Using descriptive survey, a sample of 500 teachers was randomly selected from twenty (20) Basic Junior Secondary Schools and Primary Schools used for the study. The instrument ...

  16. Influence of teachers' competence on students academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of teachers' competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary school chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 12 secondary schools in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 ...

  17. 161 Teachers' Continuing Professional Development as Correlates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The study examined the correlates of teachers' continuing professional development on universal basic education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Using descriptive survey, a sample of 500 teachers was randomly selected from twenty (20) Basic Junior Secondary Schools and Primary Schools used for the study.

  18. Teachers' Competence and Students' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 10 secondary schools in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 principals ...

  19. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  20. Primary School Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study endeavored to investigate primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceived practices of continuous assessment (CA). Ninety-five primary school teachers from three primary schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia, were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and content analyses were ...

  1. Appraisal of assessment practices among primary school teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study appraises assessment practices of the primary school teachers in the areas under study. A survey research design was used to select 18 primary schools for the study. The stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain 250 primary school teachers from the 18 selected schools ...

  2. How Do School-Based Prevention Programs Impact Teachers? Findings from a Randomized Trial of an Integrated Classroom Management and Social-Emotional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Celene E; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Berg, Juliette K; Pas, Elise T; Becker, Kimberly D; Musci, Rashelle; Embry, Dennis D; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    A number of classroom-based interventions have been developed to improve social and behavioral outcomes for students, yet few studies have examined how these programs impact the teachers who are implementing them. Impacts on teachers may affect students and therefore also serve as an important proximal outcome to examine. The current study draws upon data from a school-based randomized controlled trial testing the impact of two prevention programs. In one intervention condition, teachers were trained in the classroom behavior management program, PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG). In a second intervention condition, teachers were trained to use an integrated program, referred to as PATHS to PAX, of the PAX GBG and a social and emotional learning curriculum called Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS©). This study aimed to determine whether both interventions positively impacted teachers, with a particular interest in the teachers' own beliefs and perceptions regarding self-efficacy, burnout, and social-emotional competence. The sample included 350 K-5 teachers across 27 schools (18 schools randomized to intervention, 9 to control). Multilevel latent growth curve analyses indicated that the PATHS to PAX condition generally demonstrated the most benefits to teachers, relative to both the control and PAX GBG conditions. These findings suggest that school-based preventive interventions can have a positive impact on teachers' beliefs and perceptions, particularly when the program includes a social-emotional component. Several possible mechanisms might account for the added benefit to teachers. Additional research is needed to better understand how these programs impact teachers, as well as students.

  3. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  4. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, B.Y.; Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Positivity & Rules Program (PR program), a behavioral teacher program targeting ADHD symptoms in the classroom involving both student-focused and classroom-focused programs. Method: Primary school children with ADHD symptoms (N = 114) were

  5. Training Teachers to Build Resilience in Children in the Aftermath of War: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Naomi L.; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Ziv, Yuval; Blanton, Curtis; Reza, Avid; Weltman, Alon; Brom, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in school-based interventions for building resilience in children facing trauma and adversity. Recent studies focus on teacher training as an effective way to enhance resilience in their students, and emphasize the need for additional evidence-based practice. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate…

  6. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  7. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  8. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  9. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  11. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  12. The perceptions and practices of selected high school teachers in special admission schools regarding writing across the curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca Hayward

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measured the writing achievement of 55,000 American school children. The students performed at the basic or lower level. In 1988, "The Writing Report Card of the NAEP," and in 1996, the Pennsylvania Mathematics and Reading Assessment along with the Stanford 9 Exam concluded that students, of all racial/ethnic backgrounds, are unable to write well except in response to the simplest tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and practices of math, science, and social studies high school teachers in special admission schools regarding writing across the curriculum (WAC). Specifically, this study attempted to answer: (1) Do math, science, and social studies teachers differ in their perceptions and practices regarding student writing in their classrooms? (2) Are teacher characteristics related to the perceptions and practices of math, science, and social studies teachers regarding the need for student writing in their classrooms? The questions led to the following null hypotheses: (1) There is no significant difference among math, science, and social studies teachers regarding their perceptions and practices for student writing in their classrooms. (2) There is no significant relationship between the highest degree earned, the length of teaching experience, and the level of grades taught by math, science, and social studies teachers and their perceptions and practices regarding the need for student writing in their classrooms. A review of the literature since 1992 using ERIC and Dissertation Abstracts revealed that there were no studies concerned with the focus of this particular study. A cross sectional survey of School District of Philadelphia math, science, and social studies high school teachers in special admission schools was conducted. A questionnaire was developed to obtain the data. A panel of experts was selected to establish validity of the instrument. Thirty-two usable

  13. Randomized controlled trial of a teacher-led asthma education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard L; Gibson, Peter G; Vimpani, Graham V; Francis, J Lynn; Hazell, Juliana

    2004-12-01

    Our objective was to determine whether an asthma education program in schools would have 1) a direct impact on student knowledge and attitudes to asthma and quality of life of the students with asthma, 2) an indirect impact on teacher knowledge and attitudes to asthma and on school policies about asthma, and 3) a sustainable program after the resources to implement the research were withdrawn. Seventeen intervention and 15 control schools participated in a controlled trial. Baseline knowledge and attitudes were measured in year 8 students (ages 13-14 years) and their teachers together with quality of life in the students with asthma. A three-lesson package about asthma was delivered by teachers as part of the Personal Development/Health/Physical Education (PD/H/PE) curriculum. Follow-up questionnaires were administered to students and staff. Efforts to change school policies were documented. Five years after the intervention, PD/H/PE teachers were contacted to determine whether the program was still operating. Main outcome measures included asthma knowledge, attitudes, and quality of life. Questionnaires were returned by 4,161/4,475 of the year 8 students at baseline and by 3,443 at follow-up. In intervention schools, compared with control schools, students showed improved asthma knowledge (P Students from intervention but not control schools showed significant improvements in overall quality of life (P = 0.003 vs. P = 0.82, respectively). Teachers from intervention schools showed significant increases in knowledge compared to control schools (P students. Fifty-nine of the 61 (97%) high schools in the Hunter Region now have the program. Management and distribution of the Living With Asthma program have been taken over by the Asthma Foundation of New South Wales. The package has been updated and is being offered to all high schools throughout New South Wales as part of the National Asthma-Friendly Schools Project. In conclusion, a teacher-led asthma education

  14. Comparing Brief Experimental Analysis and Teacher Judgment for Selecting Early Reading Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…

  15. Teachers' Innovative Use of Computer Technologies in Classroom: A Case of Selected Ghanaian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buabeng-Andoh, Charles; Totimeh, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore secondary school teachers' innovative use of computer technologies in classroom. Questionnaires were distributed to 273 teachers in fourteen schools comprising 5 urban schools, 5 semi-urban schools and 4 rural schools. 241 were returned, and 231 valid questionnaires were used for data analysis, representing…

  16. Linking a Learning Progression for Natural Selection to Teachers' Enactment of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions, or representations of how student ideas develop in a domain, hold promise as tools to support teachers' formative assessment practices. The ideas represented in a learning progression might help teachers to identify and make inferences about evidence collected of student thinking, necessary precursors to modifying…

  17. Pre-Service Home Economics Teachers' Attitudes on Selected Aspects of Practical Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Francka Lovšin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted among pre-service home economics teachers from the Faculty of Education of the University of Ljubljana with different levels of practical experience in teaching. The pre-service Home Economics teachers in the 3rd year of their studies had just completed their first class of teaching experience…

  18. 77 FR 12257 - Proposed Priorities, Requirements, Definitions, And Selection Criteria; Teacher Incentive Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... systems and tools that would enhance the quality and success of the PBCS, such as high-quality teacher..., master teacher or coach positions. Although both options require additional components to conform with... success and sustainability if the same systems are used to evaluate every educator within an LEA. In...

  19. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  20. Aerospace Education for Teachers Based on Recommendations of Selected Aviation and Space Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Leroy John

    The study attempted to determine procedures for providing elementary and secondary school teachers with a general knowledge of aerospace science. A two-part rating scale was developed and sent to member companies of the Aerospace Industries Association of America. Results showed that (1) planned industrial tours by teachers, meetings between…

  1. Beliefs and Instructional Practices among Secondary Teachers within Selected High- and Low-Performing High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Dayle

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a correlation between student demographic factors and standardized test scores in Florida. The researcher examined the impact teacher beliefs and instructional practices had on students' performance on Florida Comprehensive Reading Assessment Test in 10th grade. Teachers at four schools with a majority of at-risk…

  2. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  3. Development of the Teacher Candidates’ Level of being Affected from Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a scale to evaluate teacher candidates' level of being affected from the public personnel selection examination. The participants of the study consisted of the final year students at Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The participants were 207 teacher candidates, of whom 143 were female and 64 were male. The validity and reliability study of the scale was conducted on the data gathered from teacher candidates studying at Art Teaching, Music Teaching, Turkish Language Teaching, Social Studies Education, Science Teaching, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Education, Elementary Education and Preschool Education departments of Pamukkale University Education Faculty. The Lawshe technique was used in the evaluation of the scale by experts. To determine the construct validity, factor analysis was performed on the data, and two sub-scales were identified. The factor loading values of the items in the first sub-scale ranged between 0,65 and 0,35, and those in the second sub-scale between 0,75 and 0,39. As a result of the analyses, the "Teacher Candidates' Level of Being Affected From Public Personnel Selection Examination Scale" (TCLBAPPSES including 33 items, 23 negative and 10 positive, and two sub-scales was produced. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient was found as 0,86 for the first sub-dimension, 0,73 for the second sub-dimension, and 0,91 for the whole scale. As a result, it can be argued that the scale is reliable.-------------Öğretmen Adaylarının Kamu Personeli Seçme Sınavından Etkilenme Düzeyi Ölçeğinin GeliştirilmesiÖzet:Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının kamu personeli seçme sınavından etkilenme düzeylerini değerlendirmek için bir ölçek geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada 143 kız, 64 erkek olmak üzere toplam 207 öğretmen adayına ula

  4. How Select Groups of Preservice Science Teachers with Inquiry Orientations View Teaching and Learning Science through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peggy

    Although hailed as a powerful form of instruction, in most teaching and learning contexts, inquiry-based instruction is fraught with ambiguous and conflicting definitions and descriptions. Yet little has been written about the experiences preservice science teacher have regarding their learning to teach science through inquiry. This project sought to understand how select preservice secondary science teachers enrolled in three UTeach programs in Arkansas conceptualize inquiry instruction and how they rationalize its value in a teaching and learning context. The three teacher education programs investigated in this study are adoption sites aligned with the UTeach Program in Austin, TX that distinguishes itself in part by its inquiry emphasis. Using a mixed method investigation design, this study utilized two sources of data to explore the preservice science teachers' thinking. In the first phase, a modified version of the Pedagogy of Science teaching Tests (POSTT) was used to identify select program participants who indicated preferences for inquiry instruction over other instructional strategies. Secondly, the study used an open-ended questionnaire to explore the selected subjects' beliefs and conceptions of teaching and learning science in an inquiry context. The study also focused on identifying particular junctures in the prospective science teachers' education preparation that might impact their understanding about inquiry. Using a constant comparative approach, this study explored 19 preservice science teachers' conceptions about inquiry. The results indicate that across all levels of instruction, the prospective teachers tended to have strong student-centered teaching orientations. Except subjects in for the earliest courses, subjects' definitions and descriptions of inquiry tended toward a few of the science practices. More advanced subjects, however, expressed more in-depth descriptions. Excluding the subjects who have completed the program, multiple

  5. A randomized trial examining the effects of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation in rural schools: Student outcomes and the mediating role of the teacher-parent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M; Witte, Amanda L; Holmes, Shannon R; Coutts, Michael J; Dent, Amy L; Kunz, Gina M; Wu, ChaoRong

    2017-04-01

    The results of a large-scale randomized controlled trial of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) on student outcomes and teacher-parent relationships in rural schools are presented. CBC is an indirect service delivery model that addresses concerns shared by teachers and parents about students. In the present study, the intervention was aimed at promoting positive school-related social-behavioral skills and strengthening teacher-parent relationships in rural schools. Participants were 267 students in grades K-3, their parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwest rural schools. Results revealed that, on average, improvement among students whose parents and teachers experienced CBC significantly outpaced that of control students in their teacher-reported school problems and observational measures of their inappropriate (off-task and motor activity) and appropriate (on-task and social interactions) classroom behavior. In addition, teacher responses indicated significantly different rates of improvement in their relationship with parents in favor of the CBC group. Finally, the teacher-parent relationship was found to partially mediate effects of CBC on several student outcomes. Unique contributions of this study, implications of findings for rural students, study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  7. teachers' competence and students' academic performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomly selected for the study through random sampling technique. Instrument and validation. Three research-made instruments were used for the study. They comprised of researcher designed chemistry Academic Test (CAT),. School Principal Questionnaire (SPQ) and. Teachers Competence Questionnaire (TCQ). The.

  8. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  9. Research and Trends in the Studies of Native & Non-Native Speaker Teachers of Languages: A Review on Selected Researches and Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    SuriatiJusoh, Fathen; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; De Witt, Dorothy; Hussin, Zaharah; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting and employing native speaker teachers of English Language (NST) in non-native speakers' context are widely practised in countries which learn and use the target language taught by the native speaker teachers (NST) as either as a second or a foreign language. This paper reviews selected journals and thesis on the issues of Native and…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of SMTs (School Management Teams) and Teachers Perceived Preferred Leadership Style: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsayang, Gabatshwane

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the SMTs (School Management Teams) and teachers' perceptions of preferred leadership styles in some selected schools in Botswana. SMTs and teachers completed a questionnaire adopted from the leadership styles questionnaires. The findings of the study pointed to an overwhelming view that the preferred style of leadership is the…

  11. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  12. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended questionnaires,…

  13. A randomized-control trial for the teachers' diploma programme on psychosocial care, support and protection in Zambian government primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Zhang, Liying; Langhaug, Lisa; Munjile, Kelvin; Tembo, Stephen; Menon, Anitha; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Malungo, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) experience poverty, stigma, and abuse resulting in poor physical, emotional, and psychological outcomes. The Teachers' Diploma Programme on Psychosocial Care, Support, and Protection is a child-centered 15-month long-distance learning program focused on providing teachers with the knowledge and skills to enhance their school environments, foster psychosocial support, and facilitate school-community relationships. A randomized controlled trial was implemented in 2013-2014. Both teachers (n=325) and students (n=1378) were assessed at baseline and 15-months post-intervention from randomly assigned primary schools in Lusaka and Eastern Provinces, Zambia. Multilevel linear mixed models (MLM) indicate positive significant changes for intervention teachers on outcomes related to self-care, teaching resources, safety, social support, and gender equity. Positive outcomes for intervention students related to future orientation, respect, support, safety, sexual abuse, and bullying. Outcomes support the hypothesis that teachers and students benefit from a program designed to enhance teachers' psychosocial skills and knowledge.

  14. Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Gender on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhagat; Kumar, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to find out the effect of EI and gender on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. A total of 300 (150 male and 150 female) primary school teachers were selected randomly for the study. Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and Teachers' Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS) were used to collect the data. The study found a…

  15. Problems of Female School Teachers in District Kulgam (J&K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Ruhee; Maharashi, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the problems of employed female school teachers in district Kulgam. Sample of 100 employed women are selected from different education institutions as 20 Rehaber e Taleem (ReT) female teachers, 40 female teachers, 20 female masters and 20 female lecturers using stratified random sampling. In this study we use…

  16. Effect of Teacher Variables on the Teaching of Initial Reading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching initial reading is a herculean task that must be carried out by qualified, mature teachers. This work is out to investigate if the conditions are met by initial reading teachers in Owerri, Imo State. This study is a survey, carried out on 300 pupils and 60 teachers, randomly selected from eight public basic schools in ...

  17. Mathematics Teachers' Use of Ethnomathematics Approach in Mathematics Teaching in Edo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikpitanyi, Lucky Aiwuyor; Eraikhuemen, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated mathematics teachers' use of ethnomathematics approach to teaching. Descriptive survey research was used with a target population of all mathematics teacher in all public secondary schools in Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha local government areas of Edo State out of which 121 mathematics teachers in 42 randomly selected public…

  18. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  19. Instructional Change in Preschool Classrooms: A Study of Empirically-Based Teacher Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, Mary B.; Carr, Victoria; Barnett, David; Macmann, Gregg; Moomaw, Sally; Pan, Wei; Nichols, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of staff development and support on Head Start teachers' use of instructional and managerial strategies. Specific research questions were (a) What variables were selected by teachers? and (b) What changes were indicated by the method of support? Observations were conducted for teachers randomly assigned to…

  20. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  1. Pre-service home economics teachers' attitudes on selected aspects of practical teaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovsin Kozina, Francka

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted among pre-service home economics teachers from the Faculty of Education of the University of Ljubljana with different levels of practical experience in teaching...

