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Sample records for randomly selected students

  1. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  2. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  4. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  5. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  6. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  7. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  8. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  9. Determinants of Mate Selection Choice among University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Abstract. This study sought to identify factors that determine mate selection choice among university students in south-south zone of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The sample was made up of 1420 randomly selected undergraduates in south-south zone of Nigeria. They consisted of 907 male students and 512 ...

  10. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  12. Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  14. A Randomized Trial of the Self-Management Training and Regulation Strategy (STARS): A Selective Intervention for Students with Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…

  15. The Student Selection Process: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. A.; Lancaster, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Student admission criteria and a college's advising and recruitment efforts are viewed from the perspective of a growing higher education establishment trying to attract students. A student selection model is proposed, derived from an "innovation-decision process" (Rogers and Shoemaker), which focuses on applicant behavior and decision-making…

  16. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  17. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  18. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  19. Students' level of skillfulness and use of the internet in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined level of skillfulness and the use of the Internet for learning among secondary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study. A sample of 450 students was randomly selected from the three secondary schools. One intact arm was selected from ...

  20. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  1. Selected physical characteristics of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lajos Ángyán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one’s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.

  2. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  3. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Students' Perceptions of Classroom Group Work as a Function of Group Member Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to examine whether differences exist between students who self-select their classroom work group members and students who are randomly assigned to their classroom work groups in terms of their use of organizational citizenship behaviors with their work group members; their commitment to, trust in, and relational…

  5. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  6. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  7. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  8. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does not seem to yield a student population which stands out in terms of autonomous motivation. The current findings indicate that selection might temporarily enhance students' motivation. The mechanism

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates students' assessment of farm practical programme in selected universities of southwestern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 180 students from 6 selected universities in the study area. Frequency counts, percentages, chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ...

  11. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  13. Student Unrest in India. A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, S. M.

    Responding to the problem of student unrest in India, this bibliography offers 1,415 articles from periodicals and books examining the nature, causes, and remedies of student unrest. A brief survey of the historical background of student involvement in Indian society traces the student movement from its earlier purpose to help the Indian National…

  14. The Effects of Student Coaching in College: An Evaluation of a Randomized Experiment in Student Mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Bettinger; Rachel Baker

    2011-01-01

    College completion and college success often lag behind college attendance. One theory as to why students do not succeed in college is that they lack key information about how to be successful or fail to act on the information that they have. We present evidence from a randomized experiment which tests the effectiveness of individualized student coaching. Over the course of two separate school years, InsideTrack, a student coaching service, provided coaching to students from public, private, ...

  15. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  16. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  17. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  18. Effects of food practical on students skills acquisition in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of Food Practical on students' skill acquisition in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun State. The study focused on Home Economics Students from Tai Solarin University, Ijegun, Ijebu – Ode and Home and Hotel Management Students of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, Ayetoro ...

  19. The effect of student teaching experience on selected personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality plays a significant role in teacher development. Minimal studies have investigated personality traits of student teachers in physical education. This study examines changes in selected personality traits of fifty-three physical education student teachers over the course of a student teaching semester.

  20. Business Communication Students' Appraisal of Selected Communication Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Donald E.; Manton, Edgar J.; Walker, Janet I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine business communication students' perception of selected business communication competencies. Students enrolled in business communication classes at Texas A&M University-Commerce from the summer of 2006 until the spring 2007 were survey. Students were asked to evaluate each of the listed 44…

  1. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  2. Can random mutation mimic design?: a guided inquiry laboratory for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Steven T; Taper, Mark L; Metz, Anneke M

    2006-11-01

    Complex biological structures, such as the human eye, have been interpreted as evidence for a creator for over three centuries. This raises the question of whether random mutation can create such adaptations. In this article, we present an inquiry-based laboratory experiment that explores this question using paper airplanes as a model organism. The main task for students in this investigation is to figure out how to simulate paper airplane evolution (including reproduction, inheritance, mutation, and selection). In addition, the lab requires students to practice analytic thinking and to carefully delineate the implications of their results.

  3. Factors affecting student program and career selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroyd, D; Lavin, N

    1992-01-01

    This study uses a national sample of freshman radiography students to examine demographic data and factors that affected career and program choice. The data are discussed in terms of implications for marketing and recruitment strategies.

  4. Selection Determinants in College Students' Financial Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Recently, considerable concern has arisen over the complex financial markets, which are inclined to require more individual responsibility. Accordingly, students have to bear more responsibility for their financial management. Nevertheless, in a sluggish economy with high unemployment, the commercial events during the last decade have rendered the…

  5. Teaching Medical Students to Help Patients Quit Smoking: Outcomes of a 10-School Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Churchill, Linda C; Crawford, Sybil L; Jolicoeur, Denise G; Murray, David M; Shoben, Abigail B; David, Sean P; Ferguson, Kristi J; Huggett, Kathryn N; Adams, Michael; Okuliar, Catherine A; Gross, Robin L; Bass, Pat F; Greenberg, Ruth B; Leone, Frank T; Okuyemi, Kola S; Rudy, David W; Waugh, Jonathan B; Geller, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Early in medical education, physicians must develop competencies needed for tobacco dependence treatment. To assess the effect of a multi-modal tobacco dependence treatment curriculum on medical students' counseling skills. A group-randomized controlled trial (2010-2014) included ten U.S. medical schools that were randomized to receive either multi-modal tobacco treatment education (MME) or traditional tobacco treatment education (TE). Students from the classes of 2012 and 2014 at ten medical schools participated. Students from the class of 2012 (N = 1345) completed objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and 50 % (N = 660) were randomly selected for pre-intervention evaluation. A total of 72.9 % of eligible students (N = 1096) from the class of 2014 completed an OSCE and 69.7 % (N = 1047) completed pre and post surveys. The MME included a Web-based course, a role-play classroom demonstration, and a clerkship booster session. Clerkship preceptors in MME schools participated in an academic detailing module and were encouraged to be role models for third-year students. The primary outcome was student tobacco treatment skills using the 5As measured by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scored on a 33-item behavior checklist. Secondary outcomes were student self-reported skills for performing 5As and pharmacotherapy counseling. Although the difference was not statistically significant, MME students completed more tobacco counseling behaviors on the OSCE checklist (mean 8.7 [SE 0.6] vs. mean 8.0 [SE 0.6], p = 0.52) than TE students. Several of the individual Assist and Arrange items were significantly more likely to have been completed by MME students, including suggesting behavioral strategies (11.8 % vs. 4.5 %, p < 0.001) and providing information regarding quitline (21.0 % vs. 3.8 %, p < 0.001). MME students reported higher self-efficacy for Assist, Arrange, and Pharmacotherapy counseling items (ps

  6. Selecting Universal Screening Measures to Identify Students at Risk Academically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    Universal screening measures can be used to identify students at risk academically due to learning disabilities or other difficulties. Research and legislation support the use of screening measures early in students' education to ensure they receive any supports necessary to bolster their academic achievement. When selecting a screening measure,…

  7. The effect of student teaching experience on selected personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines changes in selected personality traits of fifty-three physical education student teachers over the course of a student teaching semester. The personality traits measured included anxiety, concentration, confidence, mental preparation, motivation, and cooperation. An adapted Psychological Skills ...

  8. Student Selection, Attrition, and Replacement in KIPP Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Gleason, Philip; Gill, Brian; Tuttle, Christina Clark

    2016-01-01

    Skeptics of the KIPP (Knowledge Is Power Program) charter school network argue that these schools rely on selective admission, attrition, and replacement of students to produce positive achievement results. We investigate this using data covering 19 KIPP middle schools. On average, KIPP schools admit students disadvantaged in ways similar to other…

  9. Students' Leadership in Selected Public Universities in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Students' Leadership in Selected Public Universities in. Kenya: Disfranchised Pressure Groups or an Integral. Component in University Management? Bosire, Joseph, C. Chemnjor and M. Ngware. Abstract. This paper was based on an exploratory study carried out on student leadership in three public universities in Kenya ...

  10. A survey of drug abuse problems among students of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to survey drug abuse problems among students of selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in Osun State. Specifically, the study was to find out the reasons for drug abuse among students. The major instrument used to collect needed information was the questionnaire which was distributed to ...

  11. An Assessment of lnformation Literacy Skills of Students in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the information literacy skills of students in selected secondary schools within Ibadan metropolis; Senior Secondary School II (SS2) students in both public and private secondary schools in Ibadan constituted the sample for the study. Survey research design was adopted; questionnaire was used for data ...

  12. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  13. Generalisability of a composite student selection programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The reliability of individual non-cognitive admission criteria in medical education is controversial. Nonetheless, non-cognitive admission criteria appear to be widely used in selection to medicine to supplement the grades of qualifying examinations. However, very few studies have exam...

  14. Academic Clustering and Major Selection of Intercollegiate Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ray G.; Ross, Sally R.; Fisher, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Although journalists and reporters have written about academic clustering among college student-athletes, there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to the subject. This study explored football players' academic major selections to determine if academic clustering actually existed. The seasons 1996, 2001, and 2006 were selected for…

  15. Selecting Students for Medical Education : Exploring novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Lucieer (Susanna)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Medical schools all over the world have to select their students as the number of applicants highly exceeds the number of places available. In this dissertation, we examined why the current selection method employed by Erasmus MC Medical School is successful in

  16. Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes

    2015-11-01

    Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.

  17. Determinants of Smartphone Selection: An Application of the University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim TATLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to identify the factors that impact on smartphone selection of university students. In this context, the data is obtained from a survey which is conducted to students that are studying in Bingöl University. This questionnaire was administered to 400 students in the November-October 2014. Student’s smartphone selection response variable, the logarithm of age, the logarithm of income and logarithm of the scores of the students' perspective on smart phone is taken as an explanatory variable. In the analysis were used logistic regression. The estimated results of logistic regression analysis; logarithm of the scores of the students' perspective on smart phone and the the logarithm of income was be found to increase the likelihood of smartphone selection in a meaningful way. Between the logarithm of age and smartphone selection was not found to be significant relationship. The results of the study, showed that the major determinants of smartphone selection monthly income and students' perspective on smartphones.

  18. The Effect of Randomized Homework Contingencies on College Students' Daily Homework and Unit Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Voils, Kyle L.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in an introductory educational psychology course submitted answers to daily homework questions for which they received credit either for percentage of questions answered in every homework assignment or for the accuracy of their answers to 10% of randomly selected questions. Potential credit was the same under both homework contingencies,…

  19. Exploring Impact of Self-Selected Student Teams and Academic Potential on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Vic; Luce, Thom; Ciavarro, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Creation of teams in professional and student contexts has been well researched and written about. The research landscape can be divided into instructor selected and student selected teams, both of which have advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this paper is to combine the two techniques for creating teams in an effort to maximize the…

  20. Differential Peer Effects, Student Achievement, and Student Absenteeism: Evidence From a Large-Scale Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Ozkan

    2017-04-01

    Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, I examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results show that having a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less-advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive but less precisely estimated. I also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher-achieving classroom. I propose mechanisms relating to lower gender stereotype influences and gender-specific attitudes toward competition as potential explanations for peer effects findings. Finally, having a higher proportion of female students in the classroom decreases student absenteeism among male students but has no impact on female attendance.

  1. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  2. A Comparative Study of Students' Access to and Utilization of Learning Resources in Selected Public and Private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, B. O.; Viatonu, Olumuyiwa

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated students' access to and utilization of some learning resources in selected public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 585 (295 public and 290 private) students from 12 (six public and six private) universities in southwest Nigeria. Two instruments--Cost and…

  3. Attrition of undergraduate nursing students at selected South African universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Roos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nursing profession forms the backbone of many healthcare systems. It therefore needs a consistent supply of registered nurses to deliver continuous and safe quality healthcare, and to replace the nurses leaving or retiring from the profession. Attrition actively occurs among nursing students in South Africa and threatens the future supply of registered nurses. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the attrition rate at selected South African universities and the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students to discontinue their nursing studies at these universities. Method: A quantitative descriptive design was followed. Heads of the nursing departments at the selected universities captured data with a specifically designed questionnaire. Thereafter their former nursing students provided information via a structured telephonic interview on the reasons why they discontinued the nursing programme. Results: The study revealed that attrition of undergraduate nursing students for three intake years (2007, 2008 and 2009 at the participating universities was between 39.3% and 58.7%. Academic and financial reasons as well as poor wellness and health were the main causes for attrition. Another factor was failure to cope with the demands of the clinical environment. Conclusion: Attrition might not occur immediately when a nursing student is challenged, as the student might exploit the various types of support offered. Although some nursing students do benefit from the offered support, a large number of nursing students still discontinue the undergraduate nursing programme.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with Undergraduate University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L.; Sorenson, Mary E.; Mills-Sandoval, Toby; Lockett, McKenzie; First, Nathan L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Allen, Sandra F.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with college students. Participants: College students (aged 18-23) from a large Midwest US university who volunteered for a randomized controlled trial during the 2015 spring semester. Methods: College students were randomly assigned to an…

  5. Using medical specialty and selection criteria clusters to study specialty selection by Israeli medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Yoram G; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa; Tandeter, Howard; Elchalal, Uriel; Avidan, Alex; Schroeder, Josh E; Weissman, Charles

    2017-01-18

    During their final year of medical school, Israeli students must consider which specialty to choose for residency. Based on the vocational counseling literature we presumed that choices are made by selecting from a cluster of related specialties while considering professional and socio-economic issues. Questionnaires distributed to final-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools ascertained inclinations toward various medical specialties and the importance of various selection criteria. Analysis focused on seven specialties where >20% of students reported they had positive inclinations. For each such specialty, the specialty and selection criteria query were compared using unpaired two-tailed Student's t-tests to determine differences between students with positive inclinations toward the specialty with those not so inclined. These data were placed in tables, with the significant differences highlighted to facilitate visual recognition of cluster patterns. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 317 of 455 students. Students often had positive inclinations toward more than one specialty (specialty clusters) associated with a group of selection criteria (selection criteria clusters). For example, interest in internal medicine was clustered with interest in internal medicine subspecialties, cardiology and research. Furthermore, there was a "reciprocal" aspect to some specialty cluster patterns. For example, those interested in internal medicine had little interest in surgical specialties. Selection criteria clusters revealed occupational interests and socio-environmental factors associated with the specialty clusters. For example, family medicine, which clustered with pediatrics and psychiatry, had a sub-cluster of: Bedside specialty with family orientation affording long-term patient care. Another sub-cluster was time for childrearing and family, only daytime work and outpatient care. Clusters also revealed students' perceptions that differed from

  6. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  7. Graduate entry medicine: selection criteria and student performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Bodger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graduate entry medicine raises new questions about the suitability of students with different backgrounds. We examine this, and the broader issue of effectiveness of selection and assessment procedures. METHODS: The data included background characteristics, academic record, interview score and performance in pre-clinical modular assessment for two years intake of graduate entry medical students. Exploratory factor analysis is a powerful method for reducing a large number of measures to a smaller group of underlying factors. It was used here to identify patterns within and between the selection and performance data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Basic background characteristics were of little importance in predicting exam success. However, easily interpreted components were detected within variables comprising the 'selection' and 'assessment' criteria. Three selection components were identified ('Academic', 'GAMSAT', 'Interview' and four assessment components ('General Exam', 'Oncology', 'OSCE', 'Family Case Study'. There was a striking lack of relationships between most selection and performance factors. Only 'General Exam' and 'Academic' showed a correlation (Pearson's r = 0.55, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study raises questions about methods of student selection and their effectiveness in predicting performance and assessing suitability for a medical career. Admissions tests and most exams only confirmed previous academic achievement, while interview scores were not correlated with any consequent assessment.

  8. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  9. The Influence of Selected Elements of Schools Culture on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted on the elements of school culture which are teachers' collaboration, self-efficacy and goal achievement orientation and students' academic performance. The expost facto using descriptive survey design was adopted. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample for this study.

  10. misconceptions of twelfth grade students on selected chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTARCT. This article aimed at diagnosing suspected students' misconceptions towards the selected five chemistry concepts (valence, oxidation number, coordination number, number of bonds and formal charge) by developing appropriate diagnostic instrument. Within this theme, it was also attempted to test the ...

  11. Food consumption pattern and nutritional status of selected students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food consumption pattern and nutritional status of selected students in a Nigerian polytechnic. ... Data collected were analysed for descriptive and Pearson Correlations using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 19.0, SPSS, Inc) software. P values were reported at a significance level of 5%. Results: Three ...

  12. Selected medical students achieve better than lottery-admitted students during clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlings-Strop, Louise C; Themmen, Axel P N; Stijnen, Theo; Splinter, Ted A W

    2011-10-01

    A recent controlled study by our group showed that the dropout rate in the first 2 years of study of medical students selected for entry by the assessment of a combination of non-cognitive and cognitive abilities was 2.6 times lower than that of a control group of students admitted by lottery. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of these two groups in the clinical phase. A prospective cohort study was performed to compare the performance of 389 medical students admitted by selection with that of 938 students admitted by weighted lottery between 2001 and 2004. Follow-up of these cohorts lasted 5.5-8.5 years. The main outcome measures were the mean grade obtained on the first five discipline-specific clerkships by all cohorts and the mean grade achieved on all 10 clerkships by the cohorts of 2001 and 2002. Selected students obtained a significantly higher mean grade during their first five clerkships than lottery-admitted students (mean ± standard error [SE] 7.95 ± 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.90-8.00 versus mean ± SE 7.84 ± 0.02, 95% CI 7.81-7.87; p lottery-admitted students. An analysis of all mean grades awarded on 10 clerkships revealed the same results. Moreover, the longer follow-up period over the clerkships showed that the relative risk for dropout was twice as low in the selected student group as in the lottery-admitted student group. The selected group received significantly higher mean grades on their first five clerkships, which could not be attributed to factors other than the selection procedure. Although the risk for dropout before the clinical phase increased somewhat in both groups, the actual dropout rate proved to be twice as low in the selected group. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  13. Student-selected components in surgery: providing practical experience and increasing student confidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falk, G A

    2009-09-01

    Reviews of the medical school curriculum in the UK and Ireland have recommended the introduction of student-selected components (SSCs). The Department of Surgery in The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) has introduced a 6-week surgical SSC, which aims to develop practical clinical skills, provide mentorship and prepare students for internship.

  14. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  15. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  16. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  17. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  18. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  19. Effects of selected exercises on elementary school third grade girl students' motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Sabah; Shafinia, Parvaneh; Ziaee, Vahid

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected exercises on motor development in elementary school third grade girl students in Ahwaz City, Iran. The present study was semi-experimental, performed as field and using experimental and control groups. The statistical population included all third grade girl students of elementary schools of Ahvaz city (10,500 subjects). Forty of whom were randomly selected (cluster stage) and then were divided randomly into two experimental (N=20, Mean age=8.9±0.49) and control (N=20, Mean age=8.9±0.48) groups. Experimental group was given training for eight weeks, 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 45 minutes. To measure motor development, the Test of Gross Motor Development, edition2 (TGMD-2; 2002) was applied. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test. The results showed statistically significant differences between control and experimental groups regarding locomotion skills (8.433, P<0.05), manipulation skills (10.951, P<0.001) and overall motor development (13.203, P<0.001). In fact, selected exercises impacted on the motor development of subjects and led to their motor development progress. The selected exercises can be used as an appropriate plan to improve motor skill development in third grade of elementary school.

  20. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test...... generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability of a composite selection to a chiropractic program, consisting of: application form information, a written motivational essay, a common knowledge...... test, and an admission interview. METHODS: Data from 105 Chiropractic applicants from the 2007 admission at the University of Southern Denmark were available for analysis. Each admission parameter was double scored using two random, blinded, and independent raters. Variance components for applicant...

  1. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  2. Awareness of students selected secondary schools on the issue orthorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Karolína

    2013-01-01

    TITLE: Awareness of students selected secondary schools on the issue orthorexia AUTHOR: Bc. Karolína Janečková DEPARTMENT: Pedagogy department SUPERVISOR: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ABSTRACT: The topic of my dissertation is orthorexia nervosa, one of the modern eating disorders, and the impact of a Czech school on its development. The aim of this dissertation is to identify what knowledge about orthorexia issues the secondary medical school students have, what is their opinion on eating disor...

  3. Evaluating the Use of Random Distribution Theory to Introduce Statistical Inference Concepts to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bootstrapping methods and random distribution methods are increasingly recommended as better approaches for teaching students about statistical inference in introductory-level statistics courses. The authors examined the effect of teaching undergraduate business statistics students using random distribution and bootstrapping simulations. It is the…

  4. 42 CFR 57.306 - Eligibility and selection of nursing student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and selection of nursing student loan... STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.306 Eligibility and selection of nursing student loan applicants. (a) Determination of eligibility. (1) Applicants are eligible for consideration for a nursing student...

  5. Graduate entry medicine: selection criteria and student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodger, Owen; Byrne, Aidan; Evans, Philip A; Rees, Sarah; Jones, Gwen; Cowell, Claire; Gravenor, Mike B; Williams, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Graduate entry medicine raises new questions about the suitability of students with different backgrounds. We examine this, and the broader issue of effectiveness of selection and assessment procedures. The data included background characteristics, academic record, interview score and performance in pre-clinical modular assessment for two years intake of graduate entry medical students. Exploratory factor analysis is a powerful method for reducing a large number of measures to a smaller group of underlying factors. It was used here to identify patterns within and between the selection and performance data. Basic background characteristics were of little importance in predicting exam success. However, easily interpreted components were detected within variables comprising the 'selection' and 'assessment' criteria. Three selection components were identified ('Academic', 'GAMSAT', 'Interview') and four assessment components ('General Exam', 'Oncology', 'OSCE', 'Family Case Study'). There was a striking lack of relationships between most selection and performance factors. Only 'General Exam' and 'Academic' showed a correlation (Pearson's r = 0.55, pperformance and assessing suitability for a medical career. Admissions tests and most exams only confirmed previous academic achievement, while interview scores were not correlated with any consequent assessment.

  6. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  7. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Lan, Xiulu; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2013-12-05

    The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not been completely established. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students through a rigorous randomization, parallel-controlled design. We will conduct a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet the eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated into Baduanjin training or usual exercise control group. Baduanjin training will last 12 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lumbar proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, will be evaluated by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher-quality evidence to better inform the college students regarding their selection about whether to receive such exercise. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003329. Registration date: 18 July, 2013.

  8. Getting the most out of Student Selected Components: 12 tips for participating students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Simon C; Gibbs, Trevor J; Ferrell, William R; Nelson, Peter R; Smith, W Cairns S; Murphy, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Student Selected Components (SSCs) are an established feature of UK undergraduate medical curricula that offer students choice. They represent a large investment in time and resources. Although programmes vary between Schools, the major learning objectives remain broadly similar. Providing students engage fully with the activity, the final learning outcomes should also be comparable. However, engaging effectively and purposefully with such programmes may not be a clear and straightforward process for students. To present the challenges and solutions to inform students how to derive the greatest benefit from the learning activities in their SSC programmes. Synthesis of the accumulated experience over more than 10 years of developing, running and evaluating SSCs by the Directors of SSCs in five Scottish Medical Schools, combined with analysis of course evaluation and student feedback. Consensus defined 12 tips aimed at improving the approach taken by students to their SSCs, and to provide a structure to maximise their final learning outcomes. SSC programmes provide diverse opportunities for students to develop and expand their learning. With increasing emphasis being placed upon student assessment to judge a wide range of professional skills and standards into foundation and specialist training, much greater importance is now being given to SSCs as an opportunity for personal, professional and academic developments. However, it is important that this is performed in a purposeful manner to maximise this opportunity. These 12 tips provide guidance to students on how they can maximise the opportunity presented to them by SSCs.

  9. The Effect of Teacher-Family Communication on Student Engagement: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Dougherty, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of teacher communication with parents and students as a means of increasing student engagement. We estimate the causal effect of teacher communication by conducting a randomized field experiment in which sixth- and ninth-grade students were assigned to receive a daily phone call home and a text/written…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants: Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods: Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list…

  11. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student

  12. Influence of Learning Environment on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Timothy Ado

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of learning environment on students' academic achievement in mathematics at senior secondary school level. Thus the study investigated some components of learning environment and their possible influence on students' academic achievement in mathematics. A sample of 337 randomly selected SS II…

  13. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  14. Factors that influence first year medical students' choice of student selected component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jane

    2009-09-01

    Undergraduate medical training should ensure students have choice and autonomy in the learning process, including the student selected components (SSCs) which should comprise up to about a third of the curriculum. Students' choices of SSC will influence the knowledge, skills and attitudes they acquire. To investigate how motivations and personality in first year medical students influence their choice of SSCs. A questionnaire regarding motivations for SSC choice and the NEO-FFI personality measure was administered to all first year students at a London medical school. Relationships with type of SSC were examined. A total of 82% (268/329) students responded. Six motivational factors arose from a principle components analysis of the questionnaire: future achievements, prior information, internal motivation, personal recommendation, convenience and certainty. Students with different motivational factors chose different SSCs, and had different personality traits. Weak but significant correlations were found between personality traits and motivational factors, but not between personality and SSC choice, or sex and SSC choice. This offers insight into medical student choices of SSC and is the first step towards ensuring appropriate provision of modules that students wish to study to enable them to meet the demands of the medical profession.

  15. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  16. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  17. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  18. Correlates of Attitudes toward Academic and Physical Inclusive Practices for Students with Disabilities and Selected Leadership Behaviors among Middle School Principals in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Mary A.; Dickens, Virginia; Hicks, Terence

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward academic and inclusive practices for students with disabilities and selected leadership behaviors (transformational and transactional) among principals in North Carolina. Participants for this study were randomly selected middle school principals from public schools…

  19. College Sport Participation and Student Educational Experiences and Selected College Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Jean; Hu, Shouping

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of first-year students in the 2009 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), we compared engagement in educationally purposeful activities in college, a set of educational outcomes, and the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for nonathletes and student-athletes participating in low-…

  20. Differential improvements in student fruit and vegetable selection and consumption in response to the new National School Lunch Program regulations: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen W.; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M.; Jensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated changes in student food selection and consumption in response to the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns during fall, 2011. Design Eight elementary and four intermediate schools in one Houston area school district were matched on free/reduced price (FRP) meal eligibility and randomized into control or intervention conditions. Intervention Both intervention and control school cafeterias served the same menu. The intervention school cafeterias posted the new meal pattern daily; students could select one fruit and two vegetable servings per reimbursable meal. Control school students could only select the previous meal pattern: a total of two fruit and vegetable servings per meal. Main outcome measures Students were observed during lunch: gender, foods selected/consumed were recorded. Diet analysis software was used to calculate energy/food groups selected/consumed. Statistical analyses performed Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square tests examined differences in the percent of students selecting each meal component by condition, controlling for gender, grade, and school FRP. ANCOVA assessed differences in amount of energy/food groups selected and consumed, and differences in percent of food groups consumed. Results Observations were conducted for 1149 elementary and 427 intermediate students. Compared with students in the control schools, significantly more intervention elementary and intermediate school students selected total (P<0.001, P<0.05) and starchy vegetables (P<0.001; P<0.01); more intervention intermediate school students selected fruit (P<0.001), legumes (P<0.05), and protein foods (P<0.01). There were significantly greater amounts of these foods selected and consumed, but no differences in the proportion of the foods consumed by condition. Fewer calories were consumed by elementary and intermediate school intervention students. Conclusions More intervention students selected fruit and vegetables at lunch, and

  1. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jamie, E-mail: jabaker@mdanderson.org [Medical Dosimetry Program, School of Health Professions, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center School of Health Professions, Houston, TX (United States); Tucker, Debra [Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Raynes, Edilberto [University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Aitken, Florence [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student's previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant's undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  2. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  3. Random sets and random fuzzy sets as ill-perceived random variables an introduction for Ph.D. students and practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...

  4. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W

    2016-01-01

    A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Students applying for medical school (N=311) completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01). Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  5. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Abbiati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods: Students applying for medical school (N=311 completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results: Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01. Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion: Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile.

  6. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  7. Friendship and Choosing Groupmates: Preferences for Teacher-Selected vs. Student-Selected Groupings in High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sidney N.; Reilly, Rosemary; Bramwell, F. Gillian; Solnosky, Anthony; Lilly, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This study represents a collaborative school university partnership. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors report on the motivational and psychological consequences of students choosing their groupmates in cooperative learning triads. 139 students in five science classes participated in this study. Classes were randomly assigned to condition:…

  8. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  9. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  10. Using Combinatorica/Mathematica for Student Projects in Random Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Thomas J.; Zaret, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We give an example of a student project that experimentally explores a topic in random graph theory. We use the "Combinatorica" package in "Mathematica" to estimate the minimum number of edges needed in a random graph to have a 50 percent chance that the graph is connected. We provide the "Mathematica" code and compare it to the known theoretical…

  11. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  12. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  13. How important are student-selected versus instructor-selected literature resources for students' learning and motivation in problem-based learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    In problem-based learning students are responsible for their own learning process, which becomes evident when they must act independently, for example, when selecting literature resources for individual study. It is a matter of debate whether it is better to have students select their own literature

  14. Students' satisfaction with general practitioners' feedback to their reflective writing: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Alexander; Steiner, Claudia; Grossman, Paul; Langewitz, Wolf; Tschudi, Peter; Kiessling, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Reflective Writing (RW) is increasingly being implemented in medical education. Feedback to students' reflective writing (RW) is essential, but resources for individualized feedback often lack. We aimed to determine whether general practitioners (GPs) teaching students clinical skills could also provide feedback to RW and whether an instruction letter specific to RW feedback increases students' satisfaction. GPs were randomized to the two study arms using block randomization. GPs in both groups received an instruction letter on giving students feedback on clinical skills. Additionally, intervention group GPs received specific instructions on providing feedback to students' RW. Students completed satisfaction questionnaires on feedback received on clinical skills and RW. T-tests were employed for all statistical analysis to compare groups. Eighty-three out of 134 physicians participated: 38 were randomized to the control, 45 to the intervention group. Students were very satisfied with the feedback on RW and clinical skills regardless of tutors' group allocation. A specific instruction letter had no additional effect on students' satisfaction. Based on student satisfaction, GPs who give students feedback on clinical skills are also well suited to provide feedback on RW. This approach can facilitate the introduction of mandatory RW into the regular medical curriculum.

  15. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  16. The Influence of Randomly Allocated Group Membership when Developing Student Task Work and Team Work Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Giles Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether randomly assigning group membership enhances the student learning experience. The paper starts with a critical analysis of the approaches to student learning within higher education and how these approaches conflict with findings from applied psychology on group behaviour. The study adopts a serendipitous qualitative…

  17. The effect of financial rewards on students' achievement: Evidence from a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a randomized field experiment in which first-year university students could earn financial rewards for passing all first-year requirements within one year. Financial incentives turn out to have positive effects on achievement of high-ability students, whereas they have a

  18. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  19. A Randomized Controlled Study Evaluating a Brief, Bystander Bullying Intervention with Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Aida; Doumas, Diana; Trull, Rhiannon; Johnston, April D.

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled study evaluated a brief, bystander bullying intervention for junior high school students. Students in both groups reported an increase in knowledge and confidence to act as defenders and to utilize strategies to intervene on behalf of victims of bullying. Findings suggest possible carry-over effects from the intervention…

  20. Effects of Random-Questioning Expectations on Community College Students' Preparedness for Lecture and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Cordeiro, Paula

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study in which one group of community college students expected to be questioned orally and at random in class about a reading assignment, whereas another group expected to volunteer answers. The students expecting questions read more pages and had higher quiz scores. Discusses lack of preparation for lecture classes. (DMM)

  1. Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from Randomized Trials. NBER Working Paper No. 15898

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production…

  2. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  3. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  4. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  5. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress and Anxiety among Nursing Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ratanasiripong; Nop Ratanasiripong; Duangrat Kathalae

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. It has been well documented that nursing students across the world experience stress and anxiety throughout their education and training. The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the impact of biofeedback intervention program on nursing students' levels of stress and anxiety during their first clinical training. Methods. Participants consisted of 60 second-year baccalaureate nursing students. The 30 participants in the biofeedback group received training on h...

  6. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  7. Six Classroom Exercises to Teach Natural Selection to Undergraduate Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Leonard, Mary J.; Andrews, Tessa M.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Students in introductory biology courses frequently have misconceptions regarding natural selection. In this paper, we describe six activities that biology instructors can use to teach undergraduate students in introductory biology courses how natural selection causes evolution. These activities begin with a lesson introducing students to natural…

  8. A Study of the Reading Habits of Students in Selected Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reading habits of students in four selected secondary schools in Oyo town. The study was designed to find out the difference in the reading habits of the students in selected secondary schools in Oyo town. It is also aimed at finding solutions to poor reading habits, among the students. A survey ...

  9. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  10. Medical student participation in a surgical outpatient clinic: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azher, Hinna; Lay, Jennifer; Stupart, Douglas A; Guest, Glenn D; Watters, David A K

    2013-06-01

    To determine the patient, doctor and student perceptions with different styles of student participation in a surgical outpatient clinic. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in surgical outpatients. Participants included patients scheduled to see one of four specialist general surgeons, the surgeons themselves and third-year medical students undertaking their general surgery rotation at the Geelong Hospital. A total of 151 consultations were randomized to one of three consultation styles between August 2011 and August 2012. (i) 'No Student', consultation without a student being present, (ii) 'Student with Doctor', consultation where the student accompanied the doctor throughout the consultation and (iii) 'Student before Doctor', consultation where the student interviewed the patient before the doctor and examined the patient in the doctor's presence. Participants' perceptions and experience of each of the consultations was assessed in the form of written questionnaires. There was no difference in overall patient satisfaction with different styles of student participation (P = 0.080). Students showed a clear preference for the 'Student before Doctor' consultation style (P = 0.023). There were no differences in consultation outcomes from the doctor's perspective (P = 0.88), except time (P consultation where students are actively involved in patient care as it has no adverse effects on patient satisfaction and it is the preferred participation style from the student's perspective. Doctors do not feel that active student involvement interferes with their ability to deliver healthcare except that it prolongs consultation time. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  12. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  13. Gain in student understanding of the role of random variation in evolution following teaching intervention based on luria-delbruck experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Rachel L; Burns, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students in introductory biology classes are typically saddled with pre-existing popular beliefs that impede their ability to learn about biological evolution. One of the most common misconceptions about evolution is that the environment causes advantageous mutations, rather than the correct view that mutations occur randomly and the environment only selects for mutants with advantageous traits. In this study, a significant gain in student understanding of the role of randomness in evolution was observed after students participated in an inquiry-based pedagogical intervention based on the Luria-Delbruck experiment. Questionnaires with isomorphic questions regarding environmental selection among random mutants were administered to study participants (N = 82) in five separate sections of a sophomore-level microbiology class before and after the teaching intervention. Demographic data on each participant was also collected, in a way that preserved anonymity. Repeated measures analysis showed that post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores with regard to the questions about evolution (F(1, 77) = 25.913, p evolution had no significant effect on gain in understanding of this concept. This study indicates that conducting and discussing an experiment about phage resistance in E. coli may improve student understanding of the role of stochastic events in evolution more broadly, as post-test answers showed that students were able to apply the lesson of the Luria-Delbruck experiment to other organisms subjected to other kinds of selection.

  14. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  15. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    OpenAIRE

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based ex...

  16. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  17. The effect of yoga in stress reduction for dental students performing their first periodontal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Shankarapillai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dental students experience a lot of stress, which increase when they perform their first surgical procedure. Yoga as an anxiolytic tool in anxiety reduction has been practiced over centuries in India. Aim: To assess the efficacy of yoga in reducing the state trait anxiety of dental students before their first periodontal surgery performance. Settings and Design: A randomized controlled study using a two-way split plot design (pre-post-test was conducted in the department of periodontics, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinical dental students who were ready to perform their first periodontal surgery were selected. Students were randomly assigned to two groups and were given a 60-min session on stress reduction. Group A, yogic intervention group, were instructed to do yoga and their performances were monitored for a period of one week and Group B, control group, were given a lecture on stress reduction without any yoga instructions. The investigator who was unaware of the groups had taken the state trait anxiety score of the students three times a before assigning them to each group, b prior to the surgical procedure and c immediately after the performance of surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Analyses of variance (ANOVA by SPSS V.16. Results: The statistical results showed a significant reduction in the VAS and state trait anxiety of Group A compared to Group B (ANOVA; P<0.001. Conclusions: This study concludes that Yogic breathing has a significant effect on the reduction of state trait anxiety level of dental students.

  18. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  19. Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.

    2009-01-01

    International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118 international students at an urban, American university. Interventions were conducted at the start of a semester, and assessments were conducted at baseline ...

  20. Student Leadership in Selected Public Universities in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rates by female students and tribalism/regionalism. This study observed the transformative nature of student leadership compared to what it was two decades ago and encouraged that student leadership is an integral component of modern university management. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 195-221 ...

  1. ARL Summer Student Research Symposium Volume I: Select Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents . Citation of manufacturer’s...Student Research Symposium Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...same. However, the evaluation will take into consideration the difference in the academic level of the students. All students submitted their

  2. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  3. The effects of networks on U.S. institution selection by foreign doctoral students in science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyildiz, Zeynep Esra

    The United States has been a very attractive destination for foreign Science and Engineering (S&E) graduate students and postdoctoral scholars for a considerable period of time. Several studies have documented significant contributions of foreign students and foreign scientists in S&E. These contributions in turn foster economic development. Recent studies suggest, however, that the U.S. is losing its dominance in attracting foreign talent. Increased competition outside the U.S. contributes to the change as do changes in visa regulations. Despite the important role of foreign doctoral students in the U.S., relatively little is known about factors influencing their decision to attend an institution. One factor that is rarely explored is the effect of networks on institution selection. Through their networks, students learn about application procedures, studying at an institution, housing opportunities, general culture and people. In doing this, they draw both on the experience of the alumni as well as the support of current students and faculty at their target institution. Thus, networks can play an important role in where foreign doctoral students actually end up studying. This study aims to provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the role networks play in foreign doctoral students' institution selection. This three-part study utilizes different methodologies: (1) focus group interviews conducted with Turkish doctoral students at the Georgia Institute of Technology; (2) a web study of research laboratories in science and engineering; and (3) the estimation of Random Utility Model (RUM) of institution selection. These three components build on each other, in addition to the individual contributions that they make. Together they provide an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the role of networks. The results from guided focus group interviews indicate that students, alumni, faculty and local community of the same nationality influence

  4. High School Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state…

  5. Selected Screen for Engaging Students in Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramae, A.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    Connecting physics concepts to activities that are interesting to students or what they encounter in everyday life will help students build a strong foundation. When there is an interesting activity for the student, it will result in the student responding, engaging, and enthusiasm in learning. Learning activities that are based on what students are interested in and regularly experience will enable students to understand the long and memorable experience. Both of these will enhance the student’s learning experience. One of the activities that can be described in this research used the learning activity through movies, which is the application of the basic motion projectile for students to understand the characteristics of such movement. It also aims to further develop critical thinking skills of learners.

  6. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  7. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  8. Performance of Normal and Disabled Nigerian Students on a Selective Attention Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Anselm

    1982-01-01

    To determine to what extent disabled students may be selected and integrated into the regular schools in Nigeria, 42 normal and blind students were compared for differences in selective attention in a task involving letters and numbers. The hypothesis was substantiated that, because of the sociocultural stigma attached to blindness, normal…

  9. Evolution of Students' Ideas about Natural Selection through a Constructivist Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Erin; Duncan, Kanesa

    2009-01-01

    Educating students about the process of evolution through natural selection is vitally important because not only is it the unifying theory of biological science, it is also widely regarded as difficult for students to fully comprehend. Anderson and colleagues (2002) describe alternative ideas and misconceptions about natural selection as highly…

  10. Comparisons of Selected Student and Teacher Variables in All-Girls and Coeducational Physical Education Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Julie A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate selected student and teacher variables and compare the differences between these variables for female students and female teachers in coeducation and single-sex physical education classes. Eighteen female teachers and intact classes were selected; 9 teachers from coeducation and 9 teachers from…

  11. Selecting Students for Mathematics and Science: The Challenge Facing Higher Education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaiman, Hermien

    The selection of students is one of the critical issues facing higher education institutions in South Africa. Identifying disadvantaged students with mathematics and science aptitude is a particularly pressing problem. The UNIFY Selection Research Project (USRP) was established at the University of the North in 1994 to address this problem. This…

  12. Effects of medical school selection on student motivation: a PhD thesis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk

    2018-02-01

    High stakes are involved in student selection, for both medical schools and applicants. This thesis investigated the effects of selection on the medical student population and applicant pool in the Dutch setting. This thesis consists of six papers: two quantitative studies, one qualitative study, two mixed methods studies and one perspective paper based on a review of the literature. (1) Compared with a lottery, selection does not result in a student population with better motivation, engagement and performance, both in the clinical and pre-clinical phases of the study. (2) Selection seems to have a temporary stimulating effect on student motivation through enhancing perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness. (3) Applicants adopt a strategic approach, based on the selection procedure, in their choice of medical school. (4) The description of an applicant's motivation is not a reliable and valid tool to assess motivation during selection. (5) Gaining healthcare experience is crucial for applicants' motivation, but inequalities in access to such experiences can demotivate certain student groups from applying to medical school. (6) The gains yielded from selection compared with a lottery seem to be small. Unintentionally induced self-selection among certain groups of students and biased selection procedures may compromise student diversity. The added value of selection procedures compared with a weighted lottery for admitting students to medical school is questionable. Students are generally motivated and perform well, irrespective of how they enrolled in medical school. Selection yields only small gains, while student diversity may be hampered.

  13. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  14. Listening Diary in the Digital Age: Students' Material Selection, Listening Problems, and Perceived Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports on a group of Taiwanese college students' first-person diary accounts of their private, transactional listening activities outside the classroom. Issues related to students' material selection, listening problems, and perceived usefulness of keeping a listening diary were explored. It was found that most students chose…

  15. University Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Randomness and Probability in the Contexts of Evolution and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Daniela; Tröbst, Steffen; Harms, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Students of all ages face severe conceptual difficulties regarding key aspects of evolution-- the central, unifying, and overarching theme in biology. Aspects strongly related to abstract "threshold" concepts like randomness and probability appear to pose particular difficulties. A further problem is the lack of an appropriate instrument…

  16. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W

    2016-01-01

    .... However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice...

  18. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  19. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students – A randomized cross-sectional stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangYun Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV. The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS test evaluated academic performance. Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170 than non-PBL students (n=83 (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p < 0.01. Subscale CT-scores were significant in favor of PBL in six of the seven subscales (truth seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, maturity. There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11. There was no significant correlation between CCS scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7, but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.

  20. Voice Disorders in Teacher Students-A Prospective Study and a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Andersson, Eva M; Södersten, Maria; Simberg, Susanna; Claesson, Silwa; Barregård, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Teachers are at risk of developing voice disorders, but longitudinal studies on voice problems among teachers are lacking. The aim of this randomized trial was to investigate long-term effects of voice education for teacher students with mild voice problems. In addition, vocal health was examined prospectively in a group of students without voice problems. First-semester students answered three questionnaires: one about background factors, one about voice symptoms (Screen6), and the Voice Handicap Index. Students with voice problems according to the questionnaire results were randomized to a voice training group or a control group. At follow-up in the sixth semester, all students answered Screen6 again together with four questions about factors that could have affected vocal health during their teacher education. The training group and the control group also answered the Voice Handicap Index a second time. At follow-up, 400 students remained in the study: 27 in the training group, 54 in the control group, and 319 without voice problems at baseline. Voice problems had decreased somewhat more in the training group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). However, subgroup analyses showed significantly larger improvement among the students in the group with complete participation in the training program compared with the group with incomplete participation. Of the 319 students without voice problems at baseline, 14% had developed voice problems. Voice problems often develop in teacher students. Despite extensive dropout, our results support the hypothesis that voice education for teacher students has a preventive effect. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  2. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kirabo Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases because students who attend single-sex schools differ in unmeasured ways from those who do not. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and estimate the causal effect of attending a single-sex school versus a similar coeducational school. While students (particularly females) with strong expressed preferences for single-sex schools benefit, mo...

  3. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  4. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  5. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  6. Selection of Universities by Students in Journalism and Mass Communication Courses: Do Criteria Differ between Caucasian and Minority Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Masudul; Perkins, Lyle; Izard, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the significance of factors used by minority students in their selection of universities/colleges. This web survey was conducted mainly on 778 students enrolled in journalism/mass communication courses representing five historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and twelve other universities. Differences were found…

  7. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  8. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  10. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  12. A mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sophie Merle; Bürger, Arne; Esser, Günter; Hammerle, Florian

    2015-02-08

    Medical training is very demanding and associated with a high prevalence of psychological distress. Compared to the general population, medical students are at a greater risk of developing a psychological disorder. Various attempts of stress management training in medical school have achieved positive results on minimizing psychological distress; however, there are often limitations. Therefore, the use of a rigorous scientific method is needed. The present study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students that includes selected elements of cognitive behavioral strategies (MediMind). This study protocol presents a prospective randomized controlled trial, involving four assessment time points: baseline, post-intervention, one-year follow-up and five-year follow-up. The aims include evaluating the effect on stress, coping, psychological morbidity and personality traits with validated measures. Participants are allocated randomly to one of three conditions: MediMind, Autogenic Training or control group. Eligible participants are medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester of a German university. They form a population of approximately 420 students in each academic term. A final total sample size of 126 (at five-year follow-up) is targeted. The trainings (MediMind and Autogenic Training) comprise five weekly sessions lasting 90 minutes each. MediMind will be offered to participants of the control group once the five-year follow-up is completed. The allotment is randomized with a stratified allocation ratio by course of studies, semester, and gender. After descriptive statistics have been evaluated, inferential statistical analysis will be carried out with a repeated measures ANOVA-design with interactions between time and group. Effect sizes will be calculated using partial η-square values. Potential limitations of this study

  13. An Evaluation Framework for Selecting Collaboration Systems for Student Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yide; Li, Lei; Zheng, Guangzhi; Guo, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration technologies play an increasingly important role in student teamwork in universities. With the proliferation of collaboration systems on the market and the wide range of features they offer, choosing an appropriate system can be an overwhelming task for college students. In this paper, the authors present an empirical study that…

  14. Elementary Students' Investigations in Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Nancy; Concannon, James P.; Brown, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Students love learning about animals: how animals behave, what animals eat, why some animals are more dangerous than others are, and why animals look the way they do. In this 5E lesson, students investigate why some animals look the way they do--specifically, the advantages of camouflage and mimicry. What are an animal's advantages of being…

  15. Selection of Learning Media Mathematics for Junior School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Sri Adi; Wahyudin

    2018-01-01

    One of the factors that determine the success of mathematics learning is the learning media used. Learning media can help students to create mathematical abstract mathematics that is abstract. In addition to media, meaningful learning is a learning that is adapted to the students' cognitive development. According to Piaget, junior high school…

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of kimchi in chinese healthy college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansongyi; Kim, Do Yeon; Lee, Mi Ae; Jang, Ja-Young; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the potential immunomodulatory effects of Kimchi, a traditional fermented Korean vegetable, in healthy Chinese college students. The four-week clinical-trial (randomized, open-label, prospective, controlled) was followed by a one week wash-out period. Healthy Chinese college students (over 20 years of age with a body mass index of 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Forty-three students were randomly classified into two groups, Kimchi (n = 21, supplemented with 100 g of Kimchi per day) or non-Kimchi (n = 22, supplemented with 100 g of radish per day, control) groups. During the four-week intervention period, students were asked to maintain their usual diet and activity, and instructed not to take any medications, functional food products, or dietary supplements. Anthropometrics, nutritional intake, and blood immune parameters (lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immunoglobulins) were measured before and after the four weeks of intervention. Thirty-nine students (19 in the Kimchi group, 20 in the non-Kimchi group) finished the study. After the intervention, no significant changes were observed in lymphocyte subsets (T-cell, B-cell, NK cell), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), and immunoglobulins (Ig A, G, and M) between groups in either the Kimchi or non-Kimchi. These results suggest that the short-term consumption of Kimchi has no immunomodulatory effects in healthy Chinese college students.

  17. A randomized clinical trial evaluating a combined alcohol intervention for high-risk college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrisi, Rob; Larimer, Mary E; Mallett, Kimberly A; Kilmer, Jason R; Ray, Anne E; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Grossbard, Joel; Tollison, Sean; Lostutter, Ty W; Montoya, Heidi

    2009-07-01

    The current study is a multisite randomized alcohol prevention trial to evaluate the efficacy of both a parenting handbook intervention and the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) intervention, alone and in combination, in reducing alcohol use and consequences among a high-risk population of matriculating college students (i.e., former high school athletes). Students (n = 1,275) completed a series of Web-administered measures at baseline (in the summer before starting college) and follow-up (after 10 months). Students were randomized to one of four conditions: parent intervention only, BASICS only, combined (parent and BASICS), and assessment-only control. Intervention efficacy was tested on a number of outcome measures, including peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly and weekend drinking, and negative consequences. Hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effect were tested. The overall results revealed that the combined-intervention group had significantly lower alcohol consumption, high-risk drinking, and consequences at 10-month follow-up, compared with the control group, with changes in descriptive and injunctive peer norms mediating intervention effects. The findings of the present study suggest that the parent intervention delivered to students before they begin college serves to enhance the efficacy of the BASICS intervention, potentially priming students to respond to the subsequent BASICS session.

  18. Online suicide risk screening and intervention with college students: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least 2 of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students' readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte D; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability of a composite selection to a chiropractic program, consisting of: application form information, a written motivational essay, a common knowledge test, and an admission interview. Data from 105 Chiropractic applicants from the 2007 admission at the University of Southern Denmark were available for analysis. Each admission parameter was double scored using two random, blinded, and independent raters. Variance components for applicant, rater and residual effects were estimated for a mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood method. The reliability of obtained applicant ranks (generalizability coefficients) was calculated for the individual admission criteria and for the composite admission procedure. Very good generalizability was found for the common knowledge test (G=1.00) and the admission interview (G=0.88). Good generalizability was found for application form information (G=0.75) and moderate generalizability (G=0.50) for the written motivation essay. The generalizability of the final composite admission procedure, which was a weighted composite of all 4 admission variables was good (G(c) = 0.80). Good generalizability for a composite admission to a chiropractic program was found. Optimal weighting and adequate sampling are important for obtaining optimal generalizability. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  1. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification ('SATURN') Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification ("SATURN") program affects illicit drug and alcohol use among student athletes. The study experienced high rates of sample attrition. Seven of the 18 study schools (39%) left the study and were not included in the analysis. Some students at the remaining…

  2. A selected bibliography for nursing faculty and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Paula

    2009-01-01

    This bibliography is prepared for nursing faculty and nursing students to acquaint them with some resources which might contribute to their success. The bibliography is divided into two parts: (1) resources for nursing faculty; and (2) resources for nursing students. The major content of the resources for nursing faculty are: mentoring; research and publishing; tenure and new information technologies. The resources for nursing students contain: study tips and skills; success of the NCLEX-RN exam and informational monographs. With the time constraints of nursing faculty and nursing students and the abundance of materials available, this bibliography provides a set of resources for them to peruse. Electronic resources, journal articles, and monographs are included.

  3. Selection ofmedical students - a follow-up study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... The attributes of 1026 medical students admitted to university on academic criteria and ... gender, race and type of academic background. These classi- ..... from the white/male/matriculant stereotype towards a more equitable ...

  4. Dimensions of a Learning Profile of Selected Foreign Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sought to identify student characteristics and behaviors as they related to work habits, classroom disturbances, and dependence on the teacher, in the foreign language classroom. It is suggested that such data are useful in planning teaching methods. (AM)

  5. Selection ofmedical students - a follow-up study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    academic attributes was done by inter- view alone, rather than by the present method of interview and biographical questionnaire. Since very few medical schools admit students on the basis of an interview, we feel that the.

  6. Using marketing research concepts to investigate specialty selection by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Charles; Schroeder, Josh; Elchalal, Uriel; Weiss, Yoram; Tandeter, Howard; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was intended to examine whether a marketing research approach improves understanding of medical specialty selection by medical students. This approach likens students to consumers who are deciding whether or not to purchase a product (specialty). This approach proposes that when consumers' criteria match their perceptions of a product's features, the likelihood that they will purchase it (select the specialty) increases. This study examines whether exploring students' selection criteria and perceptions of various specialties provides additional insights into the selection process. Using a consumer behaviour model as a framework, a questionnaire was designed and administered to Year 6 (final-year) students in 2008 and 2009 to elicit information on their knowledge about and interests in various specialties, the criteria they used in specialty selection, and their perceptions of six specialties. A total of 132 (67%) questionnaires were returned. In many instances, consistency between selection criteria and perceptions of a specialty was accompanied by interest in pursuing the specialty. Exceptions were noted and pointed to areas requiring additional research. For example, although > 70% of female students replied that the affordance of a controllable lifestyle was an important selection criterion, many were interested in obstetrics and gynaecology despite the fact that it was not perceived as providing a controllable lifestyle. Minimal overlap among students reporting interest in primary specialties that possess similar characteristics (e.g. paediatrics and family medicine) demonstrated the need to target marketing (recruitment) efforts for each specialty individually. Using marketing research concepts to examine medical specialty selection may precipitate a conceptual shift among health care leaders which acknowledges that, to attract students, specialties must meet students' selection criteria. Moreover, if consumers (students) deem a product (specialty

  7. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  8. Online Suicide Risk Screening and Intervention with College Students: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objective This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Method Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least two of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Results Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥ 1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Conclusions Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students’ readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. PMID:25688811

  9. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  10. Dental Students' Perceptions of Digital and Conventional Impression Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.

  11. Effects of micro- and subtle-expression reading skill training in medical students: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun Ho; Choi, Eun Jung; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Im, Sun Ju; Yune, So Jung; Baek, Sun Yong

    2016-10-01

    to investigate the effectiveness of the Micro Expression Training Tool (METT) and the Subtle Expression Training Tool (SETT) to help improve the non-verbal communication skills of medical students. In a randomized controlled trial, all participants were randomly allocated to either a training (n=41) or control group (n=41) and were pre-tested before education with METT and SETT at baseline. Then, training students took second tests after a 1-h class about interpreting micro and subtle expressions and control students took the second tests without the class. METT pre-test scores were positively related with female gender, agreeableness, whereas SETT pre-test scores were negatively related with age and positively related with female gender. Mean METT score increases of 29.3% and mean SETT score increases of 36.2% were observed after training, whereas the control group achieved only a mean METT score increase of 11.0% at second testing. Increases in both test scores in the training group were significantly higher than in the control group. METT and SETT are effective, simple tools for improving the micro- and subtle-expression reading skills of medical students. METT and SETT can be effective for improving the non-verbal communication skills of medical students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  13. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  14. Selective attention of students suffering from primary headaches in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Selective attention and mental flexibility capacities seem to be reduced in primary headache sufferers in pain free period. These findings could contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of primary headaches. Keywords: Selective attention, mental flexibility, neuropsychology, headache, migraine ...

  15. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of an Integrated Stress Management Program (ISMP) for Psychologically Distressed Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunah; Lee, Hyangkyu; Kim, Hyunlye; Noh, Dabok; Lee, Hyunhwa

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated stress management program (ISMP) on college life stress, stress coping, psychological distress, and cortisol among male college students. Out of 137 initially enrolled students, 99 participants were identified as distressed subjects and randomly assigned to either the ISMP or control group. Ultimately, 84 participants (43: experimental, 41: control) completed pretest-posttest. The experimental group received eight 2-hr sessions over 4 weeks. Stress and psychological distress decreased significantly, whereas stress coping and cortisol did not improve significantly. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and physiological interventions are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  18. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  19. Application Of Decision Tree Approach To Student Selection Model- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwati; Sudiya, Amby

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the institution is to provide quality education to the students and to improve the quality of managerial decisions. One of the ways to improve the quality of students is to arrange the selection of new students with a more selective. This research takes the case in the selection of new students at Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. One of the university's selection is through filtering administrative selection based on the records of prospective students at the high school without paper testing. Currently, that kind of selection does not yet has a standard model and criteria. Selection is only done by comparing candidate application file, so the subjectivity of assessment is very possible to happen because of the lack standard criteria that can differentiate the quality of students from one another. By applying data mining techniques classification, can be built a model selection for new students which includes criteria to certain standards such as the area of origin, the status of the school, the average value and so on. These criteria are determined by using rules that appear based on the classification of the academic achievement (GPA) of the students in previous years who entered the university through the same way. The decision tree method with C4.5 algorithm is used here. The results show that students are given priority for admission is that meet the following criteria: came from the island of Java, public school, majoring in science, an average value above 75, and have at least one achievement during their study in high school.