  2. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  5. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  6. Friendship and Choosing Groupmates: Preferences for Teacher-Selected vs. Student-Selected Groupings in High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sidney N.; Reilly, Rosemary; Bramwell, F. Gillian; Solnosky, Anthony; Lilly, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This study represents a collaborative school university partnership. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors report on the motivational and psychological consequences of students choosing their groupmates in cooperative learning triads. 139 students in five science classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to condition:…

  7. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  8. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  9. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  10. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  11. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  12. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  13. Problem Solving Strategies of Selected Pre-Service Secondary School Mathematics Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wun Theam; Zamri, Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving strategies of eight pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMTs) were examined in this study. A case study research design was employed and clinical interview technique was used to collect the data. Materials collected for analysis consisted of audiotapes and videotapes of clinical interviews, subjects' notes and…

  14. Meeting the Standards? Dyslexic Students and the Selection Process for Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Barbara; English, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Teacher trainers in England and Wales are clearly instructed they must satisfy themselves that their trainees can reach the specified English literacy standards. This has led to a particular focus on dyslexic applicants and a questioning of their suitability for teaching. In 2003 the Disability Discrimination Act as applied to education also made…

  15. Theoretical Orientation to Reading and Teacher Verbal Feedback: A Selected Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elaine Russo

    1982-01-01

    Documents and journal articles in the ERIC databases are listed which explore relationships between teachers' theoretical orientations and feedback to students during oral reading. Specifically, the research concerns findings from the Theoretical Orientation to Reading Profile, the Propositions about Reading Instruction Profile, and the Feedback…

  16. Equipping educators to address HIV and AIDS: a review of selected teacher education initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderness, W L Bill

    2012-12-01

    Teacher educators, school principals and teachers are potentially well positioned to play a pivotal role in changing the course of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. The purpose of this article is to focus on a spectrum of educational initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa which are designed to equip educators to be informed about, and to manage, HIV and AIDS in their personal and professional lives. Criteria for inclusion in the review are that the HIV and AIDS education endeavours must be operational (already functioning) and experience-based (have been experienced first-hand by the author). The review begins with a reflective account of two major undertakings: (a) an e-learning course for teacher educators in sub-Saharan Africa and (b) South Africa's Higher Education HIV/AIDS Programme. Thereafter, the review considers a range of academic pursuits currently involving in-service school teachers and principals studying at a South African university. These include (a) two Advanced Certificates in Education; (b) doctoral studies; and (c) a new short learning programme. In reflecting on these various innovative but 'do-able' offerings, the article concludes that experiential and context-specific action-based learning and research into the social and educational aspects of HIV and AIDS can contribute to breaking the silence and reducing stigma while, at the same time, equipping educators to provide care and support for infected and affected learners and colleagues.

  17. Efficacy of teachers in a number of selected schools in the KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Umlazi: University of Zululand. Sallis J 1988. Schools, parents and governors: a new approach to accountability. London: Routledge. Selaledi DK 1999. Teacher efficacy in the Free State province of South. Africa. South African Journal of Education, 19:266-270. Seyfarth JT 1996. Personal management for effective schools.

  18. The Changing Nature of Parent-Teacher Communication: Mode Selection in the Smartphone Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Blair Christopher; Mazer, Joseph P.; Flood Grady, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Parent-teacher communication continues to evolve due to smartphones and other new communication technologies. In all, 1,349 parents completed the Parental Academic Support Scale to assess the frequency and importance of communication across modes. Confirmatory analysis revealed a good model fit. Media richness theory was applied to parents'…

  19. Novice Teachers' Experiences of Induction in Selected Primary Schools in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishena, Robert; Mokoena, Sello

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many schools use induction programmes with the aim of contributing to novice teachers' well-being and professional development. However, the content of induction programmes varies across schools and countries. Given that existing studies do not conclusively establish the programme components with the greatest potential to affect…

  20. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  1. Academic Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    This study aims determining academic self-efficacy perception of teacher candidates. It is survey model. Population of the study consists of teacher candidates in 2010-2011 academic years at Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty of Education Formation of Selcuk University. A simple random sample was selected as sampling method and the study was…

  2. Teacher Attitude to Inspectors and Inspection: Quality Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the attitude of teachers in Lagos State to inspectors and inspection. The study took the form of a survey. Two hundred and fifty teachers from public secondary schools were selected as samples for the study using stratified random sampling technique. The instruments used for the data collection was the ...

  3. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  4. Inclusive Education in Government Primary Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Itfaq Khaliq; Hashmi, ShujahatHaider; Khanum, Nabeela

    2017-01-01

    The perceptions of primary school teachers towards inclusive education was investigated in mainstream government schools of Islamabad capital territory where inclusive education was being supported by Sight savers and other international organizations. The study was carried out involving 54 teachers in six randomly selected primary schools. The…

  5. Level Of Teachers' Job Satisfaction In Ogun State Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the level of job satisfaction among Secondary school teachers in Ogun State. Four research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey research method was used. Four hundred teachers were randomly selected to participate in the study from Ijebu-North and Ijebu-Ode Local ...

  6. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  7. Personality Traits as Predictors of Stress among female Teachers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the stress level of female teachers in Osun State Teaching Service and determined the relationship between stress and each of the personality traits of self concept, extraversion, locus of control and achievement motivation. Using a sample of 370 teachers drawn from 50 randomly selected primary ...

  8. Teacher Service on School Councils: Are Teachers Attracted to the Accountability of School-Based Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.; Keedy, John L.; Newton, Rose Mary

    This study examined teachers' attraction to school council service and factors that impacted that attraction. Participants were randomly selected public school teachers enrolled in graduate education courses at three Kentucky state universities. They performed three tasks. First, they completed a biographical form that yielded descriptive…

  9. How Special Are Teachers of Specialized Schools? Assessing Self-Confidence Levels in the Technology Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatma, Zehra; Corlu, Mehmet Sencer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether specialized high school mathematics teachers, chosen to educate selected students, are mentally ready to integrate Fatih project technologies into their teaching. Forty mathematics teachers from randomly selected specialized and general high schools in Ankara responded to a survey comprising 31 items grouped under…

  10. Is the Role of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Ethiopia Rhetoric or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers, school administrative committee, students, and parents were participants of the study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select teachers. On the other hand, school administrative committee, students, and parents were selected by using comprehensive sampling, because of their ...

  11. Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population: Effects on Work Performance, Attendance, and Future Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the frequency and adverse effects of voice disorders on job performance and attendance in teachers and the general population, 2,401 participants from Iowa and Utah ([n.sub.1] = 1,243 teachers and [n.sub.2] = 1,279 nonteachers) were randomly selected and were interviewed by telephone using a voice disorder questionnaire. Teachers were…

  12. A randomized trial of ACT bibliotherapy on the mental health of K-12 teachers and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, Tami; Hayes, Steven C

    2012-09-01

    The mental health challenges of some vocations present a challenge for current intervention models. Bibliotherapy focused on transdiagnostic processes that might both prevent and alleviate a range of mental health distress could be an effective and practical approach. K-12 school personnel (N = 236; 91% female; 30-60 years old) responding to a wellness-oriented program announcement were randomized to receive an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) self-help volume or to a waitlist. Three-fourths were above clinical cutoffs in general mental health, depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants read the book for two months, completed exercises and quizzes, and after post assessment were followed for 10 weeks; waitlist participants were then also given the book with two months to complete it. Overall, participants showed significant improvement in psychological health. Significant preventive effects for depression and anxiety were observed along with significant ameliorative effects for those in the clinical ranges of depression, anxiety and stress. Follow up general mental health, depression, and anxiety outcomes were related to the manner in which participants used the workbook and to post levels of psychological flexibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-Curricular Competencies of Student Teachers: A Selection Model Based on Assessment Centre Admission Tests and Study Success after the First Year of Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Christine; Schuler, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in assessing teachers' cross-curricular competencies as a result of reforms in teacher education in Switzerland. At Zurich University of Teacher Education, future students who do not have formal qualifications are required to pass several examinations and a test, which is known as an "assessment…

  14. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  16. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection. CRESST Report 822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  17. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  18. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  19. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  20. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  1. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  2. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  3. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  4. Developing Singing Confidence in Early Childhood Teachers Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Singing: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are often required to sing, which requires confidence. The purpose of the present study was to treat early childhood teachers who self-identified as uncertain singers using either a group singing (GS) approach, or a talking approach, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The aim of the study was to increase…

  5. The Extent of Principals' Application of the Transformational Leadership and Its Relationship to the Level of Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Galilee Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Sohil Jameel; Jubran, Ali Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the degree of applying the transformational leadership in school administration (among principals), the level of job satisfaction among teachers, and investigate the relationship to each other. The sample consisted of (182) teachers, who were randomly selected from teachers of Galilee region inside the Green…

  6. Utilization of Innovations and Techniques of Educational Technology in Delivering of Educational Practicum and Its Impact on Increasing Academic Achievement among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the utilization of innovations and techniques of educational technology in teaching of educational practicum and its impact on increasing academic achievement among pre-service teachers. The study sample consisted of (60) pre-service teachers (student teachers) randomly selected from public middle and secondary…

  7. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  8. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  10. The National Mathematics Curriculum for BEP (Basic Education Programme) and the MDG (Millennium Development Goals) for Mathematics Teachers in Nigeria: Teachers' Perception and Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Cecilia Olunwa; Meremikwu, Anne; Kalu, Nnenna

    2013-01-01

    The study used a survey design. The instrument was teachers' questionnaire and interview on awareness and readiness. The interview was administered to the different categories of the respondents using a 4-point Likert scale. Two hundred mathematics teachers were randomly selected from 100 schools (public and private) using stratified random…

  11. Influence of Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality, Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Nzabonimpa Buregeya

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the Influence of Secondary School Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance. Qualitative and qualitative methods with a descriptive-correlational research approach were used in the study. Purposive sampling technique alongside random sampling technique was used to select the…

  12. The Role of Nice and Nasty Theory of Mind in Teacher-Selected Peer Models for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at verifying if nice and nasty theory of mind behaviors, in association with teachers' peer buddy nomination, could be used to correctly select peer models for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Mentalizing abilities and emotional and behavioral characteristics of 601 adolescents were assessed. Results suggest that teachers…

  13. Intervention for Food Selectivity in a Specialized School Setting: Teacher Implemented Prompting, Reinforcement, and Demand Fading for an Adolescent Student with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Maria; Rue, Hanna C.; Wildenger, Leah; Lamb, Kara; Luiselli, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Food selectivity is a common problem among children and youth who have intellectual and developmental disabilities or autism spectrum disorders. Whereas most intervention research has been conducted under simulated conditions in clinic and hospital settings, this study evaluated teacher implemented procedures at a specialized school. The…

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  15. A Study of the Perceptions of Leadership Behaviors and the Morale of Elementary Teachers in a Selected School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Jacob S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of student accountability has led some researchers to suggest the increase of teacher attrition is tied to the increase of accountability. Although some may suggest the teacher attrition rate is tied to accountability, this study explored the relationship of elementary teacher morale and the leadership of elementary principals and…

  16. Investigating How Science Teachers in South Africa Engage with All Three Levels of Representation in Selected Chemistry Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate how science teachers engaged with the macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels of representations in their Chemistry teaching. Data were collected in Limpopo province in South Africa from 15 "lead" teachers and this paper reports on five lessons presented by the teachers during professional…

  17. Personal and Job Related Predictors of Teacher Stress and Job Performance among School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Hanif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out role of personal and job related variables in teacher stress and job performance of school teachers. Furthermore, levels and sources of stress and their relationship with job performance among teachers were also explored. The measures used in this study were indigenously developed i.e., Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI-Urdu, Teachers Job Performance Scale and personal and job related Information sheet. Two independent samples were selected from Government and Private Schools of Islamabad (Pakistan. Sample I was comprised of 400 teachers (men and women from Primary and secondary schools. For the evaluation of teachers’ job performance another sample of 1200 students from the classes of teachers of sample I was selected. Three students were randomly selected from each teacher’s class. The students were requested to evaluate their respective teachers’ job performance. The findings revealed that negative significant relationship exists between teachers stress and job performance. The step-wise regression analysis revealed school system, gender, job experience, number of family members, and number of students as significant predictors of teacher stress and gender, school system, family members, job experience and age as significant predictors of teachers’ job performance.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  19. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  20. Teacher's current practices of teaching reading and grade four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the practices and challenges of teaching reading strategies and assessment in Dona Berber Primary School. Twelve grade 4 students were selected using simple random sampling technique and an English teacher and a school supervisor were selected by available sampling. Structured Classroom ...

  1. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  2. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  3. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  4. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  5. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  6. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  7. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  8. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  9. Job Satisfaction among Jordan's Kindergarten Teachers: Effects of Workplace Conditions and Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the job satisfaction levels of Jordanian kindergarten teachers in relation to work-related dimensions and socio-demographic variables. The sample consisted of 264 randomly selected teachers working in private kindergartens in Amman. To meet the study's objectives, a two part questionnaire was…

  10. Scientific Reasoning and Its Relationship with Problem Solving: The Case of Upper Primary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…

  11. Teachers' Capacity for Organizational Learning: The Effects of School Culture and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how key elements of school culture are associated with teachers' capacity to find and act on new information. We analyzed survey data from 3,579 teachers located in 117 schools which were a randomly selected sample from 9 states in the US. We found that school cultural components such as academic press, student support, and…

  12. Ethical Leadership and Teachers' Voice Behavior: The Mediating Roles of Ethical Culture and Psychological Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnak, Mesut

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effects of ethical culture and psychological safety on the relationship between ethical leadership and teachers' voice behavior. The sample consists of 342 teachers randomly selected from 25 primary and secondary schools. Four different instruments are used in this study. The scales have…

  13. Nutrition Instruction in Seventh Grade: A Comparison of Teachers with and without FCS Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Sample, Alicia; Hunt, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This study compared attitudes and confidence levels, regarding classroom nutrition education, of seventh grade teachers of nutrition, family and consumer sciences (FCS), or health education. A 17-item online questionnaire was used to obtain the data from randomly selected schools in Louisiana. Teachers who reported an educational background in FCS…

  14. The Evaluation of Teachers' Job Performance Based on Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, Nayereh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate teachers' job performance based on total quality management (TQM) model. This was a descriptive survey study. The target population consisted of all primary school teachers in Karaj (N = 2917). Using Cochran formula and simple random sampling, 340 participants were selected as sample. A total quality management…

  15. Narratives, Virtual Environments and Identity Semiotics: An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettegah, Sharon Y.; Whang, Eun Won; Taylor, Kona Renee; Cash, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study explored text-based and animated narrative vignette (ANV) social simulations to specifically examine pre-service teachers' social cognitions and personal identities. The personal and social identity and narratives of a sample of eight randomly selected elementary pre-service teachers were examined in depth out of 44 pre-service…

  16. A Qualitative Study of Irish Teachers' Perspective of Student Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Connor, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Research Aim: This research aimed to provide an anecdotal perception of student substance use according to the teachers' personal experience in the Irish secondary level educational setting. Methodology: Sampling Interviews were conducted with teachers (n=95) at 10 randomly selected schools in County Carlow in the South East of Ireland, as part of…

  17. Association between Markers of Classroom Environmental Conditions and Teachers' Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Luz; Rivera, Glory A.; Ramirez, Olivia F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have assessed health in schoolchildren. Less is known about the environmental and occupational health of teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of teachers was conducted in 24 randomly selected public elementary schools. Questionnaire included sociodemographic information, healthcare, school conditions, and health…

  18. A Study of Occupational Stress and Organizational Climate of Higher Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicta, A. Sneha

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly aims to describe the occupational stress and organizational climate of higher secondary teachers with regard to gender, locality, family type, experience and type of management. Simple random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample. The data is collected from 200 higher secondary teachers from government and…

  19. Examining the Relationship between Teacher Organizational Commitment and School Health in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and school health in Turkish primary schools. The Organizational Commitment Scale and the Organizational Health Inventory were used to gather data from 323 randomly selected teachers employed in 20 primary schools in Ankara.…

  20. Relationships between Teacher Organizational Commitment, Psychological Hardiness and Some Demographic Variables in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between teachers' organizational commitment perceptions and both their psychological hardiness and some demographic variables in a sample of Turkish primary schools. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 405 randomly selected teachers working at primary schools in Ankara…

  1. Motivation and Quality of Work Life among Secondary School EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Gordani, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the relationship between quality of work life and teacher motivation among 160 secondary school English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in Tehran, Iran. In addition, 30 of the participants were randomly selected to take part in follow-up interviews which asked why they felt the way they reported. The results…

  2. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  3. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  4. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  5. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  6. THE PLIGHT of TECHNOLOGY and LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION TEACHERS in SELECTED SCHOOLS in the MUNICIPALITY of NAVAL, BILIRAN, PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Delsa A. Ariaso*, Noel Pricilda Tancinco

    2016-01-01

    The study generally aimed to ascertain the plight of the Technology Livelihood Education Teachers in the secondary schools in the Municipality of Naval, Biliran. Employing the qualitative research design, 22 teachers were involved in a preliminary survey and all of them were tapped for the in-depth interview. Most of the teachers who were hired underwent the process of applying as arranged by the Division of Biliran with the guidelines mandated by the Department of Elementary Education (DepEd...