  20. On the density of the sum of two independent Student t-random vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian; Vignat, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we find an expression for the density of the sum of two independent d-dimensional Student t-random vectors X and Y with arbitrary degrees of freedom. As a byproduct we also obtain an expression for the density of the sum N+X, where N is normal and X is an independent Student t......-vector. In both cases the density is given as an infinite series $\\sum_{n=0}^\\infty c_nf_n$ where f_n is a sequence of probability densities on R^d and c_n is a sequence of positive numbers of sum 1, i.e. the distribution of a non-negative integer-valued random variable C, which turns out to be infinitely...

  1. Mindfulness training for loneliness among Chinese college students: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fan, Fu-Min; Huang, Si-Yuan; Rodriguez, Marcus A

    2016-10-05

    Loneliness has been found to predict a wide range of physical and mental health problems. It is suggested that China's One-Child Policy places young Chinese people at a particularly high risk for loneliness. Although loneliness is most prevalent in late adolescence and early adulthood, interventions have primarily targeted children or older adults with limited success. The current study examines a pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness training program among Chinese college students. Participants with elevated loneliness (N = 50, ages 17-25) were randomized into either an 8-week mindfulness training or a control group. Self-reported measures of loneliness and mindfulness were administered at baseline and posttest. The training group also completed a program evaluation form and a 3-month follow-up assessment. Results provided preliminary evidence indicating that the intervention was feasible and effective at reducing loneliness among Chinese college students. Limitations and future directions were discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Medical student selection and society: Lessons we learned from sociological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei, Minoo; Yazdani, Shahram; Ahmady, Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the interaction between the society, applicants and medical schools in terms of medical student selection. In this study, the trends to implement social factors in the selection process were highlighted. These social factors were explored through functionalism and conflict theories, each focusing on different categories of social factors. While functionalist theorists pay attention to diversity in the selection process, conflict theorists highlight the importance of socio-economic class. Although both theories believe in sorting, their different views are reflected in their sorting strategies. Both theories emphasize the importance of the person-society relationship in motivation to enter university. Furthermore, the impacts of social goals on the selection policies are derived from both theories. Theories in the sociology of education offer an approach to student selection that acknowledges and supports complexity, plurality of approaches and innovative means of selection. Medical student selection does not solely focus on the individual assessment and qualification, but it focuses on a social and collective process, which includes all the influences and interactions between the medical schools and the society. Sociological perspective of medical student selection proposes a model that envelops the individual and the society. In this model, the selection methods should meet the criteria of merit at the individual level, while the selection policies should aim at the society goals at the institutional level.

  3. Can Random Mutation Mimic Design?: A Guided Inquiry Laboratory for Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Taper, Mark L.; Metz, Anneke M.

    2006-01-01

    Complex biological structures, such as the human eye, have been interpreted as evidence for a creator for over three centuries. This raises the question of whether random mutation can create such adaptations. In this article, we present an inquiry-based laboratory experiment that explores this question using paper airplanes as a model organism. The main task for students in this investigation is to figure out how to simulate paper airplane evolution (including reproduction, inheritance, mutat...

  4. Senior secondary students' performance in selected Aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall findings of the study showed that students performed poorly in chemical calculation. Inability to make out the goals of test items, not being able to recall information from memory, use of wrong units, difficulties in inter-unit conversions, reasoning deficiencies using information from the stem of test items and from their ...

  5. Student Entrepreneurship in Hungary: Selected Results Based on GUESSS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Gubik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigates students’ entrepreneurial activities and aims to answer questions regarding to what extent do students utilize the knowledge gained during their studies and the personal connections acquired at universities, as well as what role a family business background plays in the development of students’ business start-ups. Research Design & Methods: This paper is based on the database of the GUESSS project investigates 658 student entrepreneurs (so-called ‘active entrepreneurs’ who have already established businesses of their own. Findings: The rate of self-employment among Hungarian students who study in tertiary education and consider themselves to be entrepreneurs is high. Motivations and entrepreneurial efforts differ from those who owns a larger company, they do not necessarily intend to make an entrepreneurial path a career option in the long run. A family business background and family support play a determining role in entrepreneurship and business start-ups, while entrepreneurial training and courses offered at higher institutions are not reflected in students’ entrepreneurial activities. Implications & Recommendations: Universities should offer not only conventional business courses (for example, business planning, but also new forms of education so that students meet various entrepreneurial tasks and problems, make decisions in different situations, explore and acquaint themselves with entrepreneurship. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides literature overview of youth entrepreneurship, describes the main characteristics of students’ enterprises and contributes to understanding the factors of youth entrepreneurship.

  6. Selected Attitudes toward Marriage and Family Life among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of college students (N=5,237) about cohabitation, premarital sexual relations, marriage and divorce, child rearing, division of labor, marital and extramarital sexual relations, social needs, communication, parental relationships, and counseling services. Implications for premarital counseling and future research are discussed.…

  7. Understanding Facilitators and Barriers to the Selection of Dietetics as a major by African American students.

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Teena M

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...

  8. Removing the interview for medical school selection is associated with gender bias among enrolled students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Casey, Mavourneen G; Eley, Diann S

    2014-02-03

    To report, and determine reasons for, a change in the gender ratio observed among enrolled medical students after removal of the interview from the selection process. Cross-sectional study of 4051 students admitted to the medical program at the University of Queensland between 2004 and 2012. Students are enrolled either directly as graduates or via a school-leaver pathway. Change in proportions of male and female students over time, and gender-specific scores in the three sections of the GAMSAT (Graduate Medical School Admissions Test). Between 2004 and 2008 (when an interview was part of the selection process), 891 enrolled students (51.4%) were male, whereas between 2009 and 2012 (no interview), 1134 (57.7%; P enrolled in the medical program at this university increased markedly after removal of the interview from the selection process. This change is limited to domestic direct graduate-entry students, and seems to be due to higher scores by male students in section III of the GAMSAT. The interview may play an important role in ensuring gender equity in selection, and medical schools should carefully monitor the consequences of changes to selection policy.

  9. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  10. Selected Problems of Meidical Ethics in the Opinion of Meidical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rożniecki, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of the opinion of medical students on selected controversial medical ethics problems like abortion, contraceptives usage, euthanasia, cloning, tissue and organ transplantations, prenatal testing as well as gen engineering. One hundred seventy students (61 men and 109 women) of the 5th year of the Medical Faculty of the Medical University in Łódź took part in the study. Besides answering questions on the above mentioned issues, the students co...

  11. The Case for Using Student Voice in Teacher Selection and Recruitment: Reflections from a School Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this piece Peter Kent, headteacher of Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby in the UK, reflects upon the role of the student voice in selecting and recruiting new teaching staff. Contextualised by some recent unsympathetic reporting in the UK media, Peter explains why for their school community, using the student voice to inform teacher recruitment…

  12. School Selection by Students. First Results from the GMAC's New Matriculants Survey. GMAC Occasional Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Ross M.; Giarrusso, Roseann

    A description of the Graduate Management Admission Council's New Matriculants Survey focusing on school selection by Masters of Business Administration students is presented. Four sections are as follows: (1) reasons for applying and enrolling (including student differences in reasons for applying); (2) who applies to more than one school (e.g.,…

  13. High School Biology Students' Transfer of the Concept of Natural Selection: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The concept of natural selection serves as a foundation for understanding diverse biological concepts and has broad applicability to other domains. However, we know little about students' abilities to transfer (i.e. apply to a new context or use generatively) this concept and the relation between students' conceptual understanding and transfer…

  14. The Experience of Low-Income College Students at a Selective University: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paula Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Low-income students at selective institutions report feeling a sense of isolation, alienation, and marginalization. However, it is essential that the voices of low-income students that have successfully navigated the college experience be part of the conversation. Rather than approach the study from a deficit perspective, this Interpretative…

  15. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  16. Understanding "Fairness" in Student Selection: Are There Differences and Does It Make a Difference Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Universities are required to adopt "fair" student admission practices, yet understandings of fairness in student selection are contested. This paper uses an analysis of the admission policies of Australia's public universities to critically examine the use and application of notions of fairness. A further analysis of enrolment data is…

  17. The Effect of a Stricter Academic Dismissal Policy on Course Selection, Student Effort, and Grading Leniency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shao-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from a four-year college in Taiwan to examine the effect of adopting a stricter dismissal policy on course selection, student effort, and grading practices. Under the new rule, students are dismissed if they fail 50 percent or more credits in "any" two semesters as opposed to two "consecutive" semesters.…

  18. The Relationship between Music Attitude and Selected Factors in Elementary Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Monica DeLoach

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary students' attitudes toward music in Grades 3, 4, and 5. The sample comprised of 366 Grade 3, 4, and 5 students from two different Southeastern elementary schools. The schools had different socioeconomic identities. Of the two schools selected, one school was a Title I school and one a Non-Title I…

  19. Positive psychotherapy for depression and self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing students: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Xia; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Nursing students across the globe experience depressive symptoms, and many interventions have been used to alleviate their depression. However, few interventions focus on students' personal strengths and advantages. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of an 8-week group positive psychotherapy (PPT) programme on depression and self-efficacy in full-time undergraduate nursing students. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted for 76 nursing students (34 in the experimental group, 42 in the control group). The Beck Depression Inventory-II and the General Self-Efficacy Scale were used to collect data prior to, immediately after PPT, 3 months', and 6 months' post-PPT. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the intervention significantly alleviated depression and improved self-efficacy (each P self-efficacy. We recommend that PPT is effective in alleviating depression and improving self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing students. Academic mental health nurses should appreciate the value of PPT and consider incorporating it in psychological support methods in order to facilitate nursing students' mental health. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Effect of Yoga on Psychological Functioning of Nursing Students: A Randomized Wait List Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathad, Monali Devaraj; Pradhan, Balaram; Sasidharan, Rajesh K

    2017-05-01

    Nursing students experience considerable amount of stress to meet their professional demands. Yoga is an effective practice to reduce stress and improve psychological well being. However, improvement in psychological well being aids in stress management. To evaluate the effectiveness of eight week yoga intervention on psychological functioning of nursing students. This was a randomised Wait List Control (WLC) trial, we recruited total 100 students from Kempegowda Institute of Nursing, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India and randomized them into two groups (yoga=50 and WLC=50 students). The following instruments were used to collect the data, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), Self-Compassion Scale- Short Form (SCS-SF), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy HPS-Version (JSE-HPS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data was analysed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction for all psychological variables. The results of our study report that eight week yoga intervention was significantly effective in improving self compassion and mindfulness among nursing students in experimental group than compared to WLC group. Even though there were improvements in resilience, satisfaction in life and perceived stress, results were not statistically significant. Overall, results of the present study have demonstrated impact of eight week yoga intervention on the psychological functioning of nursing students. Yoga intervention can be inculcated in the nursing education to meet demands of the profession.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for College Students With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingqi; Xu, Guangxing; Zhu, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Between 2% and 8% of college students meet criteria for ADHD, with increased incidence in recent decades. There are very few clinical trials conducted on the meaningful intervention of ADHD in college. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) effectively treats college students with ADHD and could be more feasibly applied in college mental health clinics. Fifty-four undergraduates with ADHD between ages 19 and 24 were randomized to receive either MBCT or wait-list (WL) during a 6-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and related outcomes were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving MBCT group showed greater treatment response rates (57%-71% vs. 23%-31%) and experience less anxiety and depression, and greater levels of mindfulness; MBCT participants show greater improvement on neuropsychological performance. MBCT may be a useful intervention for college students with ADHD, improving participants' ADHD symptoms, mindfulness, and sustained attention.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Koru: A Mindfulness Program for College Students and Other Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Juberg, Michael K.; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Participants Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Methods Randomized controlled trial. We hypothesized that Koru, compared to a wait-list control group, would reduce perceived stress and sleep problems, and increase mindfulness, self-compassion, and gratitude. Results As hypothesized, results showed significant Group (Koru, wait-list) X Time (pre, post) interactions for improvements in perceived stress (F=4.50, df [1, 76.40], p=.037, d=.45), sleep problems (F= 4.71, df [1,79.49], p=.033, d=.52), mindfulness (F=26.80, df [1, 79.09], pstress, sleep problems, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Conclusions Results support the effectiveness of the Koru program for emerging adults in the university setting. PMID:24499130

  3. Improving psychology students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia: A quasi-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A Randomized Controlled Study of Art Observation Training to Improve Medical Student Ophthalmology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Revere, Karen E; Niepold, Suzannah; Bassett, Barbara; Mitchell, Rebecca; Davidson, Stephanie; DeLisser, Horace; Binenbaum, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial. Thirty-six first-year medical students, randomized 1:1 into art-training and control groups. Students in the art-training group were taught by professional art educators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, during 6 custom-designed, 1.5-hour art observation sessions over a 3-month period. All subjects completed pre- and posttesting, in which they described works of art, retinal pathology images, and external photographs of eye diseases. Grading of written descriptions for observational and descriptive abilities by reviewers using an a priori rubric and masked to group assignment and pretesting/posttesting status. Observational skills, as measured by description testing, improved significantly in the training group (mean change +19.1 points) compared with the control group (mean change -13.5 points), P = 0.001. There were significant improvements in the training vs. control group for each of the test subscores. In a poststudy questionnaire, students reported applying the skills they learned in the museum in clinically meaningful ways at medical school. Art observation training for first-year medical students can improve clinical ophthalmology observational skills. Principles from the field of visual arts, which is reputed to excel in teaching observation and descriptive abilities, can be successfully applied to medical training. Further studies can examine the impact of such training on clinical care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A multisite randomized trial of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J; Doerr, Emily E; Simonsen, Neal R; Mason, Karen E; Scribner, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    An 18-site randomized trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns in reducing college student drinking. The SNM campaigns are intended to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol consumption. Institutions of higher education were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. At the treatment group institutions, SNM campaigns delivered school-specific, data-driven messages through a mix of campus media venues. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline (n = 2,771) and at posttest 3 years later (n = 2,939). Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to examine multiple drinking outcomes, taking intraclass correlation into account. Controlling for other predictors, having an SNM campaign was significantly associated with lower perceptions of student drinking levels and lower alcohol consumption, as measured by a composite drinking scale, recent maximum consumption, blood alcohol concentration for recent maximum consumption, drinks consumed when partying, and drinks consumed per week. A moderate mediating effect of normative perceptions on student drinking was demonstrated by an attenuation of the Experimental Group x Time interaction, ranging from 16.4% to 39.5% across measures. Additional models that took into account the intensity of SNM campaign activity at the treatment institutions suggested that there was a dose-response relationship. This study is the most rigorous evaluation of SNM campaigns conducted to date. Analysis revealed that students attending institutions that implemented an SNM campaign had a lower relative risk of alcohol consumption than students attending control group institutions.

  6. Challenging nurse student selection policy: Using a lifeworld approach to explore the link between care experience and student values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Janet; Tait, Desiree; White, Sara; Tait, Michael

    2017-10-01

    This study uses a lifeworld perspective to explore beginning students' values about nursing. Internationally, increasing care demand, a focus on targets and evidence of dehumanized care cultures have resulted in scrutiny of practitioner values. In England, selection policy dictates that prospective nursing students demonstrate person-centred values and care work experience. However, there is limited recent evidence exploring values at programme commencement or the effect of care experience on values. Mixed method study. A total of 161 undergraduate nursing students were recruited in 2013 from one English university. Thematic content analysis and frequency distribution to reveal descriptive statistics were used. Statistical analysis indicated that most of the values identified in student responses were not significantly affected by paid care experience. Five themes were identified: How I want care to be; Making a difference; The value of learning; Perceived characteristics of a nurse; and Respecting our humanity. Students readily drew on their experience of living to identify person-centred values about nursing.

  7. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  8. Selection of student-selected component [SSCs] modules across the medical undergraduate curriculum: relationship with motivational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Duggan, Eileen; Khashan, Ali S; Boylan, Geraldine B; O'Flynn, Siún

    2012-01-01

    Student-selected components (SSCs) encourage the following within the undergraduate medical curriculum: greater exploration of core curriculum topics; exploration of non-core subjects/experiences; research and self-directed learning; and personal and professional development opportunities. This study examined the motivational factors which influence SSC choice to assess (a) SSC selection patterns across each year of the curriculum (direct and graduate entry) and (b) motivation underlying SSC selection across the curriculum. During SSC registration at University College Cork, all medical undergraduates (years 1-3, graduate-entry medicine) were required to select an SSC and provide a written justification for their selection. Five primary motivational factors were identified: correction of perceived deficits; genuine interest in subject and wish to study in more depth; career strategy; exam strategy; and taking a chance. A complex pattern of relationships emerged in relation to matching of motivational factors with SSC categories, e.g. selection of research skills SSCs was strongly associated with the 'career strategy' motivation. Significant differences were observed across curriculum years, as well as between direct-entry versus graduate-entry undergraduates, with respect to SSC selections and underlying motivation. This study provides insight into changing patterns of SSC selection in medicine, as well as accompanying motivational factors, across the undergraduate years.

  9. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  10. Examination of Students' Selection Criteria for International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi; Buchanan, F. Robert; Ahmad, Norita

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Motivations for study abroad in tourism and hospitality were examined as to the influence of a variety of personal criteria in the individual decision process of adult learners to select a host country and host institution of study. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: Push-pull factors (Mazzarol and Soutar,…

  11. Analysis of Subordination Errors in Students' Writings: A Study of Selected Teacher Training Colleges in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Amma Abrafi

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining how students of selected Teacher Training Colleges handle one important aspect of sentence structure, i.e. "subordination". Data were collected from written scripts, and tests responded to by 150 participants from three selected colleges. These were analyzed by identifying both correct and incorrect uses…

  12. Randomized study to compare two ECG e-learning methods among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Waligóra, Marcin; Pacia, Michał; Chmielak, Wojciech; Stępień, Agnieszka; Janiec, Sebastian; Magoń, Wojciech; Jonas, Kamil; Podolec, Piotr

    2017-11-07

    INTRODUCTION    Interpretation of electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential skill in most medical specialties, however the best method of ECG education has not been determined. OBJECTIVES    To compare the effectiveness of collaborative (C-eL) and self (S-eL) e-learning of ECG among medical students. STUDY GROUP AND POPULATION    Sixty 5th-year medical students were randomly assigned to C-eL and S-eL groups. S-eL students received by an e-mail comprehensively described 15 ECG records (one every 48 hours) while C-eL students received the same ECG records without description. C-eL students were expected to analyze each ECG together within subgroups using an internet platform and to submit its interpretation within 48 hours. Afterwards they received description of each ECG. C-eL students' activity was assessed with the number of words written on internet platform during discussion. A final test consisted of 10 theoretical questions and 10 ECG records. The final score was a sum of points obtained for interpretation of ECG records. The main endpoint of the study was the number of students whose final score was ≥56%. RESULTS    The final test was completed by 53 (88.3%) students. The main endpoint was achieved in 20 (77%) C-eL students and in 13 (48.1%) S-eL students, P = 0.03. The final score was 6.4 (5.8-7.6) in the C-eL group and 5.6 (4.2-7.2) in the S-eL group, P = 0.04. It correlated with the results of the theoretical test (r = 0.42, P = 0.002) and students' activity during C-eL (r = 0.4, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS    Collaborative e-learning of ECG among 5th year medical students is superior to self e-learning.

  13. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Selecting medical students for academic and attitudinal outcomes in a Catholic medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Lam, Lawrence T; Wan, Siu hong; Petersen, Rodney W

    2010-09-20

    To evaluate whether the four criteria used by the University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA) to select medical students are successful in selecting for graduates with the desired outcomes of academic excellence and Catholic "mission fit". Prospective cohort study of medical students selected for 2008 and 2009 entry to UNDA in Sydney, New South Wales. The statistical association between the two academic selection criteria of the Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT) and grade point average (GPA) compared with the outcome of medical school examination performance, and the two mission selection criteria of a portfolio score and interview score compared with the outcome of a positive attitude towards serving underserved communities as measured using the Medical Student Attitudes Toward the Underserved (MSATU) test. A total of 223 students were enrolled. GAMSAT section 3, GPA and the interview scores were significantly positively associated with academic performance (P attitude towards serving underserved communities, as measured by the MSATU score. None of the four selection tools used were significantly associated with medical students who had a positive attitude towards serving underserved communities.

  15. The effect of a change in selection procedures on students' motivation to study dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S P; Roberts-Thomson, K F

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in student selection criteria at The University of Adelaide effected a change in motivation and influencing factors to study dentistry by comparing cohorts. Online questionnaire completed by first-year dentistry students at The University of Adelaide between 1993-1996 and 1997-2005. All 666 students completed the questionnaire with 647 suitable for analysis. The likelihood of students being motivated for a career in dentistry because it 'fits with family' was greater for the 1997-2005 cohort (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.14-2.49, p dentistry. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Mindfulness-based therapy and behavioral activation: A randomized controlled trial with depressed college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIndoo, C C; File, A A; Preddy, T; Clark, C G; Hopko, D R

    2016-02-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) manifests in 20-30% of college students, with increased incidence in recent decades. Very limited research has assessed the efficacy of evidence-based interventions for MDD in college students. Mindfulness-Based Therapy (MBT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are two interventions with significant potential to meet demands of college counseling clinics and effectively treat college students with MDD. This study utilized a randomized controlled research design (n = 50) to examine the efficacy of four-sessions of abbreviated MBT and BA relative to a wait-list control condition with depressed college students. Intent-to-treat data analyses on depression outcome measures suggested both treatments were superior to the control group. There were significant pre-post treatment improvements across measures of depression, rumination, stress, and mindfulness, gains largely maintained at 1-month follow-up. Neither active treatment effectively reduced somatic anxiety. Both treatments generally had moderate-strong effect sizes relative to the control group, and based on depression response and remission criteria, 56-79% of patients exhibited clinically significant improvement. Based on reliable change indices, 75-85% experienced clinically significant reductions in depression. There was strong therapist competence and adherence to treatment protocols and high patient satisfaction with both interventions. Study limitations and implications for the assessment and treatment of depressed college students are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress and Anxiety among Nursing Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. It has been well documented that nursing students across the world experience stress and anxiety throughout their education and training. The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the impact of biofeedback intervention program on nursing students' levels of stress and anxiety during their first clinical training. Methods. Participants consisted of 60 second-year baccalaureate nursing students. The 30 participants in the biofeedback group received training on how to use the biofeedback device to assist in stress and anxiety management for 5 weeks while the 30 in the control group did not receive any training. Findings. Results indicated that the biofeedback group was able to maintain the stress level while the control group had a significant increase in the stress level over the 5-week period of clinical training. Additionally, the biofeedback group had a significant reduction in anxiety, while the control group had a moderate increase in anxiety. Conclusions. The better the nursing students can manage their stress and anxiety, the more successful they can be in their clinical training. Ultimately, the more psychologically healthy the nursing students are, the more likely they will flourish and graduate to become productive and contributing members of the nursing profession. PMID:22811932

  18. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  19. The Admissions Process: An Approach to Selecting Learning Disabled Students at the Most Selective Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; Shaw, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for identifying gifted/learning-disabled high school students who would survive and thrive in the most competitive college environments. It strongly encourages the development of more informed admissions processes, not only at the undergraduate level but at the graduate and professional school levels as well.…

  20. Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavila-Belio, Miren I; García-Vivar, Cristina; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Canga-Armayor, Ana; Pueyo-Garrigues, Sara; Canga-Armayor, Navidad

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse intervention aimed at helping college student smokers quit smoking. Single-blind, pragmatic randomized controlled trial which compares a multi-component intervention, tailored specifically to college students, with a brief advice session with a 6-month follow-up. This study was conducted at the University of Navarra, Spain. A total of 255 college student smokers (age range = 18-24 years) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 133) or to a control group (n = 122). A multi-component intervention based on the Theory of Triadic Influence of Flay was developed. The intervention consisted of a 50-minute motivational interview conducted by a nurse and online self-help material. The follow-up included a reinforcing e-mail and group therapy. The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence, with biochemical verification at 6 months. The secondary outcomes consisted of the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day, self-reported attempts to quit smoking and stage of change at 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, the smoking cessation incidence was 21.1% in the intervention group compared with 6.6% in the control group (difference = 14.5 confidence interval = 6.1-22.8; relative risk = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.62-7.20). The difference in the mean number of cigarettes at 6 months was significantly different (difference = -2.2, confidence interval = -3.6 to -0.9). A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in increasing smoking cessation among college students. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  2. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  3. Student tutors for hands-on training in focused emergency echocardiography – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühl Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focused emergency echocardiography performed by non-cardiologists has been shown to be feasible and effective in emergency situations. During resuscitation a short focused emergency echocardiography has been shown to narrow down potential differential diagnoses and to improve patient survival. Quite a large proportion of physicians are eligible to learn focused emergency echocardiography. Training in focused emergency echocardiography usually comprises a lecture, hands-on trainings in very small groups, and a practice phase. There is a shortage of experienced echocardiographers who can supervise the second step, the hands-on training. We thus investigated whether student tutors can perform the hands-on training for focused emergency echocardiography. Methods A total of 30 volunteer 4th and 5th year students were randomly assigned to a twelve-hour basic echocardiography course comprising a lecture followed by a hands-on training in small groups taught either by an expert cardiographer (EC or by a student tutor (ST. Using a pre-post-design, the students were evaluated by an OSCE. The students had to generate two still frames with the apical five-chamber view and the parasternal long axis in five minutes and to correctly mark twelve anatomical cardiac structures. Two blinded expert cardiographers rated the students’ performance using a standardized checklist. Students could achieve a maximum of 25 points. Results Both groups showed significant improvement after the training (p Conclusions Hands-on training by student tutors led to a significant gain in echocardiography skills, although inferior to teaching by an expert cardiographer.

  4. Tobacco prevention and reduction with nursing students: A non-randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schulze, Katrin; Rustler, Christa; Scheifhacken, Sabine; Schweizer, Ines; Bonse-Rohmann, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of tobacco use among nurses and nursing students is disproportionally high in Germany. However, from a public health perspective they are considered to be an important group for delivering smoking cessation interventions. As delivery of tobacco-related treatment depends on own smoking status, smoking prevention and cessation among the nursing professions is indicative for improving nurse and public health. To evaluate the feasibility and effects of a comprehensive tobacco prevention and reduction program on psychosocial and environmental factors related to smoking behavior of nursing students. Between 2014 and 2015, a non-randomized, controlled feasibility study was conducted in 12 schools of nursing with 397 nursing students in Germany. Students in the intervention group received a program (ASTRA) consisting of an introductory session, steering committee workshop, stress prevention lessons, evidence-based smoking cessation intervention, and action project. Six months after baseline assessment, change in smoking-related protective and risk factors was determined. Secondary endpoints included smoking behavior. The program was implemented in total in 5 of 7 intervention schools. About one third of smoking nursing students participated in a cessation intervention. The program seems to do better than a minimal intervention booklet in four primary outcomes: perceived descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms towards smoking and nursing as well as perceived social support. As anticipated, there was no change in smoking behavior. The applied approach is feasible and able to improve important smoking-related norm perceptions of student nurses and perception of social support. However, additional context measures to influence the settings of nursing education currently rather supporting smoking seem to be necessary in order to promote smoking cessation among nursing students and to scale up implementation of the program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Using online interventions to deliver college student mental health resources: Evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Greer, Christiaan S; Frazier, Patricia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Internet-based stress management programs for college students. This approach is particularly fitting for students owing to a lack of mental health resources on campus and to high levels of Internet use among students. Because a history of interpersonal trauma (IPT) is associated with more distress and poorer academic performance, IPT history was assessed as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Students (N = 365) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness plus present control intervention, a mindfulness only intervention, or a stress management information condition that served as an active comparison. Prior research has supported the efficacy of the mindfulness plus present control intervention (Nguyen-Feng et al., 2015). Outcome measures were self-report measures of stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress completed online at preintervention, postintervention, and 2 follow-ups (2-3 weeks and 4-5 weeks postintervention). Linear mixed modeling was used to assess change over time. Participants in all 3 groups reported significant decreases on all primary outcomes. All time-by-intervention group interaction effects were nonsignificant, suggesting that the 3 conditions were equally effective. When examining IPT history as a moderator, the mindfulness plus present control and stress management conditions were both more effective for IPT survivors than the mindfulness only intervention. Results suggested that Internet-based interventions are effective for lowering distress among college students and that specific approaches may be differentially effective for certain subgroups of students. They also suggested that providing students with stress management information without providing training in 1 specific skill may also be helpful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors: A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Koning, I.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. Design: A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m = 12.68 years, SD = 0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention,

  7. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors : A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822329; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17399394X; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. Design: A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68. years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention,

  8. Creation and Initial Outcomes of a Selective Four-Year Research Program for Predoctoral Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Eileen H; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Kugel, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Educators agree that dental students' involvement in research plays an important role in their development and contributes to the future of dental education. However, dental schools are challenged to provide the time and support necessary to nurture their students in undertaking research activities. The aim of this study was to examine student participation in a predoctoral student research program at one U.S. dental school and to track participants' outcomes both before and after introduction of an additional, highly selective research scholarship program. Research participation was recorded for all predoctoral dental students in the graduating classes of 2005-15. The number of years of participation was also tracked for each student who participated in research. The results showed that, since the inception of the research honors scholarship in 2005, there has been a more than threefold increase in the number of dental students participating in research each year. The number of students who do multiple years of research has tripled, and the number of students' poster presentations at national academic meetings has risen tenfold in those ten years. The introduction of a competitive award that recognizes exceptional research by students has added to the research profile of the school and has shown success in encouraging students to become involved in research throughout their four years in dental school.

  9. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  10. Comparison of biomechanical and anthropometrical data of Nigeria tertiary institution students with some selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Ismaila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometric data of student in selected tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated and this was compared with some selected foreign countries. The study was to determine whether design improvement and further study is required in order to improve the conditions in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The anthropometrics measurements data were collected from 720 students of selected institutions. The data indicate a substantial degree of variability between the Nigerian tertiary students’ body and the foreign counterparts. Since most of the furniture in use in our tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Nigeria were designed and constructed using the anthropometric data of students in foreign countries, there is need for anthropometric data of Nigerian students in the tertiary institution for the design and construction of furniture to suit them. The result is of great concern which could affect students in other institutions throughout Nigeria and could also pose a great risk of having back problem among students in Nigeria. Statement of Relevancy: The chair and table used in Nigeria were designed with reference to the measurement of other countries. The database of the Nigerian students will be very useful parameter in guiding principle for the designing of future equipment to be used in classrooms, laboratories and lecture theaters of the institutions.

  11. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  12. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  13. Improving the Transition Behavior of High School Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders Using a Randomized Interdependent Group Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; Denune, Hilary; Larkin, Wallace; Fite, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components on student behavior during the transition from lunch to class. The study was conducted in three high school classrooms in an alternative school setting for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and used an ABAB withdrawal design.…

  14. Effects of problem-based discussion on studying a subsequent text: A randomized trial among first year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. de Grave; H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe Purpose of this study was to examine effects of group discussion of a medical problem on the comprehension of a subsequent problem-relevant text by first year medical students. Forty-eight first-year medical students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: The experimental

  15. Outcomes of a prospective trial of student-athlete drug testing: the Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Linn; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; Moe, Esther L; Kuehl, Kerry S; Yoon, Myeongsun; Taylor, Aaron; Williams, Jason

    2007-11-01

    To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p < .01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p < .05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p < .001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p < .01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p < .05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p < .05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p < .01). No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an

  16. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Andersson, Claes

    2014-07-02

    Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students' alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 had access to the Swedish government alcohol monopoly's app, Promillekoll, offering real-time estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) calculation; Group 2 had access to a web-based app, PartyPlanner, developed by the research group, offering real-time eBAC calculation with planning and follow-up functions; and Group 3 participants were controls. Follow-up was conducted at 7 weeks. Among 28574 students offered participation, 4823 agreed to join; 415 were excluded due to incomplete data, and 1932 fulfilled eligibility criteria for randomization. Attrition was 22.7-39.3 percent, higher among heavier drinkers and highest in Group 2. Self-reported app use was higher in Group 1 (74%) compared to Group 2 (41%). Per-protocol analyses revealed only one significant time-by-group interaction, where Group 1 participants increased the frequency of their drinking occasions compared to controls (p = 0.001). Secondary analyses by gender showed a significant difference among men in Group 1 for frequency of drinking occasions per week (p = 0.001), but not among women. Among all participants, 29 percent showed high-risk drinking, over the recommended weekly drinking levels of 9 (women) and 14 (men) standard glasses. Smartphone apps can make brief interventions available to large numbers of university students. The apps studied using eBAC calculation did not, however, seem to affect alcohol consumption among

  17. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  18. A Randomized Prospective Study on Outcomes of an Empathy Intervention among Second-year Student Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Julie T; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a single, 3-day intervention on empathy levels as measured by the validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS). Methods. Forty second-year student pharmacists were recruited to participate in a non-blinded prospective study. Subjects were randomized to an intervention group (n=20) or control group (n=20) and completed the JSE-HPS at baseline, 7 days postintervention, and 90 days postintervention. The intervention group consisted of a 3-day simulation, each day including a designated activity with loss of dominant hand usage, vision, and speech. Results. The 3-day simulation increased empathy levels in the intervention group compared to the control group 7 days postintervention (p=0.035). However, there were no effects on empathy levels 90 days postintervention (p=0.38). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained in the long-term with a 3-day empathy intervention. PMID:25861099

  19. Medical school selection criteria as predictors of medical student empathy: a cross-sectional study of medical students, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Moran, Joseph; Corcoran, Paul; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; O'Sullivan, Aoife M

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether performance in any of the Health Professions Admissions Test (HPAT) sections, most specifically the interpersonal understanding section, correlates with self-reported empathy levels in medical students. The study was conducted in University College Cork, Ireland. 290 students participated in the study. Matching HPAT scores were available for 263 students. All male and female undergraduate students were invited to participate. Postgraduate and international students were excluded. Primary measures: HPAT-Ireland and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSE) scores were compared including subsection analysis. Secondary measures: comparisons were made between groups such as gender and year of programme. A total of 290 students participated. Males scored significantly higher than females for total HPAT-Ireland (U=7329, z=-2.04, p0.05). There was no effect of programme year on JSE scores (all p>0.05). The introduction of the HPAT-Ireland test was partly designed to identify students with strong interpersonal skills. A significant finding of this study is that JSE values did not correlate with HPAT-Ireland scores. This study suggests no clear link between scores on a selection test, the HPAT-Ireland, which is designed to assess several skill domains including interpersonal skills, and scores on a psychometric measure of empathy, at any point during medical education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  1. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  2. Web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Haeger, Jack A.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to w...

  3. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Mendiola Melchor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups, and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM. Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5 and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6. The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (pd=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test. M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the

  4. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills) in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups), and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed) and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier) groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ) test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM). Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5) and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6). The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test). M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the study

  5. A randomized trial of Internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard; Ekselius, Lisa; Furmark, Tomas; Lewenhaupt, Susanne; Karlsson, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown effective for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and public speaking fears. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promising results can be transferred to high school students suffering from this condition. A total of 19 speech-anxious high school students with SAD were randomized either into 9 weeks of Internet-delivered CBT or to a wait-list control group. Significant improvements were found on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The average within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the primary social anxiety scales at posttest were 0.98 and 1.38, respectively. However, the average number of completed modules in the CBT program was low. Although compliance can be improved, the results suggest that Internet-based guided self-help is effective in the treatment of high school students with SAD.

  6. Efficacy of a health-promotion intervention for college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla Díez, Sara M; Fortis, Adriana Pérez; Franco, Soledad Franco

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of death in Mexico. Research has shown that encouraging healthy behaviors, especially among younger people, is an effective way to reduce chronic illnesses such as diabetes and the related morbidity and mortality from these diseases. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief health-promotion intervention in encouraging a health-promoting lifestyle in university students. A 2-group randomized controlled experimental design was used. Seventy-three freshman Mexican students (31 in the experimental group and 42 in the control group) participated in the study. The experimental group attended a7-session program, with a duration of 2 hours per session. Lifestyle was measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II questionnaire. Repeated-measures and factorial analysis of variance were computed. There was a significant main effect of the intervention in all dependent health profile variables, F(2, 138) = 3.46-14.45, p stress management, F(2, 138) = 8.71, p Students attending the intervention presented a healthier lifestyle than did students in the control group. These results offer interesting experimental evidence to establish guidelines for the design of healthier universities.

  7. [Learning success of students in surgery with a multimedia-based manual. A prospective randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Köhler, C; Chmelik, C; Heiss, M M; Lefering, R

    2013-10-01

    Teaching surgery to students means covering two main learning fields: theoretical knowledge and practical skills. The objective of this study was to compare a multimedia-based surgical procedure manual to a text-based one in a student population. This randomized controlled trial in a pre-post-retention test design was conducted online with the participation of 101 medical students. Subjects studied the performance of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy either in a multimedia-based (MMG) or text-based (TG) presentation. The post-test surveyed the knowledge gain and 3 months later a retention test assessed the sustainability of that knowledge. The study showed a significant knowledge gain in the intragroup comparison. Regarding the procedural knowledge, the MMG scored significantly higher in Δpost-test with 3.84 (MMG) vs 2.98 (TG) correct answers (p = 0.040). This finding was confirmed in the retention test. The MMG (7.17) scored overall significantly higher than the TG (6.41) with correct answers (p = 0.028). Multimedia-based learning can be regarded as an alternative to text-based learning. Students learn factual knowledge equally well with both devices but the MMG scored higher in procedural and more complex knowledge.

  8. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  9. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  10. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  11. Effectiveness of a Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Obesity among Chinese Primary School Students: CLICK-Obesity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study in Mainland China.A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge.Overall, 1108 (93.7% of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09, although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87 by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02, decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84 and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95, change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40, and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors.The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving health behaviors and obesity

  12. Generalizability of a composite student selection procedure at a university-based chiropractic program

    OpenAIRE

    O?Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Korsholm, Lars; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Spring PURPOSE: Non-cognitive admission criteria are typically used in chiropractic student selection to supplement grades. The reliability of non-cognitive student admission criteria in chiropractic education has not previously been examined. In addition, very few studies have examined the overall test generalizability of composites of non-cognitive admission variables in admission to health science programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the generalizability ...

  13. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students’ alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Methods Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 had access to the Swedish government alcohol monopoly’s app, Promillekoll, offering real-time estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) calculation; Group 2 had access to a web-based app, PartyPlanner, developed by the research group, offering real-time eBAC calculation with planning and follow-up functions; and Group 3 participants were controls. Follow-up was conducted at 7 weeks. Results Among 28574 students offered participation, 4823 agreed to join; 415 were excluded due to incomplete data, and 1932 fulfilled eligibility criteria for randomization. Attrition was 22.7–39.3 percent, higher among heavier drinkers and highest in Group 2. Self-reported app use was higher in Group 1 (74%) compared to Group 2 (41%). Per-protocol analyses revealed only one significant time-by-group interaction, where Group 1 participants increased the frequency of their drinking occasions compared to controls (p = 0.001). Secondary analyses by gender showed a significant difference among men in Group 1 for frequency of drinking occasions per week (p = 0.001), but not among women. Among all participants, 29 percent showed high-risk drinking, over the recommended weekly drinking levels of 9 (women) and 14 (men) standard glasses. Conclusions Smartphone apps can make brief interventions available to large numbers of university students. The apps studied using eBAC calculation did not

  14. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  15. Rhodiola rosea for mental and physical fatigue in nursing students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Punja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of many unintended consequences of shift work in the nursing profession. Natural health products (NHPs for fatigue are becoming an increasingly popular topic of clinical study; one such NHP is Rhodiola rosea. A well-designed, rigorously conducted randomized controlled trial is required before therapeutic claims for this product can be made. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of R. rosea with placebo for reducing fatigue in nursing students on shift work. DESIGN: A parallel-group randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 18-55 year old students from the Faculty of Nursing from the University of Alberta, participating in clinical rotations between January 2011 and September 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to take 364 mg of either R. rosea or identical placebo at the start of their wakeful period and up to one additional capsule within the following four hours on a daily basis over a 42-day period. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was reduction in fatigue over the 42-day trial period measured using the Vitality-subscale of the RAND-36, cross-validated by the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, individualized outcomes assessment, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants were randomized to R. rosea (n = 24 or placebo (n = 24. The mean change in scores on the Vitality-subscale was significantly different between the study groups at day 42 in favor of placebo (-17.3 (95% CI -30.6, -3.9, p = 0.011, The mean change in scores on the VAS-F was also significantly difference between study groups at day 42 in favour of placebo (1.9 (95% CI 0.4, 3.5, p = 0.015. Total number of adverse events did not differ between R. rosea and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that among nursing students on shift work, a 42-day course of R. Rosea compared with placebo worsened fatigue; however, the results

  16. Rhodiola rosea for mental and physical fatigue in nursing students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punja, Salima; Shamseer, Larissa; Olson, Karin; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of many unintended consequences of shift work in the nursing profession. Natural health products (NHPs) for fatigue are becoming an increasingly popular topic of clinical study; one such NHP is Rhodiola rosea. A well-designed, rigorously conducted randomized controlled trial is required before therapeutic claims for this product can be made. To compare the efficacy of R. rosea with placebo for reducing fatigue in nursing students on shift work. A parallel-group randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 18-55 year old students from the Faculty of Nursing from the University of Alberta, participating in clinical rotations between January 2011 and September 2011. Participants were randomized to take 364 mg of either R. rosea or identical placebo at the start of their wakeful period and up to one additional capsule within the following four hours on a daily basis over a 42-day period. The primary outcome was reduction in fatigue over the 42-day trial period measured using the Vitality-subscale of the RAND-36, cross-validated by the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, individualized outcomes assessment, and adverse events. A total of 48 participants were randomized to R. rosea (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24). The mean change in scores on the Vitality-subscale was significantly different between the study groups at day 42 in favor of placebo (-17.3 (95% CI -30.6, -3.9), p = 0.011), The mean change in scores on the VAS-F was also significantly difference between study groups at day 42 in favour of placebo (1.9 (95% CI 0.4, 3.5), p = 0.015). Total number of adverse events did not differ between R. rosea and placebo groups. This study indicates that among nursing students on shift work, a 42-day course of R. Rosea compared with placebo worsened fatigue; however, the results should be interpreted with caution. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01278992.

  17. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in a college student health center: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaus, James F; Sole, Mary Lou; McCoy, Thomas P; Mullett, Natalie; O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2009-07-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of brief primary care provider interventions delivered in a college student health center to a sample of college students who screened positive for high-risk drinking. Between November 2005 and August 2006, 8,753 students who presented as new patients to the health service at a large public university were screened for high-risk drinking, and 2,484 students (28%) screened positive on the 5/4 gender-specific high-risk drinking question (i.e., five or more drinks per occasion for men and four or more for women). Students who screened positive for high-risk drinking and consented to participate (N= 363; 52% female) were randomly assigned either to a control group (n = 182) or to an experimental group (n = 181). Participants in the experimental group received two brief intervention sessions that were founded in motivational interviewing techniques and delivered by four specially trained providers within the student health center. Data on alcohol use and related harms were obtained from a Web-based Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire, 30-day Timeline Followback alcohol-use diaries, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), and eight items from the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-2L. Repeated measures analysis showed that, compared with the control group (C), the intervention group (I) had significant reductions in typical estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (C = .071 vs I = .057 at 3 months; C = .073 vs I = .057 at 6 months), peak BAC (C = . 142 vs I = .112 at 3 months; C = .145 vs I = .108 at 6 months), peak number of drinks per sitting (C = 8.03 vs I = 6.87 at 3 months; C = 7.98 vs I = 6.52 at 6 months), average number of drinks per week (C = 9.47 vs I = 7.33 at 3 months; C = 8.90 vs I = 6.16 at 6 months), number of drunk episodes in a typical week (C = 1.24 vs I = 0.85 at 3 months; C = 1.10 vs I = 0.71 at 6 months), number of times taken foolish risks (C = 2.24 vs I = 1.12 at 3 months), and RAPI sum scores (C = 6.55 vs I = 4

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Applied to College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students to an optimized control condition, and analyzed baseline global functioning as a moderator. Method The intent-to-treat (ITT) sample included 63 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 who were suicidal at baseline, reported at least one lifetime non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) act or suicide attempt, and met three or more borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnostic criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to DBT (n = 31) or an optimized Treatment as Usual (O-TAU) control condition (n = 32). Treatment was provided by trainees, supervised by experts in both treatments. Both treatments lasted 7–12 months and included both individual and group components. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, 3-months, 6-months, 9-months, 12-months, and 18-months (follow-up). Results Mixed effects analyses (ITT sample) revealed that DBT, compared to the control condition, showed significantly greater decreases in suicidality, depression, number of NSSI events (if participant had self-injured), BPD criteria, and psychotropic medication use, and significantly greater improvements in social adjustment. Most of these treatment effects were observed at follow-up. No treatment differences were found for treatment dropout. Moderation analyses showed that DBT was particularly effective for suicidal students who were lower functioning at pretreatment. Conclusions DBT is an effective treatment for suicidal, multi-problem college students. Future research should examine the implementation of DBT in CCCs in a stepped care approach. PMID:22730955

  19. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) applied to college students: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Maclane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M

    2012-12-01

    College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a moderator. The intent-to-treat (ITT) sample included 63 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years who were suicidal at baseline, reported at least 1 lifetime nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) act or suicide attempt, and met 3 or more borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnostic criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to DBT (n = 31) or an optimized treatment-as-usual (O-TAU) control condition (n = 32). Treatment was provided by trainees, supervised by experts in both treatments. Both treatments lasted 7-12 months and included both individual and group components. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, and 18 months (follow-up). Mixed effects analyses (ITT sample) revealed that DBT, compared with the control condition, showed significantly greater decreases in suicidality, depression, number of NSSI events (if participant had self-injured), BPD criteria, and psychotropic medication use and significantly greater improvements in social adjustment. Most of these treatment effects were observed at follow-up. No treatment differences were found for treatment dropout. Moderation analyses showed that DBT was particularly effective for suicidal students who were lower functioning at pretreatment. DBT is an effective treatment for suicidal, multiproblem college students. Future research should examine the implementation of DBT in CCCs in a stepped care approach.

  20. Performance of university students on random number generation at different rates to evaluate executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Amer C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of adult young subjects in a Random Number Generation (RNG task by controlling the response speed (RS. METHOD: Sixty-nine university students of both sexes took part in the experiment (25.05 ± 6.71 year-old. Participants were alloted into 3 groups which differed in RS rates to generate numbers: 1, 2 and 4 seconds to generate each number. A digital metronomer was used to control RS. Participants were asked to generate 100 numbers. The responses were mensured through Evans's RNG Index. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences among the groups [F (3, 68 = 7.120; p < .05]. Differences were localized between 1 and 2 seconds (p = 0.004 and between 1 and 4 seconds (p = 0.006. No differences were observed between 2 and 4 seconds (p = 0.985. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that the response speed in production of random numbers influences the performance of the Random Numbers Generation task.

  1. The role of demographics in students' selection of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wiese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the choice factors students consider when selecting a higher education institution, with a focus on the differences between gender and language groups. Problem investigated: The educational landscape has seen several changes, such as stronger competition between institutions for both student enrolments and government funding. These market challenges have led to an interest in students' institution selection processes as it has implications for the way higher education institutions (HEIs manage their marketing and recruitment strategies. The research objective of this study was to identify the most important choice factors of prospective South African students. It also aimed to determine if any gender and language differences exist with regard to students' institution selection processes. Methodology: A convenience sample of 1 241 respondents was drawn, representing six South African universities. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Questions from the ASQ (Admitted Student Questionnaire and CIRP (The Cooperative Institutional Research Programme were used and adapted to the South African context after pilot testing. Hypotheses were analysed using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test with Wilks' lambda as the test statistic. Findings/Implications: Irrespective of gender or language, the most important choice factor for respondents was the quality of teaching at HEIs. The findings showed that males and females differ according to the selection of certain choice factors which suggest that HEIs can consider recruitment strategies for each gender group. Significant differences between the language groups were found for 17 of the 23 choice factors, signalling that different language groups make decisions based on different choice factors. African language-speaking students have, amongst other, indicated that the multiculturalism of the institution is a very important choice factor for

  2. Emotional intelligence in medical students: does it correlate with selection measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra E

    2009-11-01

    Much attention and emphasis are placed on the selection of medical students. Although selection measures have been validated in the literature, it is not yet known whether high scores at selection are indicative of high levels of interpersonal aptitude. Emotional intelligence (EI) is reported to be a predictor of the interpersonal and communications skills medical schools are looking for in applicants. This study describes EI scores in medical students and explores correlations between EI and selection scores at the University of Western Australia. Senior medical students from a 6-year undergraduate curriculum completed the online MSCEIT (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) survey. Scores for EI were described and correlations between EI and Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT), Interview and Tertiary Entrance Rank (TER) scores were analysed. Mean scores of the 177 respondents (58%) reflected the normal distribution of scores (mean 98, standard deviation [SD] 15.0) in the general population. Males had higher EI scores than females and Asian students demonstrated higher EI Total and branch scores than White students. The highest and lowest EI scores were obtained for the branches Understanding Emotions (mean 110, SD 19.0) and Perceiving Emotions (mean 94, SD 15.6), respectively. No significant correlations were found between EI Total or EI branch scores and any of the selection scores (UMAT, TER and Interview). This study offers information that can be used to compare the EI scores of medical students with those of other health professionals. No relationship was identified between cognition (measured by the UMAT) and skill (measured by the MSCEIT) in the interpersonal domain and EI. Further studies are required to explore whether UMAT Section 2 is measuring EI, if there are associations between EI and academic performance and if EI can be used to predict the performance of junior doctors.

  3. Improving medical student knowledge of female pelvic floor dysfunction and anatomy: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Brittany Star; Sung, Vivian W

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of an interactive computer trainer on improving medical student knowledge and attitudes regarding female pelvic anatomy (PA) and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Forty-three students were randomized to the trainer and usual teaching vs usual teaching alone. Pre- and postintervention knowledge and attitude questionnaires were completed. Between-group pre- and postintervention scores were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate trainer effect on scores, adjusting for confounders. There was no difference in baseline scores between groups (P > .05). The trainer group had significantly higher postintervention knowledge (mean score, 15.6 +/- 1.9 vs 12.6 +/- 2.5; P = .007) and attitude (mean score, 19.2 +/- 2.8 vs 15.8 +/- 3.2; P = .001) scores compared with the usual teaching group. On multiple linear regression, the trainer group had significantly higher postintervention knowledge and attitude scores, after adjusting for year of medical education and prior clerkships. An interactive computer trainer to teach female PA and PFD improves medical student knowledge and attitudes. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Indicated prevention for college student marijuana use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Zheng, Cheng; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana is the most frequently reported illicit substance used on college campuses. Despite the prevalence, few published intervention studies have focused specifically on addressing high-risk marijuana use on college campuses. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an in-person brief motivational enhancement intervention for reducing marijuana use and related consequences among frequently using college students. Participants included 212 college students from 2 campuses who reported frequent marijuana use (i.e., using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month). Participants completed Web-based screening and baseline assessments and upon completion of the baseline survey were randomized to either an in-person brief intervention or an assessment control group. Follow-up assessments were completed approximately 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Marijuana use was measured by number of days used in the past 30 days, typical number of joints used in a typical week in the last 60 days, and marijuana-related consequences. Results indicated significant intervention effects on number of joints smoked in a typical week and a trend toward fewer marijuana-related consequences compared with the control group at 3-month follow-up. This study provides preliminary data on short-term effects of a focused marijuana intervention for college students at reducing marijuana use during the academic quarter. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2014-12-17

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of Koru: a mindfulness program for college students and other emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Juberg, Michael K; Maytan, Margaret; James, Kiera; Rogers, Holly

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Koru, a mindfulness training program for college students and other emerging adults. Ninety students (66% female, 62% white, 71% graduate students) participated between Fall 2012 and Spring 2013. Randomized controlled trial. It was hypothesized that Koru, compared with a wait-list control group, would reduce perceived stress and sleep problems, and increase mindfulness, self-compassion, and gratitude. As hypothesized, results showed significant Group (Koru, Wait-List)×Time (Pre, Post) interactions for improvements in perceived stress (F[1, 76.40]=4.50, p=.037, d=.45), sleep problems (F [1, 79.49]=4.71, p=.033, d=.52), mindfulness (F [1, 79.09]=26.80, p<.001, d=95), and self-compassion (F[1, 74.77]=18.08, p<.001, d=.75). All significant effects were replicated in the wait-list group. Significant correlations were observed among changes in perceived stress, sleep problems, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Results support the effectiveness of the Koru program for emerging adults in the university setting.

  7. Skills Training via Smartphone App for University Students with Excessive Alcohol Consumption: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Andersson, Claes; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Fredriksson, Morgan; Berman, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    University students in a study on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) feedback apps were offered participation in a second study, if reporting continued excessive consumption at 6-week follow-up. This study evaluated the effects on excessive alcohol consumption of offering access to an additional skills training app. A total of 186 students with excessive alcohol consumption were randomized to an intervention group or a wait list group. Both groups completed online follow-ups regarding alcohol consumption after 6 and 12 weeks. Wait list participants were given access to the intervention at 6-week follow-up. Assessment-only controls (n = 144) with excessive alcohol consumption from the ongoing study were used for comparison. The proportion of participants with excessive alcohol consumption declined in both intervention and wait list groups compared to controls at first (p alcohol consumption among men in the intervention group compared to male controls was 2.68, 95% CI [1.37, 5.25] (Z = 2.88, p = 0.004); the figure for women was 1.71, 95% CI [1.11, 2.64] (Z = 2.41, p = 0.016). Skills training apps have potential for reducing excessive alcohol use among university students. Future research is still needed to disentangle effects of app use from emailed feedback on excessive alcohol consumption and study participation. NCT02064998.

  8. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner on choosing a career option. Students in Ethiopia are not exceptional to this phenomenon of selecting right and suitable career. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted and multi stage sampling technique was employed to identify the participants. Totally, 175 participants (Male=99 and (Female =76 responded to Holland Personality Inventory (Holland, 1997 and Career Choice Traditionalism Scale (Hensely, 2003. The collected data were statistically processed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that there is a significant influence of parents on career choice among students. Specifically, father’s influence is found to be more significant on career choice decision making among students than their mothers.