  7. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  8. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  9. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  10. School-based intervention for childhood disruptive behavior in disadvantaged settings: a randomized controlled trial with and without active teacher support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette M; De Boo, Gerly M; Huizenga, Hilde; Prins, Pier J M

    2013-12-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support (ATS) versus educational teacher support (ETS) (CBT + ATS vs. CBT + ETS). Screening (n = 1,929) and assessment (n = 224) led to the inclusion of 173 children ages 8-12 years from 17 elementary schools. Most of the children were boys (n = 136, 79%) of low or low-to-middle class socioeconomic status (87%); the sample was ethnically diverse (63% of non-Western origin). Children received CBT + ATS (n = 29) or CBT + ETS (n = 41) or were entered into a waitlist control condition (n = 103) to be treated afterward (CBT + ATS, n = 39, and CBT + ETS, n = 64). Effect sizes (ES), clinical significance (reliable change), and the results of multilevel modeling are reported. Ninety-seven percent of children completed treatment. Teachers and parents reported positive posttreatment effects (mean ES = .31) for CBT compared with the waitlist control condition on disruptive behavior. Multilevel modeling showed similar results. Clinical significance was modest. Changes had remained stable or had increased at 3-months follow-up (mean ES = .39). No consistent effect of teacher condition was found at posttreatment; however, at follow-up, children who received ETS fared significantly better. This study shows that a school-based CBT program is beneficial for difficult-to-reach children with disruptive behavior: The completion rate was remarkably high, ESs (mean ES = .31) matched those of previous studies with targeted intervention, and effects were maintained or had increased at follow-up.

  11. An Evaluation of the Effects of Two Treatment Approaches for Teachers with Voice Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Gray, Steven D.; Simon, Mindy; Dove, Heather; Corbin-Lewis, Kim; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    Two voice therapy approaches, vocal hygiene instruction and vocal function exercises, were compared for their functional effects with 58 teachers with voice disorders. Only the exercise group reported a significant reduction in perceived vocal handicap and this group also reported more overall voice improvement and greater ease and clarity in…

  12. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  13. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders: generalization of skills by training parents and teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social skills training (SST) is a common intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to improve their social and communication skills. Despite the fact that SSTs are often applied in clinical practice, the evidence for the effectiveness of these trainings for children with ASD is inconclusive. Moreover, long term outcome and generalization of learned skills are little evaluated. Additionally, there is no research on the influence of involvement of parents and teachers on effectiveness of SST and on the generalization of learned social skills to daily life. We expect parent and teacher involvement in SST to enhance treatment efficacy and to facilitate generalization of learned skills to daily life. Method/Design In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three conditions, 120 participants with ASD at the end of primary school (10–12 years of calendar age) have been randomized to SST, SST-PTI (SST with Parent & Teacher Involvement), or care-as-usual. The SST consists of 18 group sessions of 1.5 hours for the children. In the SST-PTI condition, parents additionally participate in 8 parent sessions and parents and teachers are actively involved in homework assignments. Assessment takes place at three moments: before and immediately after the intervention period and at 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome is socialization, as an aspect of adaptive functioning. Secondary outcomes focus on specific social skills children learn during SST and on more general social skills pertaining to home and community settings from a multi-informant perspective. Additionally, possible predictors of treatment outcome will be assessed. Discussion The current study is an RCT study evaluating SST in a large sample of Dutch children with ASD in a specific age range (10–12 years). Strengths of the study are the use of one manualized protocol, application of standardized and internationally used rating instruments, use of multiple raters, investigation of

  15. A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders: generalization of skills by training parents and teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H; Mulder, Erik J; Timmerman, Marieke E; de Bildt, Annelies

    2014-07-02

    Social skills training (SST) is a common intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to improve their social and communication skills. Despite the fact that SSTs are often applied in clinical practice, the evidence for the effectiveness of these trainings for children with ASD is inconclusive. Moreover, long term outcome and generalization of learned skills are little evaluated. Additionally, there is no research on the influence of involvement of parents and teachers on effectiveness of SST and on the generalization of learned social skills to daily life. We expect parent and teacher involvement in SST to enhance treatment efficacy and to facilitate generalization of learned skills to daily life. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three conditions, 120 participants with ASD at the end of primary school (10-12 years of calendar age) have been randomized to SST, SST-PTI (SST with Parent & Teacher Involvement), or care-as-usual. The SST consists of 18 group sessions of 1.5 hours for the children. In the SST-PTI condition, parents additionally participate in 8 parent sessions and parents and teachers are actively involved in homework assignments. Assessment takes place at three moments: before and immediately after the intervention period and at 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome is socialization, as an aspect of adaptive functioning. Secondary outcomes focus on specific social skills children learn during SST and on more general social skills pertaining to home and community settings from a multi-informant perspective. Additionally, possible predictors of treatment outcome will be assessed. The current study is an RCT study evaluating SST in a large sample of Dutch children with ASD in a specific age range (10-12 years). Strengths of the study are the use of one manualized protocol, application of standardized and internationally used rating instruments, use of multiple raters, investigation of generalization of learned skills to daily

  16. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  17. Psychological Empowerment as a Mediator between Teachers' Perceptions of Authentic Leadership and Their Withdrawal and Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Tsemach, Sigalit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the mediating role of psychological empowerment on authentic leadership, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), and a variety of withdrawal behaviors among teachers, using the psychological model of perceptions-attitudes-behaviors. Research Design: A total of 366 teachers from 23 randomly selected Israeli schools…

  18. A randomized trial of written emotional disclosure interventions in school teachers: controlling for positive expectancies and effects on health and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; O'Connor, Daryl B; Jones, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Writing expressively about distressing experiences has been found to have beneficial health effects. This study examined the effects of written emotional disclosure (WED) interventions on the self-reported health and job satisfaction of school teachers, and compared standard WED instructions with two commonly used more prescriptive variants. The study also controlled and measured the between-condition comparability of participants' post-writing benefit expectations. Teachers (final N = 77) were randomized to a control writing condition or one of three WED conditions that varied the number and/or type of experiences participants wrote about. All teachers wrote for 20 min on three consecutive days at home. Psychological health, physical health, and job satisfaction were assessed at baseline, two weeks, two months, and six months post-intervention. Participants' expectations of benefit following writing were equivalent across conditions. There was no significant effect of any of the three WED interventions, compared to control writing, on psychological or physical health or job satisfaction. There was, however, a significant and sizeable improvement in physical health across writing conditions from baseline to two-month follow-up, and this was maintained at six months. The findings show that control writing can produce comparable expectations of benefit to WED, and are consistent with the possibility that benefit expectancies can effect health improvements following disclosure or control writing. Most previous studies have examined WED with students or patient groups, and the findings also raise an important question about the feasibility of multi-session writing interventions for mid-life working samples. Further studies with occupational groups are warranted, as is further investigation into the role of positive expectancies in WED effects.

  19. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  20. The Effects of the SUN Project on Teacher Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Regarding Biological Energy Transfer Are Significant and Long-Lasting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post–SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed. PMID:23737635

  1. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  2. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  3. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  4. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  5. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  7. How Do Biology Teacher Candidates Know Particulate Movements & Random Nature of Matter and Their Effects to Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    The previous researches results seem to suggest that some aspects of learning of diffusion and osmosis concepts such as membranes, kinetic energy of matter, and elements of the particulate and random nature of matter could lead to misconceptions. The concept of diffusion is very common in science instruction, and understanding the concept is an…

  8. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS A PREDICTOR OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mehboob-Ul-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was intended to investigate the Emotional intelligence as a predictor of organizational commitment among college teachers of Lahore, Punjab Pakistan. The populations for the present study were all the male and female college teachers of District Lahore. Random and convenient sampling technique was applied to select the sample for conducting this study because of the time constraint. Sample include of twenty (20) colleges which were selected. Ten male and ten female colleges ...

  9. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  10. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  11. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  12. PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND BACK ERGONOMICS AWARENESS AMONG TEACHERS OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Garba Sumaila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is regarded as the commonest musculoskeletal problem in the world which affects people across various strata of the society from lay men on the street to teachers as well as health care providers in health institutions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain and back education awareness among secondary school teachers in Kano Metropolis. Methodos: 200 questionnaires were distributed and only 157 were retrieved, one out of which 4 were invalid because of incomplete data so that only 153 were relevant and used for analysis giving a return rate of 76.5%. The study revealed that 96 out of 153 respondents have low back pain implying 62.7% prevalence. The level of back ergonomic awareness on the other hand was found to be moderate (43.1%. Results: Based on the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that there is a high prevalence of low back pain among secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis. However, the level of back ergonomic awareness is moderate. Conclusion: Therefore proper intervention to prevent exposure to LBP among school teachers should be enhanced and teachers should be well educated on the importance of ergonomic intervention in their working environments.

  13. Development and validation of a questionnaire (the IRA-AGHN) to assess teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Soroa; Nekane Balluerka; Arantxa Gorostiaga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire, called IRA-AGHN, to assess infant and primary school teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The psychometric properties of this questionnaire were examined in a sample of 752 teachers aged between 20 and 64 years (M = 41.57; SD = 9.69). These teachers were employed at 84 randomly selected schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre. The factor validity, internal consistency, temporal ...

  14. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  15. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  16. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. The association between EFL teachers' interpersonal behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to map EFL teachers' interpersonal behavior as perceived by students, its relationship with the students' English language achievement, and to examine if it could predict students' English language achievement. The samples of the study were randomly selected 353 grade 9 students from Secondary ...

  18. Classroom Teacher's Adherence to Philosophy and Ethics of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed and discussed the philosophy and goals of education, evaluating them on how classroom teachers adhere to the ethics of home economics for sustainable development in Anambra state, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was used and the sample, randomly selected, was made up of two hundred ...

  19. Mode of Supervision and Teacher Productivity | Akinwumi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the impact of principal supervisory techniques on teacher productivity in Oyo State Secondary Schools. An ex-post -facto research design was adopted for the study. The stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 85 schools from among 318 public secondary schools and 15 private ...

  20. Early Career Outcomes for the "Best and the Brightest": Selectivity, Satisfaction, and Attrition in the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean; Northrop, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Educational efforts aimed at attracting the "best and brightest" into the teaching profession are widespread and include national programs, such as Teach for America and the New Teacher Project Teaching Fellows, as well as regional and state-based programs, city-based programs, and university-based programs. Yet, studies of attrition in…

  1. On the Use of Spreadsheet Algebra Programs in the Professional Development of Teachers from Selected Township High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierdien, M. Faaiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the initial stages of a small-scale project involving the use of "spreadsheet algebra programs" in the professional development of eight teachers from three township high schools. In terms of the education context, the paper draws on social practice theory. It then details what is meant by spreadsheet algebra. An…

  2. Profiles of Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Investigation into the Nature of Selected Exemplary Programs in Jamaica and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sherwood, Heather

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study investigated three exemplary pre-service teacher education programs in Jamaica and Michigan in order to provide an account of how they are structured in different contexts of tertiary institutions and, to identify how they ensure that their graduates are prepared to function effectively in today's schools. Five…

  3. New York State Early-Career Teachers' Selection and Use of Pedagogical Approaches in Elementary General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Kristen Marie

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods two-phase sequential explanatory design with concurrent embedded design addressed these questions: (1) (A) Which pedagogical approaches (Dalcroze, eclectic, Kodaly, Music Learning Theory, Orff) are chosen by teachers as they begin their careers? (B) Do their approaches change over time? (C) Why or why not? (2) (A) What influences…

  4. Role of Motivational Factors in the Development of Profession as a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Naz, Falak; Butt, Muhammad Naeem

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the motivational factors in selecting a teaching profession by the teachers. A random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample consisting of 27 girls' schools of District Kohat as the sample. A structured questionnaire was developed in closed format on the basis of factors…

  5. The effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical gynecology skills of midwifery students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Barangard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical skills of midwifery students in Iran. In this clinical trial, 36 midwifery students in their 4th year of education in 2015 were enrolled and divided into 6 groups, 3 groups for teacher-centered education and 3 groups for the SNAPPS method, with each group spending 10 days in the outpatient gynecology clinic. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to gather data. An independent t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Ability to gain the trust of the patient, verbal and nonverbal communication skills, history taking, preparation of the patient for gynecological examination, and diagnosis and treatment of common diseases were significantly better in the SNAPPS group compared to the teacher-centered education group (P<0.05. The SNAPPS education method can significantly improve the clinical skills of midwifery students in gynecology, in particular history taking, differential diagnosis, and treatment of common diseases.

  6. The effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select) method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical gynecology skills of midwifery students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barangard, Hamideh; Afshari, Poorandokht; Abedi, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select) method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical skills of midwifery students in Iran. In this clinical trial, 36 midwifery students in their 4th year of education in 2015 were enrolled and divided into 6 groups, 3 groups for teacher-centered education and 3 groups for the SNAPPS method, with each group spending 10 days in the outpatient gynecology clinic. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to gather data. An independent t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Ability to gain the trust of the patient, verbal and nonverbal communication skills, history taking, preparation of the patient for gynecological examination, and diagnosis and treatment of common diseases were significantly better in the SNAPPS group compared to the teacher-centered education group (Pstudents in gynecology, in particular history taking, differential diagnosis, and treatment of common diseases.

  7. What do child daycare center teachers know about atopic dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Ahmet; Tamay, Zeynep; Ones, Ulker; Guler, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common childhood inflammatory skin disorder. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the knowledge level of daycare center teachers about AD and related factors. Study subjects were 297 teachers (287 female, 10 male) from 20 randomly selected daycare centers in Istanbul. The knowledge level of teachers was assessed using a questionnaire with 21 questions about AD. The teachers were asked nine additional questions about demographic and other characteristics of the child care centers and about themselves. The mean age of the teachers was 26.4 ± 8.1 years (range 20-53 yrs). The mean score for the 21 questions was 71.4 ± 12.1 (68%) from a maximum of 105 points. The response rate of teachers rate for each question ranged from 54% to 90%. The completely true response rate for each question ranged from 3.0% to 66.7%. The knowledge level of the teachers was related to the number of children in the daycare center, but not to sex, age, education level, family history of atopy, teacher's monthly salary, location, or whether the daycare center was public or private. Although teachers in daycare centers have some knowledge about AD, widespread educational programs for teachers about AD may help to improve the understanding of the disease and the quality of life of affected children in daycare centers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Body Image, Dieting and Disordered Eating and Activity Practices among Teacher Trainees: Implications for School-Based Health Education and Obesity Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the…

  9. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education : Assessing the Problem of Selection Bias in Course Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Salomons, Anna; Goos, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to measure teaching quality and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions: as such, they are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions as well as student course selection. However, the response on course evaluations is rarely perfect, rendering such uses unwarranted if students who participate in the evaluation are not randomly selected: this paper is the first to investigate this issue. We quanti...

  10. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  11. Helping Teachers Conduct Sex Education in Secondary Schools in Thailand: Overcoming Culturally Sensitive Barriers to Sex Education

    OpenAIRE

    Thammaraksa, Pimrat; Powwattana, Arpaporn; Lagampan, Sunee; Thaingtham, Weena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quasi experimental study was to evaluate the effects of Culturally Sensitive Sex Education Skill Development, a teacher-led sex education program in secondary schools in Thailand. Methods: Two public secondary schools in the suburban areas of Bangkok were randomly selected. One was designated as the experimental school and the other as the comparison school. Ninety grade seven and eight teachers, 45 from each school, were selected to participate in the study. S...

  12. Student perceptions of a good teacher: the gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, V; Kutnick, P

    1997-12-01

    A large-scale survey of pupils' perceptions of a good teacher in the Caribbean republic of Trinidad and Tobago is reported. An essay-based, interpretative mode of research was used to elicit and identify constructs used by boys and girls. The study explores similarities and differences between boys and girls in their perceptions of a good teacher, in a society where girls achieve superior academic performance (than boys). A total of 1756 pupils and students aged between 8 and 16 provided the sample, which was proportional, stratified, clustered. Within these constraints classrooms were randomly selected to be representative of primary and secondary schools across the two islands. Altogether 1539 essays and 217 interviews were content analysed, coded for age development and compared between boys and girls. Content items identified by the pupils were logically grouped into: physical and personal characteristics of the teacher, quality of the relationship between the teacher and pupil, control of behaviour by the teacher, descriptions of the teaching process, and educational and other outcomes obtained by pupils due to teacher efforts. Female pupils identified more good teacher concepts at all age levels than males. There was some commonality between the sexes in concepts regarding interpersonal relationships and inclusiveness in the good teachers' teaching practices and boys showed significantly greater concerns regarding teacher control and use of punishment. Males as young as 8 years stated that good teachers should be sensitive to their needs. Only among the 16-year-old males were males noted as good teachers. Consideration is given to the roles of male and female teachers, how their classroom actions may set the basis for future success (or failure) of their pupils, and the needs of pupils with regard to teacher support within developing and developed countries.