  9. Randomized response estimates for the 12-month prevalence of cognitive-enhancing drug use in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Striegel, Heiko; Franke, Andreas G; Lieb, Klaus; Simon, Perikles; Ulrich, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the 12-month prevalence of cognitive-enhancing drug use. Paper-and-pencil questionnaire that used the randomized response technique. University in Mainz, Germany. A total of 2569 university students who completed the questionnaire. An anonymous, specialized questionnaire that used the randomized response technique was distributed to students at the beginning of classes and was collected afterward. From the responses, we calculated the prevalence of students taking drugs only to improve their cognitive performance and not to treat underlying mental disorders such as attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and sleep disorders. The estimated 12-month prevalence of using cognitive-enhancing drugs was 20%. Prevalence varied by sex (male 23.7%, female 17.0%), field of study (highest in students studying sports-related fields, 25.4%), and semester (first semester 24.3%, beyond first semester 16.7%). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the randomized response technique has been used to survey students about cognitive-enhancing drug use. Using the randomized response technique, our questionnaire provided data that showed a high 12-month prevalence of cognitive-enhancing drug use in German university students. Our study suggests that other direct survey techniques have underestimated the use of these drugs. Drug prevention programs need to be established at universities to address this issue. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  10. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  11. Influences of Teleological and Lamarckian Thinking on Student Understanding of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated creationist, Lamarckian, and teleological reasoning in high school and college students. These lines of thinking conflict with the Darwinian notion of natural selection, which serves as the primary catalyst for biological evolution. The current study assessed evolutionary conceptions in non-science majors,…

  12. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  13. Determinants of Students' Academic Performance in Four Selected Accounting Courses at University of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…

  14. The Impact of Professor Reputation and Section Attributes on Student Course Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Kosovich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how students select particular sections of required undergraduate courses at a regional public university in Texas. Specifically, we study how perceived instructor quality and other course section attributes, such as meeting time, impact enrollment. We find strong evidence that publicly available information about…

  15. Student Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Information on Rate MyPprofessors.com for Course Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew W.; Prus, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether students used qualitative information, quantitative information, or both when making course selection decisions. Participants reviewed information on four hypothetical courses in an advising context before indicating their likelihood to enroll in those courses and ranking them according to preference. Modeled…

  16. A Psychometric Approach to the Selection of Translation and Interpreting Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Tseng, Etilvia

    1993-01-01

    Details the setting up of a battery of psychometric tests for selecting student interpreters for the Graduate Institute of Translation and Interpreting in Taiwan. Argues that the rigid screening (which leads to a nearly 100 percent pass rate) compares favorably with the high drop-out rate in traditional schools of interpreting. (NKA)

  17. Using the Nominal Group Technique to Select the Most Appropriate Topics for Postgraduate Research Students' Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Faculty of Health & Behavioural Sciences at our university offered a series of postgraduate research seminars. The series of seminars, selected by a three-person faculty team, received a mixed reaction--some seminars attracted a large proportion of the students whereas others were poorly attended. Thus, it was decided to continue…

  18. Does Tasting Local Sweet Potatoes Increase the Likelihood of Selection by High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Kelly; Jenkins, Steven; Kelly, Patrick; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools are offering more fruits and vegetables; yet consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents remains low. Many schools are implementing Farm-to-School programs to help generate excitement and increase selection of fruits and vegetables by students. The purpose of this research was to determine if a simple tasting…

  19. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Lexical Cohesion in Students' Argumentative Essay among a Select Group of Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Josephine B.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the lexical devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative text using Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday's (2004) taxonomy. One hundred forty-eight argumentative essays were analyzed. The essays underwent interrating by three independent raters using a 20-point rubric and were grouped according to rating.…

  1. The predictive validity of selection criteria for personnel management students at a tertiary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swanepoel

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary institutions are confronted daily with the issues surrounding the creation of admission requirements for prospective students that ensure academic success. In a changing South Africa, with its increasing emphasis on individual rights, fair and equitable selection techniques are a priority. The target population for this investigation was four consecutive groups of first-year Personnel Management students who were enrolled for the National Diploma: Personnel Management. The survey population consisted of 293 students. The aim of the study has been achieved by the proof that specific fa :tors of fields of the measure instruments do have prediction validity. These findings can be used with fruit in search of a selection model for academic achievement. Opsomming Tersiere instellings word daagliks gekonfronteer met die kwessies betreffende die daarstel van toelatingsvereistes vir voomemende studente wat akademiese sukses sal verseker. In 'n veranderende Suid-Afnka, met die toenemende klem op mdividuele regte, is regverdige en billike keuringskriteria 'n prioriteit. Die teikenpopulasie vir hierdie ondersoek was vier agtereenvolgende groepe eerstej'aarpersoneelbestuur- studente wat vir die Nasionale Diploma: Personeelbestuur ingeskrvf was. Die opnamepopulasie het uit 293 studente bestaan. Die doel van die studie is bereik deur die bewys dat spesifieke faktore of velde van die meetinstrumente voorspellingsgeldigheid besit. Hierdie bevmdinge kan met vrug gebruik word in die soeke na 'n keuringsmodel vir akademiese prestasies.

  2. Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection as a Tool for Measuring Greek University Students' Evolution Knowledge: Differences between Novice and Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare various groups of Greek university students for their level of knowledge of Evolution by means of Natural Selection (ENS). For the purpose of the study, we used a well known questionnaire the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) and 352 biology majors and non-majors students from…

  3. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago. NBER Working Paper No. 16817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases due to student selection to schools and single-sex schools being better in unmeasured ways. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and cleanly estimate an upper-bound single-sex school effect. The…

  4. Medical school selection criteria as predictors of medical student empathy: a cross-sectional study of medical students, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Donnchadh M; Moran, Joseph; Corcoran, Paul; O’Flynn, Siun; O’Tuathaigh, Colm; O’Sullivan, Aoife M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether performance in any of the Health Professions Admissions Test (HPAT) sections, most specifically the interpersonal understanding section, correlates with self-reported empathy levels in medical students. Setting The study was conducted in University College Cork, Ireland. Participants 290 students participated in the study. Matching HPAT scores were available for 263 students. All male and female undergraduate students were invited to participate. Postgraduate and international students were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary measures: HPAT-Ireland and Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSE) scores were compared including subsection analysis. Secondary measures: comparisons were made between groups such as gender and year of programme. Results A total of 290 students participated. Males scored significantly higher than females for total HPAT-Ireland (U=7329, z=−2.04, pIreland section 1 (U=5382, z=−5.21, pIreland section 2 (U=5844, z=−4.46, pIreland measures (all p>0.05). There was no effect of programme year on JSE scores (all p>0.05). Conclusion The introduction of the HPAT-Ireland test was partly designed to identify students with strong interpersonal skills. A significant finding of this study is that JSE values did not correlate with HPAT-Ireland scores. This study suggests no clear link between scores on a selection test, the HPAT-Ireland, which is designed to assess several skill domains including interpersonal skills, and scores on a psychometric measure of empathy, at any point during medical education. PMID:28765129

  5. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  6. A pharmaceutical industry elective course on practice experience selection and fellowship pursuit by pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa

    2014-08-15

    To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students' selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships. Two 2-credit-hour elective courses that explored careers within the prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical drug industries were offered for second- and third-year pharmacy students in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program. The impact of the courses on pharmacy students' pursuit of a pharmaceutical industry fellowship was evaluated based on responses to annual graduating students' exit surveys. A greater percentage (17.9%) of students who had taken a pharmaceutical industry elective course pursued a pharmaceutical industry fellowship compared to all PharmD graduates (4.8%). Of the students who enrolled in pharmaceutical industry APPEs, 31% had taken 1 of the 2 elective courses. Exposure to a pharmaceutical industry elective course within a college or school of pharmacy curriculum may increase students' interest in pursuing pharmaceutical industry fellowships and enrolling in pharmaceutical industry APPEs.

  7. The 'values journey' of nursing and midwifery students selected using multiple mini interviews; Year One findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callwood, Alison; Bolger, Sarah; Allan, Helen T

    2017-12-15

    To explore how adult, child and mental health nursing and midwifery students, selected using multiple mini interviews, describe their 'values journey' following exposure to the clinical practice environment. Values based recruitment (VBR) incorporates assessment of healthcare students' personal values using approaches like multiple mini interviews. Students' experience of adjustment to their values during their programme is conceptualized as a 'values journey'. The impact of VBR in alleviating erosion of personal values remains unclear. A cross-professional longitudinal cohort study was commenced at one university in England in 2016 with data collection points at the end of years one, two and three. Non-probability consecutive sampling resulted in 42 healthcare students (8 adult, 8 child and 9 mental health nursing and 17 midwifery students) taking part. Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted at the end of participants' Year One (DC1). Data analysis incorporated inductive and deductive approaches in a hybrid synthesis. Participants described a 'values journey' where their values, particularly communication, courage and wanting to make a difference, were both challenged and retained. Participants personal journeys also acknowledged the: 'courage it takes to use values'; 'reality of values in practice' and 'need for self-reflection on values'. A 'values journey' may begin early in a healthcare student's education programme. This is important to recognize so that appropriate interventions designed to support students in higher education and clinical practice can be implemented. The values incorporated in VBR should be continually evaluated for fitness for purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Identificación de situaciones aleatorias en estudiantes universitarios Identification of random situations in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio F. Attorresi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presenta un estudio exploratorio para indagar el reconocimiento de situaciones aleatorias presentadas a doscientos dieciocho ingresantes a la universidad seleccionados por disponibilidad. Se diseñaron tres reactivos en los que el azar se manifestaba con variedad de contenido: uno referido al pensamiento, otro a una situación lúdica y un último al clima. Se realizó un primer nivel de categorización que distinguía el reconocimiento o no de las situaciones aleatorias y un segundo nivel que clasificó los distintos argumentos expuestos tanto para el reconocimiento como para el no reconocimiento. Se efectuaron comparaciones múltiples de proporciones y comparaciones de a pares de las respuestas. Puede destacarse la prevalencia de distintos tipos de argumentaciones normativas o caóticas según el contenido de la presentación. También se realizaron pruebas de independencia del reconocimiento de la aleatoriedad en los distintos ámbitos y se compararon los contenidos de a pares, encontrándose independencia en dos de las tres comparaciones posibles. Estosúltimos resultados son compatibles con otras investigaciones llevadas a cabo sobre adultos y también sobre estudiantes universitarios donde se afirma que el contenido influye en el reconocimiento de la aleatoriedad además de verificar una falta clara de concepción acerca de esta última noción.In this research we are introducing an exploratory study administered to two hundred and eighteen students being admitted to university, who were selected be accessibility, to look into the capacity of recognition of random phenomena. Three items in which random was expressed through variety of content were designed: one associated to thought, another connected to a ludic situation and a third one connected to the weather. A study of the first level of categorization told the difference between the recognition of random situations from those situations without this specific

  9. Simulated patients versus seminars to train case history and feedback skills in audiology students: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane; Wilson, Wayne J; MacBean, Naomi; Hill, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    To compare simulated patients (SP) versus seminars for training audiology students to take a case history and give feedback with adult patients. A randomized controlled trial with cross-over. Twenty-four audiology students, five SPs, two clinical educators (CE) and three evaluators. Students were randomly allocated to Group 1 who completed SP then seminar training or Group 2 who completed seminar then SP training. The SP training saw each student work with an SP in a clinic room and receive individualized feedback. The seminar training saw the student group work with a single CE in a lecture room and receive group feedback. All students were assessed taking a case history and giving feedback to an SP before, between, and after the training blocks. Mixed model analyses of derived factors for case history and feedback showed significant (p < 0.05) effects for assessment occasion (i.e. student skills improved with more training) but not for training sequence (i.e. order of training did not affect skill improvements) or training type (i.e. type of training did not affect skill improvements). SP training provided no benefit over seminar training in audiology students learning case history and feedback skills with adult patients.

  10. Selected correlates of white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B S

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients and variables selected within a theoretical framework of prejudice which included socialization factors and personality-based factors. The variables selected were: authoritarianism and self-esteem (personality-based factors), parents' attitudes toward black Americans, peer attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and socioeconomic status (socialization factors). The study also examined the differences in the relationship among white nursing students enrolled in baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma nursing programs. Data were collected from 201 senior nursing students enrolled in the three types of nursing programs in Rhode Island during the late fall and winter of 1979-1980. Although baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma students were similar in terms of peer attitudes toward black Americans, fathers' attitudes toward black Americans, self-esteem and attitudes toward black American patients, they were significantly different in terms of age, socioeconomic status, mothers' attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and authoritarianism. The major findings of this study indicate that the socialization explanation of prejudice is more significant than the personality-based explanation. The variables socioeconomic status, interracial contact and peer attitudes toward black Americans (all socialization variables) accounted for 22.0% of the total variance in attitudes toward black American patients for the total sample of nursing students. However, this relationship was not generalizable across the three different types of nursing programs.

  11. The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance- and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutedakis, Yiannis; Hukam, Harmel; Metsios, George; Nevill, Alan; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Myszkewycz, Lynn

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-week aerobic and muscular strength training program on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. The sample consisted of 32 men and women (age 19 +/- 2.2 years) who were randomly assigned into exercise (n = 19) and control (n = 13) groups. Anthropometric and flexibility assessments, treadmill ergometry, strength measurements, and- on a separate day-a dance technique test were conducted pre- and postexercise training in both groups. After the end of the program, the exercise group revealed significant increases in dance (p dance students (a) a 3-month aerobic and strength training program has positive effects on selected dance performance and fitness-related parameters, (b) aerobic capacity and leg strength improvements do not hinder dance performance as studied herein, and (c) the dance-only approach does not provide enough scope for physical fitness enhancements.

  12. Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Church

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques, a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N=18. The EFT group (n=9 had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n=9 (EFT BDI mean=23.44, SD=2.1 versus control BDI mean=20.33, SD=2.1. After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the “nondepressed” range (P=.001; EFT BDI mean=6.08, SE=1.8 versus control BDI mean=18.04, SE=1.8. Cohen's d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment.

  13. Efficacy of auriculotherapy for the reduction of stress in nursing students: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Juliana Miyuki; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2012-01-01

    This study is a randomized single-blind trial, which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of true auriculotherapy and placebo auriculotherapy in reducing the stress levels of mid-level Nursing students of the School of Nursing of the Beneficência Portuguesa Hospital. Seventy-one students with average, high and very high scores, according to Vasconcellos' List of Stress Symptoms, were divided into three groups: Control (25), Auriculotherapy (24), and Placebo/Sham (22). They were evaluated at the baseline, 8th and 12th sessions and at the follow-up (15 days) and received Shen Men and Brainstem points (Auriculotherapy Group) and Wrist and Outer Ear points (Placebo/Sham Group). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed statistically significant differences between the Control/Auriculotherapy groups from the 8th session, which was maintained in the third and fourth evaluations (p=0.000) and between the Control/Placebo groups (pauriculotherapy obtained better responses (45.39%) than the placebo (34.18%) in the reduction of the stress, but further studies are recommended for the re-evaluation of the sham points for stress. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01420848.

  14. Yoga and Emotion Regulation in High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Daly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle adolescents (15–17 years old are prone to increased risk taking and emotional instability. Emotion dysregulation contributes to a variety of psychosocial difficulties in this population. A discipline such as yoga offered during school may increase emotion regulation, but research in this area is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a yoga intervention on the emotion regulation of high school students as compared to physical education (PE. In addition, the potential mediating effects of mindful attention, self-compassion, and body awareness on the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation were examined. High school students were randomized to participate in a 16-week yoga intervention (n=19 or regular PE (n=18. Pre-post data analyses revealed that emotion regulation increased significantly in the yoga group as compared to the PE group (F (1,32 = 7.50, p=.01, and eta2 = .19. No significant relationship was discovered between the changes in emotion regulation and the proposed mediating variables. Preliminary results suggest that yoga increases emotion regulation capacities of middle adolescents and provides benefits beyond that of PE alone.

  15. Auricular Acupuncture for Exam Anxiety in Medical Students-A Randomized Crossover Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Klausenitz

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture (AA is effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety. The aim was to investigate whether AA can reduce exam anxiety as compared to placebo and no intervention. Forty-four medical students were randomized to receive AA, placebo, or no intervention in a crossover manner and subsequently completed three comparable oral anatomy exams with an interval of 1 month between the exams/interventions. AA was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AT1 and MA-TG one day prior to each exam. Placebo needles were used as control. Levels of anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale before and after each intervention as well as before each exam. Additional measures included the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, duration of sleep at night, blood pressure, heart rate and the extent of participant blinding. All included participants finished the study. Anxiety levels were reduced after AA and placebo intervention compared to baseline and the no intervention condition (p < 0.003. AA was better at reducing anxiety than placebo in the evening before the exam (p = 0.018. Participants were able to distinguish between AA and placebo intervention. Both AA and placebo interventions reduced exam anxiety in medical students. The superiority of AA over placebo may be due to insufficient blinding of participants.

  16. Auricular Acupuncture for Exam Anxiety in Medical Students-A Randomized Crossover Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausenitz, Catharina; Hacker, Henriette; Hesse, Thomas; Kohlmann, Thomas; Endlich, Karlhans; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2016-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety. The aim was to investigate whether AA can reduce exam anxiety as compared to placebo and no intervention. Forty-four medical students were randomized to receive AA, placebo, or no intervention in a crossover manner and subsequently completed three comparable oral anatomy exams with an interval of 1 month between the exams/interventions. AA was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AT1 and MA-TG one day prior to each exam. Placebo needles were used as control. Levels of anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale before and after each intervention as well as before each exam. Additional measures included the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, duration of sleep at night, blood pressure, heart rate and the extent of participant blinding. All included participants finished the study. Anxiety levels were reduced after AA and placebo intervention compared to baseline and the no intervention condition (p anxiety than placebo in the evening before the exam (p = 0.018). Participants were able to distinguish between AA and placebo intervention. Both AA and placebo interventions reduced exam anxiety in medical students. The superiority of AA over placebo may be due to insufficient blinding of participants.

  17. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  18. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  19. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  20. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students From Selected Countries of Latin America. A Workshop Report. Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Joel B., Ed.

    This is the report of the workshop on the admission and academic placement of students from selected Latin American countries. The participants and resource persons examined selected foreign educational systems in some detail, with particular regard to the entrance of students, who are products of those systems, into higher education in the United…

  1. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  2. Brief training of student clinicians in shared decision making: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Bennett, Sally; Tomsett, Clare; Del Mar, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Shared decision making is a crucial component of evidence-based practice, but a lack of training in the "how to" of it is a major barrier to its uptake. To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief intervention for facilitating shared decision making skills in clinicians and student clinicians. Multi-centre randomized controlled trial. One hundred and seven medical students, physiotherapy or occupational therapy students undertaking a compulsory course in evidence-based practice as part of their undergraduate or postgraduate degree from two Australian universities. The 1-h small-group intervention consisted of facilitated critique of five-step framework, strategies, and pre-recorded modelled role-play. Both groups were provided with a chapter about shared decision making skills. The primary outcome was skills in shared decision making and communicating evidence [Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale, items from the Assessing Communication about Evidence and Patient Preferences (ACEPP) Tool], rated by a blinded assessor from videorecorded role-plays. confidence in these skills and attitudes towards patient-centred communication (Patient Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS)). Of participants, 95 % (102) completed the primary outcome measures. Two weeks post-intervention, intervention group participants scored significantly higher on the OPTION scale (adjusted group difference = 18.9, 95 % CI 12.4 to 25.4), ACEPP items (difference = 0.9, 95 % CI 0.5 to 1.3), confidence measure (difference = 13.1, 95 % CI 8.5 to 17.7), and the PPOS sharing subscale (difference = 0.2, 95 % CI 0.1 to 0.5). There was no significant difference for the PPOS caring subscale. This brief intervention was effective in improving student clinicians' ability, attitude towards, and confidence in shared decision making facilitation. Following further testing of the longer-term effects of this intervention, incorporation of this brief intervention into evidence-based practice

  3. Cytopathology whole slide images and adaptive tutorials for senior medical students: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Es, Simone L; Kumar, Rakesh K; Pryor, Wendy M; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Velan, Gary M

    2016-01-08

    Diagnostic cytopathology is an essential part of clinical decision-making. However, due to a combination of factors including curriculum reform and shortage of pathologists to teach introductory cytopathology, this area of pathology receives little or no formal attention in most medical school curricula. We have previously described the successful use of efficient and effective digital learning resources, including whole slide images (WSI) and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials (VMATs), to teach cytopathology to pathology specialist trainees - a group that had prior exposure to cytopathology in their day to day practice. Consequently, in the current study we attempted to demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of this eLearning resource in a cohort of senior medical students that was completely naïve to the subject matter (cytopathology). We evaluated both the quantitative and qualitative impact of these digital educational materials for learning cytopathology compared with existing resources (e-textbooks and online atlases). The senior medical students were recruited from The University of New South Wales Australia for a randomized cross-over trial. Online assessments, administered after each arm of the trial, contained questions which related directly to a whole slide image. Two categories of questions in the assessments (focusing on either diagnosis or identification of cellular features) were utilized to determine efficacy. User experience and perceptions of efficiency were evaluated using online questionnaires containing Likert scale items and open-ended questions. For this cohort of senior medical students, virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials (VMATs) proved to be at least as effective as existing digital resources for learning cytopathology. Importantly, virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials had superior efficacy in facilitating accurate diagnosis on whole slide images. Student perceptions of VMATs were positive, particularly regarding the immediate

  4. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L F Small

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available T he researcher, being a nursing lecturer, questioned the method of selection of learning opportunities for student nurses in two training hospitals in the Northern part of Namibia.

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method.

    The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely:
    • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints
    Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged.

    Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  5. Nursing and Dental Hygiene Selection Procedures. Part I: The Structured Interview as a Tool for Selecting Students into an Associate of Arts Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Elaine L.; And Others

    A structured interview procedure was used during the spring of 1975 as a tool in selecting nursing and dental hygiene students at Johnson County Community College. Potential students had two 20-minute interviews: one by a staff member of the program to which application was made, and one by another staff member. Interviewers rated the applicants…

  6. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca; Malarkey, William B; Glaser, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Observational studies have linked lower omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and higher omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs with inflammation and depression, but randomized controlled trial (RCT) data have been mixed. To determine whether n-3 decreases proinflammatory cytokine production and depressive and anxiety symptoms in healthy young adults, this parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind 12-week RCT compared n-3 supplementation with placebo. The participants, 68 medical students, provided serial blood samples during lower-stress periods as well as on days before an exam. The students received either n-3 (2.5 g/d, 2085 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 348 mg docosahexanoic acid) or placebo capsules that mirrored the proportions of fatty acids in the typical American diet. Compared to controls, those students who received n-3 showed a 14% decrease in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production and a 20% reduction in anxiety symptoms, without significant change in depressive symptoms. Individuals differ in absorption and metabolism of n-3 PUFA supplements, as well as in adherence; accordingly, planned secondary analyses that used the plasma n-6:n-3 ratio in place of treatment group showed that decreasing n-6:n-3 ratios led to lower anxiety and reductions in stimulated IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production, as well as marginal differences in serum TNF-α. These data suggest that n-3 supplementation can reduce inflammation and anxiety even among healthy young adults. The reduction in anxiety symptoms associated with n-3 supplementation provides the first evidence that n-3 may have potential anxiolytic benefits for individuals without an anxiety disorder diagnosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00519779. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of computerized alcohol intervention for college students: role of class level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Ashleigh Sweet; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Alhassoon, Omar M; Shuttleworth, Sylvie; Van Slyke, Jenna; Gandy, Sharareh

    2016-01-01

    Because of their ability to reach a much wider audience than face-to-face counseling or psychoeducation, computer-delivered interventions for risky or potentially problematic use have been increasing on college campuses. However, there are very few studies that examine who benefits most from such interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in Alcohol-Wise, a computerized intervention, is associated with changes in alcohol drinking behavior and its consequences, perceptions of college drinking norms, and expectancies. It was hypothesized that class level (i.e. freshman/sophomore versus junior/senior) would moderate the effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise. College students (n = 58) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (i) the computer-delivered intervention or (ii) wait-list control. Measures were completed at baseline and approximately 30-days later. At follow-up, freshman and sophomore students in the intervention group showed significant reduction in peak number of standard drinks and blood alcohol concentration, but the effect was not observed for juniors and seniors. The intervention group reported more accurate estimates of drinking norms at follow-up relative to controls. There were no significant changes over time in alcohol expectancies in either group. This study provides support for the potential usefulness of Alcohol-Wise intervention at reducing short-term drinking among underclassmen but not upperclassmen in a 4-year college setting. These findings suggest that computerized interventions may be more effective when provided early, but not later, in a student's college career.

  8. The effect of topic selection on writing fluency among Japanese high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lin Lubold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Written fluency and fluency building activities have been shown to promote linguistic choice and student voice development, increased ability to express ideas using complex grammatical structures and greater intrinsic motivation in English language learners. Since the 1970’s, process-oriented writing has been emphasized, yielding an amplified focus on meaning of student content over linguistic form precision. Current research of writing fluency must delve deeper into questions of student ownership of topic and the outcomes for low-risk activities that support fluency practice and encourage confidence building in students. The purpose of this replication study is to further explore previous findings on the effects of topic selection on writing fluency for high school English as foreign language learners. Building off of the work of Bonzo (2008, this study focused on a timed, non-graded writing activity administered to groups of Japanese engineering students in three departments: mechanical, electrical, and global engineering. The six subsequent samples for each participating student were analyzed using online text-analysis for total and unique word counts, providing data used to perform a t-test. Responses to bi-lingual student questionnaires, with prompts on self-perceived written English ability, self-efficacy and strategies for success while writing, provided additional insight into the facets of fluency. The results of these writing sessions offer both confirmation of and contrast to Bonzo’s original work, demonstrate increased student meaning making, and support the use of free writing activities in English language classrooms as a means by which student written fluency may be improved.

  9. Selected Ohio Vocational Agricultural Students: Their Attributes, Vocational Objectives and Motivators for Enrollment. Summary of Research 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruckno, Kathleen Gutheil; Miller, Larry E.

    A study was conducted to explore why students in Ohio enter three selected taxonomy areas of vocational agriculture and to describe their attributes and vocational objectives. From a sample of 180 11th- and 12-th grade students, the study gathered data about vocational objectives and factors that motivated students to enroll in agricultural…

  10. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective

  11. Selected engagement factors and academic learning outcomes of undergraduate engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Patricia J.

    The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by George Kuh's, National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) at the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. In addition, research projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Academic Pathway Study (APS) at the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) and the Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE), Measuring Student and Faculty Engagement in Engineering Education, at the National Academy of Engineering. These research studies utilized the framework and data from the Engineering Change study by the Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State, that evaluated the impact of the new Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) EC2000 "3a through k" criteria identify 11 learning outcomes expected of engineering graduates. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent selected engagement factors of 1. institution, 2. social, 3. cognitive, 4. finance, and 5. technology influence undergraduate engineering students and quality student learning outcomes. Through the descriptive statistical analysis indicates that there maybe problems in the engineering program. This researcher would have expected at least 50% of the students to fall in the Strongly Agree and Agree categories. The data indicated that the there maybe problems in the engineering program problems in the data. The problems found ranked in this order: 1). Dissatisfaction with faculty instruction methods and quality of instruction and not a clear understanding of engineering majors , 2). inadequate Engineering faculty and advisors availability especially applicable

  12. Improvement or selection? A longitudinal analysis of students' views about experimental physics in their lab courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory courses represent a unique and potentially important component of the undergraduate physics curriculum, which can be designed to allow students to authentically engage with the process of experimental physics. Among other possible benefits, participation in these courses throughout the undergraduate physics curriculum presents an opportunity to develop students' understanding of the nature and importance of experimental physics within the discipline as a whole. Here, we present and compare both a longitudinal and pseudolongitudinal analysis of students' responses to a research-based assessment targeting students' views about experimental physics—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS)—across multiple, required lab courses at a single institution. We find that, while pseudolongitudinal averages showed increases in students' E-CLASS scores in each consecutive course, analysis of longitudinal data indicates that this increase was not driven by a cumulative impact of laboratory instruction. Rather, the increase was driven by a selection effect in which students who persisted into higher-level lab courses already had more expertlike beliefs, attitudes, and expectations than their peers when they started the lower-level courses.

  13. Familiarity and Understanding of Chemical Hazard Warning Signs Among Select College Students of De La Salle Lipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory classes have become crucial parts of teaching science subjects. Most of the laboratories in natural science fields widely use chemicals of different types and hazard levels. Using descriptive- evaluative method of research, the study was carried out to assess students’ familiarity and comprehension of chemical hazard warning signs. Data were collected from randomly selected 150 student respondents enrolled in Chemistry and Biology Laboratory Classes during the second semester of SY 2012- 2013. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. The collected data were analysed using simple quantitative analysis. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents were familiar with hazard signs of laboratory chemicals. After getting information on their level of awareness about potential hazards of laboratory chemicals, the respondents were also requested to match chemicals properties with the corresponding labels or pictograms. The results indicate that familiarity and understanding of hazard warning signs is low among the students. It also surveyed the preferred labelling technique which revealed that majority favoured the use of both colors and signs. An action plan was drafted as an output of the study aimed at putting forward corrective measures to address the laboratory related problems identified in the study.

  14. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sella Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner o...