  13. Bias in the prediction of genetic gain due to mass and half-sib selection in random mating populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of gains from selection allows the comparison of breeding methods and selection strategies, although these estimates may be biased. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of such bias in predicting genetic gain. For this, we simulated 10 cycles of a hypothetical breeding program that involved seven traits, three population classes, three experimental conditions and two breeding methods (mass and half-sib selection. Each combination of trait, population, heritability, method and cycle was repeated 10 times. The predicted gains were biased, even when the genetic parameters were estimated without error. Gain from selection in both genders is twice the gain from selection in a single gender only in the absence of dominance. The use of genotypic variance or broad sense heritability in the predictions represented an additional source of bias. Predictions based on additive variance and narrow sense heritability were equivalent, as were predictions based on genotypic variance and broad sense heritability. The predictions based on mass and family selection were suitable for comparing selection strategies, whereas those based on selection within progenies showed the largest bias and lower association with the realized gain.

  14. Expressed sequence tags of randomly selected cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, D; Martin, F

    1995-01-01

    Random sequencing of cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal tissues was carried out to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Database comparisons revealed that 42% of the cDNAs corresponded to previously sequenced genes. These ESTs represent efficient molecular markers to analyze changes in gene expression during the formation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Teacher Job Satisfaction among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah-Hughes, Winifred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine job satisfaction among teachers in the Techiman Municipality. Three hundred and six (306) teachers were randomly sampled from a total of one thousand four hundred and sixty-one (1461) Junior High School and Senior High School teachers in the Municipality. The instrument used for the data collection was the…

  16. Impact of Selection Bias on Treatment Effect Size Estimates in Randomized Trials of Oral Health Interventions: A Meta-epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, H; Armijo-Olivo, S; Cummings, G G; Amin, M; da Costa, B R; Flores-Mir, C

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to items of selection bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability) in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Using a 2-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity, we quantified the impact of selection bias on the magnitude of ES estimates. We identified 64 meta-analyses, including 540 randomized controlled trials analyzing 137,957 patients. Sequence generation was judged to be adequate (at low risk of bias) in 32% ( n = 173) of trials, and baseline comparability was judged to be adequate in 77.8% of trials. Allocation concealment was unclear in the majority of trials ( n = 458, 84.8%). We identified significantly larger treatment ES estimates in trials that had inadequate/unknown sequence generation (difference in ES = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.25) and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment (difference in ES = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.27). In contrast, baseline imbalance (difference in ES = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.12) was not associated with inflated or underestimated ES. In conclusion, treatment ES estimates were 0.13 and 0.15 larger in trials with inadequate/unknown sequence generation and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment, respectively. Therefore, authors of systematic reviews using oral health randomized controlled trials should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of

  17. The Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Lifestyle with Job Satisfaction in Gorgan City Primary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegh Ali Taziki; Mansoureh Taziki; Mojtaba Akbari; Sharareh Saghafi; Nasser Behnampour

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives: Spiritual intelligence has different definitions and one of them is application of spiritual data to solve routine problems. This study was intended to assess the relation between spiritual intelligence and lifestyle with job satisfaction in primary school teachers in Gorgan. Methods: In 2014, from the statistical community of Gorgan’s primary school teachers, a number of 297 subjects were selected using the simple random method. After obtaining...

  18. Perspectives of Teachers and Students about Internal and External evaluation system at Postgraduate level

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Younis Khan; Asif Jamil; Umar Ali Khan; Uzma Kareem

    2012-01-01

    A research study was conducted to know the opinion of teachers and students about internal and external system of examination in Universities at postgraduate level. A structured questionnaire on three point Likert scale was developed and utilized for collection of data from 500 respondents selected through random sampling techniques in Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The opinion of the teachers and students were known and investigated. The result of the study i...

  19. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  20. A Randomized Comparative Study of Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment With or Without Selective Nerve Root Block for Chronic Cervical Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Qian; Xiao, Lizu; Yang, Juan; Xong, Donglin; Li, Disen; Liu, LiPing; Ancha, Sigdha; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a combination of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and cervical nerve root block (CNRB) via a posterior approach was superior to a transforaminal epidural steroid injection through the anterolateral approach for cervical radicular pain in a previous study. This randomized trial was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy between CNRB, PRF, and CNRB + PRF for cervical radicular pain. A prospective and randomized design was used in this study. Sixty-two patients were randomized into three parallel groups: CNRB, PRF, or CNRB + PRF. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain intensity, and global perceived effect (GPE) was scored by the patient on a 7-point scale, ranging from much worse (-3), no change (0), to total improvement (+3). The outcomes were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Side effects and complications were noted. The NRS was significantly reduced in all three groups 1 week after the treatments (P 0.05). No serious complications were observed in any of the patients. Combining CNRB and PRF appeared to be a safe and efficacious technique for cervical radicular pain. The combination therapy yielded better outcomes than either CNRB or PRF alone. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  2. Education and Intelligence: Pity the Poor Teacher because Student Characteristics are more Significant than Teachers or Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, Douglas K

    2016-12-06

    Education has not changed from the beginning of recorded history. The problem is that focus has been on schools and teachers and not students. Here is a simple thought experiment with two conditions: 1) 50 teachers are assigned by their teaching quality to randomly composed classes of 20 students, 2) 50 classes of 20 each are composed by selecting the most able students to fill each class in order and teachers are assigned randomly to classes. In condition 1, teaching ability of each teacher and in condition 2, mean ability level of students in each class is correlated with average gain over the course of instruction. Educational gain will be best predicted by student abilities (up to r = 0.95) and much less by teachers' skill (up to r = 0.32). I argue that seemingly immutable education will not change until we fully understand students and particularly human intelligence. Over the last 50 years in developed countries, evidence has accumulated that only about 10% of school achievement can be attributed to schools and teachers while the remaining 90% is due to characteristics associated with students. Teachers account for from 1% to 7% of total variance at every level of education. For students, intelligence accounts for much of the 90% of variance associated with learning gains. This evidence is reviewed.

  3. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  4. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  5. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  6. FACTORS CAUSING OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF AMRITSAR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to investigate the various factors causing occupational stress experienced by senior secondary school teachers. A sample of 100 teachers (50 science teachers and 50 physical education teachers was randomly selected. They were administered a comprehensive questionnaire which measures various factors of stress. Factor analyses were used to identify underlying factors causing stress. The analysis showed that non cooperation from the colleagues, hastiness to finish the work, unable to perform duty smoothly, unclear instructions and insufficient facilities, unclear expectations of higher authority and having more work load in less time were the significant factors causing occupational stress among the teachers. The monotonous nature of work, ignorance of higher authority and violation of administrative processes and policies were factors also contributing towards occupational stress among teachers

  7. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Knowledge and practices of teachers associated with eye health of primary school children in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Ume; Ormsby, Gail M; Butt, Zahid Ahmad; Afghani, Tayyab; Asif, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' perspectives on eye health can be limited, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess teachers' knowledge and practices associated with eye health of primary students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This was a cross-sectional survey of primary school teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 443 participants from 34 private and 17 public schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Teachers' knowledge ranged from "high" (35.89%), "moderate" (49.89%), and "low" (14.22%). Teachers' practices associated with students' eye health ranged from "high" (10.16%), "moderate" (23.02%), and "low" (66.82%). The teachers' knowledge index scores increased 4.28 points with successive age groups and increased 2.41 points with each successive level of education. For teachers whose close relatives experienced eye disease, their knowledge index score was 4.51 points higher than those teachers whose relatives never had any eye disease. Teachers' age, education level, and their close relatives experiencing eye disease were significant predictors of their knowledge (R2 = 0.087, P teachers' practices index score was 10.35 points higher than the male teachers and public school teachers had 10.13 points higher than the private school teachers. Teachers' gender and type of school were significant predictors of their practices (R2 = 0.06, P teachers' knowledge and practices related to students' eye health. Innovative strategies are needed to improve how teachers address students' eye health issues in the classroom.

  9. Cluster Randomized Trial of a Large-Scale Education Initiative in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Pilot Year Impacts on Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; Aber, John Lawrence; Torrente, Catalina; Rasheed, Damira; McCoy, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research, primarily in high income countries, has accumulated in recent years evaluating teacher effectiveness and the processes through which teachers' performance and job satisfaction can be improved (e.g., Pianta, Mashburn, Downer, Hamre & Justice, 2008; Ross, 1992; 1995). Much less is known about how these processes operate for…

  10. Inclusive Education in Government Primary Schools: Teacher Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itfaq Khaliq Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The perceptions of primary school teachers towards inclusive education was investigated in mainstream government schools of Islamabad capital territory where inclusive education was being supported by Sight savers and other international organizations. The study was carried out involving 54 teachers in six randomly selected primary schools. The sampled group comprised both, teachers trained in inclusive education and teachers working in same schools, but not trained in inclusive education. Purposive sampling method was used to select the teachers. Structured questionnaire (Likert Scale and structured interview method was used for data collection. The results of the study revealed that inclusive education is considered to be a desirable practice. The teachers believed that all learners regardless of their disabilities should be in regular classrooms and they showed more favorable attitude towards children with mild disabilities, but were not very optimistic about children with severe disabilities. The study also recognized teachers’ capacity as an essential component of inclusive education and recommends that inclusive education should be a part of pre and in-service teacher education.

  11. Teacher perception, lesson study and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Whitney E.

    The purpose of this research was to explore group differences between teachers participating in North Cascades Olympic Science Partnership (NCOSP) activities and a matched group of non-NCOSP teachers. Specifically, the study explored potential differences between groups on: (a) science achievement as measured by the science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), (b) teacher perception of knowledge, experience and confidence with lesson study, a collaborative professional development model, (c) teacher perception of knowledge with curriculum, and (d) teacher perception of knowledge and experience with pedagogy. Further, in order todemonstrate group similarities, demographic data for each group were described and considered in the areas of teacher gender, school grade span, school enrollment, percent of students receiving free and reduced meal benefits, percent of female students, percent of students who are an ethnic minority, and percent of students who are identified as special education. A total of 206 science teachers were randomly selected for this population. The experimental (NCOSP science teachers) and comparison (non-NCOSP science teachers) groups were both initially comprised of 103 participants. Data collected from 55 NCOSP teachers and 32 non-NCOSP teachers were valid and used in the statistical analyses. Descriptive and inferential analyses were completed. To ensure the NCOSP and matched groups were statistically similar, chi-square tests for independence were computed. A one-way Hotelling's T2, the equivalent of a MANOVA for two groups, was computed using the SPSS general linear model. The procedure simultaneously compared the independent variable (Group: NCOSP teachers and non-NCOSP teachers) across the seven dependent variables, student science achievement as measured by science WASL, curriculum knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, pedagogy confidence, lesson study knowledge, lesson study experience, and lesson study confidence. Results for the

  12. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  14. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  16. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  17. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among Qassim school teachers, and its impact on their performance and life duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhalifah, Muhannad I; Al-Aql, Abdulmalik M; Al-Mutairi, Majed S; Alnuqaydan, Saleh A; Al-Wehaibi, Abdullah S; AlJurayyed, Abdullah M; Aldhuwyan, Abdullah S; Al-Harbi, Khalid G; Alomar, Ibrahim N; Alayyaf, Suliman S; Zafar, Moeen

    2016-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among school teachers in Qassim region,  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it's impact on their performance -as teachers- and on life duties.   A cross-sectional study was held in Qassim region, KSA between 2012 and 2013. The study was conducted among 300 school teachers selected by multistage stratified random sample method in 2013. The sample size was calculated according to the formula: n = (Z2 * (p) * (q))/c2. A confidential, anonymous, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal and sociodemographic data, teacher  performance  oriented  questions were included. Rome III Criteria were used. Teachers with red flag symptoms were excluded.  The prevalence of IBS symptoms among teachers in Qassim region of KSA is 40.7% with no significant gender predilection. The IBS symptoms significantly affect the work performance of the teachers (61.6%) with high absenteeism rate (46.6%), especially among 51-60 years and 21-30 years, age groups (p less than 0.05 in chi-square test). Significant proportion (45.3%) of IBS criteria +ve teachers find IBS symptoms to be hindrance in their life duties.  Prevalence of IBS in Qassim school teachers is becoming an important issue with 40.7% of teachers reporting symptoms suggestive of IBS in a random sample. Majority of teachers are having frequent performance  problems - as teachers - and in usual life duties associated with their IBS Symptoms. Significantly, IBS criteria +ve teachers are more likely to have discipline problems compared with healthy teachers. We recommend a health care program to tackle the problem among the teachers, to improve their performance and reduce working hours loss. Also, follow up studies need to be conducted to assess the health care of IBS patients in local public health care centers.

  18. H-DROP: an SVM based helical domain linker predictor trained with features optimized by combining random forest and stepwise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Teppei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Ryotaro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Domain linker prediction is attracting much interest as it can help identifying novel domains suitable for high throughput proteomics analysis. Here, we report H-DROP, an SVM-based Helical Domain linker pRediction using OPtimal features. H-DROP is, to the best of our knowledge, the first predictor for specifically and effectively identifying helical linkers. This was made possible first because a large training dataset became available from IS-Dom, and second because we selected a small number of optimal features from a huge number of potential ones. The training helical linker dataset, which included 261 helical linkers, was constructed by detecting helical residues at the boundary regions of two independent structural domains listed in our previously reported IS-Dom dataset. 45 optimal feature candidates were selected from 3,000 features by random forest, which were further reduced to 26 optimal features by stepwise selection. The prediction sensitivity and precision of H-DROP were 35.2 and 38.8%, respectively. These values were over 10.7% higher than those of control methods including our previously developed DROP, which is a coil linker predictor, and PPRODO, which is trained with un-differentiated domain boundary sequences. Overall, these results indicated that helical linkers can be predicted from sequence information alone by using a strictly curated training data set for helical linkers and carefully selected set of optimal features. H-DROP is available at http://domserv.lab.tuat.ac.jp.

  19. Teachers' and students' perceptions of seventh- and eighth-grade science education in a selected Seventh-day Adventist Union Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marcel Andre Almont

    Problem. Science education has long been a great concern in the United States, where less than one-third of the students perform at or above the proficient level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of the science program in a selected Union Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist school system. Specifically, this study investigated the perceptions of teachers and students regarding the extent to which the science program meets the criteria of the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st century and to what extent these criteria are related to academic performance as indicated by Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) science scores. Method. Two questionnaires designed by the researcher were used to get responses from 424 students in seventh and eighth grades and 68 teachers to see how this school system compares to the criteria of National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21 st century. Three classroom configurations were investigated in this study, namely: (a) multigrade, (b) two-grade, and (c) single-grade. Crosstabulation, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and linear regression were used to analyze the four research questions of this study. Results. The single-grade classroom configuration received a better rating for the science criteria (p multigrade (p < 0.01) classroom configurations on their science achievement (ITBS). There were significant relationships among science achievement and the factors that measured the criteria of the National Commission for Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st century. Conclusions. The differences in teaching practices explained the discrepancies in the three classroom configurations. Schools can therefore develop policies and strategies to improve the practices in the teaching and learning process in science education that were identified as being deficient by the criteria of National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for

  20. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S

    2011-03-01

    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  2. Teachers Reflect on Homophobia in the Cypriot Education System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshilou, Panayiota A.; Vasiliou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A review of the academic and lay literature concerning Cyprus reveals that homophobia is prevalent throughout society. This research aimed to investigate homophobia through the narratives of educators. Twenty-three teachers were randomly selected out of the pool of volunteers in a training project. Aspects of homophobia previously reported in…

  3. Development of Effective Teacher Program: Teamwork Building Program for Thailand's Municipal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantathai, Pimpka; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to formulate the effective teacher teamwork program in municipal schools in Thailand. Primary survey on current situation and problem was conducted to develop the plan to suggest potential programs. Samples were randomly selected from municipal schools by using multi-stage sampling method in order to investigate their…

  4. Effect of Teacher Training Sessions on Listener Perception of Voice Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Nicholas J.; Polow, Nancy Gross

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen randomly selected public school elementary teachers participated in training sessions on voice disorders. Analysis of scores on ratings of voice disorder samples revealed that Ss made significantly fewer errors than a control group. The trained group agreed with speech pathologist judges 74 percent of the time. (CL)

  5. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  6. Teacher's and Students' Beliefs on English for General Academic Purposes: The Case of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojour, Masoud Kermani; Heirati, Javad Kia

    2015-01-01

    This study was framed in the sociocultural theory to look into the evolution of L2 learners' beliefs about the general English course during a term. One hundred ninety-eight male and female university students and their general English course teacher were randomly selected as the participants of the study. Data were gathered through the…

  7. Motivational Factors and Teachers Commitment in Public Secondary Schools in Mbale Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurotimi, Ogunlade Joseph; Asad, Kamonges Wahab; Abdulrauf, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of motivational factors on teachers' commitment in public Secondary School in Mbale Municipality. The study employed Cross-sectional survey design. The sampling technique used to select was simple random sampling technique. The instrument used to collect data was a self designed questionnaire. The data…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Career Expectations by Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Academic Achievement Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biraimah, Karen

    1988-01-01

    The career expectations of 200 randomly selected preservice teachers (143 females and 57 males) were examined to determine differences associated with gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and academic achievement (as indicated by grade point average). The study was conducted at the University of Central Florida (Orlando) from 1986 to 1987. Subjects…

  9. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  10. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  12. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    infarction or other biomarker positive acute coronary syndrome, non-fatal stroke or CV death analysed using a Cox model with a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of 1.4 for the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: In total, 7297 participants were randomized. During a median 3-year follow-up, fewer subjects than......-years with celecoxib and 1.10 per 100 patient-years with nsNSAIDs (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.33; P = 0.75). Pre-specified non-inferiority was achieved in the ITT analysis. The upper bound of the 95% confidence limit for the absolute increase in OT risk associated with celecoxib treatment was two......NSAIDs. There was no advantage of a strategy of switching prescribed nsNSAIDs to prescribed celecoxib. This study excluded an increased risk of the primary endpoint of more than two events per 1000 patient-years associated with switching to prescribed celecoxib....

  13. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  14. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  15. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  16. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  17. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  18. Supporting teachers' relationships with disruptive children: the potential of relationship-focused reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; Koomen, Helma M Y; Thijs, Jochem T; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    A relationship-focused reflection program (RFRP) was developed that targeted teachers' mental representations of relationships with specific children. Relative effectiveness was examined in a randomized comparative trial with repeated measures. Thirty-two teachers were assigned to the RFRP or the comparison intervention directly aimed at teacher behavior. Per teacher, two children (N = 64) were selected with above-median levels of externalizing behavior. Multilevel growth modeling was used to explore intervention effects on teacher-reported Closeness and Conflict, and observed Teacher Sensitivity and Behavior Management Quality. Teaching Efficacy was included as a moderator. The RFRP yielded changes over time in closeness for about half of the teacher-child dyads. In addition, teachers with high efficacy beliefs were more likely to report declines in conflict than low-efficacy teachers. Lastly, significant increases were found in observed sensitivity. These effects were different from those found in the comparison condition and provided preliminary evidence for the potential of in-depth reflection on specific relationships to promote teacher-child relationships.

  19. Approaches to Building Teacher-Parent Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the areas of cooperation inwhich parent and teacher expectations were the same and where they differed. Data were obtained from a sample of 55 randomly selected primary schools. We analyzed school-to home communications, parentalinfluence on school decisions, and parent involvement in different school activities. At the same time, we also explored building cooperation among the teachers, students, and their parents, within the framework of the program ‘Reading and Conversation’. The findings indicated that the third- and ninth- grade lead teachers were mostly in agreement about the importance of parent involvement and as such represented a fairly homogenous group. The third-grade lead teachers were more open about actual involvement of parents in instruction than their ninth-grade colleagues, who were more cautious and restrained. In contrast to the lead teachers who represented a relatively narrow professional group, parents’ views were much more diverse. Parental education was the best predictor of their readiness to become involved in the life and work of their children’s school. Whether the area in which the families lived was urban or suburban did not make any difference. The evaluation of the one-year ‘Reading and Conversation’ programme revealed increases in parents’motivation to collaborate with the school as a consequence of the program’s approach to work, as well as improvement in mutual relationships and dialogue.

  20. Workload Distribution among Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robert M.; Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Aschenbrener, Mollie S.

    2008-01-01

    Teachers distribute their time in many ways. The study sought to determine how agriculture teachers distribute their time among 11 selected teacher activities (i.e., preparation for instruction; classroom/laboratory teaching; laboratory preparation and/or maintenance; grading/scoring students' work; administrative duties-program management;…

  1. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  2. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  3. The effects of Nordic Walking training on selected upper-body muscle groups in female-office workers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Piotr; Pospieszna, Barbara; Choszczewski, Daniel; Michalowski, Lukasz; Wiernicka, Marzena; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Regular Nordic Walking training could improve fitness and reduce tenderness in selected muscle groups in office workers. An assessment of the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking training program on the perceived pain threshold (PPT) and the flexibility of selected upper-body muscle groups in postmenopausal female office workers. 39 office workers were selected at random for the treatment group (NWg, n = 20) and the control group (Cg, n = 19). The persons from the NW group completed a 12-week Nordic Walking training program (3 times a week/1 hour). PPTs measurements in selected muscles and functional tests evaluating upper-body flexibility (Back Scratch - BS) were carried out twice in every participant of the study: before and after the training program. A significant increase in PPT (kg/cm2) was observed in the following muscles in the NW group only: upper trapezius (from 1,32 kg/cm2 to 1,99 kg/cm2), mid trapezius (from 2,92 kg/cm2 to 3,30 kg/cm2), latissimus dorsi (from 1,66 kg/cm2 to 2,21 kg/cm2) and infraspinatus (from 1,63 kg/cm2 to 2,93 kg/cm2). Moreover, a significant improvement in the BS test was noted in the NW group compared with the control group (from -1,16±5,7 cm to 2,18±5,1 cm in the NW group vs from -2,52±6,1 to -2,92±6,2 in the control group). A 12-week Nordic Walking training routine improves shoulder mobility and reduces tenderness in the following muscles: trapezius pars descendens and middle trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi, in female office workers.

  4. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  5. A comparison of the effects of random and selective mass extinctions on erosion of evolutionary history in communities of digital organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yedid

    Full Text Available The effect of mass extinctions on phylogenetic diversity and branching history of clades remains poorly understood in paleobiology. We examined the phylogenies of communities of digital organisms undergoing open-ended evolution as we subjected them to instantaneous "pulse" extinctions, choosing survivors at random, and to prolonged "press" extinctions involving a period of low resource availability. We measured age of the phylogenetic root and tree stemminess, and evaluated how branching history of the phylogenetic trees was affected by the extinction treatments. We found that strong random (pulse and strong selective extinction (press both left clear long-term signatures in root age distribution and tree stemminess, and eroded deep branching history to a greater degree than did weak extinction and control treatments. The widely-used Pybus-Harvey gamma statistic showed a clear short-term response to extinction and recovery, but differences between treatments diminished over time and did not show a long-term signature. The characteristics of post-extinction phylogenies were often affected as much by the recovery interval as by the extinction episode itself.

  6. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  7. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  8. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  9. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  10. Genetic evaluation and selection response for growth in meat-type quail through random regression models using B-spline functions and Legendre polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, L F M; Martins, P G M A; Littiere, T O; Abreu, L R A; Silva, M A; Bonafé, C M

    2017-08-14

    The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age. Residual variances were grouped in four age classes. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using 2 to 4 segments and were modeled by Legendre polynomial with orders of fit ranging from 2 to 4. The model with quadratic B-spline adjustment, using four segments for direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, was the most appropriate and parsimonious to describe the covariance structure of the data. The RRM using Legendre polynomials presented an underestimation of the residual variance. Lesser heritability estimates were observed for multi-trait models in comparison with RRM for the evaluated ages. In general, the genetic correlations between measures of BW from hatching to 35 days of age decreased as the range between the evaluated ages increased. Genetic trend for BW was positive and significant along the selection generations. The genetic response to selection for BW in the evaluated ages presented greater values for RRM compared with multi-trait models. In summary, RRM using B-spline functions with four residual variance classes and segments were the best fit for genetic evaluation of growth traits in meat-type quail. In conclusion, RRM should be considered in genetic evaluation of breeding programs.

  11. The Perception of Tertiary Institutions Prospective Teachers on the Benefits of Teaching Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Olusola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the perception of two tertiary institutions prospective teachers’ on the Benefits of Teaching Practice in Ogun State. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of four hundred students was randomly selected for the study. Prospective Teachers Perception on Teaching practice Benefits Questionnaire (PTPTPBQ with the reliability coefficient of 0.80 was administered on the respondents. Data collected was analyzed using Mean Score, Charts, Percentages and t-test of significance. The study reveals that prospective teachers have low perception on the benefits of teaching practice also, finance and housing were the two major challenges faced by prospective teachers.. It is evident from the findings that there is need for concerted effort by school to orientate prospective teachers on the benefits of teaching practice. Also the major challenges faced by prospective teachers should also be addressed to allow them have good grasp from the benefits of teaching practice.

  12. Special education teachers' perceptions of benefits, barriers, and components of community-based vocational instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, RahKyung; Dymond, Stacy K

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated special education teachers' perceptions of the benefits, barriers, and components of community-based vocational instruction (CBVI). Participants included special education teachers (N   68) from randomly selected high schools in Illinois who had experience delivering vocational curriculum to students with disabilities. Data collection occurred via a survey. Special education teachers perceived CBVI to result in numerous benefits for students with disabilities. Limited resources, requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, and student issues were identified as barriers to implementation. Incongruence existed between teachers' ratings of the importance and use of the components of CBVI. Years of teaching experience, types of students with disabilities served, size of school, and experience with CBVI affected teachers' perceptions of CBVI.

  13. Teacher Quality and Teacher Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Sass, Tim R.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern among policy makers over the quality of the teacher workforce in general, and the distribution of effective teachers across schools. The impact of teacher attrition on overall teacher quality will depend on the effectiveness of teachers who leave the profession. Likewise, teacher turnover may alleviate or worsen inequities…

  14. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  15. Using Multiple Lenses to Examine the Development of Beginning Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Natural Selection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection…

  16. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of Visiting and a Smartphone Application Based Infection Prevention Education Program for Child Care Teachers: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jeong; Kwon, In Soo

    2017-12-01

    This study was performed to develop an infection prevention education program for child care teachers and to verify its effects. The study was conducted using a nonequivalent control group with a pretest-posttest design. Four private daycare centers (2 centers per city) that were alike in terms of the number of children by age, number of child care teachers, and child care environment were chosen. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=20) or control group (n=20). As a part of the program, visiting education (90 min) was provided in the 1st week, and smartphone application education (10 min) was provided thrice a week, in the 2nd and 3rd weeks. Child care teachers' self-efficacy for infection prevention revealed a significant interaction effect between the group and time of measurement (F=21.62, p<.001). In terms of infection prevention behavior, a significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups (z=-5.36, p<.001). The program implemented in this study was effective in improving the infection prevention self-efficacy and infection prevention behavior of child care teachers. Thus, this program may be effective in enhancing their infection control.

  18. Promoting Secondary Teachers' Well-Being and Intentions to Implement Evidence-Based Practices: Randomized Evaluation of the Achiever Resilience Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton R.; Miller, Faith G.; Fiat, Aria; Renshaw, Tyler; Frye, Megan; Joseph, Gail; Decano, Polocarpio

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is regarded as one of the most challenging yet rewarding professions. Moreover, research has shown that stress and burnout are likely to undermine teacher effectiveness and negatively impact their willingness and intentions to implement evidence-based practices. The present study sought to contribute to a growing body of research…

  19. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  20. Factors predicting teachers' attitudes towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ismail, Rohayati

    2015-10-01

    Technology has revolutionized in the field of Education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. While it is important that mathematics teachers should have positive attitudes towards adopting ICT in their teaching, various problems can arise when integrating ICT into classroom lessons. This study explored the factors that influence the attitudes of mathematic teachers in the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process. A total of 187 mathematics teachers from the state of Selangor in Malaysia were randomly selected from a stratified cluster sample. The research examined five factors that were postulated to impact teachers' attitudes towards the integration of ICT in their lessons, viz. teachers' technology competence, school culture, access to ICT, school support, and years of classroom teaching experience. The findings showed that the teachers' attitudes towards using ICT in teaching and learning were positively correlated with the teachers' technology competence [r = .41; p < .01], ICT school culture [r = .261; p < .01], school support [r = .366; p < .01] and access to ICT resources [r = .220; p < .01]. However, a negative relationship existed between years of teaching and attitudes towards using ICT in teaching and learning [r = -0.192; p < .01]. A multiple regression analysis showed that 29.1% of the variation in teachers' attitudes towards using ICT in the classroom was explained by the variation in teachers' technology competence, school support and school culture, with the effects of teaching experience and ICT resource access being negligible.

  1. Determination of in-service needs of Turkish high school science teachers in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Feral

    The purposes of this study were to identify the in-service needs of high school science teachers in Istanbul, Turkey according to the subgroups such as school type and gender and determine the priority obstacles preventing these science teachers from attendance at in-service programs. Moreover, this study aimed to find the other greatest needs of high school science teachers that are not mentioned in the survey instrument. The data for this research was gathered by conducting a survey in Istanbul, Turkey in Fall 2001 and Spring 2002 Semesters. Turkish translation of the modified version of a science teacher's needs inventory, Science Teacher Inventory of Need (STIN), entitled STIN-2 was used as the survey instrument. The subjects consisted of 75 high school science teachers who were selected from 369 high schools by using stratified random sampling in grades nine through eleven. By personally administering the survey, 422 science teachers from 75 high schools completed the survey and a 97% response rate was achieved. The results obtained in this study show that Turkish high school science teachers in Istanbul have a number of shared needs. One other indication is that they also have a number of needs, which are specific to subgroups of those science teachers.

  2. Ensemble of random forests One vs. Rest classifiers for MCI and AD prediction using ANOVA cortical and subcortical feature selection and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J; Górriz, J M; Ortiz, A; Martínez-Murcia, F J; Segovia, F; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Castillo-Barnes, D; Illán, I A; Puntonet, C G

    2017-12-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and affects approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very frequently a prodromal phase of AD, and existing studies have suggested that people with MCI tend to progress to AD at a rate of about 10-15% per year. However, the ability of clinicians and machine learning systems to predict AD based on MRI biomarkers at an early stage is still a challenging problem that can have a great impact in improving treatments. The proposed system, developed by the SiPBA-UGR team for this challenge, is based on feature standardization, ANOVA feature selection, partial least squares feature dimension reduction and an ensemble of One vs. Rest random forest classifiers. With the aim of improving its performance when discriminating healthy controls (HC) from MCI, a second binary classification level was introduced that reconsiders the HC and MCI predictions of the first level. The system was trained and evaluated on an ADNI datasets that consist of T1-weighted MRI morphological measurements from HC, stable MCI, converter MCI and AD subjects. The proposed system yields a 56.25% classification score on the test subset which consists of 160 real subjects. The classifier yielded the best performance when compared to: (i) One vs. One (OvO), One vs. Rest (OvR) and error correcting output codes (ECOC) as strategies for reducing the multiclass classification task to multiple binary classification problems, (ii) support vector machines, gradient boosting classifier and random forest as base binary classifiers, and (iii) bagging ensemble learning. A robust method has been proposed for the international challenge on MCI prediction based on MRI data. The system yielded the second best performance during the competition with an accuracy rate of 56.25% when evaluated on the real subjects of the test set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Teacher Trainee Students' eLearning Technology (ELT) Readiness towards Promoting Global Curriculum Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwu, Edna N.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares teacher trainee students (TTSs), electronic learning technology (ELT) readiness, competence as well as their constraints to ELT readiness using 373 University education students' from Botswana and Nigeria that are randomly selected. Data was descriptively analysed based on the research objectives and hypotheses using mean…

  4. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  5. Correctional Education Teachers' Teaching Competence and Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correctional Education Teachers' Teaching Competence and Use of Adult Learning Principles: Inmates and Teachers' Views in Selected Correctional ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences ... This study aimed at investigating teachers', inmate' and administrators' views on the practices of correctional education.