  15. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  16. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  17. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  18. Selected personality traits and achievement motivation in university students of physical culture, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding personality variables and other important psychological traits in the university population appears topical particularly with respect to personality, motivation, health as well as overall academic achievement. A significant role is played by correlations of the monitored variables in relation to selected study specialization. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge on selected personality traits and the level of achievement motivation in a specific group of university students with respect to the diversity of their study specialization. METHODS: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. In the research, psychodiagnostic methods were used to perform diagnostics and to fulfil the overall research plan. All diagnostic methods used are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. We monitored variables such as personality, achievement motivation and achievement anxiety. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statgraphics programme v. 9.0. Result processing was made using parametric as well as non-parametric statistical methods (Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman’s correlation. RESULTS: University students specialized in physical culture showed the highest values of extraversion and psychoticism, and clearly the lowest values of neuroticism compared to the students of education and natural sciences. The highest values of openness were observed in the students specialized in sports. In terms of the overall achievement motivation related to study specialization, almost identical values were observed. However, the students of physical culture showed significantly lower values of achievement debilitating anxiety

  19. Preventing heavy alcohol use in adolescents (PAS): cluster randomized trial of a parent and student intervention offered separately and simultaneously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Smit, F.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Stattin, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of two preventive interventions to reduce heavy drinking in first- and second-year high school students. Design and setting Cluster randomized controlled trial using four conditions for comparing two active interventions with a control group from 152 classes of 19

  20. Randomizing Multiple Contingency Components to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors and Increase Student Engagement in an Urban Second-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKissick, Chele; Hawkins, Renee O.; Lentz, Francis E.; Hailley, Jennifer; McGuire, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors displayed in the classroom interfere with learning by taking time away from academic instruction. This study investigated the effects of randomizing components within an interdependent group contingency for group disruptive behavior and engagement levels of 26 students in a second-grade classroom in an urban Midwestern school.…

  1. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  2. The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and student motivation: Results of a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Janke; Luyten, Johannes W.; Visscher, Arend J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and motivation in grade three primary education (n schools = 79, n students = 1808). Experimental schools used a digital formative assessment tool whereas

  3. Emotion Regulation Enhancement of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Student Problem Drinkers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard

    2018-01-01

    This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…

  4. Assessing Fun Items' Effectiveness in Increasing Learning of College Introductory Statistics Students: Results of a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Weber, John J., III

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent emergence of scholarship on the use of fun in the college statistics classroom, with at least 20 modalities identified. While there have been randomized experiments that suggest that fun can enhance student achievement or attitudes in statistics, these studies have generally been limited to one particular fun modality or…

  5. Does Written Emotional Disclosure about Stress Improve College Students' Academic Performance? Results from Three Randomized, Controlled Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Alison M.; Stevenson, Jennifer K.; Lumley, Mark A.; D'Souza, Pamela J.; Kraft, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Several early studies and subsequent reviews suggested that written emotional disclosure (WED)--writing repeatedly about personal stressful experiences--leads to improved academic performance of college students. A critical review of available studies casts some doubt on this conclusion, so we conducted three randomized, controlled experiments of…

  6. Effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention during the clinical practicum of nursing students: a parallel group randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Saarikoski, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salminen, Leena; Suomi, Reima; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a study protocol for a study evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention to improve students' competence level, self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum has a vital role in promoting the learning of students. Despite an increasing interest in using mobile technologies to improve the clinical practicum of students, there is limited robust evidence regarding their effectiveness. A multicentre, parallel group, randomized, controlled, pragmatic, superiority trial. Second-year pre-registration nursing students who are beginning a clinical practicum will be recruited from one university of applied sciences. Eligible students will be randomly allocated to either a control group (engaging in standard cooperation) or an intervention group (engaging in mobile cooperation) for the 5-week the clinical practicum. The complex mobile cooperation intervention comprises of a mobile application-assisted, nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation and a training in the functions of the mobile application. The primary outcome is competence. The secondary outcomes include self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Moreover, a process evaluation will be undertaken. The ethical approval for this study was obtained in December 2014 and the study received funding in 2015. The results of this study will provide robust evidence on mobile cooperation during the clinical practicum, a research topic that has not been consistently studied to date. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from the 2-year reading intervention (reading with and without dropout prevention combined and BAU) are reported in this article. Students in reading treatment compared to students in BAU demonstrated significant gains on reading comprehension (effect size = .43), and improved reading was associated with better grades in social studies. Findings from this study provide a rationale for further implementation and investigation of intensive intervention for high school students with reading difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  8. Student concepts of Natural Selection from a resource-based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Scott Shawn

    The past two decades have produced a substantial amount of research about the teaching and learning of evolution; however, recent research often lacks a theoretical foundation. Application of a new theoretical framework could help fill the void and improve research about student concepts of evolution. This study seeks to show that a resource-based framework (Hammer et al., 2005) can improve research into student concepts of natural selection. Concepts of natural selection from urban community college students were assessed via qualitative (interviews, written open-response questions, and write/think aloud procedures) and quantitative methods (coded open response analysis, Concept Inventory for Natural Selection (CINS)(Anderson, Fisher, & Norman, 2002). Results showed that students demonstrate four important aspects of resource-based framework: the multi-faceted construction of concepts, context sensitivity/ concept flexibility, at-the-moment activation of resources, and perceptual frames. In open response assessment, evolutionary-gain responses produced significantly different responses than evolutionary-loss questions with: 1) significantly more correct answers for the gain than loss question (Wilcoxon signed rank test, z = -3.68, p=0.0002); 2) more Lamarckian responses to loss than the gain question (Fisher exact, p=0.0039); and significantly different distributions in expanded need vs basic need answers (Fishers exact, p = 0.02). Results from CINS scores showed significant differences in post activity scores between students that held different naive concepts associated with origin of variation, origin of species, differential reproduction, and limited survival suggesting that some naive ideas facilitate learning. Outcomes also suggest that an everyday or self-experience typological perceptual frame is an underlying source of many incorrect ideas about evolution. Interview and write/think aloud assessments propose four process resources applied by students as

  9. Factors hindering clinical training of students in selected nursing educational institutions in Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarado, Agnes N; Agu, Grace U; Nwonu, Eunice I

    2016-05-01

    Clinical training is an integral part of professional nursing education as it equips students with the required knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values needed for optimal practice in real-life situations. Inappropriate professional attributes have been observed among nursing graduates, while challenges to acquisition of clinical skills have been understudied in Nigeria. This study investigated system factors related to the provision of infrastructure/equipment, training/supervisory activities, and students' factors that may hinder clinical training of nursing students in two selected institutions in Southeastern Nigeria. This cross-sectional descriptive study purposively enlisted 283 students from a diploma and a degree nursing education program. Data were collected with researchers' developed questionnaire and analyzed in percentages, and means, with a mean decision criterion of students' clinical supervision; non-completion of relevant level classroom instructions and practical demonstrations before each clinical experience, inadequate equipment to practice in the clinical areas, with no preceptors to coach them at each shift (mean scores students had significantly less opportunity for return demonstration under supervision and independent practice in the laboratory; the diploma program students had significantly fewer teachers in their school and patients in their clinical area, clinical nurses as role models were not following the standard procedures in practice and students were not evaluated by supervisors at the end of each clinical experience. Identified factors in these training environments could hinder learners' interest and acquisition of professional attributes. Rectifying these situations could enhance the acquisition and display of appropriate professional performance behavior in practice by nursing graduates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sociodemographic differences in selected eating practices among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2009-05-01

    Students attending alternative high schools are an at-risk group of youth for poor health behaviors and obesity. However, little is known about their dietary practices. To examine associations between sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and selected dietary practices, including consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fruits and vegetables and fast-food restaurant use, among students attending alternative high schools. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of adolescents (n=145; 52% men; 63% aged sociodemographic differences in fruit/vegetable consumption. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with a higher consumption of regular soda (P=0.027). Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the consumption of regular soda, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use among alternative high school students underscores the importance of implementing health promotion programs in alternative high schools.

  11. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  12. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.

  13. The Relationships of The types of Entry Selection of Students with their Learning Motivation, Learning Strategies, and Learning Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Ashaeryanto, Ashaeryanto; Kristina, Tri Nur; Hadianto, Tridjoko

    2017-01-01

    Background: The learning achievement of students in higher education is reflected in their grade point average (GPA). Selection types in student admission, learning motivation, and learning strategies are believed to influence the effective and efficient learning achievement, thus facilitating achieving the desired learning objectives. Medical students should have good behavior and learning styles that eventually can help to make lifelong learning. Students that can organize themselves to lea...

  14. Family influence on life-course selection among female university students

    OpenAIRE

    手塚, 紀子; 古屋, 健

    2017-01-01

     National Institute of Population and Social Security Research defines women’s 5 life courses as follows; Full-time housewife,Return-to-work, Managing both work and family, DINKS, Single and working. For female university students, whichlife course is the ideal course and which life course they plan to lead? This study examines following three hypotheses asfactors influencing their choice. The first hypothesis is that mother’s life course selection tends to influence the life courseselection ...

  15. Selective Admission Tests and Students' Performances. Evidence from a Natural Experiment in a Large Italian University

    OpenAIRE

    Carrieri, Vincenzo; D'Amato, Marcello; Zotti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Using a difference-in-differences approach, we exploit a quasi-experiment occurred in a large public university located in Southern Italy, to study whether the introduction of a selective admission test affects two indicators of students’ performances: dropout rate and grade point average (GPA). Our analysis shows that a change of regime to a more restrictive admission policy improves college performances, reducing the dropout rate of first year students by about 11% and increasing their grad...

  16. SELECTED FACTORS OF SPORTS RESULT IN KAYAKING AMONG STUDENTS OF RADOM TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Chodinow Włodzimierz; Kaca Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of the most salient factors affecting the outcome of sports in each discipline is a fundamental issue of scientific and practical introduction. Therefore, the authors have decided to specify importance selected predisposition morphological, functional and impairment in achieving results in kayaking test of special efficiency among students of Radom Technological College. Studies noticed relationship between body mass, strength and growth obtained both sports competition. It was no...

  17. Study of gender stereotypes of students (both girls and boys) of the selected basic schools

    OpenAIRE

    Zemková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at finding if the ninth-year students (both girls and boys) of selected basic schools have been affected by gender stereotypes, and if the gender stereotypes approach their ideas, perception and decision making. Besides gender concept, the theoretical part also includes chapters related to gender theories, attitudes, gender stereotypes, equal opportunities for men and women in occupation, and the role of men and women in a family. The central chapter deals with topics of g...

  18. Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2017-07-11

    The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical

  19. Three new students selected for the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Initiated in 2013, the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme aims to enable young, talented and motivated students to work on part of their PhD thesis at CERN. The collaboration has just selected the three students who will start their theses in 2016.   The three students who received the ATLAS grant, which will cover part of their PhD studies. From left to right: Ruth Jacobs (Germany), Artem Basalaev (Russia), Nedaa B I Asbah (Palestine). The ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme was made possible thanks to a large donation by former ATLAS spokespersons Fabiola Gianotti and Peter Jenni, who started the fund with money from the Fundamental Physics Prize they received in 2013. Applications are handled by CERN HR, via this link. The aim of the initiative is to offer a unique educational opportunity to students within the ATLAS collaboration and to give them the possibility to continue their career in particle physics. Selected candidates receive a stipend allowing them to spend one year at CERN, followed by one year at their h...

  20. Selected English-Czech False Friends and Their Use in the Works of Some Czech Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Raušer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves mainly for practical study purposes and focuses on selected vocabulary taken from various Internet sources and subsequently put into wrong contexts by some Czech students of English at an institute of tertiary education, where the paper’s author is currently employed at the Department of Foreign Languages. When assessing the students’ oral presentations and submitted term papers, he very often encounters expressions the students borrow from English, yet incorrectly interpret as their semantic equivalents in the Czech language. Using these specifically opposing vocabularies, commonly referred to as “false friends”, account for repeatedly occurring mistakes made by the above students, who find some of these words confusing, displeasing and difficult to comprehend. Based on his subjective judgement and experience, the author selected several examples of such words in order to point out their particular discrepancies on applying them to both the English and Czech languages. By doing so, the author believes the students will avoid making mistakes, when searching and/or using their online references.

  1. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  2. A web-based sexual violence bystander intervention for male college students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Laura F; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Hardin, James; Berkowitz, Alan

    2014-09-05

    Bystander intervention approaches offer promise for reducing rates of sexual violence on college campuses. Most interventions are in-person small-group formats, which limit their reach and reduce their overall public health impact. This study evaluated the efficacy of RealConsent, a Web-based bystander approach to sexual violence prevention, in enhancing prosocial intervening behaviors and preventing sexual violence perpetration. A random probability sample of 743 male undergraduate students (aged 18 to 24 years) attending a large, urban university located in the southeastern United States was recruited online and randomized to either RealConsent (n=376) or a Web-based general health promotion program (n=367). Participants were surveyed online at baseline, postintervention, and 6-months postintervention. RealConsent was delivered via a password-protected Web portal that contained six 30-minute media-based and interactive modules covering knowledge of informed consent, communication skills regarding sex, the role of alcohol and male socialization in sexual violence, empathy for rape victims, and bystander education. Primary outcomes were self-reported prosocial intervening behaviors and sexual violence perpetration. Secondary outcomes were theoretical mediators (eg, knowledge, attitudes). At 6-month follow-up RealConsent participants intervened more often (P=.04) and engaged in less sexual violence perpetration (P=.04) compared to controls. In addition, RealConsent participants reported greater legal knowledge of sexual assault (Pimpact on sexual violence. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01903876; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01903876 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6S1PXxWKt).

  3. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawjee, Karizma; Woltering, Steven; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM), transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy. 97 post-secondary students (59.8% female) aged 18-35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session), a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session) that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group). All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM), CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM) and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM). Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms. Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use. This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657721.

  4. Tolerance for ambiguity: an ethics-based criterion for medical student selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail

    2013-05-01

    Planned changes to the MCAT exam and the premedical course requirements are intended to enable the assessment of humanistic characteristics and, thus, to select students who are more likely to become physicians who can communicate and relate with patients and engage in ethical decision making. Identifying students who possess humanistic and communication skills is an important goal, but the changes being implemented may not be sufficient to evaluate key personality traits that characterize well-rounded, thoughtful, empathic, and respectful physicians. The author argues that consideration should be given to assessing prospective students' tolerance for ambiguity as part of the admission process. Several strategies are proposed for implementing and evaluating such an assessment. Also included in this paper is an overview of the conceptual and empirical literature on tolerance for ambiguity among physicians and medical students, its impact on patient care, and the attention it is given in medical education. This evidence suggests that if medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for ambiguity, quality of care in ambiguous conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, the humility necessary for moral character formation might be enhanced, and the increasing ambiguity in medical practice might be better acknowledged and accepted.

  5. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  7. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  8. Prospective randomized crossover study of simulation vs. didactics for teaching medical students the assessment and management of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher Eric; Menchine, Michael; Anderson, Craig; Kollen, Robert; Langdorf, Mark I; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2011-04-01

    Simulation (SIM) allows medical students to manage high-risk/low-frequency cases in an environment without patient risk. However, evidence for the efficacy of SIM-based training remains limited. To compare SIM-based training to traditional didactic lecture (LEC) for teaching medical students to assess and manage critically ill patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and anaphylaxis. Prospective, randomized, non-blinded crossover study of 28 fourth-year medical students. Students were oriented to the human patient simulator, then randomized to SIM or LEC between August and December 2007. The SIM group learned to manage MI using SIM training and the LEC group learned via PowerPoint lecture. All subjects' assessment and management skills were then evaluated during a simulation session of MI. During a second instruction session, the students crossed over and were taught anaphylaxis using the opposite modality and similar assessments were conducted. Completion of critical actions for each case were scored, converted to percentages, and analyzed via signed rank test. Of 28 subjects, 27 performed better when trained with SIM compared with LEC (p didactic lecture for teaching fourth-year medical students to assess and manage simulated critically ill MI and anaphylaxis patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors involved in selection of a career in surgery and orthopedics for medical students in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, C; Banza, L; Mkandawire, N

    2010-03-01

    There is a critical shortage of Orthopedic Surgeons in Malawi as well as all countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, there is no published literature that has investigated surgical or Orthopedic career selection amongst African medical trainees. With the goal of facilitating recruitment into Surgery and Orthopedics in Malawi, we explored the key aspects of Malawian Medical Students' choice of careers in surgical disciplines. An on-line survey of all students in clinical years at the College of Medicine in Blantyre, Malawi was performed. The survey was anonymous and constructed de novo by a stringent process including Item Generation, Item reduction, Survey composition, Pre-testing, Assessment of Validity by a recognized survey expert, Pilot testing in on-line format by several Malawian Medical Students, and then formal survey testing. Surgery was the most popular specialty choice among the medical trainees (46%). General Surgery was the popular surgical specialty (27%), followed by Neurosurgery (22%) and Orthopedics (19%). The majority of students (67%) feared occupational exposure to HIV but this did not appear to be a factor in specialty choice (p = 0.9). Students with Orthopedic mentors were significantly more likely to choose Orthopedics as their first choice surgical specialty (p = 0.01). Despite limited resources and surgeons in sub-Saharan Africa, surgical specialties are desirable career choices. This is the first evaluation of factors involved in surgical or Orthopedic career selection in any African context. Future initiatives to improve exposure and mentorship in Orthopedics are fundamental to recruitment into the specialty.

  10. Effect of core strength and endurance training on performance in college students: randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim F; Murphy, Jeff C; Bonney, John R; Thich, Jacob L

    2013-07-01

    Core training continues to be emphasized with the proposed intent of improving athletic performance. The purpose of this investigation was to discover if core isometric endurance exercises were superior to core isotonic strengthening exercises and if either influenced specific endurance, strength, and performance measures. Ten untrained students were randomly assigned to core isometric endurance (n = 5) and core isotonic strength training (n = 5). Each performed three exercises, two times per week for six weeks. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the measurements for the dependent variables and significance by bonferroni post-hoc testing. The training protocols were compared using a 2 × 3 mixed model ANOVA. Improvement in trunk flexor and extensor endurance (p strength (p strength group. Improvement in trunk flexor and right lateral endurance (p strength in the squat (p < 0.05) were found with the endurance group. Neither training protocol claimed superiority and both were ineffective in improving performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Promotion of healthy nutrition among students participating in a school food aid program: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Dina; Dalma, Archontoula; Petralias, Athanassios; Lykou, Anastasia; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Yannakoulia, Mary; Karnaki, Pania; Belogianni, Katerina; Veloudaki, Afroditi; Riza, Elena; Malik, Rhea; Linos, Athena

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the potential benefits on students' eating habits, of incorporating healthy nutrition education as part of a school food aid program. 146 schools participating in the DIATROFI Program in Greece during the 2013-2014 school year were randomly allocated to the environmental intervention (received a healthy daily meal) and the multicomponent intervention (MI) group (in addition to the meal, a healthy nutrition educational program was applied). The analysis, based on 3627 pre-post intervention questionnaire pairs, was stratified for children (ages 4-11 years) and adolescents (ages 12-18 years). Children participating in the MI group displayed 25 % higher odds of increasing the weekly consumption of milk/yoghurt and fruits, 61 % higher odds of improving BMI from overweight/obese to normal and 2.5 times higher odds of improving from underweight to normal. For adolescents in the MI group, the odds of increasing the consumption of vegetables were 40 % higher. In both intervention groups, approximately one in four overweight/obese adolescents reached normal weight. Educational programs on healthy nutrition might be considered worth implementing in the framework of school food aid programs.

  12. The Psychometric Characteristics of Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey: A Study Students of Isfahan University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeinab Rostami; Mohammad Reza Abedi; Willmar B Schaufeli; S. Ahmad Ahmadi; Amir Hossein Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to fill the gap of tool for measurement of student burnout in Iran, this study was performed on the 238 female students of Isfahan university that were selected by simple random sampling...

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  14. Does Written Emotional Disclosure about Stress Improve College Students' Academic Performance? Results from Three Randomized, Controlled Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Alison M; Stevenson, Jennifer K; Lumley, Mark A; D'Souza, Pamela; Kraft, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Several early studies and subsequent reviews suggested that written emotional disclosure (WED)-writing repeatedly about personal stressful experiences-leads to improved academic performance of college students. Yet a critical review of available studies casts some doubt on this, so we conducted three randomized, controlled experiments of the effects of WED versus control writing on grade point average (GPA) of college students. In all three studies, WED writing was implemented effectively-it contained more negative emotion language and generated more negative mood than did control writing. In Study 1, WED did not influence GPA during either the writing semester or subsequent semester among 96 students with headaches. In Study 2, WED had no effect on GPA compared with either control writing or no writing conditions among 124 students with unresolved stress. In Study 3, WED did not influence GPA or retention among 68 academically at-risk ethnic minority students, although secondary analyses suggested some benefits of WED among students who wrote more than once, particularly men. These three studies challenge the belief that WED improves academic performance of college students, and research should examine subgroups of students who might benefit from WED.

  15. Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-03-26

    Unhealthy alcohol use is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, particularly among young people. Systematic reviews suggest efficacy of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention and call for effectiveness trials in settings where it could be sustainably delivered. To evaluate a national web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention program. A multisite, double-blind, parallel-group, individually randomized trial was conducted at 7 New Zealand universities. In April and May of 2010, invitations containing hyperlinks to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening test were e-mailed to 14,991 students aged 17 to 24 years. Participants who screened positive (AUDIT-C score ≥4) were randomized to undergo screening alone or to 10 minutes of assessment and feedback (including comparisons with medical guidelines and peer norms) on alcohol expenditure, peak blood alcohol concentration, alcohol dependence, and access to help and information. A fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment was conducted that measured 6 primary outcomes: consumption per typical occasion, drinking frequency, volume of alcohol consumed, an academic problems score, and whether participants exceeded medical guidelines for acute harm (binge drinking) and chronic harm (heavy drinking). A Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of .0083 was used to account for the 6 comparisons and a sensitivity analysis was used to assess possible attrition bias. Of 5135 students screened, 3422 scored 4 or greater and were randomized, and 83% were followed up. There was a significant effect on 1 of the 6 prespecified outcomes. Relative to control participants, those who received intervention consumed less alcohol per typical drinking occasion (median 4 drinks [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8] vs 5 drinks [IQR 2-8]; rate ratio [RR], 0.93 [99.17% CI, 0.86-1.00]; P = .005) but not less often (RR, 0.95 [99.17% CI, 0.88-1.03]; P = .08) or less

  16. Student nurse selection and predictability of academic success: The Multiple Mini Interview project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Julia; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Paget, Kris; Marks-Maran, Di

    2016-05-01

    With recent reports of public enquiries into failure to care, universities are under pressure to ensure that candidates selected for undergraduate nursing programmes demonstrate academic potential as well as characteristics and values such as compassion, empathy and integrity. The Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) was used in one university as a way of ensuring that candidates had the appropriate numeracy and literacy skills as well as a range of communication, empathy, decision-making and problem-solving skills as well as ethical insights and integrity, initiative and team-work. To ascertain whether there is evidence of bias in MMIs (gender, age, nationality and location of secondary education) and to determine the extent to which the MMI is predictive of academic success in nursing. A longitudinal retrospective analysis of student demographics, MMI data and the assessment marks for years 1, 2 and 3. One university in southwest London. One cohort of students who commenced their programme in September 2011, including students in all four fields of nursing (adult, child, mental health and learning disability). Inferential statistics and a Bayesian Multilevel Model. MMI in conjunction with MMI numeracy test and MMI literacy test shows little or no bias in terms of ages, gender, nationality or location of secondary school education. Although MMI in conjunction with numeracy and literacy testing is predictive of academic success, it is only weakly predictive. The MMI used in conjunction with literacy and numeracy testing appears to be a successful technique for selecting candidates for nursing. However, other selection methods such as psychological profiling or testing of emotional intelligence may add to the extent to which selection methods are predictive of academic success on nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors of alternative high school students, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Davey, Cynthia; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Availability of competitive foods in schools has been linked to unhealthful dietary behaviors of students. Little is known about the food environment of alternative high schools, schools that enroll students at risk of academic failure. We examined correlations between food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors of students attending alternative high schools. Baseline data were collected in fall 2006 as part of the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life) pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention trial. Students (n = 145) attending 6 alternative high schools in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, completed a survey on food opportunities during the school day and selected dietary behaviors. We used mixed-model multivariate cross-sectional analysis and adjusted for demographic characteristics to examine associations of interest. Food opportunities during the school day were positively associated with overall consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, and fast-food restaurant use. Having many food opportunities during the school day at alternative high schools was linked to the consumption of foods and beverages high in sugar and fat and low in nutrients. School-based interventions should focus on changing the food environment in alternative high schools to decrease less healthful eating opportunities and to increase the availability of healthful foods and beverages.

  18. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders on knowledge of students in a selected pre-university college at Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Isaque Manik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep plays an important role in maintaining good physical and mental health throughout the life. Timely and adequate sleep will improve quality of life, protect mental and physical health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders on knowledge of pre-university students in a selected college at Bengaluru. Methodology: A pre-experimental research was conducted with 60 pre-university students; samples were selected using simple random sampling technique, and the data was collected using structured socio-demographic proforma and knowledge questionnaire on sleep hygiene and sleep disorders. Structured teaching programme on sleep hygiene and sleep disorders was given on the same day. Posttest was conducted after seven days. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in pre- and post-test knowledge scores (t=26.71, p<0.001 of pre-university students with respect to sleep hygiene and sleep disorders. Association between socio-demographic variables and pre-test knowledge scores showed that there was significant association between religion and pre-test knowledge scores. Conclusion: Findings conclude that structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders was effective in increasing knowledge score among pre-university students.

  19. School-Based Curriculum to Improve Depression Literacy Among US Secondary School Students: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Karen; Musci, Rashelle J; Beaudry, Mary Beth; Heley, Kathryn; Miller, Leslie; Alfes, Clarissa; Townsend, Lisa; Thornicroft, Graham; Wilcox, Holly C

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression education program. In 2012-2015, we matched 6679 students from 66 secondary schools into pairs by state (Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Oklahoma) and randomized to the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP; n = 3681) or to a waitlist control condition (n = 2998). Trained teachers delivered ADAP as part of the health education curriculum to students aged 14 to 15 years. The primary outcome was depression literacy. Secondary outcomes included mental health stigma and, in a subset of the sample, the receipt of mental health services. Follow-up was at 4 months. ADAP resulted in significantly higher levels of depression literacy among participating students than did waitlist controls, after adjusting for pretest assessment depression literacy (P health intervention for improving depression literacy among students. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02099305.

  20. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Lan, Xiulu; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not b...