  6. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the 'Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth' (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L; Greene, David; Peralta, Louisa R; Cliff, Dylan P; Kolt, Gregory S; Gore, Jennifer M; Gao, Lan; Lubans, David R

    2016-08-24

    Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The 'Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth' (iPLAY) study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity. The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i) quality physical education and school sport, (ii) classroom movement breaks, (iii) physically active homework, (iv) active playgrounds, (v) community physical activity links and (vi) parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical education teachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e., Kindergarten - Year 6). These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will then deliver the iPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primary schools across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a representative sample of 20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions), will assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students' cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primary outcome in this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerometers), fundamental movement skill proficiency, enjoyment of physical education and

  7. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…

  8. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  9. Radiofrequency catheter selection based on cavotricuspid angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Jamon, Yann; Bisch, Laurence; Isaaz, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) can be performed using either externally cooled-tip RFA catheters or large-tip (8 mm) catheters. However, experimental and clinical studies suggest that the efficacy of both catheters may vary with CTI anatomy and catheters orientation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate: a RFA catheter selection based on CTI angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter together with the risk of an expensive crossover catheter in both groups. Over a period of 16 months, 119 patients were included and randomized. When comparing the angiographic group (n = 56) and the externally cooled-tip RFA catheter group (n = 63), the duration of application time with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4.5-11) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 6-20; P = 0.008) and the duration of X-ray exposure with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4-10) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 5-15; P = 0.025) were significantly lower in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group. Furthermore, the number of catheters crossover was significantly higher in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group I (27% vs 7%; P = 0.007). This study shows that a strategy with a catheter selection based on a CTI angiographic evaluation is superior to an empirical use of an externally cooled-tip catheter during CTI RFA. Thus, angiographic isthmus evaluation predicts the effectiveness of a RFA catheter and the risk of an expensive catheter crossover.

  10. Comparative Evolutionary Histories of the Fungal Chitinase Gene Family Reveal Non-Random Size Expansions and Contractions due to Adaptive Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stenlid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae, and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.

  11. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the

  12. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents’ physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15–18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descri...

  13. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: their illusive natural history and why subgroup statistics cannot provide normative criteria for clinical decisions or selection criteria for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Roy, D; Weill, A; Guilbert, F; Nguyen, T; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Johnston, S C; Cognard, C; Pierot, L; Meder, J-F; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    There is currently no evidence that treatment of unruptured aneurysms is beneficial. Confronted with the uncertainty, many clinicians are attracted by an individual calculus of risks using numbers extracted from subgroup statistics of observational studies or natural history data. The so-called natural history of unruptured aneurysms refers to a purely man-made ratio of events divided by the number of untreated patients identified by imaging, a ratio heavily influenced by referral patterns and arbitrary clinical decisions. Available studies lacked prespecified hypotheses, exposing all analyses to sampling error and bias, and sample sizes were too small to provide reliable subgroup statistics. Far from being "natural kinds" of aneurysms, subgroups were post-hoc creations. Resulting data-driven statistics can only be exploratory, the error too uncontrollable to serve for clinical decisions. A randomized trial is in order, but selection according to fixed size criteria is ill-advised, given the imprecision of imaging, the influence of other factors such as location, previous history, multiplicity of lesions, risks of treatment, age and the danger of arbitrarily excluding from a long trial a large segment of the population with aneurysms for whom the research question is most pertinent.

  14. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  15. Head teachers' tasks in the implementation of preschool curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exploratory study addressed what the head teacher does to teachers, children and parents in the implementation of the preschool curriculum. The 33 head teachers were purposefully selected. The research established that the key tasks undertaken by the head teachers to teachers, children and parents as the key ...

  16. Reflective Evaluation of Efl Teachers Versus Their Students’ Evalution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Andreani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Article investigated the grading of teaching values and its relation to the rating performance of the teachers. For this purpose, 27 EFL teachers were randomly chosen from Bina Nusantara University. Some teachers taught only English Department students and some others taught students of other Departments, for example Computer Science, Marketing Communication, Management, Visual Communication Design and Chinese Department. They were asked to grade twelve values in their teaching according to the order of importance and to answer a set of questions on those values. Besides, their students filled in a questionnaire with the aim of evaluating the teachers’ performance from September 2008 until June 2010 (three semesters.The results of the study suggest that there is a change in the teaching-value grading along with teaching experience. However, there is no relationship between teaching values and getting high/low rating performance, the reason of which is not dealt with in the study. Expertise, Enthusiasm, Reliability and Attentiveness were teaching values selected as most important for the EFL teachers. Moreover, most teachers were graded higher in their soft skills rather than hard skills, especially in giving the students an opportunity to ask questions and to have a discussion during the teaching and learning process. Finally, when teachers taught small and big classes, surprisingly most of them got higher rating performance from their students of big classes, for both their hard and soft skills. 

  17. The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Johannes; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    Teachers differ greatly in how much they teach their students, but little is known about which teacher attributes account for this. We estimate the causal effect of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement using within-teacher within-student variation, exploiting a unique Peruvian 6th-grade dataset that tested both students and their teachers in two subjects. We circumvent omitted-variable and selection biases using student and teacher fixed effects and observing teachers teaching bot...

  18. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  19. Asthma knowledge level of child daycare center teachers' in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, A; Tamay, Z; Duksal, F; Celtik, C; Ergin, A; Guler, N

    2014-08-01

    Teachers are primarily responsible for supervising schoolchildren with asthma during school hours. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the level of knowledge of child daycare center teachers about asthma and factors affecting their knowledge. This study was performed on 297 teachers from 20 randomly selected child daycare centers in Istanbul. The teachers' level of knowledge about asthma was assessed by a questionnaire with 32 questions about asthma. The teachers were asked thirteen additional questions about demographic data and other characteristics of the child daycare centers and about themselves. One-way ANOVA and the independent samples t-test were used to determine differences in the level of asthma knowledge. A total of 297 teachers (287 females/10 males) filled in the questionnaire. The mean age of the teachers was 26.4 ± 8.1 years (range, 20-53 year). The teachers' "response score rate for each question" ranged from 38% to 94%. The teachers' "completely true response rate for each question" was lower and ranged from 1.6% to 83.9%. "The mean of asthma knowledge score" for the 32 questions was 113.64 ± 20.26 (71% ± 12.7%) from a maximum of 160 marks. "Asthma knowledge score for all questions" was related to teachers' gender, age, location and property of child daycare center and number of children in child daycare center. Although teachers of child daycare centers have some knowledge about asthma, their "completely true response rate for each question" was insufficient. Much more efficient educational programs are needed for these teachers.

  20. PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS THROUGH DISTANCE LEARNING: An Empirical Study on Students’ Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad NADEEM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan. The data was collected by administering a 45 items agree disagree four points Likert type scale to the subjects mainly through the scheduled meetings during the workshops. The independent sample t-test, and one way ANOVA along with mean difference was worked out for the data set. A group of 490 student teachers were randomly selected from the regions of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Rahimyarkhan, Multan, and D.G.Khan Districts (Southern Punjab. The planning for training is made timely but lacking physical facilities remains dominant in trainings. Although training plays an important role in students learning yet it is considered just a routine activity which made it a useless exercise. Similarly, findings reveal that co-curricular activities and child psychology are those aspects which ignored in the training. Future studies may be aimed at comparing the training system of teachers with teacher training through other channels of formal system of governments.

  1. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  2. [The knowledge of students and teachers of selected groups about the OTC drugs containing codeine and pseudoephedrine--an alternative to "legal highs"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Marcinkiewicz, Marcin; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Currently the youth to intoxication increasingly used drugs generally available over the counter (OTC, Over-The-Counter drug) containing psychotropic substances. The knowledge on the subject among parents and teachers is inadequate. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of students and teachers about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and their consequences on the use and popularity of these drugs. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 of 93 respondents. In conducting the study used research tool in the form of an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questions for the students and teachers of 16 questions, the questions relate knowledge of the studied group persons on the OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine and the effects of their use. Among the students participating in the study, the majority of respondents are aware that using drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine can be addicted to them. Higher knowledge on this subject have demonstrated high school students, but less teachers. Most of the respondents had knowledge about the health effects that result from an overdose of these drugs. Among the students most frequently reported sources of knowledge about OTC drugs containing codeine or pseudoephedrine were friends and the Internet. The general knowledge of high school students and teachers on the effects of OTC medications containing codeine or pseudoephedrine is not sufficient. There is a need to conduct preventive and educational action aimed at increasing knowledge among youth and adults on the health effects of these drugs.

  3. Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada

    2017-12-08

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic

  4. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  5. Preschool Teachers Can Use a PBS KIDS Transmedia Curriculum Supplement to Support Young Children's Mathematics Learning: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Carlin; Pasnik, Shelley; Moorthy, Savitha; Hupert, Naomi; Rosenfeld, Deborah; Gerard, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The current study, a randomized controlled trial, explores how technology and educational transmedia resources can enhance prekindergarten math teaching and learning in preschools, especially those serving children who may be at risk for academic difficulties due to economic and social disadvantages. This research is part of a multi-year summative…

  6. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  7. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  8. The Effects of a Voice Education Program on VHI Scores of Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Ahmadi, Akram; Drinnan, Michael; Saadatmand, Najme; Fatahi, Elahe; Jalalipour, Maryam

    2016-11-01

    Teachers seem to be vulnerable to voice disorders because of excessive use of their voice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a voice education program on the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI) scores of elementary school teachers in the Persian education system. This was a semi-experimental study, performed in Shiraz public schools. Ten schools were selected on their similarity in number of students and teachers, and allocated at random to training or control groups. Sixty-one teachers in the training group and 66 teachers in the control group completed the VHI in the first week. Teachers in the trained group received voice education for 4 weeks, and then continued to follow the program for a further 4 weeks. The control group received no training. After 8 weeks, all subjects completed the questionnaire again. Compliance was good for all practices except "breathing exercises" and "using amplifiers" where it was exceptionally poor. Teachers in the training group improved significantly in total VHI score (from 14.2 to 6.8), whereas the control group showed a significant worsening (from 10.1 to 13.7). These effects were significant (P voice education program can have positive effects on the voice of teachers, even without dysphonia, in the middle of their teaching. Such a program may have a place in the Persian education system. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers in Enugu to school based sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniebue, P N

    2007-12-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.

  10. The effect of the teachers smoking behavior on their involvement in smoking education in the schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T L; Rakip, W R

    1975-10-01

    The smoking behavior and attitudes of public school teachers were studied to determine if the teachers' smoking behavior is related to their attitudes and behavior regarding students' smoking practice and smoking education in schools. The Northampton, Massachusetts, School System was studied, where 162 of the 194 teachers randomly selected from various schools in the district completed the close-ended questionnaires administered and collected by the researcher. The study yielded a return rate of 83 percent. The results of the study showed that the general climate in school is one conducive to the establishment of a comprehensive smoking education program. It also indicates that the teachers' attitudes and behavior towards smoking education were closely related to their smoking behavior. The ex-smokers were the most active group in attempting to initiate student smoking behavior change, while the smoking teachers were the least active in this respect. Furthermore, pre-service and in-service teacher training programs in relation to smoking education were shown to be extremely sparse and ineffective in the past. This study suggests the need to strengthen pre-service and in-service teacher training programs in smoking education and to make smoking cessation programs available to those teacher who want to stop smoking.

  11. Dental trauma management awareness among primary school teachers in the Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, R

    2011-06-01

    To assess, by means of self-administered structured questionnaire, the level of knowledge of primary schools teachers in Ajman with regards to the immediate emergency management of dental trauma. The questionnaire was sent to teachers in randomly selected primary schools in Ajman. A total of 161 teachers responded (response rate 84.4%). The questionnaire surveyed teachers' background, knowledge and management of tooth fracture, avulsion, and also investigated teachers' attitudes and self-assessed knowledge. Ninety-one percent of the teachers were females, 51.6% in their thirties and 61.5% had university qualification. Fifty teachers had received formal first aid training, and only thirteen of them recalled that they had received training on the management of dental trauma. Concerning the management of tooth fracture, 138 respondents (85.8%) gave the appropriate management for fractured tooth. One hundred twenty-one (75%) of the respondents indicated that is very urgent to seek professional assistance if a permanent tooth is avulsed, but they had little knowledge on the correct media for transporting the avulsed tooth. Most teaches were unsatisfied with their level of knowledge for dental trauma and the majority were interested in having further education on the topic. The findings revealed that the level of knowledge of management of dental trauma (especially tooth avulsion) among school teachers in Ajman is inadequate, and education campaigns are necessary to improve their emergency management of dental injuries.

  12. Sequence based prediction of DNA-binding proteins based on hybrid feature selection using random forest and Gaussian naïve Bayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangchao Lou

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that

  13. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  14. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Herman

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for 7 days. Oropharyngeal swabs obtained before, within 48 h post-treatment and at 28-35 days were assessed for proportions of amoxicillin-resistant (ARS; amoxicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L) and -non-susceptible (ANS; MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) streptococci. Alterations in amoxicillin MICs and in penicillin-binding-proteins were also investigated. ITT and PP analyses were conducted. ARS and ANS proportions increased 11- and 2.5-fold, respectively, within 48 h post-amoxicillin treatment compared with placebo [ARS mean increase (MI) 9.46, 95% CI 5.57-13.35; ANS MI 39.87, 95% CI 30.96-48.78; P  0.1588). ARS/ANS were grouped by pbp mutations. Group 1 strains exhibited significantly lower amoxicillin resistance (mean MIC 2.8 mg/L, 95% CI 2.6-3.1) than group 2 (mean MIC 9.3 mg/L, 95% CI 8.1-10.5; P amoxicillin is modest and short-lived, probably due to 'fitness costs' engendered by high-level resistance-conferring mutations. This evidence further supports European guidelines that recommend amoxicillin when an antibiotic is indicated for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. Acne RA-1,2, a novel UV-selective face cream for patients with acne: Efficacy and tolerability results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia

    2017-06-01

    General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m(2) ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm(2) ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  17. The SUPERCOMET 2 Project: Teacher Seminar and Teacher Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, V.; Ireson, G.; Latal, H.; Mathelitsch, L.; Michelini, M.; Peeters, W.; Rath, G.

    2008-05-01

    The Leonardo da Vinci pilot projects SUPERCOMET (2001-2004) and SUPERCOMET 2 (2004-2007) developed and tested teacher training materials for active, minds-on learning of electromagnetism and superconductivity at the level of upper secondary school. New multimedia materials for the pupils supported the teacher materials, including a teacher seminar in 4 half-day modules detailing the scientific contents, teaching methods, using ICT in physics teaching and learning, online collaboration and further resources for exploring the selected topics. The aim of these projects were to improve the quality of physics teaching on a European level, involving a combined total of 45 partners in 16 countries, and conducting trials at 67 schools with approx. 230 teachers, 280 trainee teachers and 2200 pupils. New follow-up projects develop hands-on materials for carrying out the activities described in the teacher guide and seminars and additional teacher materials involving modelling, simulations and data logging.

  18. Impact of Teacher Self-Efficacy on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement

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    Khurram Shahzad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of self-efficacy and its impact on human performance has intrigued many scholars during the last two decades, for example, Clayson and Sheffet, 2006; Nauta, 2004; Muijsand Rejnolds 2001; Bandura, 1997 and Soodak and Podell, 1993. This study was conducted with the objective to find out the impact ofteacher self-efficacy on the secondary school students’ academic achievement. For this purpose, sixty (60 secondary school teachers and a hundred (100 secondary school students in Chiltan Town of Quetta city were randomly selected. To collect the data, teacher self-efficacy questionnaire for teachers was used and to measure students’ academic achievement a test was developed. Data were analyzed through Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regressions. The findings of the study revealed that teacher self-efficacy has a positive impact on the students’ academic achievement. The results of the study and their pedagogical implications have been discussed, and recommendations have been provided for further researches.

  19. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF THE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN GERMY

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    Mohammad Feizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment of Germi's secondary school teachers in academic year 2011-2012. Four-hundred secondary school teachers consisted the statistical population of the study. The determined sample size by the Cochran formula was 196. The sample was selected through simple random sampling. The data obtained through Bass and Avolio's multifactor leadership questionnaire (1996 and Porter's organizational commitment questionnaire (1974. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between transformational leadership and organizational commitment of teachers. In addition, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that among the components of transformational leadership, the idealized influence had the greatest impact on organizational commitment of teachers.

  20. Awareness of Dental Trauma Management among School Teachers of Kannur, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandukutty, Divya; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Premkumar, Chandru T; Narasimhan, Dhanesh; Jose, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    Dental trauma can overtake dental caries and periodontal disease as the most significant threat to dental health among young people. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on prompt and appropriate treatment. The role of school teachers in the prevention of traumatic dental injuries is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. However, studies conducted in different regions of the world have demonstrated that teachers and other lay people's knowledge about traumatic dental injuries is inadequate and their behavior does not contribute to reduce the sequelae. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of school teachers about dental trauma and its management in Kannur district. The survey was conducted under the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry; Kannur Dental College among 303 school teachers randomly selected from 16 schools. Four schools were selected from 16 schools using stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross sectional study design was used. A stratified cluster sampling method was done to select the study subjects. The nature and purpose of the study was first explained to the teachers in local language. Following this the printed questionnaire was distributed to school teachers. The questionnaire was prepared based on the needs of the study after referring similar questionnaires used in studies conducted in different parts of the world. A statistically significant association was found between the teacher's knowledge regarding trauma and their teaching experience. Out of the total school teachers who participated in the study, 90.1% responded correctly that the teeth most frequently affected by traumatic accidents are the upper front teeth. Nearly 23.4% responded correctly regarding management of traumatic tooth fracture. Almost 46.5% had correct knowledge regarding the reimplantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Only 14.2% responded correctly to the proper storage medium for avulsed teeth

  1. A Comparison of Four-Year Longitudinal Studies of Postconventional Moral Judgment Reasoning in Teacher Education and Other Selected Undergraduate Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Alan J.

    This paper identifies moral judgment as a needed aim in higher education and teacher education, suggesting that moral issues are a central part of the content of various disciplines in higher education and noting that there are calls to integrate ethics across the curriculum. A cognitive-developmental theory that includes new social role-taking…

  2. Data Analysis and Data-Driven Decision-Making Strategies Implemented by Elementary Teachers in Selected Exited Program Improvement Safe Harbor Schools in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate and describe how elementary teachers in exited Program Improvement-Safe Harbor schools acquire student achievement data through assessments, the strategies and reflections utilized to make sense of the data to improve student achievement, ensure curriculum and instructional goals are aligned,…

  3. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  4. Teaching Strategies for the Disadvantaged Student and Their Use by Teachers in Business Education in Selected Ohio Inner City High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejisik, Elfriede

    The negative reaction to the disadvantaged in the United States is discussed in the light of the protestant ethic in this paper based on the author's dissertation. The question "Who are the disadvantaged and what sets them apart from the rest of American society?" is addressed. The extent to which business education teachers employ…

  5. A Selected Bibliography of Films and Videotapes on Foreign Language Teacher Training. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Peter A., Comp.

    This bibliography was prepared for foreign language teacher trainers and curriculum specialists for use in preservice and inservice instruction. The audiovisual materials cited here have been compiled from an extensive search of AV center catalogues and periodicals in which such materials are advertised. The listings have been grouped into four…

  6. Teachers' Methodologies and Sources of Information on HIV/AIDS for Students with Visual Impairments in Selected Residential and Integrated Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Samuel K.; Ocansey, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    This study reports part of a national survey on sources of information, education and communication materials on HIV/AIDS available to students with visual impairments in residential, segregated, and integrated schools in Ghana. A multi-staged stratified random sampling procedure and a purposive and simple random sampling approach, where…

  7. The Examination of Teacher Stress among Turkish Early Childhood Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdiller, Z. B.; Dogan, Ö.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the level of teacher stress experienced by Turkish early childhood education teachers working in public and private preschools serving children from three to six years of age. The participants of the study include 1119 early childhood education teachers gathered through simple random sampling. The data are…

  8. Teachers at Risk: A Profile of the Teacher Predisposed To Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce W.; Carroll, DeLos

    1987-01-01

    This study addresses attrition in the teaching profession, a major problem in Florida's schools. The study's target population was a random sample of 10% of the teachers from a Florida metropolitan school district employing 5,500 teachers. Data were gathered through a mailed questionnaire--the Survey of Teacher Characteristics and Activities. The…

  9. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  10. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  11. Oral hygiene assessment by school teachers and peer leaders using simplified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Abdul; Siddiqui, Muhammad Irfanullah; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2012-06-01

    A significant proportion of children in developing countries are having plaque-induced gingivitis. A public health strategy may involve teachers and peer leaders to motivate and train school children for regular and thorough removal of dental plaque. The monitoring and evaluation of such a strategy may require teachers and peer leaders to assess oral hygiene status of children at periodic intervals. To validate the simplified dental examination performed by teachers and peer leaders to detect dental plaque and calculus. This longitudinal study involved 632 adolescents studying in sixteen schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Eight schools each were randomly allocated to the peer-led and teacher-led strategies of examination. One section of class six was selected at random in each school to be included in the study. In each selected section of class six the trained teacher-in-charge or a peer-leader undertook dental examinations at baseline, 6-month and 18-month intervals and their findings were compared with those of a dentist. The outcome measures included the Kappa values for examiner agreement as well as the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. All teachers and peer leaders showed a substantial degree of agreement (Kappa ≥ 0.8) with the dentist in detecting plaque and calculus at all three examinations. The values of validity measures for teachers' and peer leaders' examination were in the range of 87-90%. The examinations performed by teachers and peer leaders were reasonably valid to detect plaque and calculus. However, booster training sessions are needed to maintain their performance as dental examiners.

  12. School Principal's Role in Facilitating Change in Teaching-Learning Process: Teachers' Attitude. A Case Study on Five Junior Schools in Asmara, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehatsion, Petros Woldu

    2017-01-01

    The research tried to examine the role of school principal in facilitating change in teaching-learning process. Moreover, it has focused on the main roles of principal in implementing LCIP. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study used a random sample of 62 teachers from a purposefully selected five junior schools…

  13. Sexual harassment of adolescents perpetrated by teachers and by peers : An exploration of the dynamics of power, culture, and gender in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, G

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare the similarities and disparities between sexual harassment of students that is perpetrated by teachers and by peers. The study involved 2,808 randomly selected adolescents at 22 secondary schools from two regions in the Netherlands. The sample

  14. A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Pivotal Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of a Selective Cytopheretic Device in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Tumlin

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a highly morbid condition in critically ill patients that is associated with high mortality. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Selective Cytopheretic Device (SCD in the treatment of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU.A randomized, controlled trial of 134 ICU patients with AKI, 69 received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT alone and 65 received SCD therapy.No significant difference in 60-day mortality was observed between the treated (27/69; 39% and control patients (21/59; 36%, with six patients lost to follow up in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. Of the 19 SCD subjects (CRRT+SCD and 31 control subjects (CRRT alone who maintained a post-filter ionized calcium (iCa level in the protocol's recommended range (≤ 0.4 mmol/L for greater or equal to 90% of the therapy time, 60-day mortality was 16% (3/19 in the SCD group compared to 41% (11/27 in the CRRT alone group (p = 0.11. Dialysis dependency showed a borderline statistically significant difference between the SCD treated versus control CRRT alone patients maintained for ≥ 90% of the treatment in the protocol's recommended (r iCa target range of ≤ 0.4 mmol/L with values of, 0% (0/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively (P = 0.10. When the riCa treated and control subgroups were compared for a composite index of 60 day mortality and dialysis dependency, the percentage of SCD treated subjects was 16% versus 58% in the control subjects (p<0.01. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between the treated (45/69; 65% and control groups (40/65; 63%; p = 0·86.SCD therapy may improve mortality and reduce dialysis dependency in a tightly controlled regional hypocalcaemic environment in the perfusion circuit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400893 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01400893.

  15. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of amnioreduction versus selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Shera, David; Lee, Hanmin; Johnson, Mark; D’Alton, Mary; Porter, Flint; Chyu, Jacquelyn; Silver, Richard; Abuhamad, Alfred; Saade, George; Shields, Laurence; Kauffman, David; Stone, Joanne; Albanese, Craig T.; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Ball, Robert H.; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Coleman, Beverly; Farmer, Diana; Feldstein, Vickie; Harrison, Michael R.; Hedrick, Holly; Livingston, Jeffrey; Lorenz, Robert P.; Miller, David A.; Norton, Mary E.; Polzin, William J.; Robinson, Julian N.; Rychik, Jack; Sandberg, Per L.; Seri, Istvan; Simon, Erin; Simpson, Lynn L.; Yedigarova, Larisa; Wilson, R. Douglas; Young, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (SFLP) versus serial amnioreduction (AR) on perinatal mortality in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Study Design 5-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome variable was 30-day postnatal survival of donors and recipients. Results There is no statistically significant difference in 30-day postnatal survival between SFLP or AR treatment for donors at 55% (11/20) vs 55% (11/20) (p=1, OR=1, 95%CI=0.242 to 4.14) or recipients at 30% (6/20) vs 45% (9/20) (p=0.51, OR=1.88, 95%CI=0.44 to 8.64). There is no difference in 30-day survival of one or both twins on a per pregnancy basis between AR at 75% (15/20) and SFLP at 65% (13/20) (p=0.73, OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.34 to 8.09). Overall survival (newborns divided by the number of fetuses treated) is not statistically significant for AR at 60% (24/40) vs SFLP 45% (18/40) (p=0.18, OR=2.01, 95%CI=0.76 to 5.44). There is a statistically significant increase in fetal recipient mortality in the SFLP arm at 70% (14/20) versus the AR arm at 35% (7/20) (p=0.25, OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.19 to 27.6). This is offset by increased recipient neonatal mortality of 30% (6/20) in the AR arm. Echocardiographic abnormality in recipient twin Cardiovascular Profile Score is the most significant predictor of recipient mortality (p=0.055, OR=3.025/point) by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The outcome of the trial does not conclusively determine whether AR or SFLP is a superior treatment modality. TTTS cardiomyopathy appears to be an important factor in recipient survival in TTTS. PMID:17904975

  16. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  17. Influence of the level of teachers' environmental awareness on the level of pupils' environmental awareness at the selected schools in the Žatec region

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Silvie

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is focused on an assessing the impact of the level of an environmental literacy of primary school teachers to the level of the environmental literacy of pupils in primary schools in the region Zatec. This work continues on a thesis Silvie Svobodové (2013) The influence of environmental education at the level of environmental literacy of pupils in primary schools Zatec region and complements the conclusions on the extent of influence of environmental education on environmental aware...

  18. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reales, Jos? M; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Elo?Sa; Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    .... Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com...

  19. Teacher Perfectionism and Iranian English Language Learners’ Motivation and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezvani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational psychology has recently reflected a policy shift from focusing on “what goes wrong” in schools, including psychological, physical, and educational disabilities, to recognizing and promoting strengths and positive aspects of students and their environments. Within this scope, some lines of research have examined the extent to which setting personal high standards influences such positive outcomes as educational achievement and high level of motivation. The present study was motivated by the concern that Iranian English language teachers' setting high standards, i.e. perfectionism, may predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. Through cluster random sampling, a total of 30 English language teachers with more than one year of experience and 300 elementary English language learners were selected from English Language Institutes in Fars province, Iran. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale and Motivations Underlying English Language Learning questionnaire were used to measure teachers' perfectionism and learners’ language learning motivation, respectively. The learners' final scores in the English courses were collected as a measure of their language learning achievement. The result of simple regression analysis revealed that the teachers' perfectionism did not predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. In other words, Iranian English language teachers' perfectionism did not account for any variance in these two variables of interest. Keywords: Perfectionism, Motivation, Language Learning Achievement

  20. The Consulting Teacher Program: Ten Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Phyllis F.; And Others

    A program designed to train learning specialists called consulting teachers who, in turn, train classroom teachers to educate handicapped children in the regular classroom setting is described. Consulting teacher trainees are selected on the basis of teaching experience, leadership capability, academic promise, and commitment to special education.…

  1. Elementary General Music Teachers' Reflections on Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was completed to identify and study the content of selected elementary general music teachers' evaluations of their own instruction and the instruction of another elementary general music teacher. Participants represented a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching experience: Teacher A (9 years teaching Grades 4-6 at…

  2. Evaluating Primary Education Second Level Students' Complaining Behaviours According to Teachers', Students' and Parents' Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Özer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, general scan types, an action research is descriptive. Primary 2 students complained of circuit status teachers, students and parents in line with comments made to evaluate. Research in academic year 2008-2009 of the province of Hatay Antakya district centers selected through simple random sampling method in 25 primary schools serving the 183 4 and 5 class teacher and 6 from the critical state primary schools and 60 students selected through opportunistic sample of cases and was conducted with parents of these students. Surveys as a means of data collection form was used and 2 interviews. Independent groups t test for independent variable was done. Survey item for each questions are interpreted separately by the preequency and mean. According to research results, opinions of teachers, students in the classroom frequently seen complaints about gender and vary according to type of school they did not graduate but was determined to vary according to seniority. Students in the classroom environment in the class of the most disturbing situations where excessive noise has emerged. Teachers, students complain they are acting against the understanding of families responding to the girls they were determined. According to parents of students complained about the school class is very crowded and the sink is dirty. Parents with school children, teachers and friends about the complaint as the first teachers prefer to have interviews

  3. Teachers' Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbury, Robert, Ed.

    Teacher centers in England are professional laboratories where inservice teachers (freed from their classrooms by a release program) can share ideas, experiences, and problems with their colleagues and participate in the development and testing of teaching materials. The evolution of the teacher centers, their functioning, their projects, and…

  4. Occupational low back pain in primary and high school teachers: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ghanipour, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of LBP. In this cross-sectional study, 586 asymptomatic teachers were randomly selected from 22 primary and high schools in Semnan city of Iran. Data on the personal, occupational characteristics, pain intensity, and functional disability as well as the prevalence and risk factors of LBP were collected using different questionnaires. Point, last month, last 6 months, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP were 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained for the high school teachers. The prevalence of LBP was significantly associated with age, body mass index, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P teachers appears to be high. High school teachers were more likely to experience LBP than primary school teachers. Factors such as age, body mass index, length of employment, job satisfaction, and work-related activities were significant factors associated with LBP in this teacher population. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Oral Health on The Quality of Life of Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Folake B; Taiwo, Juliana O; Oke, Gbemi A

    2015-07-01

    The success of preventive school health programs is largely dependent on teachers who are role models to pupils and pivotal to implementation. It is therefore important to understand the perception of school teachers about the impact of oral health on their daily activities. The aim of this study was to assess oral health related quality of life of elementary school teachers by evaluating the impact of oral conditions like dental caries and periodontal disease on their daily performances and school work. This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which 407 teachers were selected through multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected with structured interviewer-administered Oral Impact on Daily Performances (OIDP) questionnaires and by clinical oral examinations. Data were collated and analysed with SPSS. The prevalence of reporting of impacts on daily performances was 39.1% with eating and enjoying food being the most commonly impacted activity. Impacts on daily performances were more likely to be reported by teachers with better education (p = 0.019). Teachers with caries had higher odds of reporting impacts as a result of oral health status (CI: 1.04, 5.64, p = 0.040). The severity of periodontal disease found on clinical examination was not related to reporting of impacts on quality of life (p > 0.05). The oral health status of school teachers impacted significantly on their daily performance and school work when they experienced pain. Painless but highly prevalent oral lesions were, however, not perceived to influence their quality of life.

  6. Inculcation of Values across the School Curriculum: Development and Validation of Teachers' Orientation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sahari

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher orientation to the inculcation of values across school curriculum-a function of the teacher knowledge and attitudes-has been conceptualised as his or her (1 identification with the goals of the curriculum, and (2 conformity with the predetermined instructional behaviours. Based on this framework, the study explored the construct of teacher orientation to the inculcation of values across school subjects. More specifically, the study examined the likelihood of two underlying dimensions explaining the presence of variability in teacher orientation and the reliability of the dimensions. Using a 15-item instrument developed earlier for a descriptive inquiry, the present study measured and analysed responses from 103 secondary school teachers from two randomly selected schools. To arrive at the conclusions, the study applied principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha procedures. The results suggested that teacher orientation to value inculcation is a multidimensional construct. The more reliable dimensions of Teacher Orientation were found to be goal identification, conformity to planning tasks, and conformity to delivery tasks. The results add new information to, and may serve as a guide for future research.

  7. Implementing HIV/AIDS education: impact of teachers' training on HIV/AIDS education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.

  8. Relationships between school support, school facilities, ICT culture and mathematics teachers' attitudes towards ICT in teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ismail, Rohayati

    2012-05-01

    Information communication Technology (ICT) has been a major influence in the Malaysian Education System, especially in the teaching of mathematics. Since 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education has provided incentives to mathematics teacher to motivate them to use ICT using English as the medium of instruction, during the teaching and learning process. However, there are barriers that prevented mathematics teachers from using ICT in the classrooms. This study is to determine factors that influenced the attitudes of Malaysian Mathematic Teachers in integrating ICT in their teaching and learning. One hundred ninety one mathematics teachers were randomly selected for the purpose of this study. The three factors investigated were school support, school facilities and school culture which had been selected to be correlated with teachers' attitudes towards integrating ICT in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Findings showed that significant positive relationships existed between teachers' attitudes toward integrating ICT in the teaching and learning and school support, school facilities and ICT culture and This finding indicated that, in order to develop teachers' attitudes in using ICT during their teaching and learning process, they needed support from the school principals and also their colleagues. Apart from that, school facilities and also ICT culture were also found to be essential.