  1. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  2. Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alicia Fontana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. PURPOSE The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. RESULTS The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. CONCLUSION Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  3. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  4. State test-anxiety, selective attention and concentration in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Caurcel, María J

    2015-08-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the level of selective attention and mental concentration before exams in a sample of university students and to determine a possible relationship between anxiety and reduction of levels of attention in this circumstance. A total of 403 university students, 176 men and 227 women, aged from 18 to 46 years, participated in the study. Of them, 169 were first-year undergraduates, 118 were second to fourth-year undergraduates and 116 were postgraduate Master's degree students. All of them completed the Spanish version of the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory and the D2 Attention Test just before taking an exam. Our results showed that participants with lower levels of anxiety had higher levels of selective attention and mental concentration before the exam. These results specifically indicate that when anxiety levels are very high, this could over-activate the orientating and alerting functions and to reduce the capacity of attentional control. These processes could have a negative impact on specific attentional processes and become a negative influence on performance in exams. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  6. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  7. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  8. Seeking inclusion in an exclusive process: discourses of medical school student selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Hodges, Brian; Steinert, Yvonne; Maguire, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Calls to increase medical class representativeness to better reflect the diversity of society represent a growing international trend. There is an inherent tension between these calls and competitive student selection processes driven by academic achievement. How is this tension manifested? Our three-phase interdisciplinary research programme focused on the discourses of excellence, equity and diversity in the medical school selection process, as conveyed by key stakeholders: (i) institutions and regulatory bodies (the websites of 17 medical schools and 15 policy documents from national regulatory bodies); (ii) admissions committee members (ACMs) (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 9]), and (iii) successful applicants (according to semi-structured interviews [n = 14]). The work is theoretically situated within the works of Foucault, Bourdieu and Bakhtin. The conceptual framework is supplemented by critical hermeneutics and the performance theories of Goffman. Academic excellence discourses consistently predominate over discourses calling for greater representativeness in medical classes. Policy addressing demographic representativeness in medicine may unwittingly contribute to the reproduction of historical patterns of exclusion of under-represented groups. In ACM selection practices, another discursive tension is exposed as the inherent privilege in the process is marked, challenging the ideal of medicine as a meritocracy. Applicants' representations of self in the 'performance' of interviewing demonstrate implicit recognition of the power inherent in the act of selection and are manifested in the use of explicit strategies to 'fit in'. How can this critical discourse analysis inform improved inclusiveness in student selection? Policymakers addressing diversity and equity issues in medical school admissions should explicitly recognise the power dynamics at play between the profession and marginalised groups. For greater inclusion and to avoid one

  9. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. lita

    2002-11-01

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method. The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely: • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged. Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  10. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  11. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  12. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  13. Efficacy of Alcohol Interventions for First-Year College Students: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol use established during the first-year of college can result in adverse consequences during the college years and beyond. This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of interventions to prevent alcohol misuse by first-year college students. Methods Prevention studies were included if the study reported an individual- or group-level intervention using a randomized controlled trial, targeted first-year college students, and assessed alcohol use. Forty-one studies with 62 separate interventions (N = 24,294; 57% women; 77% White) were included. Independent raters coded sample, design, methodological features, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes, using fixed- and random-effects models, were calculated. Potential moderators, determined a priori, were examined to explain variability in effect sizes. Results Relative to controls, students receiving an intervention reported lower quantity and frequency of drinking and fewer problems (d+s = 0.07 – 0.14). These results were more pronounced when the interventions were compared to an assessment-only control group (d+s = 0.11 – 0.19). Intervention content (e.g., personalized feedback) moderated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Behavioral interventions for first-year college students reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Interventions that include personalized feedback, moderation strategies, expectancy challenge, identification of risky situations, and goal setting optimize efficacy. Strategies to prevent alcohol misuse among first-year students are recommended. PMID:24447002

  14. Efficacy of alcohol interventions for first-year college students: a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Elliott, Jennifer C; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol use established during the first-year of college can result in adverse consequences during the college years and beyond. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the efficacy of interventions to prevent alcohol misuse by first-year college students. Studies were included if the study reported an individual- or group-level intervention using a randomized controlled trial, targeted 1st-year college students, and assessed alcohol use. Forty-one studies with 62 separate interventions (N = 24,294; 57% women; 77% White) were included. Independent raters coded sample, design, methodological features, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes, using fixed- and random-effects models, were calculated. Potential moderators, determined a priori, were examined to explain variability in effect sizes. Relative to controls, students receiving an intervention reported lower quantity and frequency of drinking and fewer problems (d(+)s = 0.07-0.14). These results were more pronounced when the interventions were compared with an assessment-only control group (d(+)s = 0.11-0.19). Intervention content (e.g., personalized feedback) moderated the efficacy of the intervention. Behavioral interventions for 1st-year college students reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Interventions that include personalized feedback, moderation strategies, expectancy challenge, identification of risky situations, and goal-setting optimize efficacy. Strategies to prevent alcohol misuse among first-year students are recommended.

  15. Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection as a Tool for Measuring Greek University Students' Evolution Knowledge: Differences between novice and advanced students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia

    2014-05-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare various groups of Greek university students for their level of knowledge of Evolution by means of Natural Selection (ENS). For the purpose of the study, we used a well known questionnaire the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) and 352 biology majors and non-majors students from the University of Athens took part in it. A principal components analysis revealed problems with the items designed to assess the concepts of population stability, differential survival and variation inheritable, therefore these items need to be reconsidered. Nonetheless, the results of the CINS for each Greek sub-group showed that the higher the involvement in evolution education, the higher the students' performances on the CINS test. This linear correlation, together with other evidence, supports the CINS authors' claims about the usefulness of the CINS as an assessment of instruction. Unfortunately, Greek university students gave many teleological and proximate answers to many of the CINS items. Comparisons between least and most evolutionary educated university students revealed that the latter gave more evolutionary answers. Oddly, advanced biology majors students did not show an improvement in all the 20 items of the CINS (only in 14 out of the 20 items) compared to novice biology students. They even gave more teleological answers to the concept natural resources are limited than novice biology majors students. Finally, Greek university students' level of knowledge of ENS seems to be closer to Canadian than US students'.

  16. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  17. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  18. Effects of mobile augmented reality learning compared to textbook learning on medical students: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian; Behrends, Marianne; von Jan, Ute

    2013-08-20

    By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the "Profile of Mood States" questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a selectivity of RPB=0.2. For m

  19. Effects of Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Compared to Textbook Learning on Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. Objective To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). Methods A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the “Profile of Mood States” questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Results Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a

  20. SELECTED FACTORS OF SPORTS RESULT IN KAYAKING AMONG STUDENTS OF RADOM TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodinow Włodzimierz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the most salient factors affecting the outcome of sports in each discipline is a fundamental issue of scientific and practical introduction. Therefore, the authors have decided to specify importance selected predisposition morphological, functional and impairment in achieving results in kayaking test of special efficiency among students of Radom Technological College. Studies noticed relationship between body mass, strength and growth obtained both sports competition. It was not demonstrated while direct impact of the results obtained in attempts to balance and breathing on the outcome of sports.

  1. An Evaluation of the Air Force Institute of Technology Student Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    total score on the GMAT TOEFL Student’s score on the Test of English as a Foreign Language • denotes an indicator variable 2( Criterion Variable The...scores on standardized tests , i hich AFIT currently uses in the selection process. Using the graduate GPA as the criterion, this study examined the...minimum undergraduate grade point average of’ 2.50 (out ()f 4.00) and satisfactory completion of an appropriate gr’adIna5 admissions test . If the officer

  2. The Effects of Visible Cheese on the Selection and Consumption of Food Groups to Encourage in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Smith, Bryan K.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Mayo, Matt; Lee, Robert; Lynch, Anthony; Sallee, Tara; Cook-Weins, Galen; Washburn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of visible cheese on selection and consumption of food groups to encourage (FGTE) in middle school students. Methods: Study 1 was conducted in three middle schools with 145 students (Boys=67, Girls=78, 30% minorities). The regular monthly menus were altered to…

  3. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  4. A Study of the Effect of Secondary School Leadership Styles on Student Achievement in Selected Secondary School in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cydnie Ellen Smith

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the leadership style of the secondary school principal on student achievement in select public schools in Louisiana was examined in this study. The null hypothesis was that there was no statistically significant difference between principal leadership style and student academic achievement. The researcher submitted the LEAD-Self…

  5. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Shi, Yuanyu; Niu, Binbin; Shi, Zhangyan; Li, Junlin; Ma, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Fuchang; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Kejin

    2016-03-23

    The choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene has been associated with various human disorders that involve cognitive impairment or deficiency. However, the influence of disease-associated variants of CHAT on normal individuals remains dubious. Here we demonstrated the impact of CHAT sequence variants (G-120A) on general human cognitive ability in a cohort of 750 Chinese undergraduate students. A multiple choice questionnaire was used to obtain basic demographic information, such as parents' occupations and education levels. We also administered and scored the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) revealed a significant association between sequence polymorphisms of G-120A and individuals' Raven score (p=0.031 for ANOVA and p=0.026 for K-W tests). Moreover, further hierarchical analysis showed a similar trend in the association between G-120A variants and Raven scores only in the female subjects (p=0.008 for ANOVA and p=0.024 for K-W tests) but not in the male subjects. The results of a multiple linear regression confirmed that after we controlled gender, age, birthplace and other non-genetic factors, CHAT G-120A polymorphisms still significantly influenced individual Raven scores (B=-0.70, SE=0.28, t=-2.50, p=0.013). Our results demonstrated that sequence variants of CHAT were associated with human cognitive ability in not only patients with psychiatric disorders but also normal healthy individuals. However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of a Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Obesity among Chinese Primary School Students: CLICK-Obesity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Leslie, Eva; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study) in Mainland China. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 ur...

  7. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  8. Doctoral Advisor-Advisee Pairing in STEM Fields: Selection Criteria and Impact of Faculty, Student and Departmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simy Joy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the doctoral programs in places where students are paired with advisors at the time of admission itself, most US programs require the students to choose their advisors, and the advisors to formally accept the students as advisees. Little research has been done to understand how students and faculty approach this mutual selection and pairing process. This paper examines this process in STEM departments (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, with specific focus on factors influencing the decisions. Based on focus groups and interviews of doctoral students and faculty from STEM departments in an American university, we identify criteria applied by students and faculty in making their choices. Students were found to assess faculty on available funding, area of research, personality, ability to graduate students fast, and career prospects for students, and faculty to assess students on their qualifications/credentials and perceived ability to contribute to research. We also found that this mutual assessment was not objective, but influenced by perceptions associated with faculty gender and career stage, and student nationality. In the end, whether students and faculty were actually paired with persons of their choice depended on departmental factors including prevalent pairing practices, restrictions on student numbers per faculty, and reward structure. We discuss implications of the findings for research and practice.

  9. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2013-09-27

    Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of sleep medicine topics in the curriculum (47%). Medical students in the surveyed institutions possess poor knowledge regarding sleep medicine, which reflects the weak level of education in this field of medicine. To improve the recognition of sleep disorders among practicing physicians, medical schools

  10. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  11. Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew

    High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  13. Validity of the UKCAT in applicant selection and predicting exam performance in UK dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Rizwana; Wood, Duncan; Baker, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The United Kingdom's Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) aims to assess candidates' "natural talent" for dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the UKCAT for dental school applicant selection. The relationship of the UKCAT with demographic and academic variables was examined, assessing if the likelihood of being offered a place at a UK dental school was predicted by demographic factors and academic selection tools (predicted grades and existing school results). Finally, the validity of these selection tools in predicting first-year dental exam performance was assessed. Correlational and regression analyses showed that females and poorer students were more likely to have lower UKCAT scores. Gender and social class did not, however, predict first-year dental exam performance. UKCAT scores predicted the likelihood of the candidate being offered a place in the dental course; however, they did not predict exam performance during the first year of the course. Indeed, the only predictor of dental exam performance was existing school results. These findings argue against the use of the UKCAT as the sole determinant in dental applicant selection, instead highlighting the value of using existing school results.

  14. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  15. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  16. Bridging Emergent Attributes and Darwinian Principles in Teaching Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongchen; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Students often have misconceptions about natural selection as they misuse a direct causal schema to explain the process. Natural selection is in fact an emergent process where random interactions lead to changes in a population. The misconceptions stem from students' lack of emergent schema for natural selection. In order to help students…

  17. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions

  18. The effectiveness of Tai Chi on the physical and psychological well-being of college students: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Lan, Xiulu; Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2014-04-17

    The physical and mental health of college-age youths tends to continuously decline around the world. It is therefore important to promote health during this period. As a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) may be an available selection. However for the college student population, the evidence is unclear as to whether TCC can be recommended as an effective exercise for promoting their physical and psychological wellbeing. Therefore high quality, rigorous, prospective, and well-controlled randomized trials are needed to further understand TCC serving as a psychological and physical intervention in college age populations. We designed a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial with a sample size of 206 participants. All the participants who meet the inclusion criteria come from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (FJTCM). Participants of the TCC training group will receive TCC training at a frequency of five days per week for one hour per day for 12 weeks. No specific exercise will be administered on the participants in the control group. Both physical and mental health outcomes, including balance ability, lower limb proprioception, flexibility, physical fitness, self-efficacy, psychological symptoms, attention span, stress, self-esteem, mood and mindfulness, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Safety outcomes will be evaluated by blinded operators at baseline, 12 and 24-weeks post-intervention. This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that will test the effectiveness and safety of TCC on the physical and psychological wellbeing of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher quality evidence of TCC on the physical and mental health of college age populations. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003328.

  19. Evaluating the impact of feedback on elementary aged students' fluency growth in written expression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J; Eckert, Tanya L; Codding, Robin S; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate elementary-aged students' writing fluency growth in response to (a) instructional practices, (b) sex differences, and (c) student's initial level of writing fluency. Third-grade students (n=133) in three urban elementary schools were randomly assigned to either an individualized performance feedback condition (n=46), a practice-only condition (i.e., weekly writing practice; n=39), or an instructional control condition (n=48) for 8weeks. Findings included support for use of performance feedback as an instructional component in general education classrooms (Hedges' g=0.66), whereas simple practice with curriculum-based measurement in written expression did not produce growth significantly greater than standard instructional practices. The hypothesis that girls write significantly more than boys was supported. However, girls and boys did not differ in their rate of growth. Finally, students' initial risk status in writing fluency did not differentially predict growth in writing fluency over the course of the study. Implications for incorporating feedback as a basic component of intervention in writing are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Versus Yoga: Effects on Depression and/or Anxiety in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafi, Nasrin

    2016-11-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are two of the most common mental disorders in the United States. These disorders are prevalent among college students. The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two different types of intervention practices (mindfulness vs. yoga) and a noninterventional control group in mitigating the effects of depression and/or anxiety in college students. A sample of 90 students (both genders) over age 18 who had a diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression was recruited from 11,500 undergraduate college students in a mid-size university. The study's design included stratified-randomized controlled repeated measures with three groups: a mindfulness intervention group, a yoga-only intervention group, and a noninterventional group. Participants were randomly assigned to the aforementioned three groups. Participants in the intervention groups received an 8-week training either in mindfulness or yoga. Depressive, anxiety, stress symptoms, self-compassion, and mindfulness were measured at baseline, Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12. Depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms decreased significantly (p mindfulness and yoga intervention groups. The changes in mindfulness scores were also significant in both groups. However, the changes in self-compassion scores were significant only in the mindfulness intervention group. No significant changes in the control group were demonstrated. The findings from this study can provide useful information to nurses and other health care providers. This study may have implications for a cost-effective treatment for depression and anxiety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The eDerm online curriculum: a randomized study of effective skin cancer teaching to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Jacqueline C; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Berger, Timothy

    2011-12-01

    With the incidence of skin cancers continuing to increase, traditional clerkships may not be sufficient to teach medical students important detection and management skills. We performed a randomized study to determine the efficacy of the online curriculum, eDerm. Students were randomized to complete eDerm before or after clerkship (arm 1 vs 2) and were tested at 3 time points, including at baseline. The crossover design examined eDerm and clerkship, and the sequential effect of both. In all, 252 participants completed all interventions and testing. Diagnosis and management scores significantly improved in both arms (P students for learning retention. eDerm significantly improves the diagnosis and management of nonpigmented and pigmented skin lesions by medical students. It can be used as an alternative to a traditional 2-week clerkship if one is not available. Importantly, melanoma detection improved significantly more after eDerm than clerkship. When used as a supplement, eDerm administered after a clerkship will result in the highest level of overall learning. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of brief alcohol screening intervention for college students (BASICS): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachini, Alexandre; Aliane, Poliana P; Martinez, Edson Z; Furtado, Erikson F

    2012-09-12

    Many studies reported that brief interventions are effective in reducing excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a protocol of brief intervention for college students (BASICS), delivered face-to-face, to reduce risky alcohol consumption and negative consequences. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed by searching for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Medline, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. A quality assessment of RCTs was made by using a validated scale. Combined mean effect sizes, using meta-analysis random-effects models, were calculated. 18 studies were included in the review. The sample sizes ranged from 54 to 1275 (median=212). All studies presented a good evaluation of methodological quality and four were found to have excellent quality. After approximately 12 months of follow-up, students receiving BASICS showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption (difference between means=-1.50 drinks per week, 95% CI: -3.24 to -0.29) and alcohol-related problems (difference between means=-0.87, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) compared to controls. Overall, BASICS lowered both alcohol consumption and negative consequences in college students. Gender and peer factors seem to play an important role as moderators of behavior change in college drinking. Characteristics of BASICS procedure have been evaluated as more favorable and acceptable by students in comparison with others interventions or control conditions. Considerations for future researches were discussed.

  3. Evaluation of different school-based preventive interventions for reducing the use of psychotropic substances among students: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Oliveira; De Micheli, Denise

    2015-08-01

    Although many schools perform preventive interventions for reducing drug use, little is known about their implementation processes and results. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of preventive intervention performed in the school setting for reducing substance use among students. The study comprised 1316 students from the 9th year of elementary school to the 3rd year of secondary school in 8 public schools in the city of Guarulhos, São Paulo state, Brazil. Students were randomly assigned to the intervention groups or a control group and were evaluated at two different time-points regarding substance use. The results indicated that interventions performed by teachers were most effective in reducing both substance use and the severity of substance-associated problems. Interventions performed by experts were partially effective, although they only reduced use among experimental users. The results of "Single lecture" interventions revealed that such approaches are counterproductive. In summary, preventive actions that were contextualized to the student's reality and the school environment and that included the active involvement of both teacher and student were most effective at reducing the prevalence of substance use and the severity of associated problems in students.

  4. The effectiveness of a simulated scenario to teach nursing students how to perform a bed bath: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Renata Pinto Ribeiro; de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Érika; Silva Lima, Rogério; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni; Simões, Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-10-01

    Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. Nursing students (n=58). The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Haeger, Jack A; Pierce, Benjamin G; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-07-20

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health. There were no between-group effects on eating concerns, alcohol use, or hostility, or on some key ACT process of change measures. ACT participants improved more on mindful acceptance and obstruction to valued living, both of which mediated treatment outcomes. Results are discussed in the context of lessons learned with the website prototype, and areas for further research are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The Construct Validity of HPAT-Ireland for the Selection of Medical Students: Unresolved Issues and Future Research Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maureen E.; O'Flynn, Siun

    2017-01-01

    Aptitude tests are widely used in selection. However, despite certain advantages their use remains controversial. This paper aims to critically appraise five sources of evidence for the construct validity of the Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT)-Ireland, an aptitude test used for selecting undergraduate medical students. The objectives are…

  7. Societal Factors; An Analysis of Selected Factors of Dormitory Students and Commuting Students at Johnson and Wales College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    Focusing on freshmen commuter students and freshmen dormitory students at Johnson and Wales College, general characteristics and academic achievement were measured. General entrance characteristics included student age, College Entrance Examination Board scores and high school rank. Academic achievement was measured in terms of student grades in…

  8. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  9. Attitude and Motivation as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students in Clothing and Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…

  10. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  11. Dresden Faculty selection procedure for medical students: what impact does it have, what is the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Mike; Klupp, S; Graupner, Anke; Dieter, Peter; Koch, Thea

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004 German universities have been able to use a selection procedure to admit up to 60 percent of new students. In 2005, the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine at Dresden introduced a new admission procedure. In order to take account of cognitive as well as non-cognitive competencies the Faculty used the following selection criteria based on the legal regulations for university-admissions:the grade point average of the school-leaving exam (SSC, Abitur), marks in relevant school subjects; profession and work experience; premedical education; and a structured interview. In order to evaluate the effects of the Faculty admission procedures applied in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007, the results on the First National Medical Examination (FNME) were compared between the candidates selected by the Faculty procedures (CSF-group) and the group of candidates admitted by the Central Office for the Allocation of Places in Higher Education (the ZVS group, comprising the subgroups: ZVS best, ZVS rest and ZVS total). The rates of participation in the FNME within the required minimum time of 2 years of medical studies were higher in the CSF group compared to the ZVS-total group. The FNME pass rates were lowest in the ZVS rest group and highest in the ZVS best group. The ZVS best group and the ZVS total group showed the best FMNE results, whereas the results of the CSF-group were equal or worse compared to the ZVS rest group. No correlation was found between the interview results and the FNME results. According to studies of the prognostic value of various selection instruments, the school leaving grade point average seems the best predictor of success on the FNME. In order to validate the non-cognitive selection instruments of the Faculty procedure, complementary instruments are needed to measure non-cognitive aspects that are not captured by the FNME-results.

  12. Dresden Faculty selection procedure for medical students: what impact does it have, what is the outcome? [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch, Thea

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Since 2004 German universities have been able to use a selection procedure to admit up to 60 percent of new students. In 2005, the Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine at Dresden introduced a new admission procedure. In order to take account of cognitive as well as non-cognitive competencies the Faculty used the following selection criteria based on the legal regulations for university-admissions:In order to evaluate the effects of the Faculty admission procedures applied in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007, the results on the First National Medical Examination (FNME were compared between the candidates selected by the Faculty procedures (CSF-group and the group of candidates admitted by the Central Office for the Allocation of Places in Higher Education (the ZVS group, comprising the subgroups: ZVS best, ZVS rest and ZVS total. The rates of participation in the FNME within the required minimum time of 2 years of medical studies were higher in the CSF group compared to the ZVS-total group. The FNME pass rates were lowest in the ZVS rest group and highest in the ZVS best group. The ZVS best group and the ZVS total group showed the best FMNE results, whereas the results of the CSF-group were equal or worse compared to the ZVS rest group. No correlation was found between the interview results and the FNME results. According to studies of the prognostic value of various selection instruments, the school leaving grade point average seems the best predictor of success on the FNME. In order to validate the non-cognitive selection instruments of the Faculty procedure, complementary instruments are needed to measure non-cognitive aspects that are not captured by the FNME-results.

  13. Using a videogame to facilitate nursing and medical students' first visit to the operating theatre. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Blanco, Ángel; Torrente, Javier; Fernández-Manjón, Baltasar; Ruiz, Pedro; Giner, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    First experiences in the operating theatre with real patients are always stressful and intimidating for students. We hypothesized that a game-like simulation could improve perceptions and performance of novices. A videogame was developed, combining pictures and short videos, by which students are interactively instructed on acting at the surgical block. Moreover, the game includes detailed descriptive information. After playing, students are given feedback on their performance. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 132 nursing and medical students with no previous experience in surgery. Sixty two (47.0%) were allocated to a control group (CG) and 70 (53.0%) to an experimental group (EG). Subjects in EG played the game the day prior to their first experience in the theatre; CG had no access to the application. On the day after their experience at surgery, all students filled in a questionnaire in a 7-point Likert format collecting subjective data about their experience in the surgical block. Four constructs related to students' feelings, emotions and attitudes were measured through self-reported subjective scales, i.e. C1: fear to make mistakes, C2: perceived knowledge on how to behave, C3: perceived errors committed, and C4: attitude/behaviour towards patients and staff. The main research question was formulated as follows: do students show differences in constructs C1-C4 by exposure to the game? EG reported statistically significant higher scores on the four aspects measured than CG (ptheatre, students in EG showed less fear (C1) and also perceived to have committed fewer errors (C3), while they showed higher perceived knowledge (C2) and a more collaborative attitude (C4). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting STI testing among senior vocational students in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: effects of a cluster randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfers Mireille

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance voluntary STI testing, an intervention was designed and evaluated in senior vocational schools. The intervention combined classroom health education with sexual health services at the school site. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and single effects on STI testing of health education and school-based sexual health services. Methods In a cluster-randomized study the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools, using three experimental conditions: 1 health education, 2 sexual health services; 3 both components; and a control group. STI testing was assessed by self reported behavior and registrations at regional sexual health services. Follow-up measurements were performed at 1, 3, and 6-9 months. Of 1302 students present at baseline, 739 (57% completed at least 1 follow-up measurement, of these students 472 (64% were sexually experienced, and considered to be susceptible for the intervention. Multi-level analyses were conducted. To perform analyses according to the principle of intention-to-treat, missing observations at follow-up on the outcome measure were imputed with multiple imputation techniques. Results were compared with the complete cases analysis. Results Sexually experienced students that received the combined intervention of health education and sexual health services reported more STI testing (29% than students in the control group (4% (OR = 4.3, p Conclusions Despite a low dose of intervention that was received by the students and a high attrition, we were able to show an intervention effect among sexually experienced students on STI testing. This study confirmed our hypothesis that offering health education to vocational students

  15. Coping with stress in medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial using a mindfulness-based stress prevention training (MediMind) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, S M; Huss, M; Bürger, A; Hammerle, F

    2016-12-28

    High prevalence rates of psychological distress in medical training and later professional life indicate a need for prevention. Different types of intervention were shown to have good effects, but little is known about the relative efficacy of different types of stress management interventions, and methodological limitations have been reported. In order to overcome some of these limitations, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind) on measures of distress, coping and psychological morbidity. We report on a prospective randomized controlled trial with three study conditions: experimental treatment (MediMind), standard treatment (Autogenic Training) and a control group without treatment. The sample consisted of medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester. They completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, after the training and at one year follow-up. Distress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress, TICS) was assessed as the primary outcome and coping (Brief COPE) as a co-primary outcome. Effects on the psychological morbidity (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI) as a secondary outcome were expected one year after the trainings. Initially, N = 183 students were randomly allocated to the study groups. At one year follow-up N = 80 could be included into the per-protocol analysis: MediMind (n =31), Autogenic Training (n = 32) and control group (n = 17). A selective drop-out for students who suffered more often from psychological symptoms was detected (p = .020). MANCOVA's on TICS and Brief COPE revealed no significant interaction effects. On the BSI, a significant overall interaction effect became apparent (p = .002, η2partial = .382), but post hoc analyses were not significant. Means of the Global Severity Index (BSI) indicated that MediMind may contribute to a decrease in psychological morbidity. Due

  16. Design and rationale of the medical students learning weight management counseling skills (MSWeight) group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K; Ashe, Karen M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Churchill, Linda C; Crawford, Sybil L; Geller, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Denise; Olendzki, Barbara C; Basco, Maria Theresa; Pendharkar, Jyothi A; Ferguson, Kristi J; Guck, Thomas P; Margo, Katherine L; Okuliar, Catherine A; Shaw, Monica A; Soleymani, Taraneh; Stadler, Diane D; Warrier, Sarita S; Pbert, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Physicians have an important role addressing the obesity epidemic. Lack of adequate teaching to provide weight management counseling (WMC) is cited as a reason for limited treatment. National guidelines have not been translated into an evidence-supported, competency-based curriculum in medical schools. Weight Management Counseling in Medical Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial (MSWeight) is designed to determine if a multi-modal theoretically-guided WMC educational intervention improves observed counseling skills and secondarily improve perceived skills and self-efficacy among medical students compared to traditional education (TE). Eight U.S. medical schools were pair-matched and randomized in a group randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multi-modal education (MME) intervention compared to traditional education (TE) improves observed WMC skills. The MME intervention includes innovative components in years 1-3: a structured web-course; a role play exercise, WebPatientEncounter, and an enhanced outpatient internal medicine or family medicine clerkship. This evidence-supported curriculum uses the 5As framework to guide treatment and incorporates patient-centered counseling to engage the patient. The primary outcome is a comparison of scores on an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) WMC case among third year medical students. The secondary outcome compares changes in scores of medical students from their first to third year on an assessment of perceived WMC skills and self-efficacy. MSWeight is the first RCT in medical schools to evaluate whether interventions integrated into the curriculum improve medical students' WMC skills. If this educational approach for teaching WMC is effective, feasible and acceptable it can affect how medical schools integrate WMC teaching into their curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gajecki, Mikael; Anne H Berman; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Andersson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students’ alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Methods Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to th...