  9. Unterricht am Krankenbett: allgemeine und fächerspezifische Dozentenmerkmale, Kriterien der Patientenauswahl und Schwierigkeiten [Bedside Teaching: general and discipline-specific teacher characteristics, criteria for patient selection and difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: With regard to bedside teaching (BST, which has an important function in medical education for practicing history taking and clinical examination, only few studies can be found which define recommendations for its realization. However, difficulties with this teaching method are often reported in evaluations. Hence, the goal of this study is to collect important general requirements for bedside teaching and to identify important aspects of patient selection.Methods: A newly designed questionnaire with closed and open questions concerning the organisation, the execution and the design of BST as well as patient selection was sent to a total of 134 teachers from the departments of surgery, internal medicine and psychiatry. The collected data were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods.Results: Teachers from internal medicine were significantly older than teachers from both other disciplines. In surgery, a significantly higher number of hours was taught by younger residents. Patient consent and the match of their diseases to the learning objectives were stated to be the most important factors for patient selection across disciplines. Psychiatrists put significantly more emphasis on patients’ German language skills according to their own declaration. By trend, an acute deterioration of the state of health was mentioned more often in surgery to lead to an exclusion from BST. Conclusion: With regard to planning of content, organisation and patient selection for BST, aspects mentioned by teachers as well as discipline specific characteristics should be considered for and addressed during teacher trainings.[german] Zielsetzung: Zum Unterricht am Krankenbett (UaK, dem in der medizinischen Ausbildung eine wichtige Funktion für das Üben von Anamnese und klinischer Untersuchung zukommt, finden sich bisher nur wenige Untersuchungen, die Empfehlungen für die Gestaltung definieren. In Evaluationen wird jedoch vielfach

  10. Selection of nursing teaching strategies in mainland China: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HouXiu; Liu, MengJie; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, JingCi

    2016-04-01

    In nursing education, the traditional lecture and direct demonstration teaching method cannot cultivate the various skills that nursing students need. How to choose a more scientific and rational teaching method is a common concern for nursing educators worldwide. To investigate the basis for selecting teaching methods among nursing teachers in mainland China, the factors affecting the selection of different teaching methods, and the application of different teaching methods in theoretical and skill-based nursing courses. Questionnaire survey. Seventy one nursing colleges from 28 provincial-level administrative regions in mainland China. Following the principle of voluntary informed consent, 262 nursing teachers were randomly selected through a nursing education network platform and a conference platform. The questionnaire contents included the basis for and the factors influencing the selection of nursing teaching methods, the participants' common teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the surveyed nursing teachers. The questionnaires were distributed through the network or conference platform, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The surveyed nursing teachers selected teaching methods mainly based on the characteristics of the teaching content, the characteristics of the students, and their previous teaching experiences. The factors affecting the selection of teaching methods mainly included large class sizes, limited class time, and limited examination formats. The surveyed nursing teachers primarily used lectures to teach theory courses and the direct demonstration method to teach skills courses, and the application frequencies of these two teaching methods were significantly higher than those of other teaching methods (P=0.000). More attention should be paid to the selection of nursing teaching methods. Every teacher should strategically choose teaching methods before each lesson, and nursing education training focused on selecting

  11. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classroom assessment practices of 3rd- through 12th-grade teachers in a Midwestern state. In addition to determining the frequency with which specific assessment item formats were utilized, the level of use of selected "best practice" approaches to assessment was considered ("performance-based assessment,…

  12. Teachers Need Teachers to Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Terri L.; Wieseman, Katherine C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of teacher learning in a cohort-based, master's degree program in curriculum and pedagogy that was intentionally designed to be responsive to teachers' personal needs and preferences. The program aimed to: (1) provide teachers with the confidence to connect what they do in their classrooms to…

  13. Teacher to Teacher: Transgenerational Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Torres, Rachel; Hurst, Jeannine Lane; Hurst, Roy

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the relationship of teachers who mentor other teachers. We studied 125 autobiographical portfolios submitted by elementary and secondary teachers who had won awards as outstanding educators from their campuses and were competing at the district level. The research site was a midsize city (population 95,000) in…

  14. Factors on Enhancing the Competitive Edge and Attributes of Graduates as Inputs to the Development of Teacher Education Enhancement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. Janer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In response to the CHED’s Higher Education Development Project and the need to track the status of Sorsogon State College (SSC teacher education graduates, this research was conceptualized. The study aims to gauge the teacher education program’s thrust of providing a quality and relevant education that could ensure worthwhile and appropriate employment opportunity to its graduates. Descriptive research design was employed in this study. Surveys, unstructured interviews, and documentary analysis were undertaken to gather pertinent data among the respondents. The study consists of 427 teacher education graduates who were selected through stratified random technique. This tracer study determined the employability of Teacher Education graduates in SSC, Sorsogon Campus from 2009 to 2013 with an end-view of proposing a Teacher Education Enhancement Program (TEEP to enhance the competitive edge of SSC Teacher Education graduates in all teaching job opportunities. The intellectual, social and linguistic attributes of the SSC graduates were likewise identified in this study. Some of the factors identified by the respondents that could help improve their competitive edge are the pre-service trainings, job placement program, teacher education curriculum enrichment, and Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET review program.

  15. A STUDY OF THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS REPORTED BY PRINCIPALS AND OBSERVED BY TEACHERS AND ITS RELATION WITH PRINCIPALS’ MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method used in this study. Target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample consisted of 46 principals and 129 teachers were selected by stratified sampling and simple random sampling methods. Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ developed by Kozes and Posner (2001 was used for data collection. The obtained data were analyzed using one sample and independent t-test, correlation coefficient and pearson chi-square test. The results showed that teachers describe the leadership behaviors of their principals relatively good. However, the principals themselves evaluated their leadership behaviors as very good. In comparison between leadership behaviors self-reported by principals and those observed by teachers, it was found that there is a significant difference between the views and evaluations of teachers and principals on all components of leadership behaviors of principals, except empowerment. In fact, principals have described their leadership behaviors at a better and more appropriate level than what teachers have done. From the perspective of both teachers and principals, there is no significant relationship between none of the components of leadership behaviors and management experience of principals.

  16. Day 3 embryo selection by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouw, C.G.; Kieslinger, D.C.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Botros, L.L.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Sakkas, D.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    study question: Is the selection of a single Day 3 embryo by metabolomic profiling of culture medium with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an adjunct to morphology able to improve live birth rates in IVF, compared with embryo selection by morphology alone? summary answer: The live birth rate

  17. The Impact of Globalization on Teacher Education: The Philippine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; dela Rosa, Praxedes S. M.; Arcangel, Clotilde N.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study is an attempt to describe how administrators, teachers and researchers in a select group of teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the capital of the Philippines collectively view globalization. Specifically, concepts of a globalized teacher education, impact of globalization in teacher education, and problems of teacher…

  18. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 second...

  19. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  20. Successful White teachers of Black students: Teaching across racial lines in urban middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bobbie

    The majority of urban minority students, particularly Black students, continue to perform below proficiency on standardized state and national testing in all areas that seriously impact economically advanced career options, especially in areas involving science. If education is viewed as a way out of poverty, there is a need to identify pedagogical methodologies that assist Black students in achieving higher levels of success in science, and in school in general. The purpose of this study was to explore White teachers' and Black students' perceptions about the teaching strategies used in their low socioeconomic status (LSES) urban science classrooms, that led to academic success for Black students. Participants included three urban middle school White teachers thought to be the best science teachers in the school, and five randomly selected Black students from each of their classrooms. Methods of inquiry involving tenets of grounded theory were used to examine strategies teachers used to inspire Black students into academic success. Data collection included teacher and student interviews, field notes from classroom observations, group discussions, and questionaires. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The teachers' perceptions indicated that their prior belief systems, effective academic and personal communication, caring and nurturing strategies, using relevant and meaningful hands-on activities in small learner-centered groups, enhanced the learning capabilities of all students in their classrooms, especially the Black students. Black students' perceptions indicated that their academic success was attributable to what teachers personally thought about them, demonstrated that they cared, communicated with them on a personal and academic level, gave affirmative feedback, simplified, and explained content matter. Black students labeled teachers who had these attributes as "nice" teachers. The nurturing and caring behaviors of "nice" teachers

  1. Between School Factors and Teacher Factors: What Inhibits Malaysian Science Teachers from Using ICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Malaysian government's efforts to increase the use of ICT in school, teachers' uptake of the technology remains slow and dismal. In this study, teachers' perceptions of the barriers that inhibited their use of ICT in the science classroom were explored. One hundred and fifty-one (N = 151) science teachers from selected secondary…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Self Efficacy: The Contribution of Teacher Status and Length of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, Andrea; Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Practicing teachers and principals in selected Government schools in Victoria provided data on their levels of emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy beliefs. The data supported the theoretical expectation of a linkage between emotional intelligence and teacher self efficacy. Regression analyses showed that neither gender nor age moderated…

  3. Teacher-Working-Environment Fit as a Framework for Burnout Experienced by Finnish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhalto, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the kinds of episodes that challenge comprehensive school teachers' occupational well-being and cause burnout and how teachers perceive the relationship between themselves and their working environment in these episodes. Altogether, a selected group of 68 primary and secondary school teachers were…

  4. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Trial of the Oral Selective NR2B Antagonist MK-0657 in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Lobna; DiazGranados, Nancy; Jolkovsky, Libby; Brutsche, Nancy; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Herring, W. Joseph; Potter, William Z.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic system may play an increasingly important role in the development of novel therapeutics for major depressive disorder (MDD), particularly agents associated with rapid antidepressant effects. Diverse glutamatergic modulators targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have shown efficacy in MDD, but their associated psychotomimetic effects presently preclude their use in larger samples. This small, randomized, double-blind, placebo-contr...

  5. Teacher expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    and practice through development of better models for bridging the teaching at college and the internship teaching. The study was a longitudinal research and development project that followed teacher students during their first three years of a four year teacher education program after the teacher education...... reform of 2007. The study included four teacher training colleges at two university colleges and about 100 students. In the reform and in the study focus was on professional development. Each of the colleges implemented a number of actions in order to see whether they had potential for bridging the gap......Teacher Expertise: How to improve the relationship between Theory and Practice in Teacher Education Jens Rasmussen, Department of Education, Aarhus University In several studies and reports it has been nailed over and over that teachers’ matter. So this is not the question in this study...

  6. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  7. Methods and analysis of realizing randomized grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Randomization is one of the four basic principles of research design. The meaning of randomization includes two aspects: one is to randomly select samples from the population, which is known as random sampling; the other is to randomly group all the samples, which is called randomized grouping. Randomized grouping can be subdivided into three categories: completely, stratified and dynamically randomized grouping. This article mainly introduces the steps of complete randomization, the definition of dynamic randomization and the realization of random sampling and grouping by SAS software.

  8. Student Teachers' Perceptions towards Teaching Practice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…

  9. School Climate, Principal Support and Collaboration among Portuguese Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Silva, José; Amante, Lúcia; Morgado, José

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between school principal support and teacher collaboration among Portuguese teachers. Data were collected from a random sample of 234 teachers in middle and secondary schools. The use of a combined approach using linear and multiple regression tests concluded that the school principal support, through the…

  10. Factors Affecting Retirement Attitude among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chiang, Chia-Hsun; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of teacher efficacy, perceived organizational control, and the teacher-student age gap with teachers' retirement attitudes. Stratified random sampling was adopted to collect survey responses. A total of 498 valid surveys from 33 elementary schools were collected. Correlational analyses revealed significant…

  11. Perception Of Junior Secondary School Teachers Towards Literacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of teachers' towards literacy through mother tongue in junior secondary schools in Ogun State. Four hundred teachers were sampled (200 males and 200 females) from public and private Schools with the use of stratified random sampling. The instrument titled Teachers' Perception ...

  12. Perceptions of teachers about learning disorder in a northern city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teachers are perhaps the closest observers of child′s academic performance and can be instrumental in detecting learning disorder (LD early. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the teachers′ perceptions about LD. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in the public schools located in the urban, rural and slum areas of Chandigarh. Teachers were recruited from 20 randomly selected schools out of a total of 103 schools in the Union Territory by proportionate sampling. The sample size required for α of 0.05 and power of 0.80 to detect a difference of 15% from base rate of 35% was 80. Eighty teachers of 3 rd and 4 th grades of these schools were recruited using purposive sampling. Teachers were briefed for 5 minutes about the symptoms of LD. They were asked questions using a structured questionnaire about their socio-demographic status, methods of teaching, and students′ progress and their perception about LD. Descriptive statistics was mainly used to represent nominal and ordinal data using frequency and percentages. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to assess relationship between the variables. Results: Eighty teachers were recruited, 87.5% were females, 57.5% had more than 5 years teaching experience; 56.3% of teachers thought that they were aware of LD, 67.5% of teachers perceived that they do encounter children with LD in the school, 43.8% endorsed educating such children in special schools, while 36.3% endorsed integration to regular schools. Interestingly, more than three fifth of teachers were willing to undergo special training for LD intervention. Conclusion: Teachers acknowledge that there is a need for further steps to be taken to help children with LD. They perceive opening special cells or sending such children to special schools for appropriate intervention which may not tally with the perception of clinician who may wish to provide LD intervention in hospital

  13. Training Inservice Teachers' Competencies in Classroom Management. A Quasi-Experimental Study with Teachers of Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Valentina; Thiel, Felicitas; Ophardt, Diemut

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a training program for inservice secondary school teachers in classroom management. In a non-randomized pre-post-design, 19 teachers participated in a newly developed training (the intervention group) and 18 teachers participated in a control training (the control group). All participants reported…

  14. Who's doing the talking? Teacher and parent experiences of parent-teacher conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Lemmer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of direct communication between parents and teachers in schools worldwide is the parent-teacher conference. Purposeful parent-teacher conferences afford the teacher and the parent the opportunity to address a particular topic related to the child, such as academic progress and behaviour. However, teachers are seldom trained to interact with parents, and both parents and teachers often find such encounters stressful and ineffective. This paper investigates parent and teacher perspectives on the parent-teacher conference through a qualitative inquiry. This is framed by the contributions of ecological theorists to home-school communication and an overview of extant themes in the literature. In the present qualitative inquiry, teacher, parent and learner participants were selected by purposeful and snowball sampling and data were gathered by individual and focus group interviews, school visits and the perusal of written parent-teacher conference reports. The findings indicate that parent-teacher conferences are ritualised school events in all types of schools; parents and teachers' expectations of conferences are limited; teachers are not trained to conduct parent-teacher conferences; and conferencesare overwhelmingly directed at problem solution. Parent-teacher conferences are characterised by a client orientation to parents, rather than a partnership orientation to home-school relations.

  15. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine does not change rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Tytgat, Guido N. J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although widely prescribed, the evidence for the use of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has visceral analgesic properties, leading to

  16. Adjacent, distal, or combination of point-selective effects of acupuncture on temporomandibular joint disorders: A randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Kang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that point-selective effects among adjacent, distal, or a combination of acupoints are hardly associated with pain intensity or palpation index in participants with TMDs. Larger sample size trials are required to overcome the shortcomings of the study.

  17. Friendship Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We model the formation of friendships as repeated cooperation within a set of heterogeneous players. The model builds around three of the most important facts about friendship: friends help each other, there is reciprocity in the relationship and people usually have few friends. In our results we explain how similarity between people affects the friendship selection. We also characterize when the friendship network won’t depend on the random process by which people meet each other. Finally, w...

  18. Prospective Teachers' Mental Health and Their Help-Seeking Behaviours

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ersin Uzman; Bulent Baki Telef

    2015-01-01

      Although the teaching profession is stressful and despite the known impact of teachers' mental health on students during teaching, prospective teachers' mental health is neglected in training and selection...

  19. Effectiveness of Shortwave Diathermy for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and Value of Night Pain for Patient Selection: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Kaysin, Meryem; Akpinar, Pinar; Aktas, Ilknur; Unlü Ozkan, Feyza; Silte Karamanlioglu, Duygu; Cagliyan Hartevioglu, Hulya; Vural, Nazan

    2017-09-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of short wave diathermy (SWD) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 patients (aged 35-65 yrs) were classified into night pain positive (NP[+]) (n = 28) and night pain negative (NP[-]) (n = 29) groups. Both groups were randomly assigned to SWD (NP[+], n = 14; NP[-], n = 14) and sham (NP[+], n = 15; NP[-], n = 14) subgroups. Visual analog scale, Constant-Murley Scale (CS), and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) scores were used for evaluation. There was only a significant difference in pain with activity at 1-mo (mean difference [MD], -1.65; 95% confidence interval, -3.01 to -0.28]) and 2-mo evaluations (MD, -2.1; 95% confidence interval, -3.51 to -0.69) between SWD versus sham groups. In the NP(+) SWD group, the CS pain score was significantly higher than in the NP(+) sham group at all evaluations after treatment. At 1 mo, the NP(-) SWD group showed significantly better pain, strength, total CS, and SDQ scores than the NP(-) sham group. At 2 mos, the pain, range of motion, strength, and total CS and SDQ scores were better in the NP(-) SWD group than in the NP(-) sham group (P diathermy is more effective in subacromial impingement syndrome without NP.

  20. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of .... Solving: According to Thompson (1992), teachers' classroom practice of mathematics problem solving is a critical factor in determining students' problems ... inquiry and creativity (Micintosh, 2000). To foster critical ...