  19. Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J; Wojtowicz, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Anxiety, depression and stress, often co-occurring, are the psychological problems for which university students most often seek help. Moreover there are many distressed students who cannot, or choose not to, access professional help. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program for moderate anxiety, depression and stress. The program was based on standard cognitive behavior therapy principles and included 5 core modules, some of which involved options for focusing on anxiety and/or depression and/or stress. Trained student coaches provided encouragement and advice about using the program via e-mail or brief weekly phone calls. Sixty-six distressed university students were randomly assigned to either Immediate Access or a 6-week Delayed Access condition. Sixty-one percent of Immediate Access participants completed all 5 core modules, and 80% of all participants completed the second assessment. On the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Immediate Access participants reported significantly greater reductions in depression (ηp(2)=. 07), anxiety (ηp(2)=. 08) and stress (ηp(2)=. 12) in comparison to participants waiting to do the program, and these improvements were maintained at a six month follow-up. The results suggest that the provision of individually-adaptable, internet-based, self-help programs can reduce psychological distress in university students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An online guided ACT intervention for enhancing the psychological wellbeing of university students: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Panajiota; Lappalainen, Päivi; Muotka, Joona; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are relatively common problems among university students. This study examined whether an online psychological intervention aiming at enhancing the wellbeing of university students could be an effective and practical alternative for meeting the needs of a university population. University students (N = 68; 85% female; 19-32 years old) were randomly assigned to either a guided seven-week online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). A between-groups pre-post (iACT vs WLC) design with 12-month follow-up for the iACT participants was conducted. The intervention participants were offered two face-to-face meetings, completed online exercises during a five-week period, and received personal weekly written feedback via the website from their randomly assigned, trained student coaches. Waitlist participants were offered the intervention program soon after the post measurements. Results in this small efficacy trial showed that the iACT participants had significantly higher gains in wellbeing (between group, d = 0.46), life satisfaction (d = 0.65), and mindfulness skills (d = 0.49). In addition, iACT participants' self-reported stress (d = 0.54) and symptoms of depression (d = 0.69) were significantly reduced compared to the participants in the control group. These benefits were maintained over a 12-month follow-up period (within iACT group, d = 0.65-0.69, for primary measures). The results suggest that an online-based, coach-guided ACT program with blended face-to-face and online sessions could be an effective and well-accepted alternative for enhancing the wellbeing of university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of progressive relaxation on anxiety and quality of life in female students: a non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2011-08-01

    This study conducted to assess the effects of relaxation techniques on anxiety and the quality of life of female dormitory students. A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 4 female dormitories of Tehran University of medical sciences. The students of four dorms were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. The Spielberger inventory and a modified version of WHO quality of life questionnaire were administered to both groups. Then the experimental group was taught to do the relaxation techniques for two months. A post-test conducted on both groups after two months. Significant differences were noticed between anxiety and quality of life of the two groups after the intervention. The overall quality of life score was significantly higher in experimental group after the two months of relaxation exercises. relaxation techniques can be effective for improving the students' anxiety that in turn will improve their quality of life especially in the examination periods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Web-Based Intervention for Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Chinese University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan Ping; Wienert, Julian; Hu, Chun; Si, Gang Yan; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-04-10

    Ample evidence demonstrates that university students are at high risk for sedentary behaviors and inadequate fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). Internet-based interventions for multiple health behavior appear to be promising in changing such unhealthy habits. Limited randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption among Chinese university students. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an 8-week Web-based intervention compared with a control group condition to improve physical activity (PA) and FVI in Chinese university students. The intervention content was based on the health action process approach, and developed on the basis of previous evidence from the Western hemisphere. We evaluated self-reported data including PA and FVI, stages of change for PA and FVI, and motivational (risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy), volitional (action planning, coping planning, social support), and distal (intention, habit) indicators for PA and FVI, as well as perceived mental health outcomes (quality of life, depression). In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited 566 university students from one university in the central region of China during their general physical education class. After random allocation and exclusion of unsuitable participants, we assigned 493 students to 1 of 2 groups: (1) intervention group: first 4 weeks on PA and subsequent 4 weeks on FVI, (2) control group. We conducted 3 Web-based assessments: at the beginning of the intervention (T1, n=493), at the end of the 8-week intervention (T2, n=337), and at a 1-month follow-up after the intervention (T3, n=142). The entire study was conducted throughout the fall semester of 2015. Significant time ⨯ group interactions revealed superior intervention effects on FVI; motivational, volitional, and distal indicators of FVI; and PA behavior changes, with an effect size (η2) ranging from .08 to .20. In addition, the overall intervention effects were significant for stage

  3. Why School Students Choose and Reject Science: A Study of the Factors That Students Consider When Selecting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tracey-Ann; Burke, Paul F.; Aubusson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Student study of science at school has been linked to the need to provide a scientifically capable workforce and a scientifically literate society. Educators, scientists, and policymakers are concerned that too few students are choosing science for study in their final years of school. How and why students choose and reject certain subjects,…

  4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Applied to College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a…

  5. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  6. Searching and selecting online information: analysis of the strategic actions of the university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández Serrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 113 622 USAL 5 1 734 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} As complex and dynamic activity, the searching and selection of online information needs a strategic performance in order to achieve effective and meaningful results and processes. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether university students perceive a need to be strategic, for what actions, what times, and what are their predispositions towards the strategic actions in the Internet information searching and selection process. Results showed differences between students by course, those in their final courses, who have also received training, showed better predisposition to strategic actions. Two factors that explain the university students’ predispositions were found, in terms of basic actions and complementary actions.

  7. Effect of different methods of selection on the background, attitudes and career plans of first year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, T J; Hyams, J; Baguley, J; Abbott, K A

    2006-06-01

    To compare the family, educational and animal-related backgrounds and career aspirations of students who were selected on the basis of academic criteria with those selected using additional criteria. Questionnaires were completed during class time in the first few weeks of enrolment by incoming veterinary students at the University of Sydney, who had been selected on the basis of academic background, and at Charles Sturt University, selected using more broadly-based criteria. The data were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet, and frequency distributions and chi2 statistics estimated using the SAS System for Windows 8. Students selected principally on academic criteria alone had higher average UAI scores, were more likely to have completed high school in a capital city, and to have parents with higher education levels than those selected using additional criteria. Both groups indicated that their choice of veterinary science was based largely on their affinity for animals and keenness to work in a veterinary practice. However, those at CSU placed much greater importance than those at Sydney on a desire to live and work in a rural area, and a desire to help farmers. The broad-based selection methods were the main reasons for students applying to CSU whereas the reputation of the university was the main attraction for Sydney students. Two-thirds of CSU students, but one-third of Sydney students, planned to enter rural mixed practice when they graduated, and most planned to stay for at least 10 years. Conversely, no CSU students, but 42% of those at Sydney, planned to enter small animal practice initially. The percentage planning to work full-time in the first, fifth and tenth year after graduation was not significantly different between the two groups. Criteria which included actual experience with farm animals have resulted in the selection of more students who plan to enter and remain in rural mixed practice. Further studies over the longer term will be necessary to

  8. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  9. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Anne H; Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-12-22

    About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1 has access to the Swedish

  10. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  11. Effects of a Physical Education-Based Programme on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Its Maintenance in High School Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Montoro-Escaño, Jorge; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based development and maintenance programme on objective and perceived health-related physical fitness in high school students. A sample of 111 students aged 12-14 years old from six classes were cluster-randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 54) or a control…

  12. Selection and Participation in Higher Education: University Selection in Support of Student Success and Diversity of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nigel; Bexley, Emmaline; James, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A range of imperatives underpin university selection practices. These include demonstrating merit based on prior academic achievement and supporting successful graduate outcomes in the professions and in broader fields of endeavour. They also include improving diversity of participation and equality of educational opportunity. Selection for…

  13. The effect of group counseling based on self-awareness skill on sexual risk-taking among girl students in Gorgan, Iran: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Golnoosh; Ziaei, Tayebe; Aval, Masumeh Rezaei; Vakili, Mohammad Ali

    2017-09-15

    Background Sexual puberty in adolescents occurs before their mental and emotional maturity and exposes them to high-risk sexual behaviors. Because sexual risk-taking occurs before adolescents become involved in a sexual relationship, this study was conducted to identify the effect of group counseling based on self-awareness skill on sexual risk-taking among female high school students in Gorgan in order to suggest some preventative measures. Methods The present parallel study is a randomized field trial conducted on 96 girl students who were studying in grades 10, 11 and 12 of high school with an age range of 14-18 years old. Sampling was done based on a multi-stage process. In the first stage, through the randomized clustering approach, four centers among six health centers were selected. In the second stage, 96 samples were collected through consecutive sampling. Finally, the samples were divided into two intervention and control groups (each one having 48 subjects) through the simple randomized approach. It has to be noted that no blinding was done in the present study. The data were collected using a demographic specifications form and the Iranian Adolescents Risk-Taking Scale (IARS). The consultation sessions based on self-awareness skill were explained to an intervention group through 60-min sessions over 7 weeks. The pretest was conducted for both groups and the posttest was completed 1 week and 1 month after the intervention by the intervention and control groups. Finally, after the loss of follow-up/drop out, a total of 80 subjects remained in the study; 42 subjects in the intervention group and 38 subjects in the control group. Data analyses were done using SPSS v.16 along with the Freidman non-parametric test and the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results The results showed that the sexual risk-taking mean scores in the intervention group (10.54 ± 15.64) were reduced by applying 1-week (8.03 ± 12.82) and 1-month (4.91 ± 10.10) follow-ups after the

  14. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

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    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  15. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

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    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  16. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  17. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

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    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  19. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  20. Effects of green tea gargling on the prevention of influenza infection in high school students: a randomized controlled study.

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    Kazuki Ide

    Full Text Available The anti-influenza virus activity of green tea catechins has been demonstrated in experimental studies, but clinical evidence has been inconclusive. School-aged children play an important role in the infection and spread of influenza in the form of school-based outbreaks. Preventing influenza infection among students is essential for reducing the frequency of epidemics and pandemics. As a non-pharmaceutical intervention against infection, gargling is also commonly performed in Asian countries but has not yet been extensively studied.A randomized, open label, 2-group parallel study of 757 high school students (15 to 17 years of age was conducted for 90 days during the influenza epidemic season from December 1st, 2011 to February 28th, 2012, in 6 high schools in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The green tea gargling group gargled 3 times a day with bottled green tea, and the water gargling group did the same with tap water. The water group was restricted from gargling with green tea. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza using immunochromatographic assay for antigen detection. 757 participants were enrolled and 747 participants completed the study (384 in the green tea group and 363 in the water group. Multivariate logistic regression indicated no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza between the green tea group (19 participants; 4.9% and the water group (25 participants; 6.9% (adjusted OR, 0.69; 95%CI, 0.37 to 1.28; P = 0.24. The main limitation of the study is the adherence rate among high school students was lower than expected.Among high school students, gargling with green tea three times a day was not significantly more efficacious than gargling with water for the prevention of influenza infection. In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of such gargling, additional large-scale randomized studies are needed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01225770.

  1. Efficacy of brief alcohol screening intervention for college students (BASICS: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Fachini Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies reported that brief interventions are effective in reducing excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a protocol of brief intervention for college students (BASICS, delivered face-to-face, to reduce risky alcohol consumption and negative consequences. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed by searching for randomized controlled trials (RCTs in Medline, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. A quality assessment of RCTs was made by using a validated scale. Combined mean effect sizes, using meta-analysis random-effects models, were calculated. Results 18 studies were included in the review. The sample sizes ranged from 54 to 1275 (median = 212. All studies presented a good evaluation of methodological quality and four were found to have excellent quality. After approximately 12 months of follow-up, students receiving BASICS showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption (difference between means = −1.50 drinks per week, 95% CI: -3.24 to −0.29 and alcohol-related problems (difference between means = −0.87, 95% CI: -1.58 to −0.20 compared to controls. Conclusions Overall, BASICS lowered both alcohol consumption and negative consequences in college students. Gender and peer factors seem to play an important role as moderators of behavior change in college drinking. Characteristics of BASICS procedure have been evaluated as more favorable and acceptable by students in comparison with others interventions or control conditions. Considerations for future researches were discussed.

  2. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  3. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  4. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake After a Tailored, Online Educational Intervention for Female University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alaina T; Patel, Divya A; Carlos, Ruth C; Zochowski, Melissa K; Pennewell, Sarah M; Chi, Alice M; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2015-11-01

    Educational interventions may be a strategy to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among female university students, but studies to date have shown mixed results. This study evaluated the effect of MeFirst, an individually tailored, online educational intervention, on HPV vaccine-related knowledge, vaccination intention, and uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students. All female students aged 18-26 years who reported being unvaccinated against HPV at a midwestern university were invited via email to enroll. Participants completed an online survey that assessed baseline HPV vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes and vaccination intention. Participants (n = 661) were then randomized to receive either an educational website automatically tailored to their baseline survey responses (MeFirst intervention) or a standard CDC information factsheet on HPV vaccine (control). Vaccine uptake and repeat knowledge and attitude measures were assessed with online surveys 3 months following the intervention and analyzed using logistic regression models. HPV vaccine uptake was similar in both the MeFirst and control groups at 3 months following the intervention (p = 0.98). Three months after the intervention, the proportion of participants with high knowledge regarding HPV vaccination increased from baseline (32% to 50%; p online educational tool had similar effects as a nontailored factsheet on HPV-related knowledge, intention to HPV undergo vaccination, and HPV vaccine uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students.

  5. The effects of teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' EFL performance: a randomized-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cunha, Jennifer; Nunes, Tânia; Suárez, Natalia; Fuentes, Sonia; Moreira, Tânia

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of five types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework completion; answering questions about homework; checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) used in class by 26 teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) using a randomized-group design. Once a week, for 6 weeks, the EFL teachers used a particular type of homework follow-up practice they had previously been assigned to. At the end of the 6 weeks students completed an EFL exam as an outcome measure. The results showed that three types of homework follow-up practices (i.e., checking homework orally; checking homework on the board; and collecting and grading homework) had a positive impact on students' performance, thus highlighting the role of EFL teachers in the homework process. The effect of EFL teachers' homework follow-up practices on students' performance was affected by students' prior knowledge, but not by the number of homework follow-up sessions.

  6. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: A randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims : To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills′ training (n = 8: didactic materials (control; organic bench model (low-fidelity; ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity; chicken legs′ skin bench model (high-fidelity; or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity. Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results : The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05 between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills′ training was considered large (>0.80 in all measurements. Conclusion : The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  7. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: a randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Oshiiwa, Marie; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2014-03-01

    The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills' training (n = 8): didactic materials (control); organic bench model (low-fidelity); ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity); chicken legs' skin bench model (high-fidelity); or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity). Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05) between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills' training) was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  8. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2017-04-04

    Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  9. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  10. Stress management and mind-body medicine: a randomized controlled longitudinal evaluation of students' health and effects of a behavioral group intervention at a middle-size German university (SM-MESH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Sonntag, Ulrike; Esch, Sonja Maren; Thees, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Student life can be stressful. Hence, we started a regular mind-body medical stress management program in 2006. By today, more than 500 students took part and evaluations showed significant results, especially with regard to a reduction of stress warning signals. For further analysis, we now decided to run a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Participating students at Coburg University were randomized into an intervention (n = 24) or a waitlist control group (n = 19). The intervention group completed 3 sets (pre/post/follow-up) and the control group 2 sets (pre/post) of self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included: SF-12 Health Survey, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sense of Coherence (SOC-L9), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning stress, and the Stress Warning Signs (SWS) scale. Randomly selected participants of the intervention group were also queried in qualitative interviews. The intervention consisted of an 8 week stress management group program (mind-body medical stress reduction - MBMSR). Follow-up measures were taken after 6 months. Virtually, no drop-out occurred. Our study showed significant effects in the intervention group concerning SF-12 Mental Component Scale (p = 0.05), SF-12 Physical Component Scale (p = 0.001), VAS (in general, p = 0.001) and SWS (emotional reactions, p students could be demonstrated. Findings suggest that stress management might be given importance at universities that care for the performance, the quality of life, and stress-health status of their students, acknowledging and accounting for the challenging circumstances of university life, as well as the specific needs of the modern student population. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  12. The Right Student: An Exploration of the Qualities Desired in the Next Generation of Nursing Students, Leading to Improved Selection Processes within Nursing and Midwifery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Peter; Day, Jacqui; Ford, Karen; Knifton, Christopher; Welyczko, Nicola; Harrison, Penny; Robson, Elizabeth; Tremayne, Penny

    2012-01-01

    This project explored ways in which student selection in nursing can be developed. Original research was undertaken throughout the United Kingdom using qualitative interviews with a range of academic staff and partners from practice. A conceptual framework was produced which identified five categories which can confidently be seen as…

  13. Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad Hossien; Golij, Monire; Nazari, Mahin; Mazloom, Zohreh; Rezaeian Zadeh, Abbas

    2014-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. Thepresent study was performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacyin preventing osteoporosis among university students. In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2), 152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=76) and a control (n=76) group.The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ) of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed throughSPSS, version 14, usingMann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests. Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statisticalincrease after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0.82, first post-test 2.18±0.87 and second post

  14. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  15. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  16. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  17. Obstetric Patients Who Select and Those Who Refuse Medical Students' Participation in Their Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 222 obstetrics patients assisted by medical clerkship students from the University of Vermont and 78 who refused student participation found privacy the primary motivation for refusal and a desire to contribute to students' education a primary reason for accepting student participation. Patients frequently erroneously anticipated the…

  18. Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Employability Skills by Students of Selected Technical Secondary School in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Jovinia; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to assess the acquisition of employability skills by vocational students in Malaysia. A total of 214 students participated in the study. We used the SCANS instrument to assess vocational students' employability skills. The overall mean of vocational secondary students' employability skills was 3.81 (SD = 0.34).…

  19. Perceptions of Greek medical students regarding medical profession and the specialty selection process during the economic crisis years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiris, Georgios; Vamvakerou, Vasileia; Tsolakaki, Olympia; Giarmoukakis, Athanassios; Sideroudi, Haris; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    2014-08-01

    To assess the beliefs and preferences of 6th year Greek medical students, regarding medical profession and the specialty selection process, in the years of financial crisis. Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece. A custom questionnaire based on former similar studies was developed and administered to senior medical students. Further to demographics, the questionnaire gathered information on perceptions and trends regarding medical profession, the specialty and residency selection processes. Total question scores were summed for comparisons among questions. Mean scores and standard deviations were calculated for comparisons between student groups. 111 students responded successfully to the instrument. "Helping patients" and the "scientific basis of medicine" were the fundamental reasons for choosing the medical profession. Compared to women, male students placed greater importance on the "financial allowances" (men: 3.73±1.03, women: 3.05±1.30, p=0.01). Regarding the selection criteria for a certain specialty, "challenging specialty" and "bedside specialty", were the main influence factors. Men more strongly preferred a specialty that could "financially support their desired lifestyle" (men: 3.93±0.88, women: 3.41±1.30, p=0.02). Concerning selection criteria of a residency program, students chose a "well structured" program at a "recognized hospital/department". Regarding the country of preference for their residency, 86% planned to continue abroad, primarily in Germany and the United Kingdom. Greek medical students perceive the medical profession and the specialty process in a similar way like their colleagues form Western countries. However, the vast majority identify that migration to another country is the most promising alternative choice for their medical career. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-03-01

    To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention, combined parent-student intervention, and control group. 152 classes of 19 high schools in The Netherlands (2006). Moderators at baseline (adolescent: gender, educational level and externalizing behavior; parent: educational level and heavy alcohol use) were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 22-month follow-up. The combined intervention effectively delayed the onset of weekly drinking in the general population of adolescents, and was particularly effective in delaying the onset of heavy weekly drinking in a higher-risk subsample of adolescents (i.e. those attending lower levels of education and reporting higher levels of externalizing behavior). Present and previous results have established the combined intervention to be universally effective in postponing weekly alcohol use among Dutch adolescents, with an added effect on postponing heavy weekly drinking in high risk subgroups. Therefore, implementation of this intervention in the general population of schools in The Netherlands is advised. NTR649. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of modafinil on attention performance, short-term memory and executive function in university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alejandro; Mascayano, Franco; Lips, Walter; Painel, Andrés; Norambuena, Jonathan; Madrid, Eva

    2015-06-30

    Modafinil is a drug developed and used for the treatment of excessive lethargy. Even though very effective for sleep disorders, it is still controversial whether modafinil can improve performance in high-order cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was designed to evaluate the effect of modafinil (compared to placebo) on the cognitive functions of healthy students. 160 volunteers were recruited and allocated randomly to modafinil or placebo group, and were assessed using the Stroop Test, BCET test and Digit span test. We found a significant difference in favor of modafinil compared to placebo in the proportion of correct answers of Stroop Test in congruent situation. A significant shorter latency of modafinil group in the incongruent situation of Stroop test was also found. No differences were found in Digit Span, or BCET tests. The study demonstrated that modafinil does not enhance the global cognitive performance of healthy non-sleep deprived students, except regarding non-demanding tasks. In particular, this drug does not seem to have positive effects on mental processes that sustain studying tasks in the college population under normal conditions. We expect these findings to demystify the use of this drug and help decision making concerning pharmacological public policies.

  2. At-Risk Students and Academic Achievement: The Relationship Between Certain Selected Factors and Academic Success

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, Catherine Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This research study examines the relationship between academic achievement and at-risk students. Many issues today affect the achievement gap and the ability for at-risk students to succeed. Most data, as revealed in the studies included in this review, conclude the factors identifying at-risk students do have significant impact on the academic achievement of individual students and schools. Most often, these students are not successful and eventually drop out of school or pursue a GED. D...

  3. Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness among College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Doug; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Plante, Thomas G.; Flinders, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors evaluated the effects on stress, rumination, forgiveness, and hope of two 8-week, 90-min/wk training programs for college undergraduates in meditation-based stress-management tools. Methods: After a pretest, the authors randomly allocated college undergraduates to training in mindfulness-based stress…

  4. Learning Communities for Developmental Education Students: Early Results from Randomized Experiments at Three Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael J.; Visher, Mary; Weissman, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a rigorous random assignment study of Learning Communities programs operated at three of six community colleges participating in the National Center for Postsecondary Research's (NCPR) Learning Communities Demonstration. The demonstration's focus is on determining whether Learning Communities are an effective…

  5. Randomized trials of alcohol-use interventions with college students and their parents: lessons from the Transitions Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A C; Wood, M D; Laforge, R; Black, J T

    2011-04-01

    Matriculation from high school to college is typified by an increase in alcohol use and related harm for many students. Therefore, this transition period is an ideal time for preventive interventions to target alcohol use and related problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods used in the Transitions Project, a randomized controlled trial of two interventions designed to prevent and reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences among incoming college students. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of a two-session brief motivational intervention delivered to students and a handbook-based parent intervention. Interventions were administered to students and parents. Follow-up assessment took place at 10- and 22-months post-baseline. The Transitions Project successfully recruited and retained participants across a major transition period (i.e., entering college), administered and compared two distinct but complementary interventions, and collected and analyzed highly skewed data. The application of a factorial design and two-part latent growth curve modeling allowed us to examine main and interactive intervention effects in terms of both initiation and growth in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. While we conducted successful tests of our primary and secondary study hypotheses over a lengthy follow-up period, our study design did not permit full interpretation of null findings. We suggest that researchers carefully consider assessment timing, tests of assessment reactivity, and ensure objective tests of intervention efficacy when conducting clinical trials of motivational interventions. The lessons we learned while conducting this trial have the potential to assist other researchers designing and conducting future preventive interventions targeting parents and college students. The data analytic procedures presented can also help guide trials that plan to analyze

  6. Randomized comparison between objective-based lectures and outcome-based concept mapping for teaching neurological care to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Pan, Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2016-02-01

    Pre-registration programs have been found to insufficiently prepare nurses for working in the neurosciences specialism. Effective approaches to neurology education are important, not only to enhance motivation to learn, but also for learners to develop basic competence in handling patients with neurological problems. To demonstrate that outcome-based course design using concept mapping would bring about significant differences in the nursing students' competency, cognitive load, and learning satisfaction with the neurological care course. A two-group pretest and post-test experimental study was administered. Two of the four clusters of participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group for experiencing an outcome-based course design using concept mapping, and the rest were designated the control group to be given objective-based lectures only. The Competency Inventory of Nursing Students, Cognitive Load Scale of Neurological Nursing, and Learning Satisfaction Scale of Neurological Nursing were used in this study for the students to rate their own performance. In addition, The Concept Map Scoring Scale was used in the experimental group for examining students' concept mapping ability. Significant increases of mean nursing competency scores in both groups from pre-test to post-test were found. There was no statistically significant difference in mean nursing competency score between the experimental group and the control groups at post-test. The mean cognitive load score of the experimental group was lower than the control group at post-test. The mean learning satisfaction scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group. This article provides that outcome-based concept mapping as educational method could encourage a group of nursing students to take a bio-psycho-social approach to medicine, which might ultimately result in better nursing care quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  8. Web-Based Alcohol Prevention for Incoming College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hustad, John T.P.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Borsari, Brian; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2009-01-01

    College students are an at-risk population based on their heavy alcohol consumption and associated consequences. First-year students are at particular risk due to greater freedom and access to alcohol on campus. Web-based (electronic) interventions (e-interventions) are being rapidly adopted as a universal approach to prevent high-risk drinking, but have not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the two most widely adopted EIs, AlcoholEdu and...

  9. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  10. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  11. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. The role of personality and self-efficacy in the selection and retention of successful nursing students: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Moutray, Marianne; Muldoon, Orla T

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the role of personality and self-efficacy in predicting academic performance and attrition in nursing students. Despite a considerable amount of research investigating attrition in nursing students and new nurses, concerns remain. This particular issue highlights the need for a more effective selection process whereby those selected are more likely to complete their preregistration programme successfully, and remain employed as Registered Nurses. A longitudinal design was adopted. A questionnaire, which included measures of personality and occupational and academic self-efficacy, was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the study. At the end of the programme, final marks and attrition rates were obtained from university records for a total of 350 students. The data were collected from 1999 to 2002. Individuals who scored higher on a psychoticism scale were more likely to withdraw from the programme. Occupational self-efficacy was revealed to be a statistically significant predictor of final mark obtained, in that those with higher self-efficacy beliefs were more likely to achieve better final marks. Extraversion was also shown to negatively predict academic performance in that those with higher extraversion scores were more likely to achieve lower marks. More research is needed to explore the attributes of successful nursing students and the potential contribution of psychological profiling to a more effective selection process.

  13. Impact of a Mental Health Curriculum on Knowledge and Stigma Among High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Kutcher, Stanley; Lewis, Stephen P; Walker, Selena; Wei, Yifeng; Ferrill, Natasha; Armstrong, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based mental health literacy intervention for adolescents on knowledge and stigma. A total of 24 high schools and 534 students in the regional area of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada participated in this randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either the curriculum or control condition. The curriculum was integrated into the province's grade 11 and 12 "Healthy Living" courses and was delivered by teachers. Changes in mental health knowledge and stigma were measured using pre- and posttest questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were conducted to provide sample characteristics, and multilevel modeling was used to examine study outcomes. For the curriculum condition, there was a significant change in stigma scores over time (p = .001), with positive attitudes toward mental illness increasing from pre to post. There was also a significant change in knowledge scores over time (p stigma were found for participants in the control condition. A meaningful relationship was found whereby increases in knowledge significantly predicted increases in positive attitudes toward mental health (p mental health literacy of an integrated, manualized mental health educational resource for high school students on knowledge and stigma. Findings also support the applicability by teachers and suggest the potential for broad-based implementation of the educational curriculum in high schools. Replication and further studies are warranted. Clinical trial registration information-Impact of a Mental Health Curriculum for High School Students on Knowledge and Stigma; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02561780. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does a short self-compassion intervention for students increase healthy self-regulation? A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Binder, Per-Einar; Hansen, Tia G B; Stige, Signe Hjelen

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial. Healthy self-control was measured by the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS) and the Self-Control Scale; unhealthy self-control was measured by the Non-judgement subscale from the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (reversed) and the Habit Index of Negative Thinking (HINT). Secondary outcomes were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-trait), the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). A 2 × 3 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed gains for the intervention-group in personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse-control and reductions in self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking, as well as increases in self-compassion and reductions in anxiety and depression. After all participants had completed the course, the groups were combined and repeated measures ANOVAs showed that changes remained at six-month follow-up for personal growth self-efficacy, self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking; as well as for self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Concluding, a short self-compassion course seems an effective method of increasing self-compassion and perceived control over one's life for university students, as well as increasing mental health. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  16. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  17. Effectiveness of Selected Advanced Placement Programs on the Academic Performance and College Readiness of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Traschell S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected Advanced Placement (AP) programs on the academic performance and college readiness of high school students. Specifically, the researcher was concerned with ascertaining the effectiveness of social science, math, science, English, music/art and language AP programs on the…

  18. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  19. Selection of Postgraduate Students in a South African Management Programme: How Effective Is the General Reasoning Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Fatima; Friedrich, Christian; Tredoux, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are experiencing challenges regarding access, redress and the successful completion of programmes in an environment where there are still imbalances in the schooling system. Tools are needed that will assist with the process of selecting students. The aim of this study is to determine whether a test…

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of First Generation College Students and the Use of Facebook in the College Choice Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Cindy E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory phenomenological narrative qualitative study was to investigate the influence of Facebook on first-generation college students' selection of a college framed within Hossler and Gallagher's (1987) college process model. The three questions which guided this research explored the influence of the social media website…